Trial Examination 2010 CHEMISTRY – Paper 2 Answers

Section A

1 (a)(i)
1

(ii) 1+1

(iii)

1+1

(iv) First ionisation energies Oxygen: 1400 kJ mol-1 < Nitrogen: 1310 kJ mol-1 For oxygen, electron removed from an orbital containing a pair of electrons. Due to repulsion between the two electrons, less energy is required to remove this electron. (b) (c) N3- ; O2-

1

1 1 1

O N O O

_ Trigonal planar
1

Total

10

2
2 (a) Kw = [H+] [OH-] (b) [OH-] = [NaOH] = 0.200 mol dm-3 Kw = 1 x 10-14 mol2 dm-6 = [H+] [OH-] 1 x 10
-14

1

1

mol dm = [H ] [0.200]

2

-6

+

[H+] = 5 x 10-14 pH = - log 5 x 10-14 = 13.3 (c) - NH3 is a weak base and dissociates partially in water. / The OH- concentration is much less than 0.200 mol dm-3 (d)
14 11.3 End-point pH 7

1 1

|
0 10

|
20

|
30

|
40
3

|
50

|
60

Curve 1 Mark 11.3 1 Mark 40, end-point 1

Volume of added acid / cm (e) √ for methyl orange (f) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH+4(aq) + OH-(aq)

1

- On adding a small amount of OH-(aq), NH+4(aq) + OH-(aq) → NH3(aq) + H2O(l) (added) Equilibrium would shift to the left to’mop up’ the added OH- ions. - On adding a small amount of acid, the H+ (aq) is removed by this reaction: H+(aq) + NH3(aq) → NH4+(aq) (added) 1 Total 10 1

3 3 (a)(i) The ionic bond in aluminium oxide is strong.
(ii) Na3AlF6 (iii) At the cathode: Al3+(l) + 3e → Al(l) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(b) (i) Aluminium fluoride is more ionic than aluminium chloride. /Aluminium chloride is predominantly covalent whereas, aluminium fluoride is ionic (ii) - F- ion is smaller than Cl- ion. - Therefore is more difficult of be polarized by the Al3+ ion. Hence, AlF3 has less covalent character. (c) (i) pV = nRT

(1.0 x 105 ) x (73.6 x 10-6) = n x 8.31 x (200 + 273)
n = 1.872 x 10-3 mol Mr =
0.5 00 1.87x1 −3 0

= 267 1

(ii) Mr value shows that aluminium chloride exists as dimeric molecules. 1 Total 10

4 (a)(i)

1 .

(ii) 1

(iii) 1

(iv) 1 (b) (i) 1+1 1 1+1

(ii)

[1]

[1]
1

Total

10

4
Section B 5 (a) (i) Rate = k[N2O5] (ii) Rate constant, k = k= 1

ln 2 t1
2

@ k= s-1

0.693 t1
2

1

0.693 2.7x103

= 2.6 x 10-4 s-1 (iii) Rate = k [N2O5] = (2.6 x 10-4) x (3.1 x 10-2) = 8.1 x 10-6 mol dm-3 s-1 (iv) Decomposition N2O5 → 2NO2 + O• / N2O5 → N2O4 + O• O• + O• → O2 (fast) (b) (i) Activation energy is the minimum energy required by a reactant to form the activated complex (ii) (iii)
164.0

1

1 1 (slow) 1 1 ….7 1 1 1 1 1

( a: O only)

Platinum functions as a heterogeneous catalyst It provides a bigger surface area and lower activation energy to increase the rate of reaction

energy
H2 + I2 59.0 2HI
53.0

Progress of reaction
Labelled axes (no need units) Correct curves Energy values marked correctly Total 1 1 1… 8 15

6 (a) (i) - When sodium is added to water, it move vigorously on the surface of water and it burns with a yellow flame.

1

5
- Hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide are produced. 2Na + 2H2O → NaOH + H2 - Phosphorus does not react with water. (ii) - Sodium burns in air to produce sodium oxide. 4Na + O2 → 2Na2O - Na2O + H2O → 2NaOH - NaOH is a strong base, thus the pH of the solution is around 13 - Phosphorus burns in air to give phosphorus(V) oxide, P4O10. - Phosphorus(V) oxide dissolve in water to give phosphoric acid. P4O10 + 6H2O → 4H3PO4 - Phosphoric(V) acid is a weak acid and pH of the solution formed is around 3. (b) (i) 2Na2O2(s) + 2CO2(g) → 2Na2CO3 + O2 (ii) Assuming room temperature and pressure conditions, Volume of CO2 exhaled by the eight submariners = 600 x 8 dm3 = 4800 dm3 No. of mol of CO2 =
4800 = 200 24

1 1 …3

1 1 1 1 1 1 …6 1

1 1 1 1 1 …. 5 Total 15 1 1

No. of mol of Na2O2 needed to absorb CO2 = no. of mol of CO2 = 200 Molar mass of Na2O2 = 23.0 x 2 + 16.0 x 2 = 78 g mol-1 Mass of Na2O2 = 200 x 78 = 15600 g = 15.6 kg

7 (a) - Partial pressure of methanol, PA = XA PAo - PA =
3.94 ×54 .1 = 34 .6 6.16

- Partial pressure of ethanol, PB = - PT = PA + PB = 45.3 kPa

2.22 × 29 .6 =10 .7 6.16

1 1 …. 4

(b)
Vapour pressure

- Correct label for the axes - Linear graph

1 1

- The force of attraction between the
molecules in the solution is the same as the those in the pure liquids.
0 Composition of A 100

- An ideal solution is formed

1 1 …. 4

(c)

Fractional distillation of an ideal solution

6
Temperature/ oC 100

T1 T2

liquid

vapour

66

0

30

C1

C2

100

% of methanol
The path for the process is shown with arrows Labelled axes Correct curves The methanol solution would boil at temperature T1, producing vapour of compositon C1 The vapour with compositon C1 would condense into liquid of the same composition which will boil at temperature T2 ,producing vapour with composition C2 The boiling and condensation occurs repeatedly The distillate is the component which is more volatile (methanol) Total

1 1 1 1

-

1 1 1 …. 7

-

15

Q 7(a)

Answer [ Fe3+ + e  Fe2+ Eθ = + 0.77 V ; ½ I2 + e  I- Eθ = + 0.54 V] (i) 2Fe3+ + 2e  2Fe2+ Eθ = + 0.77 V √ θ 2I  I2 + 2e E = - 0.54 V 3+ 2I + 2Fe  I2 + 2Fe2+ Ecell = + 0.23 V √ √ Since Ecell is positive, it is a spontaneous reaction / reaction will takes place. √ [Ag+ + e  Ag Eθ = + 0.80 V Fe3+ + 3e  Fe V] (ii) 3Ag  3Ag+ + 3e Eθ = - 0.80 V } √ Fe3+ + 3e  Fe Eθ = - 0.04 V } Ecell = - 0.84 V } Since Ecell is negative, it is a non-spontaneous reaction } Eθ = - 0.04

Mark ∑

1 1+1 1

1 1 6

(b)

Ag+ (aq) + e  Ag (s) 108 g requires 1F @ 96500 C

7 0.60 g requires 0.60 x 96500 C 108 0.60 x 96500 C = 0.25 x t 108 t = 2144 s = 35.74 min = 35 min 44 s (c) (i) Energy / kJ Ca2+(g) + 2F(g) Ca2+(g) + F2(g) Ca2+(g) + 2 F-(g) Ca (g) + F2(g) Ca(g) + F2(g) Ca(s) + F2(g) Ca F2(s)
+

1 1 1 3

1. Atomization of Ca & ionization of Ca 2. Atomisation of F and electron affinity of F 3. formation & lattice energy of CaF2 4. correct energy circle

4 (ii) - 1220 kJ = + 178 kJ + 590 kJ + 1150 kJ + 2(+158 kJ) + 2(-328 kJ) +L.E. √ L.E. = -1220 – 178 – 590 – 1150 - 2(158) + 656 kJ = - 2798 kJ mol-1 √

4

1 1 2 15

Q

Answer

Mark ∑

8 9(a) (i) I : PCl5/ PCl3/ SOCl2 II : Ammonia/NH3 (ii) Amide, O O || || H2N- C- CH2CH2-C-NH2 1 1 1 1 1 1 OR 1 2 (b) (i) % by mass No. of mole Molar ratio C 40.0 40.0 12 1 H 6.7 6.7 1 2 O 53.3 53.3 16 1 2

(iii) Reduction (iv) Condensation polymerization O O H H || || | | -C-CH2CH2-C – N -CH2CH2CH2CH2-NH H O O | | || || -N - CH2CH2CH2CH2 – N - C-CH2CH2-C –

2 1

1 1 2 1 1 1 3 1

Empirical formula is CH2O (ii) 1. it contains chiral carbon atom 2. it contains -COOH group 3. it contains CH3-CH-OH or /carbonyl that contain CH3-C=O (iii) A is C3H6O3, O- H | CH3 – C – C – O – H | || H O 2-hydroxypropanoic acid

1 1 3 15

Q

Answer

Mark ∑

9 10(a) (12.0 x 7 + 1.0 x 6) n = 180 n=2 Molecular formula = C14H12 (b) (i) Structural formula of W and C=C H cis Structure of X H C=C H Structure of Y H H | | C–C | | H Br Structure of Z H | H–C–C | | H Br Structural formula for enantiomers of Y 1 1 H H trans C=C H 1+1 1 1 2

1

C Br CH2 H H Br

C 1+1 CH2 7

(c)

i) Red precipitate

1

10 Equation: CHO COO – | | 2+ – CH3 – C = O + Cu + OH  CH3 – C = O + Cu2O + H2O ii) orange to green Equation: CHO COOH | | CH3 – C = O + [O]  CH3 – C = O iii) yellow precipitate CHI3 Equation: CHO | CH3 – C = O + I2 + OH-  CHI3 + COO- + I- + H2O | COO-

1 1

2

1 1

2

1 2 15

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