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BAYAH 2×60MW POWER PLANT (PHASE I)

Operation Manual & Training Document

PART 6

Ash, Bottom ash and Limestone System

Electric Power Research Institute of Architectural Design


& Research Institute of Southeast University
2015.12
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Contents
1 General Description ................................................................................................................. 1
1.0.1 Process Principle ............................................................................................................... 1
1.0.2 Process Description .......................................................................................................... 3
1.0.3 Description of the Main Equipment .................................................................................... 4
2 Operation parameters .............................................................................................................. 9
2.0.1 Parameters of Limestone Flour Conveying System ..................................................... 9
2.0.2 Parameters of Ash Handling System .............................................................................. 11
2.0.3 Technical Parameters of Bottom ash Handling System ............................................... 12
3 Preparation for Start-up ......................................................................................................... 13
3.0.1 Inspection prior to Start-up of the Limestone Flour Conveying System ..................... 13
3.0.2 Inspection prior to Start-up of the Ash Handling System ............................................. 14
3.0.3 Inspection prior to Start-up of the Ash Handling System........................................... 14
3.0.4 Staff ................................................................................................................................... 18
3.0.5 Preparation of tools and instruments ............................................................................ 18
3.0.6 Interlock Commissioning ................................................................................................ 18
3.0.7 Safety & Fire Protection.................................................................................................. 18
4 First Start-Up ........................................................................................................................... 19
4.0.1 Limestone Flour Conveying System ............................................................................. 19
4.0.2 Ash Handling System...................................................................................................... 19
5 Start-Up after Annual Maintenance (Refer to First Start-Up) ........................................... 20
6 Start-up after Emergency Stop (Refer to First Start-Up) ................................................... 20
7 Normal Operation ................................................................................................................... 20
7.0.1 Operation of Limestone Flour Conveying System ...................................................... 20
7.0.2 Operation of Ash Handling System ................................................................................. 21
7.0.3 Operation of Bottom ash Handling System .................................................................... 22
8 Abnormal Operation (Emergency Operation and Emergency Action) ........................... 23
8.0.1 Limestone Flour System ................................................................................................. 23
8.0.2 Ash Handling System ........................................................................................................ 24
8.0.3 Bottom ash Handling System ........................................................................................... 36
9 Normal Stop ............................................................................................................................ 40
9.0.1 Stop of Limestone Flour Conveying System .................................................................. 40
9.0.2 Stop of Ash Handling System ........................................................................................... 40
9.0.3 Stop of Bottom ash Handling System.............................................................................. 41

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1 General Description

1.0.1 Process Principle

1. Process of the Limestone Flour Conveying System


The limestone flour grinded in the limestone flour shop of the power plant conveyed
by scraper conveyer and bucket elevator shall be stored in the limestone flour bin. The
maximum particle size of the finished limestone flour shall be less than 1mm and its d50
shall be 0.25mm.
A new steel limestone flour bin shall be built, with the house diameter of 6m, the
volume of 200 m3 and the nominal height of the lime bin of 17.50m. At the top of the bin,
cloth dust collector, vacuum relief valve, level meter and so on shall be provided. At the
bottom of the bin, a gasification air system with two gasification air fans (one for normal
operation and the other for standby), two discharge ports (under one port a set of flour
device shall be set for continuously conveying the uniform flour from continuous pumps to
the designated location of the furnace by the boiler manufacturer through the conveyer
piping and with the compressed air as the air source; and the other port is preserved for
future extension) shall be provided.
For two loading pipes close to the furnace loading inlet, a secondary air duct shall
be connected to each of the pipe. On the air duct, two ball valves (one pneumatic valve
and one manual valve) shall be provided on each air duct to cool the loading pipeline
when convey of limestone flour stops.
The system shall be controlled by PLC program for remote software operation and
local operation.
2. Ash Handling Process
a. Dry ash removed System
The CFBB (circulation fluidized bed boiler) for this project has a set of independent
positive pressure pneumatic ash handling system. The electric dust collector for boiler has
four electric fields. Each electric field has two discharge ports under which a delivery
device is set. The conveyers in the first and second electric fields share one lime
conveying pipe and those in the third and fourth electric fields share one lime conveying
pipe as well. With these two pipes, loose ash from ash hopper shall be conveyed to the
lime bin.
A steel lime bin shall be built with the volume of 500 m3, the diameter of 8m and the
nominal height of lime bin of 20.60m. At the top of the lime bin, cloth dust collector (with
positive pressure of the compressed air, ash shall be conveyed to the cyclone of lime bin
top through ash conveying pipes/ gas and ash shall be separated by the cloth dust

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collector with ash falling into the lime bin and gas being vented into atmosphere after
filteration), pressure vacuum relief valve, switching over valve, level meter and so on shall
be provided. At the bottom of the bin, a gasification air system with two gasification air
fans (one for normal operation and the other for standby) shall be provided. The lime bin
has two discharge ports, one of which is connected to the dry ash bulk loader for
integrated utilization and the other is connected to the double shaft agitator to humidify the
ash and then the ash will be carried out to the user by truck.
The system shall be controlled by PLC program for remote software operation and
local operation.
b. Compressed Air System
For this project, two M185 screw compressors (one for normal operation and the
other for standby) with off-gas delivery of 32m3/min and delivery pressure of 0.75Mpa
shall be installed in the compressor room, that shall meet the compressed air demand for
this power plant.
Dryers and filters shall be installed for pipes after the compressor to dry and filter the
compressed air, so as to ensure that the quality of the compressed air meet the
requirement of each air consumption point. The treated compressed air flows into the
main gas tank and then shall be stored to reduce the fluctuation of the air source pressure;
meanwhile new gas tanks shall be installed close to the main air consumption points to
stabilize the air pressure.
3. Bottom ash Handling Process
For 220t/h HTHPCFBB(high-temperature high-pressure circulation fluidized bed
boiler) in this project, two water-cooled roll Bottom ash cooler of capacity ranging from 0 to
3 t/h shall be installed under the furnace to cool the boiler tapping Bottom ash from about

1000℃ to 80℃ below. The cooled tapping Bottom ash shall be discharged to scraper

conveyer and then to the bucket elevator by which the Bottom ash will be transferred to
the Bottom ash bin. After that, the truck shall carry the Bottom ash directly from the bin to
the outside of the power plant. The cooling water for Bottom ash cooler shall be
demineralized water which directly enters into the deaerator and used as make-up water
for the deaerator after heat exchange with the Bottom ash.
A steel Bottom ash bin shall be built with the volume of 100 m3, the diameter of 6m
and the nominal height of the Bottom ash bin of 13.59m. At the top of the bin, cloth dust
collector, pressure vacuum relief valve, switching over valve, level meter and so on shall
be provided. At the bottom of the bin, discharge by rapping. The Bottom ash bin has one
discharge port connecting to the dry ash bulk loader and then the ash will be carried
outside by truck.

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1.0.2 Process Description

Ⅰ. Control Flowchart of the Limestone Flour Conveying System

The limestone flour conveying system is controlled by program and the manual
operation switch is installed locally.
Process flowchart: limestone flour bin→double-sided unloader→AXP0.6 loading bin
pump→AXP1.0 conveying bin pump→ARV70 rotary valve→agitator→flour conveying
pipe→furnace.
After the system is put into service, the exhaust valve and the inlet valve for upper
pump will open in order. During the loading of the upper pump, when the loading level
reaches a certain height, the level meter on the upper pump sends a full-loading signal
(also this can be controlled by time) and the inlet valve and exhaust valve will close in
order. In this process, the level meter is the main control element and the loading time
control is a spare action. The inlet valve will close automatically once the loading reaches
the certain level or the loading time is out.
If the level of the lower pump reaches the lower level limit, the level meter will send an
empty-pump signal and the balanced valve and the pressure valve for upper pump will
open. After x-second delay, the inlet valve for lower pump will open and the lower pump
starts loading. Xx seconds later the pump finishes loading, then the inlet valve, pressure
valve and balanced valve close in order which means the whole loading procedure is
done.
After the start-up of the system, the continuous delivery pump performs as loading
pump and delivery pump, the rotary feeder under the pump is always in the operation
condition while the lower pump body is in the empty condition and automatically switches
into loading condition and the delivery pipe is working without load. Therefore after one
loading circulation of the pump, the system starts to operate with load, the feeder can
uniformly and continuously run, and the combined bottom delivery devices delivery the
mixture of flour and compressed air pneumatically to the limestone flour of the boiler.
One rotary feeder shall be installed under the lower pump body. With detection
device for stack end gas it can adjust the flour quantity online according to the combustion
condition of the boiler to realize the function of continuous change of frequency and finally
meet the requirement of high desulfurization ratio inside the furnace.
2. Control Flowchart of Ash Handling System
a. Process flowchart of pneumatic ash handling system: loose ash from dust collector
ash hopper→manual access door→pneumatic valve for dry ash delivery device→dry ash
delivery device→outlet valve for dry ash delivery device→ash delivery pipe→lime bin.
Two delivery devices in each electric field are considered as one sub unit, and they
start to feed simultaneously. First the pressure of the conveyer inlet is released through
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the seal ring of the inlet valve, three seconds later, the inlet valve opens for charging.
When the charging reaches the level or the setting time (the setting time is adjustable), the
inlet valve closes. 5 seconds later, the seal ring of the inlet valve will be pressurized.
When the seal pressure switch sends a signal, the pneumatic outlet valve on the ash
conveying pipe starts to open. When it fully opens, the air inlet valve and air make-up
valve on the air pipe will open to convey the material. The signal sent by the conveying
pressure switch means the conveying step is over. The ash conveying stops 5s after the
air inlet valve and the air make-up valve on the air inlet pipe close.
b. Compressed Air System
Process flowchart: Screw compressor→HT Precision filter→HA Precision filter→Air
dryer→HA Precision filter→Storage tank.
Dryers and filters shall be installed for pipes after the compressor to dry and filter the
compressed air, so as to ensure that the quality of the compressed air meet the
requirement of each air consumption point. The treated compressed air flows into the
main gas tank and then shall be stored to reduce the fluctuation of the air source pressure;
meanwhile new gas tanks shall be installed close to the main air consumption points to
stabilize the air pressure.
3. Control Flowchart of Mechanical Bottom Ash Handling System
Process flowchart: Bottom Ash at the bottom of the furnace→Bottom ash
cooler-remover→Buried scraper conveyor→bucket elevator→Bottom ash bin→bulk
loader→carried outside by truck.
Start up sequence is bucket elevator→Buried scraper conveyor→Bottom ash
cooler-remover, while the stop sequence is reverse. After the system is put into service,
open the dust collector at the top of the Bottom ash bin.
The mechanical Bottom ash handling system has two types of operation,
concentrated operation and local and manual operation. In case of an equipment failure,
this system can stop automatically and the visual and acoustic alarm signals can be sent
in the control room.

1.0.3 Description of the Main Equipment

Ⅰ. Bottom ash cooler-remover

The high-temperature Bottom ash discharged from the Bottom ash pipe of the boiler,
enters into the chamber of the rotating Bottom ash cooler-remover through a
water-jacketed Bottom ash inlet pipe. The Bottom ash are sprayed and pushed by helical
blades and Bottom ash blades, moving from high temperature to low temperature. During
the movement, the high-temperature Bottom ash undergoes heat exchange with the
completely sealed water-cooled furnace (filled with flowing cooling water) made up of
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seamless steel pipes of Bottom ash cooler-remover to cool the Bottom ash.
When the roller is rotating driven by the delivery device, and the high-temperature
Bottom ash from boiler are moving from high temperature to low temperature, a
windstream forms due to differential temperature between the Bottom ash inlet pipe for
Bottom ash cooler-remover and the Bottom ash outlet undergoes a heat exchange with
the Bottom ash. Both the cooling water and windstream can take away the thermal energy
from the high-temperature Bottom ash to make the Bottom ash cool fast and completely.
Cooling water flows into the completely sealed water-cooled furnace made up of
seamless steel pipes through the water inlet pipe of the water inlet-and-outlet device, to
take the thermal energy away during the heat exchange between high-temperature
Bottom ash and the water-cooled furnace. The taken-away thermal energy released from
the water outlet pipe of the water inlet-and-outlet device enters into a de-aerated water
preheater which aims at making full use of the residual thermal energy. In addition, the
water can be repeatedly used after cooling down.
2. Bucket Elevator
The bucket elevator is used to lift the material vertically by conveying the material to
elevator tail housing through the inlet chute, lifting it by catching and digging to the
elevator head and then discharging it from the discharge port.
A compact delivery device structure made up of vertical-shaft reducer, hydraulic
coupling and so on makes the delivery flexible. A slow start-up device with heavy load is
also provided.
The elevator is mainly comprised of drive part, head, standard knot, non-standard
knot, inspection section, tail, chains, hopper, middle nodule supporting frame and
proximity switch.
3. Buried scraper conveyor
The open chute is used as the material support and the scraper fixing to the chain
forms a scraper chain which is used as the traction component. The start-up of the
delivery part in the conveyer head drives the sprocket wheel on the shaft of the conveyer
head spin. This makes the scraper chain have a cycle operation which moves the material
along the chute to the conveyer head to discharge. The scraper chain passes by the
sprocket wheel and moves in a stepless closed circulation to convey the material.
4. Bin pump
Each electric dust collector for furnace has eight ash hoppers. Both the first and
second electric field has 2 ash hoppers, and under each ash hopper one AXP 1.0YN type

delivery device with volume of 1.0m3 is provided;both the third and fourth electric field has

2 ash hoppers, and under each ash hopper one AXP0.5YN type delivery device with
volume of 0.5m3 is provided.

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5. Continuous Pumps
Continuous delivery pump as a delivery part for conveying the material is mainly
comprised of inlet valve, exhaust valve, balanced valve, pressure valve, blowing valve,
pump body and pipes. The type of loading pump is AXP0.6 and its volume is 0.6m3. The
type of delivery pump is AXP1.0 and its volume is 1.0m3.
6. Unloader at the Bottom of the Bin
KD-150S type unloader at the bottom of the bin unloads the flour material (such as fly
ash and limestone flour) from the bin. The unloader has fluidization device to unload the
material in the form of fluid through conveyer piping or other delivery devices for the next
treatment. This unloader can be controlled either pneumatically or manually. For
pneumatic control, the solenoid valve controls the concertina movement of the cylinder to
open and close the discharge valve. For manual control, the rotation of the wheel opens
and closes the valve.
7. Conveyer Piping
Conveyer piping of ash handling system for electric dust collector:Ф89×8/Ф108×8
Conveyer piping of limestone flour conveying system: Ф95×7
Material of conveyer piping: plain carbon steel
Material of elbow: abrasion-proof ceramics
Radius of elbow curvature: 5~10 times than the nominal diameter of the pipe
Life of elbow: ≥5 years
8. Automatic Protection against Clogging and Clogging Removal
Automatic protection devices against clogging provided on the system piping are a
set of clogging removal valves located from the outlet of outlet valve up to the high level of
hopper above.
The principle of this clogging removal devices is the method of positive pressure
blowing and negative pressure extraction. If the pressure switch on the conveying piping
detects that the conveying pressure is higher than the setting pressure (this depends on
the site condition) and maintains for a certain time without decrease, the system will
change into clogging removal procedure automatically. First, open the clogging removal
valve to loosen the material in the conveying piping for a certain time and then close it.
Secondly, open the air inlet valve to surge the loose material. If the pressure is still high,
repeat the above steps for several times until the clogging is cleared. After that, the
system will change into normal procedure again.
Note: the seal ring is easy to fail, when it fails the sealing pressure will not reach the
setting pressure.
9. Roots Fan (Gasification Fan)
Two ash bin gasification fans shall be installed inside with one for normal operation
and the other for standby. The produced low-pressure compressed air will be heated to
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170℃ by electric heater to heat ash in the ash bin for its fluidization and unloading.

The gasification fans for limestone flour bin shall be installed inside, and two ash bin
gasification fans shall be provided one for normal operation and the other for standby. The

produced low-pressure compressed air will be heated to 170℃ by electric heater to heat

limestone flour in the limestone flour bin for its fluidization and unloading.
10. Bulk Loader
a. It is comprised of bulk head, expansion joint, cuff, steel wires and rope clip.
b. The expansion joints is made up of metal inner tube and coating canvas cloth outer
tube.
c. Operation: when the bulk fly ash truck is in position, manually lower the bulk head
to approach to the tank opening, then stop to align them. Turn the diverter switch to
automatic operation position, press the start-up button to closely connect the hopper of
the bulk head and tank opening.
11. Gasification Slot
After being connected to preheated air, the gasification as a subsidiary component for
cone bottom bin can fluidize the powdery material to increase the fluidity of the material
and make the material discharge smoothly to avoid bridging and camber.
The slot with nice appearance is a one-time formation with module technique. The
body of the sump and the connections are all completely sealed. Prior to assembly,
adjust the frame to correct all the welding deformation and its inner strain to ensure that its
bottom surface and the flange connected surface are smooth and straight.
12. Double-Shaft Agitator
The double-shaft agitator with mixing blade relatively spinning in the same slot makes
the dry material hygrometric easy for delivery.
a. The double-shaft agitator is comprised of the body and delivery part. The driven
part has motor, coupling (chain wheel or chain) and reducer body which is made up of
actuation shaft, housing, gear and sprinkling device.
b. Delivery process: motor drives the reducer by coupling and then drives the driven
shaft spin relatively through cross coupling (or chain drive).
c. Material delivery: when the material enters into the slot through inlet, the sprinkling
device starts to spray water. By mixing of blade, the dry material is delivered and
discharged from outlet in hygrometric state.
13 Vacuum Relief Valve
The vacuum relief valve installed at top of the material bin (such as dry ash bin,
Bottom ash bin and limestone flour bin) continuously runs. When the back pressure or the
negative pressure inside the bin is too high, the valve can move to adjust the working
pressure of the bin into the normal range to avoid too high positive pressure or too high
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negative pressure for the bin and guarantee the safety of the material bin. The valve
featuring reliable movement, excellent sealing and long life is an indispensable part in the
material bin system.
14. Impulse Bag Filter
HMC type impulse bag filter is a special high-efficiency purification device designed
for working condition of ash bin, Bottom ash bin and limestone flour bin in thermal power
plant. With advanced ash cleaning technique, it has great capability of air handling, good
purification, simple structure, reliable working condition, little maintenance and so on.
When the dust-laden air enters into the chamber of the filter, fine dust particles are
kept outside of the outer wall of the bag filter. The purified air is vented from the chamber
outlet through Venturi of the filter. As times goes, the dust attached on the surface of the
bag filter accumulates while the gas permeability of the bag filter decreases which makes
the resistance of the bag filter increases accordingly. In order to maintain the resistance of
the bag filter within limited range, the impulse controller sends signals to open the
solenoid impulse valve in sequence to make the blowing holes of each blowing pipe blow
the compressed air in the bag to the corresponding Venturi. When the high-speed air
flows through Venturi, it is required to attract ambient air multi times of the primary air
entering into the bag filter to make the bag expand rapidly. Then when the impact of
reverse impulse air disappears, the bag shrinks rapidly. The dust on the outer wall of the
bag filter can be cleared in this way, and the fallen dust will be discharged through dust
discharging system.
The dust cleaning is done in order so it is not necessary to cut off the dust-laden air to
be handled and during the dust cleaning the handling capability of the bag filter maintains.
15. Electric Flapper
Electric flapper also called feeder or star unloader is used for maintaining the
pressure and uniformly loading when delivering dry powdered or granular materials.

This well-sealed equipment with novel structure can continuously work below 200℃

and is easy to maintain.


16. Air Heater
The air heater is a special heating device for ash handling system and limestone flour
system to heat the gasification windstream in both limestone flour bin and ash bin. It is
comprised of the body of air heater and control system.
For heating elements, its protection sleeve is 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel seamless
pipe compressed by 0Cr27Al7MO2 high-temperature alloy resistance wire and crystal
magnesia powder. For control system, it is an adjustable temperature-measuring and
temperature-constant system mainly comprised of advanced digital circuit, integrated
circuit trigger and high-negative pressure controllable silicon, and this guarantees the

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normal operation of electric heater.
17. Pneumatic Outlet Valve
It is designed for pneumatic ash handling system featuring reliable open-and-close
action, excellent sealing, little resistance and easy installation and maintenance. Valve
trim is in the shape of half cylinder with little moment against turning. It is connected
smoothly with the pipe without changing the curvature, which prolongs the valve life by
reducing the abrasion between media and valve trim and valve body.
Features:
a. Simple structure, easy maintenance. The valve trim driven directly by cylinder
opens and closes the valve.
b. The pneumatic actuator is driven by totally-enclosed rotary pusher type straight
cylinder with rotary output, reliable performance and high torque output, which can work in
worse working condition.
18. Ash Bin System
Bin pump conveys all the ash to the ash bin. At the top of the bin, one cloth dust
collector, one vacuum relief valve and two level meters are installed. At the height of 5m of
the ash bin, one double-shaft agitator, one dry ash discharging device, electric heater for
ash bin and control cabinet are installed.

2 Operation parameters

2.0.1 Parameters of Limestone Flour Conveying System

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1. Conveying Parameter for Limestone Flour
NO. Item Unit Value

1 Total design capability t/h ~1.3

2 Conveying pressure MPa 0.20

3 Ratio of conveyed solids and gas Kg/Kg 4~7

Initial conveying speed m/s < 6.0


Final conveying speed m/s < 18

5 Gas consumption during conveying m3/min ~6.5

2. Parameters of Compressed Air


NO. Item Unit Value

1 Flow rate m3/min ~6.5

2 Pressure MPa 0.7

3 Air dew point ℃ +2

4 Oil content ppm 0.01


5 Dust content Mg/m3 0.01
3. Continuous Pump Sytem
NO Uni Value
Item
. t Loading pump Delivery pump
2 Type AXP0.6 AXP1.0
3 Quantity 1 1
4 Volume M3 1.0 0.6
5 Gasification None
requirement
6 Structure Q235B/WCB
material
Inlet and outlet
7 Inlet and outlet valves: pneuamtic double damper
valves
8 External mm Ф912×2056 Ф1216×1839
dimension
4. Technical Specification for Limestone Flour Delivery Piping
NO. Item Unit Value
1 Inner diameter of the pipe mm 75
2 Wall thickness of the pipe mm 7
3 Quantity of the pipe Piece 1

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4 Length of the pipe M ~65

5 Material and life of the pipe 20# seamless stainless steel


pipe/ 8 years
6 Radius of elbow curvature M 0.5
7 Material and life of the elbow Abrasion-proof ceramics/5 years

2.0.2 Parameters of Ash Handling System

1. Parameters of Ash Conveying


NO. Item Unit Value
Conveying system of the electric
dust collector

1 Total design capability t/h ~8

2 Conveying pressure MPa 0.20


3 Ratio of conveying ash and gas Kg/Kg 32
Conveying speed
4 Initial conveying speed m/s 3--4
Final conveying speed m/s 9--11
5 Gas consumption during conveying m3/min 12
2. Parameters of Compressed Air
NO. Item Unit Value
1 Flow rate m3/min 12
2 Pressure MPa 0.7

3 Air dew point ℃ +2

4 Oil content ppm 0.01


5 Dust content Mg/m3 0.01
3. Compressor
NO. Item Unit Value
1 Flow rate m3/min 32
2 Pressure MPa 0.75

3 Air dew point ℃ +10

4 Oil content ppm 1


5 Dust content Mg/m3 5
4. Bin Pump System
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NO Uni Value
Item
. t First field Second field Third field Fourth field
2 Type AXP1.0YN AXP1.0YN AXP0.5YN AXP0.5YN
3 Quantity 2 2 2 2
4 Volume M3 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5
5 Gasification 无
requirement
6 Structure Q235B/WCB
material
Inlet and outlet
7 Inlet and outlet valves: pneuamtic double damper
valves
8 External mm Ф1216×267 Ф1012×242 Ф1012×242 Ф1012×242
dimension 0 2 2 2
9 Weight of the Kg 620 620 330 330
equipment
5. Technical Specification for Fly Ash Conveying Piping
NO. Item Unit Value
1 Inner diameter of the pipe mm 89/108
2 Wall thickness of the pipe mm 8/8
3 Quantity of the pipe Piece 1/1
4 Length of th pipe M ~90/~100

5 Material and life of pipes 20# seamless stainless steel


pipe/ 8 years
6 Radius of elbow curvature M 0.5/0.75
7 Material and life of the elbow Abrasion-proof ceramics/5 years

2.0.3 Technical Parameters of Bottom ash Handling System

Particle size
Quantity of
≤3t/h of Bottom 0-10mm
Bottom ash
ash
Bottom ash
Bottom ash inlet
<1000℃ outlet <80℃
temperature
temperature

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Cooling water Demineralized water or Water inlet
≤20℃
media industrial water temperature
Quantity of Water outlet
12t/h ≤60℃
cooling water temperature
Pressure of
Pressure loss 0.05MPa ≤1.6MPa
cooling water
Drive
Motor power N=5.5+0.4Kw Abrasion drive
method
2. Scraper Conveyer
Main
technical Horizontal length of
Name of material Bottom ash 18.2
paramete the conveyer (m)
r
Conveying quantity
2~10 Lifting angle (degree) 39 (local)
(t/h)
Width of the
320 Motor power (kw) 5.5
scraper (mm)
Speed (m/min) 12
2. Bucket Elevator

Main Name of material Bottom ash Wheelbase (m) 18.84


technica Conveying 10 Lifting length (m) 16.45
l quantity (t/h)
paramet Width of the 450 Motor power (kw) 4+18
er hopper (mm)
Speed (m/min) 24

3 Preparation for Start-up

3.0.1 Inspection prior to Start-up of the Limestone Flour Conveying System

1. Bin pump inspection: clear the bin pump body and foreign matters and dust around
it.
2. Check whether the operation button on local control box is in "automatic" mode and
each pneumatic valve button is in "close" mode.
3. Check the connection leakage of each piping.
4. Check whether the instrument indication works properly.
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5. Check whether the air filter has accumulated water or dust and the level of oil
sprayer meets the requirement.
6. Check whether each pneumatic element, solenoid valve and indicator can work
properly.
7. Check whether the upper dryer and other equipment can work properly
(compressor system).

3.0.2 Inspection prior to Start-up of the Ash Handling System

1. Dry ash removed System


a. Bin pump inspection: clear the bin pump body and foreign matters and dust around
it.
b. Check whether the operation button on local control box is in the mode of
"automatic" and each pneumatic valve button is in the mode of "close".
c. Check the connection leakage of each piping.
d.Check whether the instrument indication works properly.
e. Check whether the air filter has accumulated water or dust and the level of oil
sprayer meets the requirement.
f. Check whether each pneumatic element, solenoid valve and indicator can work
properly.
g.Check whether the upper dryer and other equipment can work properly
(compressor system).
2. Compressor system
a Good electrical connection, good insulation, all parts in good condition.
b Cooling water flow, no leakage.
c The oil level is normal, pressure gauge, thermometer and indicator light are right.
d Cooler, oil and gas separator, drying tower, filter, gas tank, etc..are in Good
connection.

3.0.3 Inspection prior to Start-up of the Ash Handling System

1. Bottom ash Cooler


a. No-load commissioning

1) Preparation prior to the commissioning:

Prior to the commissioning of the Bottom ash cooler, check the installation tightness
and the connection tightness for the Bottom ash cooler.
Add N220 lubrication oil into the motor reducer of the Bottom ash cooler, check the
grease filling in bearing seat of thrust roll and between reducer gear and gear ring;

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Check after installation of the Bottom ash cooler and all its parts, and then manually
turn the roller. If there is no obstruction start the commissioning.
Prior to commissioning, check the insulation of the motor. Energize to start the
commissioning if it is ensured that there is no abnormal condition.

2) No-load commissioning:

Prior to no-load commissioning, the installation and commissioning of the equipment


shall meet the above requirements. Energize to start the commissioning if it is ensured
that there is no abnormal condition.
Energize the power control cabinet, check and start the motor. Observe whether the
equipment works properly. If it is ensured that there is no abnormal condition, start the
equipment for no-load commissioning;
The no-load commissioning shall be not last less than 2 hours; adjust the equipment
frequency converter simultaneously to ensure that the control of equipment running speed
by frequency converter meets the design requirement.
During commissioning, special workers shall be arranged to observe and record the
detection instruments and control devices for the equipment to see if they meet the
requirements on safety monitoring, adjustment, control, alarm, interlock and protection
during the start-up, stop, operation and accident of the Bottom ash cooler. Only when the
commissioning controlled by the equipment works properly, the load commissioning can
start.

3) nspection items for commissioning control:

Rotation direction of the roller: from the Bottom ash outlet end, the roller shall rotate
clockwise. Otherwise, change the order of motor wire connection to conform to the
requirement of roller rotation.
Slowly turn the main control potentiometer on the speed regulator to determine
whether the range of speed adjustment meet the equipment requirement;
Check the leakage of cooling water to determine if the water pressure and water flow
meet the equipment requirement;
Observe that if the equipment drive system and supporting system works properly;
measure the bearing temperature and motor current to check if there is any abnormal
condition, analyze and adjust if there is any problem.
b. Load commissioning
If the no-load commissioning is acceptable, start the load commissioning. Prior to the
commissioning, check all sealing connections. If there is no problem, start the load
commissioning.

1) First, load 50% of the total Bottom ash of the loading device (i.e. 1.5t/h), energize

15
to have an initial load commissioning. After 10-minute running, check all the rotating parts
of the equipment; when it is ensured that the equipment works properly, increase load to
full load for operation, that is having a commissioning with material feed at the speed of 3
t/h; during commissioning, check whether the cooling temperature of Bottom ash meets
the technical requirement;

2) The full load commissioning shall last at least 2 hours. 2 hours later, stop and

check the equipment again to ensure that all the parts works properly and measure the
Bottom ash outlet temperature to check if it meets the design requirement. After the load
commissioning, it is required to ensure that the equipment meets the design requirement;

3) In order to coordinate with the Bottom ash discharging requirement of the whole

Bottom ash discharging system, after load commissioning, the frequency control shall be
done to the Bottom ash cooler; on the premises of the equipment handling capability, set a
proper roller rotation speed to synchronize it with Bottom ash discharging system at most.
2. Scraper conveyer
a. Preparation prior to the commissioning:

1) Ensure that there shall be enough lubrication oil, grease on the drive chain part of

shaft and inside the reducer. For locations to be lubricated and material to be used, see
section "Operation and maintenance".

2) Check if there is any tool or material or other foreign matters left inside the

conveyer slot. Clear it if there is to prevent failures.

3) Initially check if the chain tension is proper.

b. No-load Test
Through careful inspection, if all the above requirements are met, start the no-load
test with at least three people involved (one at the head, one at the end and one
electrician).

1) First, start jogging operation and the observer at the head shall check whether

the head wheel rotation is proper. If not, ask the electrician to change it.

2) Start jogging operation again, the observer at the head shall observe the

movement of the scraper chain from head. If any camber of the scraper chain is found,
adjust the end screw rod for further tightening with proper tension.

3) Maintain the jogging operation for a longer time, and observer at the end shall

check if there is any deviation of the scraper chain from end cover. If there is, adjust the
screw rod on one side to correct the deviation.

16
4) If the rotation of head wheel is proper, the tension is suitable and no deviation

exists at the end, start the no-load commissioning test. However, the observers and the
operators shall not be far away from the position they should be. If there is any abnormal
condition, stop immediately to handle it.

5) Description: the scraper chain of the en masse conveyer slides forward with

abrasion on the guide rail, so during no-load test, there must be some noise which is
normal. The noise will decrease greatly during load operation. However, any noise from
obstruction and collision is abnormal which shall be checked and abated in time.
c. Load Test
After 2-hour no-load operation, the load test can start. The material shall be filled into
conveyer uniformly and gradually. Large amount of material shall not be filled in a sudden.
In addition, check whether the material meets the demand of conveyer. For example:
check whether the particle size is too large or the water content is too high. If there is any
non-conformance, actions shall be taken otherwise no load test can be done.

1) During load test, it is required to observe whether material discharges smoothly. If

not, solve the problem in time.

2) Original record shall be made for no-load test and load test, including voltage,

current, power and conveying quantity and so on. Check whether they conform to the
design requirement.

3) After 8-hour operation, it is possible to stop the test. Stop loading, discharge all

the material in the conveyer slot and then stop the conveyer.

4) Put all the observation covers in position.

3. Bucket Elevator
a. The elevator shall be installed in position according to the instruction without
external interrupt (like tools or maintenance material, etc.).
b. The shaft shall be installed, aligned and filled with lubrication agent properly, so
shall be the drive part.
c. The operation voltage shall coordinate with setting motor voltage, the rotation
direction of the drive shall meet the equipment requirement and the safety protection
device shall be installed effectively, etc.
d. Prior to start-up, ensure that nobody will get hurt due to the operation.
4. Equipment in Bottom ash Bin
a. Prior to energization, carefully check whether each element is installed firmly, the
wire connection is proper, the terminal is loose and the outer wire connection is proper.
b. Close the power switch, the power indicator is on;
17
c. Start the lower bulk loader;
d. Regulate the reducing valve in the air control cabinet to make the air pressure

entering into gasification in the range of 0.4~0.8Mpa.

3.0.4 Staff

1. The operator shall operate with a post certificate after being trained;
2. The maintenance workers shall prepared for abnormal conditions;
3. The dispatcher, inspector and other relative workers shall be notified in position.

3.0.5 Preparation of tools and instruments

1. Complete maintenance tools;


2. Complete communication tools: telephone and interphone;
3. Record for complete tools

3.0.6 Interlock Commissioning

1. Commissioning for Bottom ash handling interlock is normal;


2. Commissioning for ash handling interlock is normal;
3. The emergency devices in relative location are normal.

3.0.7 Safety & Fire Protection

1. Enough workable fire extinguisher shall be provided at site;


2. The fire hydrant shall be workable, and enough fire hose, fire gun and wrench shall
be provided inside the fire fighting box.
3. Ensure that the road is clear without obstruction and the site is clean.

18
4 First Start-Up

4.0.1 Limestone Flour Conveying System

1. Operation requirement for equipment at the top of the limestone flour store house
and limestone flour bin: energize the impulse bag filter at the top of the store house during
operation and the instrument air shall be provided normally.
2. Open the conveying compressed air piping for limestone with normal compressed
air pressure.
3. Open the pneumatic valve at the inlet of the limestone flour bin, make the delivery
manually several times to empty the limestone piping.
4.Open the manual gate valve under the limestone flour store house and turn on the
limestone gasification fan and electric heater.
5. Activate the remote control function for limestone conveying and automatic
clogging removal function.
6. Check whether the limestone flour is delivered normally to the limestone flour bin.
7. If the level of the limestone flour bin is high or no limestone flour is required, empty
the limestone conveying piping, stop the limestone flour conveying system and turn off
gasification fan and electric heater.
8. The storage period of the limestone flour in the store house shall not be long, and
the quantity shall not be large. It is required to store as much as the demand to prevent the
hardening of the limestone flour due to the moisture.

4.0.2 Ash Handling System

The system start-up order: dust collector at the top of the bin→bin pump system.
1. Dust Collector at the Top of the Bin
a Check whether the air bag compressed air to meet the requirements.

(0.4—0.6MPa)

b Check whether the voltage is normal.


c Check whether there is dust, if there should be cleared in the hopper.
d Check the dust cover of the support is strong enough.
e First start the wind turbine, observe the operation of the fan, when the fan works
normally, open the back blowing automatic cleaning.Cleaning rate can be adjusted
according to the condition of the field, the pulse width is generally between 0.1-0.3
seconds, and the pulse interval is between 10-30 seconds.

f Dust discharging valve provided with a heavy hammer,when the level if the dust in

19
the hopper reaches a certain level ,the valve will be automatically discharged.
2. Start-Up of the Bin Pump
AXP bin pump as a delivery part for conveying the material is mainly comprised of
material inlet valve, air inlet valve, secondary air valve, outlet material valve, exhaust
valve, clogging removal valve, pump body and piping. The said material inlet valve and
other valves shall be controlled pneumatically. The control air source is the conveying air
source (it may be arranged independently).
AXP type bin pump in this system is mainly used for dust conveying. With high
automatic level, the pump can automatically control the whole conveying process by PLC.
Three stages for one single set of bin pump during conveying:
a. Loading stage: after the bin pump is put into use, open exhaust valve and material
inlet valve, then the material falls into the pump body. When the level meter sends a
full-filling signal or the loading reaches the setting time, the material inlet valve and
exhaust valve close automatically. During this process, the level meter is the main control
element and the loading time control is the spare action.Once the level reaches the setting
level or the loading time reaches the setting time, the material inlet valve will close
automatically.
b. Conveying stage: When the bin pump is filled with material, the material outlet
starts to open automatically. When the material outlet valve fully opens, the air inlet valve
of the bin pump opens, and then the compressed air flows from fluidized bed at the bin
pump bottom into the bin pump to fluidize and convey the material.When the bin pump is
in the conveying condition, the secondary air valve shall open several seconds later.
c. Purging stage: After finishing the conveying of material in the pump, when the
pressure reduces to or close to the piping resistance, the air inlet valve and material outlet
valve close. A certain time later the secondary air valve closes. The above is the whole
conveying process for one working cycle.

5 Start-Up after Annual Maintenance (Refer to First Start-Up)

6 Start-up after Emergency Stop (Refer to First Start-Up)

7 Normal Operation

7.0.1 Operation of Limestone Flour Conveying System

1. Monitor the program control for flour conveying and the conveying pressure. If the
conveying pressure is found abnormal, the site flour conveying piping shall be checked for
clogging in time.

20
Ⅱ. Periodically check the bin pump operation, check if the movements of all the valves

are proper, if the material inlet piping and the material outlet piping and exhaust piping are
heated. If they are not heated, analyze and contact the maintenance department.

Ⅲ. Check the leakage of each connection surface and flanged surfaces.

Ⅳ. Check if the pressure of each instrument gauge is normal, the high limited

pressure, low limited pressure, conveying pressure and clogging alarm pressure set by
the system are normal.

Ⅴ. If any pipe clogging is found, stop all the bin pumps on this piping and start to

remove the clogging immediately. After opening up the pipe, reset “pipe clogging alarm”.

7.0.2 Operation of Ash Handling System

1.Ash Handling System


a. The program control for the ash conveying system shall be put into use to check
the ash conveying system according to the designated procedures.
b. The gasification fan and electric heater of ash hopper shall be put into use.
c. Monitor the program control for ash conveying and the conveying pressure. If the
ash conveying pressure is abnormal while the electric dust collector is in normal operation,
the site ash conveying piping shall be checked for clogging in time.
d. Periodically check the bin pump operation, check if the movements of all the valves
are proper, if the material inlet piping and the material outlet piping and exhaust piping are
heated. If they are not, analyze and contact the maintenance department.
e. Check the leakage of each connection surface and flanged surface.
f. Check if the pressure of each instrument gauge is normal, the high limited pressure,
low limited pressure, conveying pressure and clogging alarm pressure set by the system
are normal.
g. If any pipe clogging is found, stop all the bin pumps on this piping and start to
remove the clogging immediately. After opening up the pipe, reset “pipe clogging alarm”.
h. Periodically check the operation of ash bin and pay attention to the level change.
2. Compressor system
a Check the equipment per hour, to ensure that each parameter in the specified
range, when the operation has abnormal sound and abnormal vibration, it should be
stopped for inspection.
b When the pressure of main compressed air pipe drop to 0.6Mpa, the alarm is
lighting. The person on duty should open the spare air compressor manually.
c In the air compressor operation something should be focused on the following

21
parameters, and notes:

1)Current of Air compressor is normal;

2)Oil level is normal;

3)In the operation if can not see the oil level, should immediately stop;

4)Observe the oil level after ten minutes, add oil when the system is no pressure;

5 ) When the light of pressure difference is lighting, contact the maintenance

treatment;

6)The water of the cooler, separator and storage tank should be emitted per hour, to

To ensure air quality.

7.0.3 Operation of Bottom ash Handling System

1. During the normal operation of the Bottom ash bin, the impulse bag filter at the top
of the bin shall deliver current and the instrument air shall be provided normally.
2. Contact the auxiliary staff on duty to check the load operation condition for Bottom
ash conveying system.
3. The program control for Bottom ash conveying system shall be put into use prior to
the Bottom ash discharge of Bottom ash cooler.
4. Start the bucket elevator and en masse Bottom ash conveyer, when they start to
operate normally the Bottom ash cooler can discharge Bottom ash.
5. No foreign matters around bucket elevator, and no Bottom ash at its bottom.
6. Each coupling protector, gear box, drive chain shall be complete and the level of
the gear box shall be normal.
7. Check whether the scraper Bottom ash conveyer and bucket elevator works stably
and the sound is normal. Monitor whether the motor current is normal, if the current is
increasing abnormally or is tripping, report immediately, stop the Bottom ash discharging
system and contact the maintenance department to handle it.
8. Bottom ash discharging of the Bottom ash bin
a. Manually discharge the Bottom ash from the Bottom ash bin local control room.
b. Change the Bottom ash discharge control to "Manual".
c. Open the manual gate valve of the Bottom ash bin for Bottom ash discharge.
d. Open the butterfly valve for dust collection fan at the top of the Bottom ash bin and
turn on the dust collection fan as well.
e. Lower the bulk head, park the Bottom ash truck connecting properly to the inlet
Bottom ash opening.
22
f. Open the rotary material inlet valve and pneumatic butterfly valve for Bottom ash
discharge and start to discharge Bottom ash to the truck.
g. Stop discharging the Bottom ash when the truck is full: close the pneumatic
butterfly valve for Bottom ash discharge, when the rotary material inlet valve is empty,
close it and lift the bulk head. A certain time (about 2-3min) later, turn off the dust
collection fan.
9. Level of the Bottom ash bin and ash bin
a. During normal operation, monitor the Bottom ash level. In daytime, the ash
discharging and Bottom ash discharging shall be reinforced and the Bottom ash bin shall
run at the low level.
b. The diaphragm plate shall discharge the Bottom ash in time according to the
Bottom ash level. It is not allowed if the Bottom ash bin is full.

8 Abnormal Operation (Emergency Operation and


Emergency Action)

8.0.1 Limestone Flour System

1. Bin pump failure: conveying pressure exceeds (pipe clogging)


a. Indication:
1) Industrial Personal Computer indication: flashing or visual and acoustic alarm or
conveying overpressure alarm on the interface of the corresponding conveying system
(the industrial control alarm shall be completed by the integrated product manufacturer) .
2) PLC: lamp flashing for failure
b. Cause analysis:
1) During conveying, the air source pressure reduces sharply.(observe the pressure
indication of main pipe pressure transformer)
2) The material particle is large and wet.
3) During conveying, the pressure reaches the setting value of upper pressure.
c. Action: analyze the cause of the sharp reduction of air source pressure and solve
the problem in time.
2. Failure: material inlet valve, material outlet valve and the exhaust valve can open
or close fully.
a. Indication:
1) Industrial Personal Computer indication: flashing or visual and acoustic alarm on
the interface of the corresponding valve (the industrial control alarm shall be completed by
the integrated product manufacturer) .
2) PLC cabinet: lamp flashing for failure
23
b. Cause analysis:
1) Clog of foreign matters
2) Lower air source pressure
3) Inlet and outlet leakage of the valve
4) Clog of valve rod
5) Limit switch fails or is not tight.
c. Action:
1) Clear the clog of foreign matters
2) Adjust the air source pressure
3) Check the leakage of piping inlet and outlet connecting to the valve, replace and
maintain it in time
4) Enhance lubrication or adjust the valve stem packing and gland
3. Failure: level meter of bin pump fails
a. Indication:
1) Industrial Personal Computer indication: flashing or visual and acoustic alarm on
the interface of the corresponding material level (the industrial control alarm shall be
completed by the integrated product manufacturer) .
2) PLC cabinet: lamp flashing for failure
b. Cause analysis:
1) Material hanging on the level meter
2) Level meter broken
c. Action:
1) Clear the material hanging signal or shield the level signal, subject to the setting
loading time
2) Replace the level meter

8.0.2 Ash Handling System

1. Trouble Shooting for Double-Shaft Agitator


No. Description Cause Trouble shooting
Deformation of the main shaft Repair or replace;
due to wearing Replace;
1 Loud noise Bearing is broken; Tighten the connection
The fixed bolts of bearing seat or bolts;
reducer are loose;
The 1. Deformation of the main shaft Repair or replace;
2 temperature of due to wearing Replace;
reducer oil is too 2. Bearing is broken; Wash in time;

24
high. 3. Too much dust accumulated in
the box which increases the
resistance;
1. Insufficient water pressure; 1. Increase the water
2. Insufficient water; pressure;
Insufficient
3 3. clog of nozzles; 2. Open the manual
water content
regulating valve wider;
3. Clear or replace;
Ash leakage at Wearing of the main shaft; Repair or replace;
4
the shaft end Packings wearing; Replace packings;
2. Trouble Shooting for Dry Ash Bulk Loader
No. Description Cause Trouble shooting
1. Fix the wiring;
2. Take out the back hood of
the motor, loosen the brake
Hoisting motor 1. Wiring failure;
1 lining bolt, energize positive
does not work 2. Brake lining is not released.
current and turn it reversely for
several times and then tighten
the bolts.
When the
head and end
of the bulk
loader are in 1. Wiring failure; 1. Fix the wiring;
2
position, the 2. Counter switch is broken. 2. Replace the counter switch.
reducer can
not stop
properly.
When the cone 1. Fix the wiring and the inner
hopper for problem of the switch;
material 2. Adjust the pulley and the
1. Wiring failure;
discharge is in spring.
3 2. The cable pull switch is not
position, the
in position.
loading
operation can
not start
The cone The wire rope wraps around
4 Readjust the wire rope.
hopper for the shaft or sticks between

25
material pulleys.
discharge can
not go up or
down, while
the motor
works
normally.
No alarm for 1. Level meter broken; 1.Replace the broken one;
full filling but 2. Level meter is not in 2. Adjust the level meter to a
5
alarm for not position. proper position.
full
Ash coming 1. Clear the outer dust outside
from the the dust collection pipe or
1. The dust collection pipe is
connection replace the pipe.
broken or clogged;
between cone 2. Increase the wind quantity of
6 2. The wind quantity of the
hopper for the dust collection fan or fix the
dust collection fan is not
material fan.
enough or the fan fails.
discharge and
tank opening
3. QQF (B) Type Ball Pneumatic Lock-Up Valve
No. Description Cause Trouble shooting
1. The adjusting washer
between the main valve
The sealing between body and sealing seat is not Change the washer;
1 main valve body and in position; Tighten the connection
flange is not good. 2. The bolt between the bolts.
main valve body and flange
is can rotate.
Adjust the adjusting
bolt of the cylinder to
The half ball is not aligned;
align the ball body
The diaphragm seal ring is
The valve can not be Replace the diaphragm
2 broken;
closed properly seal ring;
The diaphragm seal ring
Check the air piping
can not be filled with air.
and solenoid reversing
valve.
3 The valve can not move Lower air source pressure; Adjust the air source

26
after providing air The cylinder is broken; pressure;
The lubrication for valve rod Check the cylinder,
is not good. Maintain the bearing
and add some
lubrication oil.

27
4. Roots Fan
Description Cause Trouble shooting
Then fan can rotate
clockwise and Repair or replace the
The motor is broken
No counterclockwise motor ;
t manually
rot The fan can not Rotor is clogged Repair
ate rotate clockwise or
counterclockwise Foreign matters exist inside Repair
manually
Slippery, V type belt is too tight Adjust the tension of
or loose V type belt;
The pulley is not in position Adjust the pulley
Friction between pulley and Adjust the belt hood
belt hood
The bearing oil is not enough Replace oil
or is aging
Adjust the safety
Leakage of safety valve
Fa valve
n Enhance the
Vibration or Insufficient foundation strength;
foundation strength;
abnormal noise
Ro Pipe consonance Use silencer
tati The exhaust pressure rises
on suddenly
The anchor bolt is too loose Tighten it
Rotor disturbance Repair
Foreign matters exist inside the Repair
enclosure
The gear oil is aging or is not Replace oil
enough
The checkvalve is broken Replace
The exhaust pressure rises
suddenly
Overheat Temperature inside the More ventilation

computer room exceeds 40℃

28
Clean/replace the
The suction silencer is clogged
filter
Tighten the
Piping leakage
connection
Clean/replace the
The suction silencer is clogged
filter
Adjust the safety
Insufficient air flow Leakage of safety valve
valve
Adjust the tension of
V type belt is slippery
V type belt;
The exhaust pressure rises
suddenly
The valve is closed Fully open the valve
Water level rises Adjust the water level
Clear the foreign
Clog of inlet air pipe
matters
The exhaust
Clear the foreign
pressure rises Piping clog
matters
suddenly
The valve is broken or the Replace or tighten in
tightening direction is reverse another direction
Decrease the rotation
The air flow is too strong
speed or exhaust
Add oil up to the
Oil leakage Too much gear oil center of the oil
gauge
Contact failure of switch or Connect properly or
wiring check and repair
Then fan can rotate Fuse is not connected or single Check and repair or
clockwise and wiring replace;
No
counterclockwise Improve power
t Abnormal power supply
Mo manually supply facility
rot
tor Repair or replace the
ate The motor is broken
motor ;
Bearing is broken Replace bearing;
The fan can not
Repair or replace the
rotate manually The motor is broken
motor ;

29
Check the
Rotate in reserve Wrong connection
connections
Adjust the exhaust
Overload
pressure;
Improve power
Ro Overheat Abnormal power supply
supply facility
tat Temperature inside the
e More ventilation
computer room exceeds 40℃

Improve power
Abnormal power supply
Rotation speed is supply facility
too low Adjust the exhaust
Overload
pressure;
5.Ash Conveying System Failure
Description Cause Trouble shooting
“Start/Stop” switch is not in the Check the start-up signal of air
proper position (in the “Stop” control cabinet for delivery
position) device
Start the standby compressor
for conveying, open the
The air supply pipe pressure is corresponding valve and check
too low the local pressure gauge,
pressure switch, pressure
transformer for air tank.
According to the initial
The system does not condition of the material inlet
work valve check the condition of all
material inlet valve, if any
The sealing signal for material difference is found check the
inlet valve is not proper, air control air source and the air
source control failure inlet valve of the air control
cabinet, check and adjust the
relative conditions for the
wrong feedback signal of
sealing pressure.
Wrong path—the target ash bin
Choose the right path.
has high level alarm signal

30
The feedback signal of the
Readjust the pressure switch
pressure switch for conveying
and check the wiring
pipe is not right
The run button on the CRT Stop other operation, press run
interface has not been clicked button
The sealing pressure signal of check and adjust the relative
the material inlet valve is not conditions for the wrong
right or the limit switch can not feedback signal of sealing
move pressure.

The delivery device Cut off the electric circuit or air


has been started up, supply, remove the pipe at the
The material inlet valve is not
and the material bottom to clean, clean the
closed fully, foreign matters is
loading for the container as well; manually
stuck with domed valve of shaft
transmitter is done, remove the cylinder, check if
the material inlet the limit switch moves.
valve is closed,. The
material can not be
delivered. Check the air supply for valve,
if there is no problem, repair or
The blowing valve does not work replace the valve.If there is no
or the manual valve on the air supply, check the
conveying pipe closes movement of the blowing
solenoid valve or the limit
switch.
Clear the pipe locally
Check the air supply and
power supply
With the furthest piping
The system starts to location and the highest pipe
The conveying piping is clogged
convey then stop location to decide the clogging
and can not be cleared by itself
location, cut off air supply and
power supply, allow air
reduction and remove the
clogged pipe for analysis, dry
the pipe.

31
The sealing air pressure reduces
Check the air supply piping
Air leakage of the to the transmission pressure
material inlet valve Replace the seal ring, check
or outlet material Breakage of seal ring of material the gap between the ball and
valve for exhaust inlet valve seal ring according to the
during conveying structure manual
Filter clog Remove and clean
The solenoid can not operate for
Remove and clean
the whole process
Sealing leakage of cylinder for
Replace the sealing
material inlet valve
The setting of regulator is
Adjust or replace the regulator
improper or the regulator fails
Wet material Investigate the wet air source
The solenoid valve
Blowing valve failure Remove, check and clean
continuously
Switching over valves at the top
exhaust by switch Check the limit switch setting
of the bin and on the pipe are not
and operate
aligned
Sealing of the switching over
Check and replace when
valves at the top of the bin and
necessary;
on the pipe are broken
Clog of the filter exhaust part Check and clean
Short circuit during operation Analyze the cause and operate
cycle properly

32
Check the working condition of
dust collector, electric heater
and so on, and confirm that
there is ash in the ash hopper
Beat the ash hopper, iron and
Compared to the normal steel nipple
condition, the ash quantity is Adjust the wind flow for
Ash falling down
small, the conveying pressure is gasification
abnormally
far lower than the normal Check the working condition of
conveying pressure exhaust pipe of the equipment,
remove the failure
Increase exhaust of the
exhaust valve on the
equipment to accelerate ash
falling down
Orifice of the regulator is not Adjust the air flow of orifice or
installed properly. The material adjust the output pressure of
flows too fast the regulator
Check the filling time for
completely filling the container,
Bending/elbow is
and the vibration setting of the
seriously worn Output load is small
exhaust valve, increase the
ash quantity falling into the
delivery device
Improper installation of pipe
Check the location
elbow
Check the local air source
Air source pressure is lower than
pressure of the air tank,
the design requirement
remove the failure
Check the pressure gauge
Sealing pressure Check the local air source indication in the local control
signal of material pressure of the air tank, remove cabinet, if it is lower than the
inlet valve the failure feedback pressure, take the
following actions:
Check the local limit position
The limit switch is not put
switch and the connection of
through
control air piping

33
Adjust the length of adjusting
Adjust adjusting bolts
bolts
Check the connection of
Wrong connection of air piping
sealed air piping
Check the setting value of
The setting value of the pressure
pressure switch and adjust
switch is high
properly
Check the local air control
Wiring connection of the terminal
cabinet power and wiring of
row is loose
PLC cabinet
Check if there is any foreign
The close movement is stopped
matter affecting the close
by foreign matters
movement

34
6. High Water-Content in the Air
Cause Trouble shooting
1. Too much water enters into the ash handling piping
with compressed air.Attached to the bin pump, material
outlet valve and ash handling pipes. In this way, ash 1. Discharge the air tank
may attached onto the surface of these devices, if it periodically according to water
attached to the valve, it will make the valve not open or content.
close in position and reduce the valve life sharply.If it 2. Check if the freeze drier can
attached onto the pipes, it will cause clog. work properly.Open the
2. For pipes supplying air as power, if water enters into drainage valve under the drier
the pipe, it will cause clog of each inlet and outlet pipe of to drain water.
all valves and makes the valve not move, what’s worse
is the solenoid valve may freeze to break.
7. InnerLeakage of Material Outlet Valve
Description Cause Trouble shooting
If inner leakage of the material outlet
valve appears in the loading condition
while the electric field sharing the
When the electric field is same ash conveying pipe with the
Wearing due to
discharging ash, the air inlet valve is in the discharging condition,
long time use; the
valve is open. Before the ash will be delivered into the bin
switch is not
opening the material outlet pump through the leakage of material
installed in
valve, pressure inside the outlet valve by the discharging bin
position; for a
ash conveying piping has pump. In this condition, the ash may
long time not
been produced which not fall normally inside the bin pump,
being used and
causes the low pressure what’s worse, the ash enters into the
wet air entering
signal disappear on the loading bin pump through the leakage
in, ash may clog
control interface.This of valve and goes along the exhaust
the valve causing
circumstance may easily valve of the loading electric field to the
the valve not
convey some ash into the ash hopper, and this may cause the
open or close
pipe before opening the wearing of the exhaust valve and
completely;
material outlet valve. What’s piping of the electric field. The
foreign matters
worse it may clog the ash pressure of the pipe connecting to
clog the valve.
pipe. ash bin reduces and this causes the
pipe clog.
During the clogging removal, open the
manual blowing valve to release the

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bin pump pressure and pipe pressure
through pressure relief valve, and this
makes it hard for ash in the pipe enter
into the ash hopper.
8. Compressor System
a The leakage of water ,oil and air is serious;

b Cooling water is interrupted and can not be recoveried;

c There is obvious friction and impact sound in the compressor;


d Current indicator increases and exceeds the rated value;
e Air compressor can not get normal pressure;
f Motor smokes, fires and get accident;
g The pressure of the air storage tank is more than 0.8Mpa and the pressure is still
increasing.

8.0.3 Bottom ash Handling System

1. Bottom ash Cooler

No. Description Cause Trouble shooting

Close the Bottom ash discharging


a. huge Bottom ash clogged
damper of the boiler and clear the
in the Bottom ash inlet pipe
Bottom ash.
No Bottom b. huge Bottom ash clogged Open the corresponding Bottom ash
ash or little in the Bottom ash outlet of discharging pipe, clear the Bottom
1 Bottom ash the boiler ash.
from the Close the Bottom ash discharging
Bottom ash damper, remove the Bottom ash
outlet c. Clogging in the cooling loading device of the Bottom ash
path or partly clogged cooler, clear the clogging in the
roller, install the Bottom ash loading
device.
Temperature 2. The opening of the water
2 difference inlet valve and outlet valve is Adjust the valve opening.
between improper

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inlet water
and outlet Add appropriate amount of cooling
b. too much cooling water
water is water
small
a. The amount of cooling
The water is too small, much less Add appropriate amount of cooling
temperature than the rated amount of the water
of outlet equipment
3 cooling Stop running immediately, check the
water is too water flow of inlet and outlet, and
b. The cooling water does not
high ( > use acid to remove the scale in
flow smoothly
80°C) water pipe of the Bottom ash cooler
if necessary.
a. Friction between moving
Adjust the gap
seal ring and static seal ring

Motor b. Ash enters into the bearing


4 of the thrust roll, lack of Clean, add oil or replace the bearing
overload
lubrication oil or abrasion

c. Reducer or motor is broken Repair or replace.

The a. Wrong wiring for frequency


Rewire
indication of converter
the b. The current converter is
Replace the converter
frequency broken by burning
converter is c. The shielded cable is not
5 Replace with shielded cable
abnormal or used
the main
control can d. Frequency converter is
Replace the frequency converter
not be broken
operated
2. Scraper Conveyer
Description Cause Trouble shooting

1.The installation for conveying is not 1.Check the installation

Deviation of the good

scraper chain (1)The linearity of the conveyer is too

high

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(2)The head and end wheels are not

aligned

(3)The wheel shaft is deflected

2.The enclosure may deform 2.Correct the enclosure

3.Nonconformity of the adjusting travel of 3.Adjust evenly

the end wheel, deflection of the end wheel

Break of the 1.Something hard falls into the computer 1.Clear the foreign matters
scraper chain
slot and stuck the chain

2.Serious wearing of the chain 2.Replace the chain

3.Start up with full load or loading large 3 . Discharge the material

amount of material suddenly manually and then loading


evenly

4.The clamp ring of the chain drops out 4.Spot welding for clamp

and makes the pin shaft out ring

1.The enclosure is not straight, the flange 1.Realign

or guide rail is dislocated

2.Something hard falls into the computer 2.Clear the foreign matters
slot

3.The welding between scraper and chain 3.Replace the chain link

rod is not complete

4.The engagement between the scraper 4.Check and adjust

chain and the head wheel is not good

The scraped 1 . Something hard and iron piece fall 1.Clear the foreign matters
chain clashes and
into the computer slot
makes noise
during operation 2.Some chain link can not rotate flexibly 2.Remove and repair the

pin shaft

The engagement 1.The head wheel shaft is deflected 1.Correct the level of the
between the
positive shaft and adjust it

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scraper chain and 2.The head wheel is not aligned 2.Correct the head wheel
the head wheel is
not good 3.The gap between chain links increases 3.Replace the chain

after long term operation

Floating chain 1.The chain tension is not enough 1.Adjust the tension device

2. The material on the bottom plate of the 2. Clear and add rail press if
enclosure forms the extruded material necessary
layer
3. Bucket Elevator
Description Cause Trouble shooting

The discharging equipment starts


Start the material discharging system
up and operate

Too much material at the end of


Find the reason and solve the problem,
the elevator, the level meter has
clear the material
not sent a signal

The equipment can The end wheel does not rotate


not start up or stop normally, and the velometer Find the reason and solve the problem
switch has not sent a signal

Find the reason of overload and solve


Overload of hydraulic coupling
the problem

Check the parts and repair, reinstall if


The drive part works improperly
necessary

Adjust the discharging plate, the


The material discharging plate is minimum distance between
not in position, material returned discharging plate and hopper edge
shall be 10mm
Not meet the design
Material attaches to the hopper
requirement Clean the hopper and chute, use
and chute, change of the
appropriate hopper for the material
conveying material

Material agglomeration affects Check the level meter, and remove the
level meter blocky material

Discharging end is clogged Find the reason and solve the problem
Too much material at
the end The discharging system has not
Start the material discharging system
been used

39
The loading quantity shall conform to
Too much loading
the equipment capability

Adjust the discharging plate, the


The material discharging plate is minimum distance between
not in position, material returned discharging plate and hopper edge
shall be 10mm

4. Bottom ash Bin


Description Trouble shooting
1. Check whether the air burster works
1. Bottom ash camber normally and repair.
2. Not discharge smoothly 2. Check whether the double-shaft agitator
runs normally and repair.

9 Normal Stop

9.0.1 Stop of Limestone Flour Conveying System

1. The bin pump can only stop in case of system stop or failure.
2. When it is confirmed that the pump must stop or the pump stop order is received,
stop the pump by pressing “Exit” directly on the control cabinet or clicking “Exit” on the
computer interface of the corresponding bin pump.
3. Before stopping the pump, empty the accumulated dust in the material hopper after
operation.
4. After the pump stops, clear the bin pump and piping in time.

9.0.2 Stop of Ash Handling System

1.Pneumatic Ash Handling System


a. The bin pump can only stop in case of system stop or failure.
b. When it is confirmed that the pump must stop or the pump stop order is received,
stop the pump by pressing “Exit” directly on the control cabinet or clicking “Exit” on the
computer interface of the corresponding bin pump.
c. Before stopping the pump, empty the accumulated dust in the material hopper after
operation.
d. After the pump stops, clear the bin pump and piping in time.
2. Compressor System
a Compressor stop

40
1)Press stop button;

2)Close solenoid valve;

3)Exhaust air from the oil separator to the atmosphere;

4)Wait for the pressure of the separator drop in to definite value;

5)Motor stop;

6)Close the gas supply valve, cut off the power supply, open the sewage valve of the

cooler, after 30 minutes close the cooler inlet valve, remain water outlet valve open, to
exclude the residual water.
b Air dryer stop

1)Press the stop button on the panel to make the power cut off;

2)Open bypass valve of the dryer, close the air inlet and outlet valve;

3)Open the dryer pressure relief valve slowly, until the two drying tower pressure

indicator is zero.

9.0.3 Stop of Bottom ash Handling System

1. If it is necessary to stop the Bottom ash conveying system , stop the devices in
order.
2. Empty the reserved matters in the Bottom ash cooler and then close the rotary
Bottom ash discharger at the outlet of the Bottom ash cooler.
3. Empty the Bottom ash for Bottom ash conveyer and then stop the scraper Bottom
ash conveyer and bucket elevator.

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