You are on page 1of 616

The Ik language

Dictionary and grammar sketch

Terrill B. Schrock

African Language Grammars science
and Dictionaries 1
African Language Grammars and Dictionaries

Chief Editor: Adams Bodomo

Editors: Ken Hiraiwa, Firmin Ahoua

In this series:

1. Schrock, Terrill B. The Ik language: Dictionary and grammar sketch.

2. Brindle, Jonathan. A dictionary and grammatical outline of Chakali.

The Ik language
Dictionary and grammar sketch

Terrill B. Schrock

Terrill B. Schrock. 2017. The Ik language: Dictionary and grammar sketch
(African Language Grammars and Dictionaries 1). Berlin: Language Science
This title can be downloaded at:
© 2017, Terrill B. Schrock
Published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence (CC BY 4.0):
ISBN: 978-3-944675-95-4 (Digital)
978-3-944675-96-1 (Hardcover)
978-3-944675-68-8 (Softcover)
978-1-544669-06-9 (Softcover US)

Cover and concept of design: Ulrike Harbort

Typesetting: Sebastian Nordhoff, Terrill B. Schrock
Illustration: Monika Feinen
Proofreading: Ahmet Bilal Özdemir, Andreas Hölzl, Bev Erasmus, Christian
Döhler, Claudia Marzi, Don Killian, Eitan Grossman, Esther Yap, Greg Cooper,
Kilu von Prince, Mykel Brinkerhoff, Rosey Billington, Steve Pepper, Tom
Fonts: Linux Libertine, Arimo, DejaVu Sans Mono
Typesetting software: XƎLATEX

Language Science Press

Unter den Linden 6
10099 Berlin, Germany
Storage and cataloguing done by FU Berlin

Language Science Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of

URLs for external or third-party Internet websites referred to in this publication,
and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,
accurate or appropriate.
For Amber Dawn
Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

Abbreviations xiii

I Introduction 1
1 The Ik language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 The dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3 Using the dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1 Writing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2 Structure of entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3 Tips for finding words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

II Ik-English dictionary 11
a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
ɓ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
ɗ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
dz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
e/ɛ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
h. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
ɦy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
i/ɨ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
j . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
ʝ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
ƙ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
ɲ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
ŋ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
o/ɔ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
tsʼ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
u/ʉ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

III English-Ik reversal index 279

IV Grammar sketch 475

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
2 Phonology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
2.1 Consonants and vowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
2.2 Consonant devoicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
2.3 Vowel devoicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
2.4 Morphophonology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
2.5 Vowel harmony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
2.6 Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
3 Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
3.2 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
3.3 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
3.4 Demonstratives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491


3.5 Quantifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492

3.6 Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
3.7 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
3.8 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
3.9 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
3.10 Ideophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
3.11 Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
3.12 Nursery words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
3.13 Complementizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
3.14 Connectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
4 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
4.2 Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
4.3 Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
5 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
5.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
5.2 Personal pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
5.3 Impersonal possessum pronoun (pssm) . . . . . . . . . . 514
5.4 Indefinite pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
5.5 Interrogative pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
5.6 Demonstrative pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
5.7 Relative pronouns (rel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
5.8 Reflexive pronoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
6 Demonstratives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
6.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
6.2 Spatial demonstratives (dem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
6.3 Temporal demonstratives (dem.pst) . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
6.4 Anaphoric demonstratives (anaph) . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
6.5 Adverbial demonstratives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
7 Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
7.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
7.2 Nominative (nom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
7.3 Accusative case (acc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
7.4 Dative (dat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
7.5 Genitive (gen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
7.6 Ablative (abl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
7.7 Instrumental (ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
7.8 Copulative (cop) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533


7.9 Oblique (obl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534

8 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
8.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
8.2 Infinitives (inf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
8.3 Deverbalizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
8.4 Directionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
8.5 Aspectuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
8.6 Voice and valence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
8.7 Subject-agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
8.8 Dummy pronoun (dp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
8.9 Mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
8.10 Verb paradigms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
8.11 Adjectival verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
9 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
9.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
9.2 Manner adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
9.3 Temporal adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
9.4 Epistemic adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
10 Basic syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
10.1 Noun phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
10.2 Clause structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
10.3 Subordinate clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
10.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
10.5 Quotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580
10.6 Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
10.7 Comparatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
10.8 Clause combining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583

Appendix A: Ik affixes 589

References 593

Subject index 595

When I first heard about the Ik back in September 2005, I was thoroughly in-
trigued. Here was a people just emerging from the mists of time, from that now
dark and shrouded realm of African prehistory. Judging by appearances, their
journey had not been easy. Their story spoke of great suffering in the form of
sickness, suppression, starvation, and slaughter. And yet, somehow, there they
were, limping into the 21st century as survivors of conditions most of us cannot
imagine. Having grown up in a safe and serene community in the American
South, I thought the Ik seemed stranger than fiction. People like this actually
exist out there? I found myself wanting to know more about them, wanting to
know who they are. Subconsciously I sensed that anyone who could endure what
they had endured could perhaps teach me something about being truly human.
My quest to know the Ik has led me down a winding path to the present. Over
the years I have been frustrated by my inability to enter fully into their world, to
see reality through their eyes. More than once I wished I were an anthropologist,
so I could get a better grasp of their essence as a people. But time and time again,
life steered me right back to the language – to Icétôd. I gradually learned to accept
that their language is a doorway to their spirit, and that as a linguist, I could only
open the door for others, and point the way to the Promised Land while I remain
at the threshold. This book can act as a key to that door, a key that has been
carefully shaped and smoothened by hands tired yet trembling with purpose.
Living in Ikland has taught me a lot about being human, but not in the way
I expected. It was not by becoming ‘one with the people’ that I learned what it
is like to survive subhuman conditions. And it was not physical starvation, or
sickness, or slaughter that I was forced to endure. No, I was spared those things.
Yet all the same, in Ikland I became acquainted with spiritual starvation, social
sickness, and the wholesale slaughter of my cultural, religious, and intellectual
idols. And just as the Ik have learned that life does not consist in ‘bread alone’,
nor in health, nor in security – but can carry on living with dignity and humanity
– I have learned that at the rock bottom of my soul, where my self ends and the
world begins, there is where Life resides. That realization is my ‘pearl of great
price’ for which I have sold everything else and would do it all over again.
Compiling a dictionary such as this one is a massive undertaking, far more so
than I ever imagined it would be. Although I myself spent many hours, days,
and months working alone on this project, a whole host of people put me in a
position to do so. And it is here that I wish to acknowledge and thank them all.
First, I want to express a heartfelt Ɨ lákásʉƙɔtíàà zùk ᵘ to all the Ik people of the
Timu Forest area for welcoming us into their community and patiently putting up
with the long process of a foreigner trying to learn their language. To the follow-
ing Ik men and women, I give thanks for their participation in a word-collecting
workshop that took place in October 2009, during which roughly 7,000 Ik words
were amassed: Ariko Hillary, Kunume Cecilia, Lochul Jacob, Lokure Jacob, Lon-
goli Philip, Losike Peter, Lotuk Vincent, Nakiru Rose, Nangoli Esther, †Ngiriko
Fideli, Ngoya Joseph, Ochen Simon Peter, Sire Hillary, and Teko Gabriel.
A second group of Ik men are sincerely thanked for giving me a clearer view
of the Ik sound system and for helping me edit several hundred words during an
orthography workshop in April 2014: Amida Zachary, Dakae Sipriano, Lokauwa
Simon, Lokwameri Sylvester, Lomeri John Mark, Longoli Philip, Longoli Simon,
Lopeyok Simon, †Lopuwa Paul, and Lotuk Paul. One of those men, Longoli
Philip, deserves special thanks for the years he spent as my main guide into the
grammar and lexicon of his mother tongue. The number and quality of entries
in this book are owed in large part to his skillful labors. Four other men – Lojere
Philip, †Lochiyo Gabriel, Lokwang Hillary, and †Lopuwa Paul – also deserve my
thanks for teaching me bits of the language at various points along the journey.
But it is another group of Ik men that I wish to give special honor. These
are the ones who for an entire year went with me through every word in this
dictionary to refine their spellings and define their meanings. They include the
respectable elders Iuɗa Lokauwa, Locham Gabriel, and Lemu Simon, as well as
our translators Kali Clement, Lotengan Emmanuel, and Lopeyok Simon. The
three elders not only shared their intimate knowledge of the language with me
but also befriended me with a grace and humility that can only come with age.
Every moment I spent with them was a blessing I will never forget. As they said,
if I ever come back, I should ask if those old men are still around. I pray they are.

Although teaching foreigners Ik-speak has usually been the domain of men,
I wish to bring special attention to two Ik women who, through their resilient
friendship and lively conversation, greatly enhanced my grasp of the language.
These are the highly esteemed Nachem Esther and Nakiru ‘Akóóro’ Rose.
Next, I want to gratefully mention those in the long line of linguists who
worked on the Ik language and – in person or publication – passed their knowl-
edge down to me: Fr. J. P. Crazzolara who wrote the first recorded grammatical
description of the language; A. N. Tucker whose series of articles on Ik expanded
my knowledge considerably; Fritz Serzisko who penned several insightful arti-
cles and books on Ik and Kuliak; Bernd Heine who wrote numerous works on Ik
and Kuliak and authored a grammar sketch and dictionary of the language (1999);
Richard Hoffman who studied the grammar and lexicon, devised a practical or-
thography, and tirelessly supported language development efforts on behalf of
the Ik; Christa König who wrote several articles and an entire book on the Ik case
system; Ron Moe who helped me lead a word-collection workshop; Keith Snider
who trained me in tone analysis; Kate Schell who collected dozens of hours of
recorded Ik texts; and Dusty Hill who supervised me throughout the process.
Another group I wish to thank are our friends and family members whose
generous and faithful donations have made it possible for us to live and work in
Uganda since 2008. It has been a privilege to be financially supported in doing
long-term work on the Ik language, and I do not take that for granted.
For all their hard work pushing this project through to completion, I grate-
fully acknowledge the series editors: Adams Bodomo, Ken Hiraiwa, and Firmin
Ahoua. My sincere thanks also go the reviewers and proofreaders who helped
me improve this manuscript, to Monika Feinen for drawing up a lovely map of
Ikland (Figure 1), and lastly to Sebastian Nordhoff, whose patient help and tech-
nical expertise in manuscript preparation I could never have done without.
I also want to thank my dear family: my two adopted Ik daughters, Kaloyang
Mercy and Lemu Immaculate, and my wife Amber Dawn. Their loving presence
enabled me to carry out this long work in an otherwise isolated and often very
lonely environment. The existence of this book is owed in large measure to Am-
ber’s innumerable sacrifices big and small. It came into being at great cost to her.
For that and many other reasons, I thank her from the bottom of my heart.
Above all else, I want to praise the God whose Word became flesh – ὁ λόγος
σὰρξ ἐγένετο – making a linguistic cosmos where my mind and the Ik language
could collide and radiate bright rays of new knowledge out into the world.

A transitive subject gen genitive
abst abstractive H high tone
acc accusative hypo hypothetical adjectival plural ideo. ideophone
adv. adverb imp imperative
and andative inc inclusive
anaph anaphoric inch inchoative
anticip anticipative inf infinitive
ATR advanced tongue root infr inferential
aux auxiliary ins instrumental
bhvr behaviorative int intentional
C consonant interj. interjection
caus causative ipfv imperfective
CC copula complement ips impersonal passive
comp completive irr irrealis
compl. complementizer L low tone
cond conditional lit. literal
conf confirmational M mid tone
coordconn. coordinating med medial
connective mid middle
cop copulative n. noun
CS copula subject NF non-final form
dat dative nom nominative
dem. demonstrative num. numeral
dist distal nurs. nursery word
distr distributive O object
dp dummy pronoun obl oblique
dur durative opt optative
E extended object pass passive
exc exclusive pat patientive
FF final form phys physical property
(pre-pause) adverb

pl. plural stat stative

plur pluractional subj subjunctive
prep. preposition subordconn. subordinating
prf present perfect connective
pro. pronoun v. verb
prox proximal ven venitive
pssm impersonal possessum 1 first person
pst1 recent past tense 2 second person
pst2 removed past tense 3 third person
pst3 remote past tense Ø zero realization
pst4 remotest past tense - morpheme
quant. quantifier boundary
real realis = clitic boundary
recent recentive […] phonetic form
recip reciprocal /…/ phonemic form
refl reflexive … morphemic form
rel. relativizer [ˊ] high tone
S intransitive subject [ˋ] low tone
seq sequential [ˆ] high-falling tone
sg. singular † deceased
sim simultaneous § section

Part I

1 The Ik language

1 The Ik language
Ik is the native language of the Ik people who live on a narrow swath of land in
the northeastern corner of Uganda, East Africa. The people call their language
Icétôd, which means ‘Ik-speech’ or ‘Ik-talk’ and is pronounced ee-CHAY-TOad or
in phonetic symbols, [ītʃétôd̻]. Ik belongs to a small cluster of languages called
‘Kuliak’, which also includes Nyang’ía of Lobalangit and Soo/Tepeth of Mounts
Moroto, Napak, and Kadam – all in Uganda’s magnificent Karamoja Region.
At the outset, let me state definitively that Ik is not a dialect of Karimojong,
nor is it even Nilotic or ‘Hamitic’. And it is certainly not Bantu (as some have
asked me). Scholars disagree as to whether it is related to Karimojong at all, but
if it is, it would be a distant relationship within the great Nilo-Saharan language
family, much as English is related to Russian or Hindi within Indo-European.
One reason people assume Ik is a dialect of Karimojong is that the Ik have long
been surrounded and dominated by the pastoralist Dodoth, Toposa, Turkana, and
Jie. These groups, as well as the Karimojong proper, all speak mutually intelligible
forms of a speech variety called ‘Ateker’, ‘Teso-Turkana’, or ‘Tunga’. Another
reason Ik seems similar to Karimojong is that it has borrowed many hundreds
of words from Teso-Turkana speech varieties over the centuries. In addition to
lexical borrowing, the close contact between the Ik and Teso-Turkana peoples
has caused Ik grammar to become more like Teso-Turkana in various ways.
But despite the many superficial similarities one may see between Ik and Teso-
Turkana, their grammatical systems are actually quite different. For instance,
while their vowel inventories are similar, Ik has many more consonants than
Teso-Turkana, including the ejectives /ƙ/ and /tsʼ/, which are found in no other
Ugandan language. Ik also has an elaborate case system with eight cases all
marked with suffixes, whereas Teso-Turkana languages mark only four cases,
some using only tone to do so. And although both Ik and Teso-Turkana order
their words as Verb-Subject-Object in main clauses, in subordinate clauses, Ik
changes the order to Subject-Verb-Object. These are but a few examples among
others that show the significant differences between Ik and Teso-Turkana.

2 The dictionary
This book contains a bilingual Ik-English dictionary and an English-Ik reversal
index. The dictionary section lists all the Ik words I have recorded up to now and
offers English definitions for them. Including proper names, there are approxi-
mately 8,700 entries in the dictionary. While I have done all I could to collect as

many words as possible within the limits of time and resources, no doubt many
hundreds of other words still lurk out there in the recesses of Ikian minds. It will
not be until more texts are written in Ik that these missing words might be gently
coaxed out onto the page and into more books like the present one.
Although the presumed purpose of a dictionary is to propound the current
meanings of the words of a language, I fear that purpose is only partly achieved
in this volume. The true meanings of words are lived meanings, intended by liv-
ing beings in a living world. To capture them on a page is to encase them in
black rock and white ice. A native speaker of Ik may recognize in my English
definitions familiar traces of true meaning but never all of it. As a foreign, non-
native speaker of the language, my grasp of the living meanings of Ik words is
severely limited. For the only way to learn living linguistic meanings is to expe-
rience life linguistically, through a language, through its words and phrases and
tropes. Still, I have been fortunate enough to have had a few real-life experiences
in Ik, for instance, when I learned the living meaning of the verb ɨsɛɛs ‘to miss’
by actually missing a bushpig boar as I tried to spear it when it charged toward
me out of a thicket. The young Ik hunters never let me forget that miss, and as
they retold the story with glee, they always used that particular verb. So when
I hear it, I not only know what it means in terms of ‘missing’, but I also feel the
living overtones that include shame, regret, loss of opportunity, diminution of
manhood, and so on. That is how one learns the meanings of words.
Due to the exceptional nature of such experiences, most of the Ik words in this
volume I have had to define extrinsically, from the outside. Unfortunately, as a
foreign lexicographer, I do not inhabit the words. All I could really do was try to
understand the words as best I could and render them in perspicacious English,
marking out a felicitous meeting place between two very different modes of lin-
guistic being-in-the-world. To the degree that I succeeded in this endeavor, this
is what I hope to be a worthwhile first full-scale Ik-English lexicon.
The English definitions the reader will find are of various types. Some Ik
words lend themselves easily to one-word, entirely accurate glosses, for example,
gʉɓɛ́rá- as ‘leopard’. Others require a short phrase in English, for instance, ƙóré-
as the ‘back of the knee’. Still others, the ones that are conceptually more distant
from English, call for longer descriptions, as when makúlí- is defined as a ‘round
grass beehive cover that goes over the end of a hollow beehive’.
As well as being a record of modern Ik to be used for modern purposes, this
dictionary also provides much data for historical research. Because the Ik have
left little in the way of archaeology over the ages, and because oral histories tend
to be vague, inconsistent, and undated, language is one of the few lenses through

2 The dictionary

which to investigate prehistory. Already the Ik lexicon gives some tantalizing

hints as to the ancient northern East African origins of the Ik, for example in
the link between words like sɔkɔ́- ‘hoof’ and Arabic saaq ‘foot’ and Gumuz tʃagw
‘foot’, or between ƙídz- ‘bite’ and Maltese Arabic gidem ‘bite’ and Uduk kʼūcūr
‘suck’. Every Ik word is a cultural relic, a linguistic artifact sticking out of the red
clays of time and memory. Each one has been molded by a million mouthings,
much as grains of sand are ground down by wind and water. Each has its own
history, an origin and a tortuous path of descent to its present form, the same
path, we can assume, that its many speakers have taken. This is where the fields
of etymology and historical linguistics (or ‘paleolinguistics’) can provide some
evidence on which to build a grounded sense of identity and cultural history.
A deeply rooted sense of history and identity is important because it could
help give the Ik a more sure footing as they transition into a nationally-minded
Ugandan society and a globally-minded international society. If I imagine the fu-
ture fate of the Ik language, I can see two possible developmental paths it could
take. The first is that it could be lost by being totally assimilated by Karimojong,
much like Nyang’ía already has and Soo/Tepeth is in danger of doing, or by suc-
cumbing to the dazzling promise of upward mobility that English seems to offer.
If either of these forms of language death should take place, at least this book
would remain as a monument to a once noble language-mediated world-view.
The second path the Ik language could take into the future is the one I have
often daydreamed of. It is the one that would fulfill my scholarly strivings and
confirm my greatest hopes for the Ik. In this path, Ik would go on to become
the language of a highly literate populace who would use it skillfully to promote
their own well-being. With explicit knowledge of their grammar and lexicon, ed-
ucated Ik people would harness the expressive power of their native-born tongue
and make it a vehicle of music, poetry, fiction, philosophy, theology, medicine,
education, policy – the full gamut of human expression. This scrappy language
that has barely scraped by countless threats to its existence yet somehow man-
aged to pull through, this language that contains the linguistic genes of so many
other languages from unrelated stocks, this small language of a small people in
small place, could go on to become an enduring symbol of the Ikian spirit.
As portrayed in Figure 1, the Ik language area can be viewed imaginatively
from an ‘Ik-centric’ perspective as a ‘heart’ of East Africa. There it lies, near the
arterial convergence of four East African nations: Uganda, South Sudan, Ethiopia,
and Kenya. Over the centuries the Ik have migrated through and throughout
each of these four countries. While doing so, their language absorbed words and
grammatical traits from the many languages spoken there. So, in a real sense, Ik


Nuer E T H I O P I A

Majang Shabo
Dinka Dawro
Me’en Lake


Toposa Nyangatom
Dhaasanac Chew
Otuho Didinga
Ik Lake
Turkana Turkana

U G A N D A Rendille
Lango Tepeth

Pokot Samburu
Albert L. Kyoga Teso

Lake Victoria


Figure 1: Ik language area in an ‘Ik-centric’ perspective (CC-BY Monika Feinen)

3 Using the dictionary

embodies the linguistic heritage of northern East Africa. Thus, could it be that
Ik is providentially situated to blossom into a language that can serve the full
range of communicative needs of a modernized Ik society, and then extend its
fruited boughs over the escarpment in four directions to become a blessing to
the neighboring nations? In the end, only time will tell, and yet it is toward the
fulfillment of that dream that this work on Ik has been lovingly consecrated.

3 Using the dictionary

3.1 Writing system
The Ik script used in this dictionary and grammar sketch is based on what is
called the Linguistic Orthography (LingO) as described in Schrock (2015). The
LingO is a compromise between the simpler Popular Orthography (PopO) and a
more scientific writing system. The main reason for choosing the LingO over the
PopO is that the LingO encodes three very important features of the Ik sound
system: voiceless vowels, vowel harmony, and tone. Although these three fea-
tures are difficult to remember and write, they are indispensable for the correct
pronunciation of Ik. Therefore it was decided that for this book to be an accurate
and reliable record of the language, the proper pronunciations would have to be
reflected in the spellings. LingO writing can easily be converted to PopO, but the
reverse is not true, since it requires greater linguistic awareness.
The alphabetical order of Ik letters is given below. Note that the vowel pairs
E/Ɛ, I/Ɨ, O/Ɔ, and U/Ʉ – whose two members differ only in terms of a linguistic
feature called Advanced Tongue Root [ATR] – are alphabetized as if they were
the same letter. This is done to assist non-native speakers of Ik in finding words
beginning with vowels they might not be able to distinguish at first. Also note
that the letter (Ʒ) is in parentheses because even though it belongs to the alphabet,
no recorded Ik word begins with it. For the pronunciation of these letters, the
reader is referred ahead to §2.1 of the grammar sketch section.

• Ik alphabetical order: A B Ɓ C D Ɗ Dz E/Ɛ F G H Hy I/Ɨ J Jʼ K Ƙ L M N Ɲ Ŋ

O/Ɔ P R S T Ts Tsʼ U/Ʉ W X Y Z (Ʒ)

3.2 Structure of entries

The Ik-English dictionary section contains entries of the following kinds of Ik
words: nouns, pronouns, demonstratives, quantifiers, numerals, prepositions,
verbs, adverbs, ideophones, interjections, nursery words, complementizers, and

connectives (or conjunctions). For a brief description of each word class, the
reader is referred to §3 of the grammar sketch at the back of the book. The goal
of the present section is to explain to the user the structure of lexicographical
entries. To do this, an example of a noun entry and a verb entry are discussed.
A typical noun entry has several components. To identify them, match the
numbered components in this explanatory paragraph with the superscript num-
ber in the model entry below. 1) The lexical headword is in bold typeface. It is
the citation form of the noun, that is, the form of the noun spoken in isolation.
In Ik, the citation form takes the nominative case (see §7.2). 2) The root or lexical
form is in parentheses. It is hyphenated to show that it still needs a case ending,
and it is the form on which to base all other case forms of this noun. This par-
ticular noun is also hyphenated in the middle to signify that it is a compound
noun made of two parts (see §4.3 of the grammar). 3) This is an abbreviation for
‘plural’, indicating that the next item is the plural form of the headword. 4) This
is the plural form of the singular headword bàdìàm. 5) This number (1) indicates
that what follows is the first and primary sense or meaning of the headword. 6)
This is an abbreviation of the grammatical category of the word, in this case n.
for ‘noun’. 7) After the primary sense, one or more other numbered senses of
the word may be added. 8) After the senses, one or more notes may mention
further information about the entry, for example cultural details or suggestions
for synonyms or near-synonyms.
1 bàdìàm 2 (bàdì-àmà-) 3 pl. 4 badiikᵃ 5 1) 6 n. sorcerer, wizard 7 2) anything
spooky, weird, or uncanny | 8 The concept of bàdìàm includes nocturnal
animals like bats, hyenas, and owls that have strange characteristics…
tobacco is also called bàdìàm because its strong physiological effects
are not attributable to human agency.

A typical verb entry has similar components but also some different ones: 1)
Just as with nouns, the verbal headword is shown in bold typeface. This is the
citation form of the verb, which in Ik appears in the infinitive form and nomina-
tive case (see §8.2 in the grammar). As an infinitive, the verb is acting as a noun
at this point, much like ‘to go’ or ‘going’ in English. To use an Ik infinitive as a
verb, simply remove the infinitive suffix (either -ònì- or -ésí-) and use the appro-
priate suffixes (see §8.7). 2) Then, the form in the parentheses is the lexical form
of the infinitival headword, the one that is the base for all other case-inflected
forms of the verb. 3) This number (1) indicates that what follows is the first and
primary sense or meaning of the headword. 4) This is an abbreviation of the
grammatical category of the headword, in this case v. for ‘verb’. 5) After the

3 Using the dictionary

primary sense, one or more other senses of the headword may be added. 6) This
short note directs the user to a synonym or near-synonym of the headword.
1 betsínón 2 (betsínónì-) 3 1) 4 v. to be awkward, gauche, inept 5 2) to be
left-handed, sinistral | 6 See also ɨɓaŋɨɓáŋɔn.

Over a hundred Ik verb roots end in /a/, /e/, or /ɛ/, meaning that when an
infinitive suffix is added to the root, these root-final vowels are assimilated (see
§2.4.4). For example, though the root for ‘miss’ is ɨsá-, the infinitive form is ɨsɛɛs,
which obscures the root-final vowel. Lest the dictionary user hear a form of the
root ɨsá- in speech and then fail to deduce that its infinitive is ɨsɛɛs, both root
and infinitive have been listed in the dictionary. The entry for ɨsá- includes the
notation (<ɨsɛɛs) which indicates that ɨsɛɛs is the entry the user should go to for
the definition. Conversely, the entry for ɨsɛɛs ‘to miss’ includes both the lexical
form of the infinitive and the bare root, as in: ɨsɛɛs (ɨsɛɛsí-/ɨsá-).

3.3 Tips for finding words

Finally, because a good number of Ik words have more than one form, and be-
cause many of them can be reasonably spelled in multiple ways, let me offer the
user the following tips for locating polymorphous words in the dictionary:

• If you are looking up a verb beginning with /i/ or /ɨ/ and cannot find it,
remove the /i/ or /ɨ/ and try again. Conversely, if you are looking up a verb
and cannot find it, try adding an /i/ or /ɨ/ to see if that takes you to a word.

• If you are looking up a word beginning with /w/ and cannot find it, try
replacing the /w/ with /ɔ/, /o/, /ʉ/, or /u/ and vice versa.

• If you are looking up a word beginning with /y/ and cannot find it, try
placing the /y/ with /i/ or /ɨ/ and vice versa.

• If you are looking up a noun beginning with /ɲa/ and cannot find it, try
replacing it with /ɲe/ and vice versa.

• If you are looking up a noun beginning with /ɲe/ and cannot find it, try
replacing it with /ɲo/ and vice versa.

• If you are looking up a word beginning with /ts/ and cannot find it, try
replacing it with /tsʼ/ and vice versa.

• If you are looking up a word beginning with /dz/ and cannot find it, try
replacing it with /ts/ or /tsʼ/ and vice versa.

• If you are looking up a word beginning with /d/ and cannot find it, try
replacing it with /ɗ/ or /t/ and vice versa.

• If you are looking up a word beginning with /g/ and cannot find it, try
replacing it with /ƙ/ or /ŋ/ and vice versa.

• If you are looking up a word containing the vowels /e, i, o, u/ and cannot
find it, try replacing the vowel with /ɛ, ɨ, ɔ, ʉ/.

Part II

Ik-English dictionary
aaii aeétón

aaii (aaii) interj. ouch! ow! (an expres- Acúkwa (Acúkwaá-) n. a personal
sion of pain). name.
abáŋ (abáŋì-) pl. abáŋín. 1 n. my fa- àdàbì (àdàbìà-) n. vine species found
ther. 2 n. my uncle (father’s brother). growing on rocky outcroppings and
3 n. pope of the Catholic church. whose leaves are crushed, soaked in
ábaŋ (ábaŋ) interj. oh! wowǃ (an expres- water, and applied to the skin to treat
sion of amazement). Lit. ‘my father’. acne and rashes.

abáŋídzàƙa (abáŋí-dzàƙà-) n. son of my àdɛ̀nɛ̀s (àdɛ̀nɛ̀sà-) n. bird species.

father (brother or male cousin on fa- ádʉdʉƙɛ́s (ádʉdʉƙɛ́sí-) v. to pour from
ther’s side). a small opening.
abáŋìɲòta (abáŋì-ɲòtà-) n. my father-in- aɗáɗá (aɗáɗáà-) n. ringworm: an itchy,
law (sibling’s spouse’s father). circular skin fungus.
abér (abérí-) pl. áberaikwa . n. ter- àɗe (àɗè) num. three.
mite colony actively flying and mound- àɗèŋèlìò (àɗèŋèlìò-) n. large hardwood
building. tree that grows in the ravines and
àbɛ̀ta (àbɛ̀tà-) n. lesser kudu. Tragela- riverbeds of Rift Valley escarpments;
phus imberbis. Heine (1999) reports that its fruits may
abûba (abúbà-) pl. abúbìka . 1 n. spider. be eaten raw. Allophylus sp.
2 n. cobweb, spiderweb, web. àɗo num. three times, thrice.
ábʉbʉƙɛ́s (ábʉbʉƙɛ́sí-) v. to dip out (liq- àɗòn (àɗònì-) v. to be three.
uid with a vessel). aɗoniɛn (aɗoni-ɛní-) n. third time.
ábʉ̀bʉ̀ƙɔ̀n (ábʉ̀bʉ̀ƙɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to bubble, àɗònìke n. for the third time.
burble, gurgle. 2 v. to bellow, roar
(like a charging animal or angry per- aɗúŋkú (aɗúŋkúù-) pl. aɗúŋkúìka .
son). See also béúrètòn. n. guitar-like stringed instrument
found in many East African cultures
abʉtɛtɛ́s (abʉtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to sip, take a sip. (and whose body was traditionally
See also tsʉɓɛtɛ́s. made from a tortoise shell).
abutiam (abutiamá-) n. sippable food Àɗùpà (Àɗùpàà-) n. a personal name.
like beer or porridge.
aeam (aeamá-) n. any food that is ripe
abutiés (abutiesí-) v. to sip or slurp con- or otherwise ready to be eaten.
tinually. See also tsʉɓɛ́s.
aeásá bùbùì n. gluttony. Lit. ‘ripeness
aɓíɓílánón (aɓíɓílánónì-) v. to roll of the belly’.
aeétón (aeétónì-) 1 v. to ripen up, start
aɓúlúkánón (aɓúlúkánónì-) v. to flip, ripening. 2 v. to light up. 3 v. to
flip over, somersault. catch fire. 4 v. to switch or turn on (of
Acóka (Acókò-) n. a personal name. electricity).

aeitetés aƙʉ́ƙʉ́rɔ̀n

aeitetés (aeitetésí-) 1 v. to light (a fire or akarér (akarérí-) pl. akaréríka . n. hole

lamp). 2 v. to switch or turn on (an dug to trap edible termites.
electronic device or electric switch). akatɛ́ta (akatɛ́tí-) pl. akatɛ́tíka . n. gourd
aeitetésíàwa (aeitetésí-àwà-) pl. aeiteté- plug (made from a gourd tip cut off and
síawíka . n. ignition, switch. inverted).
Aemun (Aemuní-) n. a personal name. akátsʼɛ́a na pakós n. cleft palate. Lit.
àèòn (àèònì-) 1 v. to be ripe, ready to eat. ‘mouth skin that is split’.
2 v. to be lit. akɛda (akɛdɛ-) 1 n. mouth, opening. 2
aeonuƙota (aeonuƙotí-) v. to become n. muzzle of a weapon.
ready to eat, ripen. akílìka (akílìkà-) 1 n. intelligence, mind.
aeonuƙota kíʝáe n. readying for harvest
2 n. skill, talent.
(of people’s gardens). àkìlɔ̀ (àkìlɔ̀) prep. instead (of). A noun
following this word takes the oblique
áɡɨrɨkácà (áɡɨrɨkácàà-) 1 n. agricultural
training course. 2 n. tall variety of
maize. akín (akínɔ́-) n. greater kudu. Tragela-
phus strepsiceros.
àɡìta (àɡìtà-) pl. áɡìtìka . n. metal ringlet
sown on women’s traditional aprons. Akɔl (Akɔlí-) n. a personal name.
áɡʉʝɛ́s (áɡʉʝɛ́sí-) v. to gulp, guzzle. Also akɔ́ŋɨkɔŋ (akɔ́ŋɨkɔŋí-) n. cliff chat.
pronounced as íɡʉʝɛ́s. Myrmecocichla cinnamomeiventris.
áí (áí) interj. ouch! ow! (an expression Akóóro (Akóóroó-) n. a personal name.
of pain). Akúɗúkori (Akúɗúkorií-) n. a personal
àʝa (àʝì-) pl. áʝítín. n. pestle. See also name.
iwótsídàkwa and kuɲuka . akúkúròn (akúkúrònì-) v. to crawl. See
also tolíón.
aka (aká-) pl. akɨtín. 1 n. mouth, oral
cavity. 2 n. entrance, opening. 3 akwɛ́tɛ́kwɛ́tánón (akwɛ́tɛ́kwɛ́tánónì-)
n. burrow, den, hole, lair. v. to wriggle or writhe around.
aka ɡwaáe n. beak. áƙáfòn (áƙáfònì-) v. to yawn.
akáám (aká-ámà-) pl. akáíka . n. one aƙár (aƙáró-) pl. aƙáríkwa . n. palate,
skilled at talking deceptively or persua- roof of the mouth.
sively. Lit. ‘mouth-person’. aƙata (aƙatí-) pl. áƙátìka . 1 n. nose. 2
Akaɗééróta (Akaɗéérótò-) n. a personal n. nostril.
name. aƙatíékwa (aƙatí-ékù-) pl. aƙatíékwitín.
akákwáywa (aká-kwáyò-) pl. akákwáí- n. nostril. Lit. ‘nose-eye’.
tín. n. lip. Lit. ‘mouth-tooth’. áƙátìkìn (áƙátìkìnì-) n. points, topics.
Lit. ‘its nostrils’.
akáƙúm (aká-ƙúmù-) pl. akáƙúmítín.
n. cheekbone, malar, zygomatic bone. aƙatíɔ́ka (aƙatí-ɔ́kà-) pl. aƙatíɔ́kítín.
n. nasal bone, nosebone.
akání (akání) prep. until, up to (an event
or place). A noun following this word aƙóláánón (aƙóláánónì-) v. to swing.
takes the oblique case. aƙʉ́ƙʉ́rɔ̀n (aƙʉ́ƙʉ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to creep.

aƙwa amʉ́tsáàm

aƙwa (aƙɔ́-) pl. aƙwɨtín. n. inside, inte- ámánànès (ámánànèsì-) n. humanness,

rior. personhood.
áƙwɛ̂da (áƙwɛ́dɛ̀-) n. inner part, inside, ámáze (ámá-zeá-) pl. roɓazeíka . 1 n. big
interior. man, boss, chief, head honcho. 2
alálá (aláláà-) n. augur buzzard. Buteo n. mister, sir. 3 n. lord, master. 4
augur. n. adult, big person, grown-up.

alámááránón (alámááránónì-) v. to dis- ámázeám (ámá-ze-ámà-) pl. roɓazeíka .

perse, dissipate (like ants or a crowd of 1 n. big man, boss, chief, head honcho.
people). See also ɨlámááránón. 2 n. mister, sir. 3 n. lord, master.
alárá (aláráà-) n. shrub species whose ámázeáma awáe 1 n. chief village elder.
red or yellow berries are eaten raw 2 n. village chairperson.
and whose stems are made into arrows, ámázeáma na kɔ́nɔ̀nì n. councilor in
spears, and walking sticks and are used the Local Council I (LCI), a unit in
to build houses and granaries. Grewia the Ugandan government at the village
tenax. See also ɔɡɔn. level.
álìf (álìfù-) pl. álìfìka . n. thousand. ámázeáma ɲápukaní n. government of-
alólóánitetés (alólóánitetésí-) v. to dan-
gle, suspend in the air. ámázeáma ɲépárìxì n. parish chief.
alólóánón (alólóánónì-) v. to dangle, ámázeáma ɲésukúluⁱ n. headmaster,
hang freely. head teacher, principal.
alólóés (alólóésí-) v. to dangle, hold up, ámázeáma teréɡì 1 n. boss, employer. 2
suspend in the air. n. crew chief, foreman.
alólóŋòn (alólóŋònì-) v. to be anxious, ámêda (ámédè-) pl. ámín. n. one respon-
fret, worry. sible, owner, proprietor.
ám (ámá-) pl. ròɓa . n. person. áméda kíʝáe 1 n. landowner. 2 n. indige-
e nous person, local, native. 3 n. God.
ámá na biyá n. foreigner, outsider. See
also ɦyɔ̀àm and ɲeɓúkúita . Amérìkà (Amérìkàà-) n. America.
ámá nà mìɲ n. deaf person. Amérìkààm (Amérìkà-àmà-) pl. Améri-
kaika . n. American.
ámá nà ŋwàx n. disabled person.
amózà (amózàà-) n. small black flying
ámácèka (ámá-cèkì-) pl. roɓacɨkám. ant species that often appears after a
n. someone’s wife. rain as a sign of the coming emergence
ámáìdwa (ámá-ìdò-) n. breast milk. Lit. of edible termites.
‘person-milk’. amʉ́tsa (amʉ́tsá-) pl. amʉ́tsíka . n. debt,
ámáìm (ámá-ìmà-) pl. roɓawik . obligation (like having drunk some-
n. someone’s child. one’s beer without having paid for it
ámákɔrɔ́ɓâda (ámá-kɔrɔ́ɓádì-) pl. ámá- by doing work in their garden).
kurúɓâda . n. personal item, personal amʉ́tsáàm (amʉ́tsá-àmà-) pl. amʉ́tsí-
property. kaika . n. debitor, debtor.

amʉtsanés arí

amʉtsanés (amʉtsanésí-) v. to collect on Apáásiá (Apáásiáà-) n. a personal name.

a debt. apápánà (<apápánɔ̀ɔ̀n) v.
anás (anásí-) n. male greater kudu. apápánɛ̀ɛ̀tɔ̀n (apápánɛ̀ɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to
Tragelaphus strepsiceros. make peace, reconcile (often for self-
ànɛ̀ (ànɛ̀ɛ̀-) n. vine species whose tuber- centered purposes).
ous roots are peeled and eaten raw or apápánɔ̀ɔ̀n (apápánɔ̀ɔ̀nì-/apápána-)
roasted and whose beanlike seeds are v. to make peace, reconcile (often for
cooked and eaten. Vigna frutescens. self-centered purposes).
Possibly the same vine as málákʉ́r. apéléle (apéléleí-) pl. apélélèìka . n. ces-
anɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (anɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to recall, re- tode, tapeworm.
member (often with regret). Apéríta (Apérítì-) n. a personal name.
anɛtɛ́s (anɛtɛ́sí-) v. to recall, recollect, apɛ́tɛ́pɛ́tánón (apɛ́tɛ́pɛ́tánónì-) 1 v. to be
remember. See also tamɛtɛ́s. scattered around, strewn about. 2 v. to
aniesúƙota (aniesúƙotí-) v. to recall re- wave limbs wildly during a seizure or
peatedly (often with regret). when dying. See also ɨɗɛríɗɛ́rɔ́s.
aŋaras (aŋarasá-) n. gravel. apííròn (apíírònì-) 1 v. to jump down,
jump off. 2 v. to jump to it, leap into
aŋarasááƙwa (aŋarasá-áƙɔ̀-) n. gravelly
action. See also ipííròn.
Apʉs (Apʉsí-) n. a personal name.
Aŋatár (Aŋatárì-) n. name of a hill or
mountain. aráɡwan (aráɡwaní-) pl. aráɡwànìka . 1
n. moon. 2 n. month.
aŋawa (aŋaú-) n. yellowish tobacco
aráɡwànà kɔ̀n n. maize variety. Lit.
‘one month’. Also called katʉmán.
aŋɨrɛs (aŋɨrɛsí-) 1 v. to turn, twist. 2 aráɡwaníɛ́bɨtín (aráɡwaní-ɛ́bɨtíní-)
v. to steer (a vehicle).
n. new moon. Lit. ‘moon-horns’.
aŋiriesón (aŋiriesónì-) v. to swerve or aráɡwaníékwa (aráɡwaní-ékù-) n. full
veer repeatedly. moon. Lit. ‘moon-eye’.
Aŋolekóka (Aŋolekókò-) n. name of a Aramasán (Aramasánì-) n. personal
hill or mountain. name of a Bokora man who settled in
Apáálokiɓúka (Apáálokiɓúkù-) n. per- Ikland and married an Ik.
sonal ox-name of a colonial British Dis- Árápííʝí (Árápííʝíì-) n. place named after
trict Commissioner. rocket-propelled grenades (RPG).
Apáálokúka (Apáálokúkú-) n. name of arasí (arasíì-) n. councillor in the Local
an Italian priest (Father Daniel) who Council I (LCI), an administrative unit
founded the Kaabong Catholic mission in the Ugandan government at the vil-
and was killed by the Turkana. lage level.
Apáálomúƙa (Apáálomúƙú-) n. a per- arétón (arétónì-) v. to cross (this direc-
sonal name. tion, to this side).
Apáálòŋìrò (Apáálòŋìròò-) n. a per- arí (aríɛ́-) pl. arííka . n. section of the
sonal name. small intestine.

Aríkó aya

Aríkó (Aríkóò-) n. a personal name. atɔŋ (atɔŋɔ́-) n. spotted hyena. Crocuta

àrìŋàs (àrìŋàsì) adv. all the time, always. crocuta. See also natɨŋá.
arír (arírá-) pl. aríríka . n. flame mixed àtsòn (àtsònì-) v. to come.
with smoke. átsʼa (átsʼá-) pl. átsʼítín. n. Sycamore fig:
àrònìàwa (àrònì-àwà-) pl. aroniawíka . huge branching tree in which beehives
n. crossing, bridge, ford. are placed, whose fruits are eaten raw,
and whose wood is used to carve bowls
aronuƙota (aronuƙotí-) v. to cross (to
and troughs. Ficus sycomorus.
that side).
atsʼam (atsʼamá-) n. gnawable food (like
arʉ́rʉ́bɔ̀n (arʉ́rʉ́bɔ̀nì-) v. to stalk.
maize or meat).
arútón (arútónì-) 1 v. to make noise, re-
átsʼɛ́s (átsʼɛ́sì-) 1 v. to chew, gnaw. 2
sound, sound. 2 v. to be famous, well-
v. to bite, sting (of insects). 3 v. to
known (when one’s name resounds).
ache, cause pain, hurt. See also ƙídzɛ̀s.
arútónuƙota (arútónuƙotí-) v. to make átsʼɛ́sà bùbùì n. bellyache, stomach
a noise, sound out. ache.
Áryánkòrì (Áryánkorií-) n. a personal átsʼɛ́sa ɡúróe 1 n. acid reflux, heartburn.
name. 2 n. heartache.
as (así-) pl. ásíka . pro. self, -self. átsʼɛ́sìàmà ròɓàe n. cannibal.
àsàka (àsàkà-) pl. asákíka . 1 n. door, átsʼɛ́sʉƙɔta (átsʼɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to eat all,
doorway. 2 n. patriclan: clan based eat up (by chewing or gnawing). 2
on the father’s lineage. 3 n. verse. v. to bite or sting thoroughly.
àsàkànèba (àsàkà-nèbù-) n. main body átsʼietés (átsʼietésí-) v. to hurt intermit-
of a door. tently.
asínítòn (asínítònì-) v. to dream, envi- atsʼímétòn (atsʼímétònì-) v. to wear out
sion (at night or prophetically). (of clothes, shoes, etc.).
asínítònìàm (asínítònì-àmà-) pl. asíní- aúɡòn (aúɡònì-) v. to emerge and feed
toniika . n. dreamer, fortuneteller, at night (of termites).
prophet. aukes (aukesí-) v. to fill (one’s mouth)
asínón (asínónì-) v. to delay. See also with drink before/without swallowing.
ɨtíɔ́n. awa (awá-) pl. àwìka . 1 n. abode,
Asiróya (Asiróì-) n. a personal name. home, homestead, manyatta, village. 2
asʉnán (asʉnání-) pl. asʉnáníka . n. place.
n. African pencil cedar, a tall evergreen awa ná zè 1 n. big home or village. 2
tree whose fragrant poles are used for n. capital city. 3 n. Heaven.
building and whose bark is pounded awa Ɲákuʝí n. Heaven.
and soaked as a decoction against stom- awááƙwa (awá-áƙɔ̀-) 1 n. compound,
ach ailments. Cupressus lusitanica. grounds, yard. 2 n. home life.
áta (átí-) n. um: a filler word that can awáám (awá-ámà-) pl. awáíka . n. home-
replace a forgotten word of any gram- body, stay-at-home person.
matical category.
aya (aí-) pl. aitín. 1 n. side. 2 n. area,
átà (átà) subordconn. even if. location.

bàbà bálábálatés

bàbà (bàbàà-) pl. bábàìka . n. armpit, un- bàdòn (bàdònì-) 1 v. to die. 2 v. to
derarm. be in a coma, unconscious. 3 v. to be
babata (babatí-) pl. babátíkwa . 1 broken.
n. his/her/its father. 2 n. his/her un- badona aráɡwaní n. lunar eclipse. Lit.
cle (father’s brother). ‘death of the moon’.
babatíím (babatí-ímà-) pl. babatíwíka . badona fetí n. solar eclipse. Lit. ‘death
n. his/her cousin (father’s brother’s of the sun’.
child). badona ná jèjèⁱ n. natural death. Lit.
babatínánès (babatínánèsì-) n. father- ‘death on a sleeping mat’.
hood, fatherliness. bàdònìàm (bàdònì-àmà-) pl. badoniika .
babatíɲóta (babatí-ɲótà-) n. his/her n. dead person, deceased.
father-in-law (sibling’s spouse’s fa- bàdònìsìm (bàdònì-sìmà-) pl. badoni-
ther). simitín. n. sisal species whose flat
bábò (bábòò-) pl. báboín. 1 n. your fa- white leaves are cut into strips and
ther. 2 n. your uncle (father’s brother). used to bind bodies for burial.
badonuƙota (badonuƙotí-) 1 v. to die. 2
bábòìm (bábò-ìmà-) pl. bábowika .
v. to collapse, go unconscious. 3 v. to
n. your cousin (father’s brother’s
bàɗa (bàɗà-) n. muscle twitching.
báboɲóta (bábo-ɲótá-) n. your father-in-
law (sibling’s spouse’s father). baɗɨbaɗas (baɗɨbaɗasí-) pl. báɗíbàɗà-
sìka . n. fontanelle, soft spot. See also
bácíka (bácíkà-) pl. bácíkìka . 1 n. area,
place, spot. 2 n. corridor, walkway. 3
n. part, section. bakutsa (bakutsí-) pl. bákútsìka .
n. breast, chest, pectus, thorax.
bàda (bàdì-) n. giant, goliath: any huge
person or thing. bakútsêda (bakútsédè-) 1 n. middle, cen-
tral part. 2 n. belly (of a pot). Lit. ‘its
bàdìàm (bàdì-àmà-) pl. badiika . 1 n. sor- chest’.
cerer, wizard. 2 n. anything spooky,
bakutsísítsʼa (bakutsí-sítsʼà-) n. chest
weird, uncanny.
bàdìàm (bàdì-àmà-) n. canine tooth, cus-
baƙáíka (baƙáíkà-) n. exhaustion
brought on by exertion, hunger, or
badiréta (badirétí-) n. devilry, sorcery, thirst.
wizardry. baƙúlúmòn (baƙúlúmònì-) v. to be
badirétínànès (badirétínànèsì-) n. sor- thickly round (of long objects like rope,
cery, wizardry. See also ƙʉtsʼánánès. string, trees, etc.).
badítésuƙota (badítésuƙotí-) 1 v. to bálábálatés (bálábalatésí-) v. to disre-
make die. 2 v. to make break. gard, ignore, tune out.

balɛ́s bátsɛ́s

balɛ́s (balɛ́sí-) v. to disregard, ignore, ne- barítɛ́sʉƙɔta (barítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to enrich,

glect. make rich (originally in terms of live-
balɛ́sá así v. to neglect oneself (e.g. in stock).
hygiene or work). bàrɔ̀àm (bàrɔ̀-àmà-) pl. baroika . n. rich
balɛtɛ́s (balɛtɛ́sí-) v. to disregard, ignore, or wealthy person (originally in terms
neglect. of livestock). See also bàrɔ̀nìàm.
banɛ́s (banɛ́sí-) v. to sharpen, whet. bàròìm (bàrò-ìmà-) pl. bárítíníwika .
n. small flock or herd.
bàr (bàrɔ̀-) pl. bárítín. 1 n. flock, herd.
2 n. riches, wealth. bàrɔ̀n (bàrɔ̀nì-) v. to be rich, wealthy,
well-off (originally in terms of live-
baráʝónuƙota (baráʝónuƙotí-) v. to sleep
(of more than one person).
bàrɔ̀nìàm (bàrɔ̀nì-àmà-) pl. barɔniika .
barata (baratí-) pl. bárátìka . n. sisal
n. rich or wealthy person (originally in
species with flat leaves whose fibers
terms of livestock). See also bàrɔ̀àm.
are used to make string, rope, hunting
nets, and termite traps; pieces of the barɔnʉƙɔta (barɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to get rich
plant may be tied to the limbs of the or wealthy.
dead before they are burried. Sanse- bás (básá-) pl. básín. n. beam, ray, or
vieria sp. shaft of light. See also sʉ́wa .
barata (baratí-) pl. bárátìka . n. large fig basaúr (basaúré-) n. eland. Tragelaphus
tree species whose fruits are eaten and (Taurotragus) oryx.
whose sap is chewed as gum; beehives
basaúréèkwa (basaúré-èkù-) n. medium-
are placed in its branches. Ficus platy-
sized tree species found growing down
the Rift Valley escarpment; it has red
baratídɛ̀ (baratí-dɛ̀à-) n. base or foot of flowers and extremely hard wood used
a fig tree (Ficus platyphylla), often a sa- for roof rafters. Lit. ‘eland-eye’.
cred place or the site of significant cul-
Basaúréika (Basaúré-icé-) n. traditional
tural activities like dances and prayers.
men’s age-group with the eland as its
baratíɡwà (baratí-ɡwàà-) n. yellow totem (# 6 in historical line). Lit.
white-eye. Lit. ‘fig tree bird’. Zosterops ‘Eland-Folk’. Also called Ŋíwápɛtoika .
bàsɔ̀n (bàsɔ̀nì-) v. to dot, fleck, spot (e.g.
baratísím (baratí-símà-) pl. baratísímí- insect droppings).
tín. n. rope made of the fibers of a San-
batánón (batánónì-) 1 v. to be easy, sim-
seviera sisal plant.
ple. 2 v. to be ‘easy’, easily seduced. 3
baratsa (baratsó-) pl. barátsíkwa . 1 v. to be gentle, kind. 4 v. to be humble.
n. morning. 2 n. morrow. 5 v. to be cheap.
baratso n. in the morning. bàtse (=bèè/bɛ̀ɛ̀) adv. last, yester-:
bárɛ́tɔ̀n (bárɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to start getting yester-hour, yesterday, yesteryear.
rich or wealthy. bátsɛ́s (bátsɛ́sì-) v. to scrape off (e.g.
barís (barísá-) pl. barísíka . n. rock hyrax. bark, peelings, skin). See also sɛkɛ́s and
Procavia johnstoni. tʉkʉrɛs.

bátsʼa bɛrɛtɛ́s

bátsʼa (bátsʼá-) n. pus, suppuration. bɛfa na ɡóɡòròʝìkàe n. Gaboon viper.

baúcùè (baú-cùè-) n. amniotic fluid. Lit. ‘adder with ridges’. Bitis gabonica.
bɛ́bam (bɛ́bamá-) 1 n. fat slug (describ- bɛfácɛ́mɛ́r (bɛfá-cɛ́mɛ́rí-) n. small reed-
ing termites with fatty bodies). 2 n. fat- like plant species with thorns and
ass, fatso. whose roots are pounded, ground, and
applied to snake-bites; legend is that
béberés (béberésí-) 1 v. to pull, tow. 2
puff adders themselves taught people
v. to draw out, extract (e.g. blood or
about this treatment. Lit. ‘puff adder
herb’. Cissus rhodesiae.
béberésúƙota (béberésúƙotí-) v. to drag
bɛfʉ́dɔ̀n (bɛfʉ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be bulky, hefty.
away/off, pull away.
See also bɛfʉ́kʉ́mɔ̀n.
béberésuƙota así 1 v. to scoot, skid. 2 bɛfʉ́kʉ́mɔ̀n (bɛfʉ́kʉ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be
v. to refuse treatment for oneself. bulky, hefty. See also bɛfʉ́dɔ̀n.
béberetés (béberetésí- ) 1 v. to pull in, bèkwa (bèkù-) pl. bekwitín. n. warthog
pull this way. 2 v. to imbibe, ingest, boar. Phacochoerus aethiopicus.
take (drink or medicine).
bɛná (<bɛnɔ́ɔ́n) v.
béberiés (béberiesí-) v. to drag or pull
along. beniitesa kíʝáe n. transformation of
the land (e.g. due to development or
bɛ̀ɗɛ (bɛ̀ɗɛ̀) 1 ideo. thinly. 2 ideo. lightly weather patterns).
in color.
beníón (beníónì-) 1 v. to not be (some-
bɛɗɛ́dɔ̀n (bɛɗɛ́dɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be delicately one or something). 2 v. to be unique.
thin, gossamer. 2 v. to be light in color. See also bɛnɔ́ɔ́n.
bɛ́ɗɛ́s (bɛ́ɗɛ́sì-) 1 v. to need, want. 2 beníónuƙota (beníónuƙotí-) v. to
v. to look or search for, seek. 3 v. to change, transform.
intend (to do). 4 v. to almost do (by
accident). bɛnɔ́ɔ́n (bɛnɔ́ɔ́nì-/bɛná-) 1 v. to not be
(someone or something). 2 v. to be
bɛ́ɗɛ́sa ɦyekesí v. to try to earn a living. unique. See also beníón.
Lit. ‘to look for life’.
bɛrɛ́s (bɛrɛ́sí-) 1 v. to build, construct,
bɛ́ɗɛ́sa wasɔ́ɛ v. to stand (for nomina- mould, make. 2 v. to develop, raise
tion). up (e.g. a community or country). 3
bɛɗɛtɛ́s (bɛɗɛtɛ́sí-) v. to look or search v. to braid, plait, weave. 4 v. to bom-
for, seek. See also ɨkʉʝɛs. bard with spears, spear (many animals
béɗíbeɗú (béɗíbeɗúù-) pl. béɗíbeɗúìka . at once).
1 n. butterfly. 2 n. letter, missive. See bɛrɛ́sá mɛnáɛ v. to go over matters, pro-
also bóɗíboɗú. cess issues. Lit. ‘to build matters’.
beemón (beemónì-) v. to crack slightly bɛrɛ́síàm (bɛrɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. bɛrɛ́síika .
without coming apart. n. builder.
bɛf (bɛfá-) pl. bɛfɨtín. n. puff adder or bɛrɛ́síama dómítíní n. potter.
viper in general. Bitis arietans. bɛrɛtɛ́s (bɛrɛtɛ́sí-) v. to craft, form,
bɛ̀f (bɛ̀fʉ̀) ideo. bulkily, heftily. shape, sculpt.

bɛrɛtɛ́sá mɛnáɛ bìta

bɛrɛtɛ́sá mɛnáɛ v. to come to a consen- bɨlamʉ́síàm (bɨlamʉ́sí-àmà-) pl. bɨlamʉ́-

sus. síika . n. village elder who adjudicates
bèrrr (bèrrr) ideo. baa! (bleating sound community matters.
of goats and sheep). bílíkɛrɛtɛ́ (bílíkɛrɛtɛ́ɛ̀-) n. crested fran-
betsínákwɛ̀ta (betsíná-kwɛ̀tà- ) pl. be- colin. Francolinus sephaena.
tsínákwɛtíka . n. left hand. bilóbà (bi-lóbàà-) n. your grandchild.
betsínáŋabér (betsíná-ŋabérí-) pl. be- bílɔɔrɔ́ (bílɔɔrɔ́ɔ̀-) n. fiscal, shrike. La-
tsínáŋabéríka . n. lefthand rib. nius sp.
betsínón (betsínónì-) 1 v. to be awk- binamúí (bi-namúíì-) pl. binamúátikwa .
ward, gauche, inept ( one’s limbs 1 n. your sibling-in-law (husband’s sib-
or speech). 2 n. to be left-handed, sinis- ling). 2 n. your sister-in-law (brother’s
tral. See also ɨɓaŋíɓáŋɔ̀n. wife).
bɛ̀ʉ̀r (bɛ̀ʉ̀rà-) n. fork-tailed drongo. Di- binamúíìm (bi-namúí-ìmà-) pl. bi-
crurus adsimilis. See also mɛ̀ʉ̀r. namúíwika . n. your niece or nephew
béúrètòn (béúrètònì-) v. to bellow, roar. (husband’s sibling’s child).
See also ábʉ̀bʉ̀ƙɔ̀n. binêba (bi-nébù-) n. yourself (singular).
bezekanitetésá tódàe v. to exchange Lit. ‘your body’.
words. bìɲ (bìɲì-) n. tiny red waterworm that
bezekánón (bezekánónì-) v. to fail to swims vertically.
cross paths or meet. bɨɲɛ́s (bɨɲɛ́sí-) v. to push nearer to.
bézèkètìkìn (bézèkètìkìnì-) n. crossroad, biɲóta (bi-ɲótá-) 1 n. your foreign
junction. friend. 2 n. your sibling-in-law (child’s
bì (bì-) pl. bìta . pro. you/your (singular). spouse’s parent).
bîba (bíbà-) n. dove, pigeon. biɲótáìm (bi-ɲótá-ìmà-) pl. biɲó-
a a táwika . n. your niece or nephew-in-
bɨbɨʝ (bɨbɨʝí-) pl. bíbìʝìk . n. chicken
law (child’s spouse’s sibling).
bicéka (bi-cékì-) n. your wife. bɨrá (<bɨrɔ́ɔ́n) v.

bìɗa (bìɗà-) pl. bɨɗɨtín. 1 n. bile, gall. 2 bɨráʉ́tɔ̀n (bɨráʉ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to be decreased,

n. gallbladder. less.

bìɗàhò (bìɗà-hòò-) pl. bɨɗahoíka . bírɛ́s (bírɛ́sì-) v. to avail, give, help.

n. gallbladder. bíro (bíroó-) n. bird species.
biéákwa (bi-éákwá-) n. your husband. bɨrɔ́ɔ́n (bɨrɔ́ɔ́nì-/bɨrá-) v. to be lacking,
biemetá (bi-emetáà-) pl. biemetátikwa . not there, unavailable.
n. your parent-in-law (of men). bɨrɔ́ɔ́nìmɛ̀n (bɨrɔ́ɔ́nì-mɛ̀nà-) n. lack (as
biɛ́n (bi-ɛ́ní-) pro. yours (singular). in ‘due to the lack of …’).
biím (bi-imá-) pl. biwíka . 1 n. your child. bisáka (bisáká-) n. appetite for meat,
2 n. your niece or nephew (brother’s meat hunger.
child). bìta (bìtì-) pro. you/your (plural).

bitáŋá bɔlɔnʉƙɔta

bitáŋá (bi-táŋáì-) n. your co-: cohort, bɔɗɔ́ka (bɔɗɔ́kʉ́-) pl. bɔɗɔ́kíka . 1 n. bark,
colleague, comrade, etc. husk, rind. 2 n. gun safety mechanism.
bítés (bítésì-) v. to spray. bɔ̀f (bɔ̀fɔ̀) ideo. puffily.
bɨtɛ́tɔ́n (bɨtɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to increase, multi- bofétón (bofétónì-) v. to shout, yell.
ply. bɔfɔ́dɔ̀n (bɔfɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be puffy, tumid,
bitiɛn (biti-ɛní-) pro. yours (plural). turgid.
bɔfɔƙɔr (bɔfɔƙɔ́rɛ́-) pl. bɔfɔƙɔ́ríka .
bitinebitín (biti-nebitíní-) n. yourselves
n. ram: uncastrated male goat.
(plural). Lit. ‘your bodies’.
bófón (bófónì-) v. to shout, yell.
bɨtɨtam (bɨtɨtamá-) n. increase, profit.
bóɡès (bóɡèsì-) v. to catch off guard,
bɨtɨtɛtɛ́s (bɨtɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to increase, mul- storm, surprise, take by surprise. See
tiply. also itúúmés.
bitsétón (bitsétónì-) 1 v. to expire, pass bɔɨbɔ́ɔ́n (bɔɨbɔ́ɔ́nì-) v. to be reddish-
away, perish. 2 v. to be exhausted, brown.
used up (energy, wealth). bɔ̀ka (bɔ̀kà-) pl. bɔ́kítín. n. crotch or fork
biya (biyá-) n. outside. in a plant or tree.
biyáxán (biyá-xánà-) n. outside. bɔ̀kɛ̀da (bɔ̀kɛ̀dɛ̀-) pl. bɔ̀kìn. n. crotch or
bízès (bízèsì-) v. to press, push, squeeze. fork in a plant or tree.
bòkìbòka (bòkìbòkì-) pl. bokíbókìka .
bízetés (bízetésí-) v. to press out,
n. jowl.
squeeze out.
bokímón (bokímónì-) v. to get caught
bízibizatés (bízibizatésí-) v. to press or or stuck in/on.
squeeze all over.
bɔkɔ́ka (bɔkɔ́kɔ́-) pl. bɔkɔ́kíka . n. old
bɔ̀ (bɔ̀ɔ̀-) pl. bɔɨtín. n. section of the black honeycomb.
large intestine. bɔkɔ́s (bɔkɔ́sí-) pl. bɔkɔ́síka . n. neck-
bɔbá (bɔbáà-) pl. bɔbáín. 1 n. my grand- bone, upper cervical vertibrae.
father. 2 n. my father-in-law (of bɔƙátín (bɔƙátíní-) pl. bòkèta . 1 n. bride.
women). 2 n. daughter-in-law.
bɔbata (bɔbatí-) pl. bɔbatíkwa . 1 bɔƙátíníèàkwa (bɔƙátíní-èàkwà-)
n. his/her grandfather. 2 n. her father- n. bridegroom, groom.
in-law. bɔlɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (bɔlɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to forego,
bɔ́bɔ̀ (bɔ́bɔ̀ɔ̀-) pl. bɔ́bɔín. 1 n. your grand- give up, relinquish.
father. 2 n. your father-in-law (of bɔlɨtɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (bɔlɨtɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to make
women). someone stop doing.
bɔɗɨbɔɗɔs (bɔɗɨbɔɗɔsí-) pl. bɔ́ɗí- bɔlɔl (bɔlɔlɔ́-) pl. bolólíkwa . n. back-
bɔ̀ɗɔ̀sìka . n. fontanelle, soft spot. See yard: spot outside a home where
also baɗɨbaɗas. ashes/rubbish are dumped and where
bóɗíboɗú (bóɗíboɗúù-) pl. bóɗi- people go for their toilet.
boɗúìka . 1 n. butterfly. 2 n. letter, bɔlɔnʉƙɔta (bɔlɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to cease, de-
missive. See also béɗíbeɗú. sist, stop doing.

bòmòn bositíníàm

bòmòn (bòmònì-) 1 v. to be dense, thick bòròkùìm (bòròkù-ìmà-) pl. boroku-

(of undergrowth). 2 v. to be fertile, wika . n. bushpig piglet.
prolific (of people and animals). borokuŋwa (boroku-ŋwaá-) n. bushpig
bɔn (bɔnɛ́-) n. caretaking, provision (for sow.
dependent persons). bɔrɔƙɔƙa (bɔrɔƙɔƙɔ́-) pl. bɔrɔ́ƙɔ́ƙìka .
bɔnán (bɔnání-) pl. bɔnánáikwa . n. de- n. tobacco cone.
pendent, orphan. bɔ́rɔ́n (bɔ́rɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be tired. 2 v. to
bɔnánés (bɔnánésì-) n. dependence, or- be bored, uninterested.
phanhood. bɔrɔ́ɔ́n (bɔrɔ́ɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be ajar, open.
bɔnɛ́ám (bɔnɛ́-ámà-) pl. bɔnéíka . n. care- 2 v. to be loud (of a voice). See also
taker, provider. ŋawíɔ́n.
bɔnɛ́s (bɔnɛ́sí-) 1 v. to care or provide bɔ́rɔ́rɔ̀n (bɔ́rɔ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to cry out (in
for (esp. with food). 2 v. to feed, give alarm, fear, or pain). See also werétsón.
food relief. 3 v. to domesticate, tame bɔ̀rɔ̀tsa (bɔ̀rɔ̀tsà-) n. erosion, landslide,
(by feeding). mudslide. See also dìdìàka .
bònìta (bònìtà-) pl. bonítíka . 1 n. kind, Bɔ̀rɔ̀tsààka (Bɔ̀rɔ̀tsà-àkà-) n. name of a
species, type, variety. 2 n. clan. See place. Lit. ‘erosion-mouth’.
also ɲákaɓɨlá. borotsiés (borotsiesí-) v. to blow gently
bɔ̀ɲ (bɔ̀ɲɔ̀) ideo. brittlely. on.
bɔɲɔ́dɔ̀n (bɔɲɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be brittle. bɔrɔ́tsɔ́mɔ̀n (bɔrɔ́tsɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be
bɔ́ŋɔ́n (bɔ́ŋɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be nearly ripe goopy, sludgy (of any viscous liquid).
(showing some color). 2 v. to be fruit- See also ɓɔrɔ́tɔ́mɔ̀n.
laden. bòs (bòsì-) pl. bositín. n. ear.
boŋórén (boŋórénì-) pl. boŋórénìk . a bósánòn (bósánònì-) v. to be blue-gray.
n. red dirt or soil (naturally occuring See also kábusubusánón.
or from being burnt). bɔsɛtɛ́s (bɔsɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to collect, gather
bòrèn (bòrènì-) pl. bórénìk . 1 n. fatty
a (e.g. contributions, donations). 2 v. to
chicken tail. 2 n. small bottle-like summarize, sum up. See also ɨtsʉnɛtɛ́s.
gourd used as a butter or oil flask. bòsìèkwa (bòsì-èkù-) pl. bosiekwitín.
bɔrɛ́tɔ́n (bɔrɛ́tɔ́nì-) 1 v. to become tired, n. ear hole.
tire. 2 v. to become bored, lose inter- bòsìɔ̀ka (bòsì-ɔ̀kà-) pl. bosiɔkɨtín. 1
est. n. temporal (outer ear) bone, os tem-
bɔrɔ́ɗɔ́mɔ̀n (bɔrɔ́ɗɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be shriv- porale. 2 n. inner ear bone.
eled, shrunken (like a deflated ball or bòsìsìtsʼa (bòsì-sìtsʼà-) n. ear hair.
one’s eyes). bɔsɨtɛtɛ́s (bɔsɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to extract con-
bòròka (bòròkù-) n. bushpig. Potamo- tributions from.
choerus porcus. bositíníàm (bositíní-àmà-) pl. bosití-
borokucúrúka (boroku-cúrúkù-) níika . 1 n. deaf person. 2 n. nickname
n. bushpig boar. for a hare or rabbit.

bota bùɗàm

bota (botá-) pl. botitín. 1 n. burden, bubú (bubú) nurs. nighty-night! (a nurs-
cargo, load. 2 n. migration, movement, ery word for sleeping).
wave. bùbù (bùbùà-) pl. búbùìka . n. abdomen,
a belly, gut.
botáám (botá-ámà-) pl. botáík . n. im-
migrant, migrant. bùbùàƙwa (bùbù-àƙɔ̀-) 1 n. abdominal
botedo n. all, as a whole, entirely. cavity, bowel, gut. 2 n. bolt carrier.
bɔ́tɛ́s (bɔ́tɛ́sì-) v. to shape (with a blade), búbùèda (búbùèdè-) n. underbelly, un-
shave. derside. Lit. ‘its belly’.
bɔtɛtam (bɔtɛtamá-) n. wood shaving. búbuiem (búbui-emé-) n. back part
botétón (botétónì-) v. to migrate or or underpart of an animal’s leg, from
move this way. the ankle to the thigh, which is the
women’s special cut of meat.
botibotos (botibotosí-) v. to be migra-
bʉbʉn (bʉbʉná-) pl. bʉ́bʉ̀nìka . 1 n. cin-
tory, nomadic.
der, coal, ember. 2 n. bullet, slug.
botibotosíám (botibotosí-ámà-) pl. bo-
bʉbʉnɔ́ɔ́ʝa (bʉbʉnɔ́-ɔ́ʝà-) pl. bʉbʉnɔ́ɔ́ʝí-
tibotosííka . n. drifter, migrant, nomad.
tín. n. bullet or gunshot wound.
botitín (botitíní-) n. baggage, cargo, lug-
bùbùɔ̀ʝa (bùbù-ɔ̀ʝà-) pl. bubuɔʝɨtín.
n. stomach ulcer.
bòtòn (bòtònì-) v. to migrate, move.
bubuxánón (bubuxánónì-) 1 v. to be soft
botonuƙota (botonuƙotí-) v. to migrate (like ripe figs). 2 v. to blistered, vesi-
or move away. cated.
bótsón (bótsónì-) 1 v. to be clear, open, bubuxánónuƙota (bubuxánónuƙotí-) 1
vacant. 2 v. to be empty, hollow. v. to become soft, soften (like ripe
bótsóna ikáe v. to be clear, sober (of figs). 2 v. to blister, vesicate. See also
one’s mind). ileɓíléɓòn.
bóx (bóxá-) 1 n. nightjar. 2 n. idiot, budés (budésí-) v. to conceal or hide
moron, stupid person. oneself.
boxoƙoréta (boxoƙorétí-) pl. boxoƙo- búdès (búdèsì-) 1 v. to bury, inhume, in-
rétíka . n. tall softwood tree species ter, lay to rest. 2 v. to conceal, hide.
whose bland, red berries are eaten by See also muɗés and tʉnʉkɛs.
children and whose wood is carved budésón (budésónì-) v. to be concealed,
into bowls and cups. Cussonia arborea. hidden.
bú (búá-) n. airborn dust, dust cloud. budésónuƙota (budésónuƙotí-) v. to be-
buanítésuƙot (buanítésuƙotí-) v. to come hidden.
lose, hide, make disappear, misplace. búdesuƙota (búdesuƙotí-) 1 v. to bury.
buanón (buanónì-) v. to be lost, disap- 2 v. to conceal, hide.
peared, misplaced. búdòs (búdòsì-) v. to be concealed,
buanónuƙot (buanónuƙotí-) v. to dis- covert, hidden, private, secret.
appear, fade, evaporate, get lost. bùɗàm (bùɗàmà-) n. darkness.

buɗamaakón bulonuƙota

buɗamaakón (buɗamaakónì-) 1 v. to be bukúrésuƙota (bukúrésuƙotí-) 1 v. to

dark (of many). 2 v. to be black (of overturn, turn over, upset. 2 v. to
many). 3 v. to be dirty (of many). 4 cover up.
v. to be dim (of many). bukúrésuƙota así v. to dump over, over-
buɗamés (buɗamésí-) v. to move after turn, spill.
dark. buƙa (buƙú-) n. brideprice (and all asso-
buɗámón (buɗámónì-) 1 v. to be dark. 2 ciated ceremonies).
v. to be black. 3 v. to be dirty. 4 v. to
buƙés (buƙésí-) v. to pay for a bride
be dim (of eyesight). 5 v. to be dim or
by giving gifts and doing work for her
dull in intellect. 6 v. to be meaningless,
family on a continual basis.
buƙésúƙota (buƙésúƙotí-) v. to pay out
buɗámónìàm (buɗámónì-àmà-) pl.
for a bride by giving gifts and doing
buɗámóniika . 1 n. black person. 2
work for her family on a continual ba-
n. African. 3 n. human being.
Buɗámóniicékíʝa (Buɗámóni-icé-kíʝà-)
buƙetés (buƙetésí-) v. to start paying for
n. Africa.
a bride by giving gifts and working for
bùɗu (bùɗù) ideo. softly. her family on a continual basis.
buɗúditésúƙota (buɗúditésúƙotí-) v. to buƙitetés (buƙitetésí-) v. to extract
make soft, soften up. brideprice.
buɗúdòn (buɗúdònì-) v. to be soft. buƙós (buƙósí-) v. to be married (of a
bùf (bùfù) ideo. spongily. woman) by virtue of having been paid
bufúdòn (bufúdònì-) v. to be spongy. for with brideprice.
buɡwám (b-uɡwámá-) pl. buɡwá- buƙotam (buƙotamá-) n. anything pay-
mátikwa . 1 n. your sibling-in-law able as part of the brideprice.
(wife’s sibling). 2 n. your sibling- buƙúám (buƙú-ámà-) pl. buƙúíka .
in-law (brother’s wife’s sibling). 3 n. brideprice payer: the groom and any
n. your brother-in-law (sister’s hus- of his relatives.
band). 4 n. your sibling-in-law (sis-
buƙusítésuƙota (buƙusítésuƙotí-) v. to
ter’s husband’s sibling).
overturn, turn over, upset.
bukites (bukitesí-) v. to lay prostrate.
bʉláʝámɔ̀n (bʉláʝámɔ̀nì-) v. to be debile,
bùkòn (bùkònì-) v. to be or lie prostrate. sapless, weak (from fatigue or sick-
bukonuƙota (bukonuƙotí-) v. to lie ness). See also daƙwádòn.
down prostrate. See also eponuƙota and bùlòn (bùlònì-) 1 v. to be empty, void. 2
itsólóŋòn. v. to be unoccupied, vacant. 3 v. to be
bukukánón (bukukánónì-) v. to be or lie free, unburdened. 4 v. to be destitute,
prostrate (e.g. while deep in thought). impoverished, poor.
bukures (bukuresí-) v. to overturn, bulonuƙota (bulonuƙotí-) 1 v. to empty
turn over, upset. See also iɓéléés and out. 2 v. to become unoccupied or va-
iɓélúkéés. cant. 3 v. to die off/out, go extinct.

bʉlʉbʉláta buúù

bʉlʉbʉláta (bʉlʉbʉlátí-) pl. bʉlʉbʉ- búɲèn (búɲènì-) pl. buɲéníka .

látíka . n. fire lily: plant species whose n. crumbly substance (like rock or soil
bulb is used to store tobacco (promot- that crumbles to powder when you
ing fermentation) and is made into a pinch it between your fingers).
thread to patch beehives or gourds; its bur (buré-) n. dust.
large red or pink flowers are worn on
bùr (bùrà) ideo. mushily.
the head by children during its brief
blooming season. Drimia altissima. burádòn (burádònì-) v. to be mushy,
e soft (like boiled pumpkin, damp soil, or
bʉlʉbʉláta na sábàìkà n. plant species
egg yolk). See also dabúdòn.
whose leaves are made into children’s
bracelets. Lit. ‘lily of the rivers’. Typha bùràtsa (bùràtsì-) pl. burátsíka . n. bat-
sp. eared fox. Otocyon megalotis.
bʉlʉbʉlɔs (bʉlʉbʉlɔsí-) 1 v. to be froo- bʉrɛ́tɔ́n (bʉrɛ́tɔ́nì-) 1 v. to fly, take flight,
fy, poofy, puffy (of animal tails and take off flying. 2 v. to wake suddenly.
hairstyles). 2 v. to be bristling, bristly bʉ̀rɔ̀n (bʉ̀rɔ̀nì-) v. to fly.
(of hedgehogs, porcupines, and women bʉrɔnʉƙɔta (bʉrɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to fly
with lots of jewelry). off/away, take off flying.
bulukéta (bulukétí-) pl. bulukétíka . Burukáya (Burukáí-) n. Turkanaland,
n. small gourd used as an enema northwest Kenya.
to rectally self-administer concoctions
bùrùkùtsa (bùrùkùtsì-) pl. burúkútsìka .
against intestinal illness.
n. kneecap, patella.
bùlùƙu (bùlùƙù) ideo. splash! (sound
bùsùbùs (bùsùbùsì-) pl. búsùbùsìka .
made by something landing in water).
n. papyrus-like water plant species
bulúƙúmòn (bulúƙúmònì-) v. to be bul- whose stalks are used as drinking
bous, bulging (like a gourd or a head). straws and whose white pith is used
See also lɔrɔ́dɔ̀n. to kill owls, hyenas, and other wizardly
bulútésuƙota (bulútésuƙotí-) 1 v. to creatures. Cyperus alternifolius.
empty out. 2 v. to clear out, vacate. bútés (bútésì-) v. to drink like a cow in
3 v. to eradicate, wipe out. long slow drags.
bunétón (bunétónì-) v. to come across, bùtsa (bùtsà-) pl. butsitín. n. patch of
happen upon. ground where birds dust-bathe.
bùnòn (bùnònì-) v. to come across, hap- búúbuanón (búúbuanónì-) v. to be in-
pen upon. frequent, rare, scarce.
bùɲ (bùɲà) ideo. crumbly. buúù (buúù) ideo. moo! (sound of cows
buɲádòn (buɲádònì-) v. to be crumbly. lowing).

ɓa ɓɛ́ɓɛ́lɛ́s

ɓa (ɓa) ideo. unliftably. ɓariɓárón (ɓariɓárónì-) v. to be piquant,
ɓá (ɓá) nurs. yum-yum! (a nursery word sharp in taste, tart. See also ɓárikíkón.
for food or eating). See also mamá. ɓarɨɓárɔ́n (ɓarɨɓárɔ́nì-) v. to be medium-
ɓaaɓánón (ɓaaɓánónì-) v. to be cracked. sized. See also ʝɔ̀ƙɔ̀n and lerúkúmòn.
ɓaɓaránón (ɓaɓaránónì-) v. to linger, ɓarɨɓárɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɓarɨɓárɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to
loiter (sitting or standing). become a bit bigger, enlarge slightly
ɓàʝa (ɓàʝì-) pl. ɓaʝɨtín. n. large tree (from small to medium).
species whose bark is decocted and ɓárikíkón (ɓárikíkónì-) v. to be piquant,
drunk for heartburn and whose para- sharp in taste, tart. See also ɓariɓárón.
sitic plant is applied to swollen body ɓarites (ɓaritesí-) 1 v. to make sour. 2
parts; its bark may also be chewed and v. to make feel bad, upset.
applied to one’s head and attached to ɓarítésuƙota (ɓarítésuƙotí-) 1 v. to make
one’s bracelet as a charm to make one sour. 2 v. to make feel bad, upset.
attractive to friends and invisible to en- ɓáritson (ɓáritsoní-) n. small black ant
emies. Boscia angustifolia. species that causes pain if it gets in an
ɓakɨɓákɔ́n (ɓakɨɓákɔ́nì-) v. to be slightly eye. Also called sɨŋíl.
bitter. ɓàròn (ɓàrònì-) v. to be sour, tart.
ɓaláŋ (ɓaláŋí-) pl. ɓaláŋíka . n. tooth- ɓaronuƙota (ɓaronuƙotí-) v. to ferment,
brush tree: species whose stems are sour.
used to clean teeth, whose root decoc-
tion is drunk for chest or stomach pain ɓatísimú (ɓatísimúù-) n. baptism.
(esp. women after delivery), and whose ɓatísimúêda (ɓatísimú-édì-) pl. ɓatísi-
fruits are eaten raw. Salvadora persica. múéditín. n. baptismal name, Chris-
ɓalídɔ̀n (ɓalídɔ̀nì-) v. to be gleaming, tian name.
glistening. See also pirídòn. ɓatísimúkabáɗa (ɓatísimú-kabáɗá-) pl.
ɓaŋás (ɓaŋásí-) 1 n. looseness, slackness. ɓatísimúkabáɗíka . n. baptismal certifi-
2 n. plainness, simplicity. cate.
ɓàŋɔ̀n (ɓàŋɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be free, loose, ɓátsɛ́s (ɓátsɛ́sì-) v. to spread around (e.g.
slack. 2 v. to be plain, simple, uncom- food in order to cool it). See also iwies.
plicated. ɓátsɛ́sa así v. to spread oneself open
ɓaram (ɓaramá-) n. sour porridge used (that is, one’s legs while sitting, often
as mash to make beer. immodestly).
ɓarán (ɓarání-) pl. ɓaráníka . n. in- ɓatsilárón (ɓatsilárónì-) v. to be acerbic,
ner chamber of an anthill or termite acrid.
mound. ɓau (ɓau) ideo. seriously, steadily.
ɓarɨɓárítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɓarɨɓárítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to ɓàz (ɓàzì) 1 interj. so then, then. 2 in-
enlarge slightly, make a bit bigger terj. so there, you see?
(from small to medium). ɓɛ́ɓɛ́lɛ́s (ɓɛ́ɓɛ́lɛ́sí-) v. to split open/apart.

ɓɛ́ɓɛ́lɔ́s ɓètsʼìɓètsʼòn

ɓɛ́ɓɛ́lɔ́s (ɓɛ́ɓɛ́lɔ́sí-) v. to be split open/ ɓɛƙɛ́sínɔ́s (ɓɛƙɛ́sínɔ́sí-) 1 v. to walk to-

apart. gether. 2 v. to travel together.
ɓɛɨɓɛ́ɔ́n (ɓɛɨɓɛ́ɔ́nì-) v. to burn or sting ɓɛƙɛsɔs (ɓɛƙɛsɔsí-) v. to be ambulatory,
(of pain). mobile, on the move.
ɓɛʝɛ́kwa (ɓɛʝɛ́kʉ̀-) n. late-flying edible ɓɛƙɛsɔsíám (ɓɛƙɛsɔsí-ámà-) pl. ɓɛƙɛ-
termites that are less nutritious and sɔsííka . n. roamer, rover, wanderer.
tasty than their forerunners. ɓɛlɛ́ɓɛ́lánón (ɓɛlɛ́ɓɛ́lánónì-) v. to be
ɓɛkam (ɓɛkamá-) n. incitement, provo- chapped, cracked, split open.
cation. Ɓèlèkwa (Ɓèlèkù-) n. name of a flat area
ɓɛkánón (ɓɛkánónì-) v. to be incitive, in Turkanaland, Kenya.
inflammatory, provoking, rankling. ɓɛlɛlɛtsɛ (ɓɛlɛlɛtsɛ) ideo. flatly, pronely.
ɓɛkɛ (ɓɛkɛ) ideo. snap! (sound of some- ɓelémón (ɓelémónì-) 1 v. to crack or
thing thin snapping). split open (like burnt skin). 2 v. to
ɓɛkɛ́s (ɓɛkɛ́sí-) v. to perforate, puncture. break (of day), dawn.
ɓɛlɛ́rɛ́mɔ̀n (ɓɛlɛ́rɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be bug-
ɓɛkɛtɛ́s (ɓɛkɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to perforate,
puncture. 2 v. to incite, provoke, ran-
kle. ɓɛlɛ́s (ɓɛlɛ́sí-) v. to crack, split.
ɓɛkɛ́tɔ́n (ɓɛkɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to hatch (of ɓɛlɛtɛ́s (ɓɛlɛtɛ́sí-) v. to crack, split.
chicks). See also ɨɓɛ́ɓɛ́ɛ̀tɔ̀n. ɓeletiés (ɓeletiesí-) v. to split apart mul-
ɓɛkɨɓɛ́kɔ́n (ɓɛkɨɓɛ́kɔ́nì-) v. to rustle. tiply.
ɓɛlɔ́s (ɓɛlɔ́sí-) v. to be cracked, split.
ɓɛƙɛ́s (ɓɛƙɛ́sí-) 1 v. to walk. 2 v. to
travel. 3 v. to move. ɓereɲiés (ɓereɲiesí-) v. to pry open/
apart (like grass so one can look
ɓɛƙɛ́sá buɗámíke v. to move blindly.
through, or one’s eyelids when fight-
ɓɛƙɛ́sá kútúŋìko v. to walk on the knees. ing sleep).
ɓɛƙɛ́sá kwɛ̀tìkɔ v. to walk on the hands. ɓɛtɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀n (ɓɛtɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be flatly or
ɓɛƙɛ́sá turúùke v. to stumble ahead. shallowly concave. See also fɛtɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀n.
ɓɛƙɛ́sá wɛwɛɛs v. to walk leisurely. ɓetsʼaakón (ɓetsʼaakónì-) 1 v. to be
white (of many). 2 v. to be light in
ɓɛƙɛ́sá ziál v. to walk laboriously (like
color (of many). 3 v. to be clear, trans-
an obese or pregnant person).
parent (of many).
ɓɛƙɛ́síàm (ɓɛƙɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɓɛƙɛ́síika . 1 ɓetsʼakáwa (ɓetsʼa-káú-) n. shrub spe-
n. pedestrian, walker. 2 n. traveler, cies with ash-white bark, found grow-
wayfarer. ing down the escarpment; a decoction
ɓɛƙɛ́síama mukú n. one who walks at of its bark can be applied as a salve for
night (like a lover or wizard or merely skin abrasions. Lit. ‘white-ash’. Olinia
someone who has not reached their rochetiana.
destination by dark). ɓètsʼìɓètsʼòn (ɓètsʼìɓètsʼònì-) 1 v. to be
ɓɛƙɛ́síkabáɗa (ɓɛƙɛ́sí-kabáɗá-) pl. ɓɛƙɛ́- slightly white, whitish. 2 v. to be
síkabáɗíka . n. identity card, passport. slightly light (of daytime).

ɓɛtsʼɨɗɔ́ɗɔ́n ɓɔ́kɔ̀ɲ

ɓɛtsʼɨɗɔ́ɗɔ́n (ɓɛtsʼɨɗɔ́ɗɔ́nì-) v. to be ɓirídòn (ɓirídònì-) v. to be squashy,

whitish. squishy (like boiled greens or wet
ɓetsʼitetés (ɓetsʼitetésí-) 1 v. to make ground). See also rɔʝɔ́dɔ̀n.
white, whiten. 2 v. to embarrass, hu- ɓirímón (ɓirímónì-) v. to get squashed
miliate, shame. or squished.
Ɓètsʼòn (Ɓètsʼònì-) n. February: month ɓírítésuƙota (ɓírítésuƙotí-) v. to squash,
of white dryness. See also Lokwaŋ. squish.
ɓètsʼòn (ɓètsʼònì-) 1 v. to be white. 2 ɓɨs (ɓɨsá-) pl. ɓísítín. 1 n. spear. 2
v. to be light in color. 3 v. to be clear, n. baby boy.
transparent. 4 v. to be clean, pure. 5 ɓɨsááka (ɓɨsá-ákà-) pl. ɓɨsáákítín.
v. to be holy. n. spearhead. Lit. ‘spear-mouth’.
ɓètsʼònìàm (ɓètsʼònì-àmà-) pl. ɓetsʼo- ɓɨsáɓóló (ɓɨsá-ɓólóò-) pl. ɓɨsáɓólóíkwa .
niika . n. white person: American, Eu- n. neck of a spearhead. Lit. ‘spear-
ropean, or any Caucasian. See also gourd’.
ɲémúsukita .
ɓɨsáím (ɓɨsá-ímà-) pl. ɓísítíníwika .
Ɓetsʼoniicékíʝa (Ɓetsʼoni-icé-kíʝà-) n. dart.
n. America (North), Europe. Lit.
ɓo (ɓoó-) pl. ɓoitín. n. escarpment.
‘white people land’.
ɓóáka (ɓó-ákà-) n. top edge of an escarp-
Ɓetsʼoniicétôda (Ɓetsʼoni-icé-tódà-)
ment. Lit. ‘escarpment-mouth’.
n. English or any European language.
Lit. ‘white people talk’. See also ɓòɓòn (ɓòɓònì-) 1 v. to be deep. 2 v. to
Ŋímusukúìtòda . be high-pitched, shrill. 3 v. to be sexu-
ɓìɓa (ɓìɓà-) n. egg, ovum. ally insatiable (of a woman).
ɓiɓáhò (ɓiɓá-hòò-) pl. ɓiɓáhoíka . n. egg- ɓoɓonuƙota (ɓoɓonuƙotí-) v. to become
sack, ovary. deeper, deepen.
ɓíɓítɛ́s (ɓíɓítɛ́sí-) v. to drink with a ɓɔɗa (ɓɔɗá-) pl. ɓɔɗɨtín. n. clear-
straw. ing or glade where crops are dried and
threshed. See also ɗípɔ̀.
ɓíkìrà (ɓíkìràà-) pl. ɓíkɨraín. n. nun,
Catholic sister. ɓɔɗáʝʉ́m (ɓɔɗá-ʝʉ́mʉ̀-) n. dirt mixed
with threshed grain that is then sifted.
ɓilés (ɓilésí-) v. to cut out, excise, resect
(something soft like an organ). ɓóéɗa (ɓó-éɗì-) n. shrub species whose
round roots are peeled, boiled, and
ɓilésúƙota (ɓilésúƙotí-) v. to disem-
eaten during times of famine; they
bowel, eviscerate, gut.
are said to cause severe itching in the
ɓɨlíɓílɛ́s (ɓɨlíɓílɛ́sí-) v. to break into pie- throat and are thus swallowed quickly
ces, shatter. without chewing. Lit. ‘escarpment-
ɓilímón (ɓilímónì-) v. to burst, deflate, grain’. Arisaema ruwenzoricum.
erupt, explode. ɓokóánètòn (ɓokóánètònì-) v. to be tri-
ɓìr (ɓìrì) ideo. squashily, squishily. colored.
ɓirés (ɓirésí-) v. to squash, squish. See ɓɔ́kɔ̀ɲ (ɓɔ́kɔ̀ɲì-) pl. ɓokóɲíkwa . n. bank,
also rɛɗɛ́s. embankment, slope.

ɓɔ́l ɓuƙítésuƙota

ɓɔ́l (ɓɔ́lá-) pl. ɓɔ́lítín. n. shin. ɓòtòŋ (ɓòtòŋù-) pl. ɓótóŋìka . n. bunch,
ɓòlìɓòl (ɓòlìɓòlì-) pl. ɓolíɓólìka . 1 clump, cluster (like a swarm of bees, a
n. dewlap: fold of loose skin on a an- regime of bananas, a cluster of figs).
imal’s throat. 2 n. hood (of a snake). 3 ɓotsetés (ɓotsetésí-) v. to pluck or pull
n. goiter. off.
ɓólìs (ɓólìsò-) pl. ɓolísíka . n. tree ɓòtso (ɓòtsò) ideo. rigidly, stiffly.
species whose leaves are burnt green, ɓotsódòn (ɓotsódònì-) 1 v. to be in-
together with the ɲɛ́ɛkɨmá tree to flexible, rigid, stiff. 2 v. to be
smoke insect pests out of a garden. Cro- absent-minded, inattentive. See also
ton dichogamus. kɛtɛ́rɛ́mɔ̀n.
ɓoló (ɓolóò-) pl. ɓólóikwa . n. big round ɓɔtsɔ́ta (ɓɔtsɔ́tí-) pl. ɓɔtsɔ́tíka . n. awl.
ɓotsotiés (ɓotsotiesí-) v. to pluck or pull
ɓólóèda (ɓólóèdè-) n. place where an ar- off continually (as when harvesting).
rowhead and shaft meet.
ɓʉ́ɓʉ́s (ɓʉ́ɓʉ́sà-) pl. ɓʉ́ɓʉ́sìka . n. natural
ɓòlòkòtsa (ɓòlòkòtsì-) pl. ɓolókótsìka .
perfume made from the dried heart of
n. scoop made from a small bisected
the tsʉ́ʉ́r tree.
gourd which often has a beaded handle
sewn into it. ɓʉɓʉsánón (ɓʉɓʉsánónì-) 1 v. to be rot-
ten at the core, have the heart-rot dis-
ɓolóɲómòn (ɓolóɲómònì-) v. to be wide-
ease (of trees). 2 v. to be indolent,
mouthed (of any opening like an anus,
gourd, hole, or circumcized penis).
ɓʉkʉ́lá (ɓʉkʉ́láì-) pl. ɓʉkʉ́láìka . n. Ger-
ɓɔlɔrɔtsa (ɓɔlɔrɔtsɔ́-) pl. ɓɔlɔ́rɔ́tsìka .
rard’s acacia: hardwood tree whose
n. milkweed locust. Phymateus sp.
wood is used for building and fencing,
ɓòŋ (ɓòŋì-) pl. ɓoŋitín. n. tree whose bark fiber makes a rope for ty-
species whose bitter yellow fruits are ing, and whose bark decoction is drunk
boiled multiple times, exposing the to cleanse the gut. Acacia gerrardii.
seeds which are eaten only during
ɓuƙés (ɓuƙésí-) v. to elevate, lift, raise
famines. Balanites pedicellaris.
(as onto someone’s head). See also
ɓór (ɓóré-) pl. ɓórítín. n. boma, corral, ɨkɛɛtɛ́s.
kraal, livestock pen.
ɓuƙésá botáe v. to load a load.
ɓɔ́rítɔ̀n (ɓɔ́rítɔ̀nì-) v. to discharge, emit,
secrete (like pus or snot). ɓuƙetés (ɓuƙetésí-) v. to lift off, lower,
unload (as from someone’s head).
ɓɔrɔ́tɔ́mɔ̀n (ɓɔrɔ́tɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be goopy,
gunky (like millet beer, coagulating ɓuƙetésá botáe v. to offload or unload a
blood, drying eye drainage, snot, or load.
saliva). See also bɔrɔ́tsɔ́mɔ̀n. ɓuƙetésá mɛnáɛ v. to cause problems.
ɓɔtí (ɓɔtíì-) n. bland, watery meal mush Lit. ‘to unload issues’.
(posho) eaten without accompanying ɓuƙétón (ɓuƙétónì-) v. to enter, go in.
sauce in times of famine. ɓuƙítésuƙota (ɓuƙítésuƙotí-) 1 v. to
ɓotólómòn (ɓotólómònì-) v. to be make enter, put in, take in. 2 v. to
pooched out, protruding. enter, include. 3 v. to employ, hire.

ɓuƙítésuƙotíám ɓuumón

ɓuƙítésuƙotíám (ɓuƙítésuƙotí-ámà-) pl. ɓʉ̀nɔ̀n (ɓʉ̀nɔ̀nì-) v. to move past, pass

ɓuƙítésuƙotííka . n. employer, hirer. by.
ɓùƙòn (ɓùƙònì-) v. to enter, go in. Not ɓʉnɔnʉƙɔta (ɓʉnɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to go past,
to be confused with ɓúƙón. pass by going.
ɓúƙón (ɓúƙónì-) v. to commit adultery. ɓʉnʉ́mɔ́n (ɓʉnʉ́mɔ́nì-) v. to disperse,
Not to be confused with ɓùƙòn. scatter. See also ɨwɛ́ɛ́lánón.
ɓúƙónìàm (ɓúƙónì-àmà-) pl. ɓúƙóniika . ɓʉnʉ́mɔ́nà sèàe 1 v. to blush, flush, run
n. adulterer, adulteress. hot (of one’s blood out of excitement
ɓuƙonuƙota (ɓuƙonuƙotí-) 1 v. to enter, or embarrassment). 2 v. to run cold
go in. 2 v. to join in, participate. 3 (of one’s blood out of terror). Lit. ‘dis-
v. to pass through (specifically the legs persal of blood’.
of an old person during a ceremony of ɓʉnʉtɛ́s (ɓʉnʉtɛ́sí-) v. to disperse, scat-
blessing the next generation). 4 v. to ter.
go under, sink.
ɓunutiés (ɓunutiesí-) v. to scarify: make
ɓʉlɛs (ɓʉlɛsɛ) ideo. in large numbers.
small cuts for cosmetic or medical rea-
ɓʉlʉɓʉl (ɓʉlʉɓʉlʉ) ideo. sound of quak- sons.
ing or shaking (like an earthquake).
ɓúrukúkón (ɓúrukúkónì-) v. to germi-
ɓulúrúmòn (ɓulúrúmònì-) v. to be cal- nate, sprout.
lous, scarred.
ɓútánés (ɓútánésí-) v. to have sex re-
ɓʉ́nɛ́s (ɓʉ́nɛ́sì-) v. to cut through a tubu-
peatedly and often.
lar object (like a pipe or log).
ɓʉnɛtam (ɓʉnɛtamá-) n. something ɓutu (ɓutu) ideo. all, entirely.
cuttable cylindrically, tubularly (like a ɓutúrúmòn (ɓutúrúmònì-) v. to be bul-
beehive). ky, hulky.
ɓʉnɛtɛ́s (ɓʉnɛtɛ́sí-) v. to cut through a ɓuumón (ɓuumónì-) v. to get dislocated,
tubular object (like a pipe or log). out-of-joint.

caál Cerûba

caál (caalí-) pl. caalíka . 1 n. cooking 3 n. fuel: diesel, paraffin (kerosene),
stone, hearthstone. 2 n. supporting petrol (gas).
stone. ceka (cekí-) pl. cɨkám. 1 n. woman. 2
Caalíím (Caalí-ímà-) n. name of a place. n. wife.
Lit. ‘hearthstone-child’. cekínánès (cekínánèsì-) n. femininity,
càcɨ (càcì) adv. carelessly, heedlessly. womanhood, womanliness.
Cakalatɔ́m (Cakalatɔ́mɛ́-) n. name of a cɛma kíʝíkàe n. war. Lit. ‘fighting of
river near Lòsòlìà and Píré. Also called countries’.
Oŋorisabá. cɛmáám (cɛmá-ámà-) pl. cɛmáíka .
calúɓu (calúɓú) ideo. splish-splash! n. combatant, fighter.
(sound of walking in water). cɛmɛkánón (cɛmɛkánónì-) v. to be a
cɛbɛn (cɛbɛní-) pl. cɛ́bɛ̀nìka . 1 n. white
concave container used for scooping. cɛ̀mɛ̀r (cɛ̀mɛ̀rì-) pl. cɛmɛ́ríka . 1 n. medic-
2 n. wooden spatula. 3 n. gearshift. inal herb. 2 n. drug, medicine, treat-
See also ɲémiikó. ment. 3 n. chemical. 4 n. poison.
cɛ̀mɛ̀rìèkwa (cɛ̀mɛ̀rì-èkù-) pl. cɛmɛrɨek-
cɛ́bɛ̀s (cɛ́bɛ̀sì-) v. to roughen (esp. the
witín. n. pill, tablet. Lit. ‘drug-eye’.
surface of a grinding stone).
cɛmɛ́ríkààm (cɛmɛ́ríkà-àmà-) pl. cɛmɛ́-
cɛɓɛ́s (cɛɓɛ́sí-) v. to scoop up (with a la-
ríkaika . n. herbalist, traditional healer.
dle or spoon). See also tɛ́bɛ̀s.
See also wetitésíàm.
cédicedí (cédicedíì-) n. hopscotch. cɛmɨcɛmɔs (cɛmɨcɛmɔsí-) v. to be belli-
cɛɛ́s (cɛɛsí-) 1 v. to kill, murder, slay cose, combative.
(singly). 2 v. to break. Compare with cɛ̀mɔ̀n (cɛ̀mɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to fight, struggle
sáɓés. against/with. 2 v. to be doing some-
cɛɛsá rié sàbàke v. to immerse a sacrifi- thing.
cial goat in the river, then roast it, and céŋ (céŋá-) n. humor, joke, joking.
then dance around it as a prayer for cɛŋ (cɛŋá-) n. woodpecker.
rain. Lit. ‘to kill a goat at the river’.
céŋáàm (céŋá-àmà-) pl. céŋáika .
cɛɛsíám (cɛɛsí-ámà-) n. killer, murderer n. joker, jokester, teaser.
(of one living thing). ceŋánón (ceŋánónì-) v. to joke around,
cɛɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (cɛɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) 1 v. to kill, murder tease.
(singly). 2 v. to break. ceŋetíám (ceŋetí-ámà-) pl. ceŋetííka .
cɛɛtɛ́s (cɛɛtɛ́sí-) v. to harvest bountifully, n. in-law.
produce a lot of. ceŋetínánès (ceŋetínánèsì-) n. being in-
Ceɡem (Ceɡemú-) n. a personal name. laws.
ceím (ceímá-) 1 n. lubricant, oil, oily sub- cɛ̀rɔ̀n (cɛ̀rɔ̀nì-) v. to have breastmilk, let
stance (cooking oil, cream, lotion, mo- down milk (of mammals and humans).
tor oil). 2 n. adipose tissue, blubber, fat. Cerûba (Cerúbè-) n. name of a river.

cicianón cúrúkà mɛ̀sɛ̀

cicianón (cicianónì-) v. to reform, re- cuanón (cuanónì-) v. to be fluid, liquid.

pent. cuanónuƙota (cuanónuƙotí-) v. to be-
cicídè (cicídèà-) n. bird species. come liquid, liquify, melt.
cɨɨtɛ́sʉƙɔta (cɨɨtɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to fill, sate, cucu (cucu) ideo. very black.
satiate, satisfy. 2 v. to charge (electri- cucue (cucué-) n. damp chill.
cally). cucuéétòn (cucuéétònì-) 1 v. to cool
cɨkám (cɨkámá-) 1 n. women. 2 down/off (of pain or weather). 2 v. to
n. wives. feel mercy, sympathize.
cíkóróìkànànès (cíkóróìkànànèsì-) Cùcùèìka (Cùcùè-ìkà-) n. name of a hill
n. boundedness, having boundaries. or mountain.
cíkóroya (cíkóroí-) pl. cíkóróìka . n. bor- cucuéítésuƙota (cucuéítésuƙotí-) v. to
der, boundary, limit. chill, cool down.
cikwa (cikó-) pl. cikóíka . n. male animal. cucuéítésuƙota ɡúróe v. to calm or cool
cìɔ̀n (cìɔ̀nì-) v. to be full, sated, satiated, down one’s heart.
satisfied. cucuéón (cucuéónì-) 1 v. to be chilly,
cɨɔnʉƙɔta (cɨɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to become full, cool. 2 v. to be weak . 3 v. to be
sated, satiated. bland, stale.
Cɔ́ƙɔ́tɔ̀m (Cɔ́ƙɔ́tɔ̀mɛ̀-) n. Dodoth people. cucuéónuƙota (cucuéónuƙotí-) v. to
Cɔ́ƙɔ́tɔ̀mɛ̀àm (Cɔ́ƙɔ́tɔ̀mɛ̀-àmà-) cool down/off (of pain or weather).
n. Dodoth person . cue (cué-) 1 n. liquid, water. 2 n. baby
còòkààm (còòkà-àmà-) pl. cookaika . 1 girl. 3 n. taboo of failing to give water
n. cowherd, shepherd. 2 n. guard, to the elders first.
watchman. 3 n. defender, guardian, cúédòm (cúé-dòmà-) pl. cúédomitín.
protector. n. water pot used to keep clean water
cookaama zíkɛ́siicé n. prison guard. inside the hut.
cookaika ínóe n. wildlife authorities. Lit. cueina mɛ́sɛ̀ n. beer leftover from a cere-
‘guardians of animals’. mony or group work-day. Lit. ‘waters
cookés (cookésí-) 1 v. to shepherd, tend of beer’.
(livestock). 2 v. to defend, guard, pro- cúémúcè (cúé-múcèè-) pl. cúémúcèìka .
tect. n. ditch, watercourse, waterway.
cookotós (cookotósí-) v. to be guarded, cúénêba (cúé-nébù-) pl. cúénébitín.
protected, tended. n. body of water.
coór (coorí-) pl. cooríka . n. leg rattle cúkúɗùm (cúkúɗùmù-) n. male moun-
tied below the knee. tain reedbuck. Redunca fulvorufula.
cooríɡwà (coorí-ɡwàà-) n. bee-eater. Curuka (Curukú-) n. name of a hill or
Lit. ‘rattle-bird’. Merops sp. See also mountain. Lit. ‘bull’.
keseníɡwà. cúrúka (cúrúkù-) pl. cúrúkaikwa . 1
cuááka (cuá-ákà-) n. permanent water n. bull. 2 n. male, sire, stud.
source (like a spring or well). Lit. cúrúkà mɛ̀sɛ̀ n. barm or yeast used in
‘water-mouth’. brewing beer. Lit. ‘sire of beer’.

Curukúdɛ̀ cwɛtéém

Curukúdɛ̀ (Curukú-dɛ̀à-) n. base of Cu- hand’ that may have taken on a nar-
ruk mountain. Lit. ‘bull-foot’. rower meaning for some Ik speakers.
cwɛta (cwɛtá-) pl. cwɛ̀tìka . n. upper arm. cwɛtéém (cwɛté-émè-) n. bicep and/or
An older form of the word kwɛta ‘arm, tricep. Lit. ‘upper arm flesh’.

dà dáŋádidí

dà (<dòòn) v. dakúdɛ̀ (dakú-dɛ̀à-) pl. dakwitínídɛíka .
daás (daasí-) 1 n. beauty, handsome- n. base/foot of a tree. Lit. ‘tree-foot’.
ness, loveliness, prettiness. 2 n. gen- dakúkwɛ́ta (dakú-kwɛ́tà-) pl. dakúkwɛ́-
erosity, magnanimity, philanthropy. 3 tíka . n. bough, branch, limb. Lit. ‘tree-
n. agreeableness, niceness, pleasant- arm’.
ness. 4 n. glory, radiance, splendor. dakúsɔ́ka (dakú-sɔ́kɔ̀-) pl. dakúsɔ́kítín.
5 n. holiness, sanctity. n. root. Lit. ‘tree-hoof’.
dàbìʝa (dàbìʝà-) n. bird species. dakwa (dakú-) pl. dakwitín. 1 n. plant,
dàbu (dàbù) ideo. mushily, softly, ten- shrub, tree. 2 n. wood. 3 n. piece of
derly. wood, pole, stick. 4 n. firewood.
dabúdòn (dabúdònì-) 1 v. to be mushy, dakwa kɔn n. one million. Lit. ‘one
soft (like a ripe avocado). 2 v. to be tree’.
soft and tender (like a baby). See also dàƙwa (dàƙwà) ideo. weakly.
burádòn. daƙwádòn (daƙwádònì-) v. to be debile,
dadáŋ (dadáŋì-) pl. dadáŋín. 1 n. my sapless, weak. See also bʉláʝámɔ̀n.
grandmother. 2 n. my mother-in-law dàlìs (dàlìsà-) 1 n. small plant species
(of women). whose roots are peeled, crushed, and
dádàta (dádàtì-) pl. dadatíkwa . 1 used as soap, especially as laundry de-
n. his/her grandmother. 2 n. her tergent. Dolichos oliveri. 2 n. soap.
mother-in-law. dàn (dànì) adv. exactly, precisely.
dádata dáŋáe n. queen of an edible- Dáŋ (Dáŋá-) n. March: month of edible
termite colony. termites. See also Lɔɗʉ́ŋɛ.
dádò (dádòò-) pl. dádoín. 1 n. your dáŋ (dáŋá-) n. termite species whose
grandmother. 2 n. your mother-in-law winged alates are traditionally caught
(of women). and consumed as a major source of nu-
daiƙota (<doonuƙota ) v. trition.
daites (daitesí-) v. to adorn, beautify, dáŋáàka (dáŋá-àkà-) pl. dáŋáakitín.
embellish, make lovely or nice. n. opening in an edible-termite mound.
Lit. ‘termite-mouth’.
daitetésá así v. to beautify oneself, make
dáŋádadáta (dáŋá-dadátí-) pl. dáŋáda-
oneself look good.
dátíkwa . n. queen of an edible-termite
dàʝa (dàʝà-) pl. daʝitín. n. beer residue, colony. Lit. ‘termite-grandmother’.
draff, dregs. See also ɗʉká.
dáŋádɛ̀ (dáŋá-dɛ̀à-) pl. dáŋádɛíka .
Dakáya (Dakáì-) n. a personal name. n. base of an edible-termite mound. Lit.
dakúáƙwa (dakú-áƙɔ̀-) n. forest, wood- ‘termite-foot’.
land. See also ríʝáàƙwa . dáŋádidí (dáŋá-didíì-) n. annual rain
dakúɓɔ́l (dakú-ɓɔ́lɛ̀-) pl. dakwitíníɓɔ- which stimulates the mass flight of ed-
lɨtín. n. tree trunk. Lit. ‘tree-shin’. ible termites.

dáŋáhò déƙwítetés

dáŋáhò (dáŋá-hòò-) pl. dáŋáhoíka . déé (=déé) dem. that (one already
n. housing of grass and soil made known or mentioned).
to trap edible termites as they emerge dɛɛda (dɛɛdɛ-) pl. dɛ̀ìkìn. 1 n. foot, leg (of
from the ground to fly. a particular person or thing). 2 n. base,
dáŋáʝʉ̀m (dáŋá-ʝʉ̀mʉ̀-) n. dirt mixed foot (of a particular non-animal thing).
with edible termites inside a trapping 3 n. handle. 4 n. butt of a gun.
dɛ̀ɛ̀dà hòe n. footer, foundation, ground-
dáŋákìtsa (dáŋá-kìtsà-) pl. dáŋákitsitín. work. Lit. ‘foot of a house’.
n. abandoned edible-termite mound.
dɛ́ɡɛ̀mɔ̀n (dɛ́ɡɛ̀mɔ̀nì-) v. to crouch, duck
dáŋámoróka (dáŋá-morókú-) pl. dá- down. See also rábʉ̀xɔ̀n.
ŋámorókíka . n. hollow clay column
built up by edible termites. Lit. dɛ̀ìkà àɗe n. traditional three-legged
‘termite-throat’. stool. Lit. ‘three legs’.
dáŋátsóya (dáŋá-tsóí-) n. season for har- dɛ̀ìkàɔ 1 n. on the feet or legs. 2 n. un-
vesting edible termites (usually around derfoot.
March). dɛɨkatsɨrím (dɛɨka-tsɨrímʉ́-) pl. dɛɨkatsɨ-
dáŋéèkwa (dáŋé-èkù-) pl. dáŋéekwitín. rímíka . n. metal anklet.
n. outlet in the ground from which dɛ̀ìkɔ n. by foot, on foot.
edible termites emerge to fly. Lit.
dɛ̀ʝɛ (dɛ̀ʝɛ̀) ideo. chubbily, plumply.
dɛʝɛ́dɔ̀n (dɛʝɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be chubby,
dayaakón (dayaakónì-) v. to be good,
nice, proper (of many).
dɛ (dɛá-) pl. dɛ̀ìka . 1 n. foot, leg. 2 deka (deké-) pl. dekitín. n. long deco-
n. footprint. 3 n. base, foot (of non- rated goat-leather hind-apron worn by
animal things). 4 n. tire, tire track, women and swished like a tail during
wheel. 5 n. taboo of neglecting to dances.
share the hind-quarters of bushmeat dekitíníàm (dekitíní-àmà-) pl. dekití-
with the elders. níika . n. an unmarried woman who
dɛááƙwa (dɛá-áƙɔ̀-) n. sole of the foot. may be promiscuous and who may
have had a child out of wedlock; hussy.
dɛáám (dɛá-ámà-) pl. dɛɨkaika . 1
n. courier, footman, messenger. 2 dèƙwa (dèƙù-) n. argument, dispute,
n. disciple, follower. quarrel.
dɛáɡwarí (dɛá-ɡwaríì-) n. top of the deƙwideƙos (deƙwideƙosí-) v. to be
foot. argumentative, contentious, quarrel-
dɛákɔ́rɔ́ka (dɛá-kɔ́rɔ́kʉ́-) pl. dɛákɔ́rɔ́kíka . some.
n. toe. Lit. ‘foot-finger’. deƙwideƙosíám (deƙwideƙosí-ámà-) pl.
dɛámóróka (dɛá-mórókú-) pl. dɛɨkamo- deƙwideƙosííka . n. quarreler, quarrel-
rókíka . n. ankle. Lit. ‘foot-throat’. See some person.
also kɔpɨkɔpa . déƙwítetés (déƙwítetésí-) v. to argue
dɛ̀dɛ̀s (dɛ̀dɛ̀sà-) n. willow warbler. Phyl- with, contradict, fight, start a quarrel
loscopus trochilus. with.

dèmìywa dikwétóna ŋabɔ́bɔ̀ɔ̀

dèmìywa (dèmìyò-) pl. demííkwa . rainy weather ailments like body aches
n. wild olive: tree whose termite- and pains. 4 n. soldiers.
proof wood is used in building and for Dìdìàka (Dìdì-àkà-) n. name of a river.
firewood and whose black berries are Lit. ‘rain-mouth’.
eaten and used as a dye, whose bark is
dìdìàka (dìdì-àkà-) pl. didiakɨtín. n. ero-
crushed, soaked, and drunk for malaria,
sion, landslide, mudslide. Lit. ‘rain-
and whose roots are pounded and used
mouth’. See also bɔ̀ròtsa .
for stomach ailments. Olea europaea
(africana). didiɡwarí (didi-ɡwaríì-) 1 n. atmo-
sphere, sky, outer space. 2 n. afterlife,
dèŋ (dèŋè) ideo. a long time (esp. wait-
heaven. 3 n. God. 4 n. salt. Lit.
ing in vain).
dɛŋɛlɛs (dɛŋɛlɛsí-) 1 v. to raise (the leg)
dìdìke n. up, upward.
to kick. 2 v. to spread (legs) apart
while standing. didiɲeɗeké (didi-ɲeɗekéè-) n. sickness
associated with rainy weather or drink-
dɛŋɛlɛsá dɛáɛ 1 v. to stride. 2 v. to strad-
ing cold water (thus being perhaps flu
or pneumonia).
dɛŋʉ́ɲʉ́nɔ́s (dɛŋʉ́ɲʉ́nɔ́sí-) v. to hate
dìdìɔ̀ka (dìdì-ɔ̀kà-) n. clear sky. Lit.
each other.
dɛ̀r (dɛ̀rɛ̀) ideo. anemically, feebly,
didis (didisá-) pl. dídìsìka . n. female gen-
italia, pubic area, pudendum.
dɛ̀rɛ̀dɛ̀r (dɛ̀rɛ̀dɛ̀rɛ̀) ideo. sound of a metal
didisíɔ́ka (didisí-ɔ́kà-) n. pubic bone, pu-
saucepan rolling.
dɛrɛ́dɔ̀n (dɛrɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be anemic, fee-
didisísítsʼa (didisí-sítsʼà-) n. pubic hair.
ble, frail.
Lit. ‘pubis-hair’. See also ɔ́zàsìtsʼa .
dɛrɛ́ƙa (dɛrɛ́ƙì-) pl. dɛrɛ́ƙíka . 1 n. hornet,
diditsóya (didi-tsóí-) n. rainy season.
vespid, wasp. 2 n. desert rose: flower-
See also ɔtáya .
ing plant species with a big base, long
thin branches, and pink flowers that at- díí (=díí) dem. those (already known or
tract bees and wasps; its oblong root mentioned).
is dug and rolled by children who pre- dikwa (dikwá-) pl. dikwitín. 1 n. dance,
tend it is prey in their spearing practice. song. 2 n. ring-tone.
Adenium obesum. dikwa na tsokóbè n. zigzagging men’s
detés (detésí-) v. to bring. dance modeled on the flight of Abdim’s
dèwòn (dèwònì-) v. to be extremely stork.
hard (of wood). dikwáhò (dikwá-hòò-) pl. dikwáhoíka .
dí (dí) nurs. poo-poo! (a nursery word n. dance hall, disco.
for defecating or feces). dikwétón (dikwétónì-) v. to dance.
dìdì (dìdìì-) 1 n. weather (especially dikwétóna ŋabɔ́bɔ̀ɔ̀ v. to dance at the
rain). 2 n. precipitation, rain. 3 danceground (where it is forbidden to
n. small blackish shrub species whose dance before the chief elder sings his
root decoction is drunk as a remedy for ox-song).

dikwidikos doʝánónuƙota

dikwidikos (dikwidikosí-) v. to always dìyòàm (dìyò-àmà-) pl. diyoika . n. elder

be dancing, like to dance. who sits at the lookout.
dìkwòn (dìkwònì-) v. to beat, palpi- diyoama ná zè n. chief local elder.
tate, pulsate, throb, thump. See also dìywa (dìyò-) pl. diitín. 1 n. lookout or
ƙádiƙádòn. observatory that serves as a local meet-
dɨƙwam (dɨƙwamá-) pl. dɨƙwámíka . ing place for men. 2 n. ethnic group,
n. headrest, pillow (traditionally a people, tribe.
stone or stool). dɔ́bàtòda (dɔ́bà-tòdà-) n. muddled talk,
díƙwɛ́s (díƙwɛ́sì-) v. to prop or rest (the nonsense. Lit. ‘mud-talk’.
head on a stone or stool). dódètòn (dódètònì-) v. to begin aching
dililitsʼ (dililitsʼá-) n. dipteran, gnat. or hurting.
Dímán (Dímánì-) n. name of a large area dodíka (dodíkí-) n. plant species whose
to the south of Lopokóka . big brown fruits are edible and sweet
and whose branching stems are used to
Dímánìàka (Dímánì-àkà-) n. name of
make mingling sticks. Canthium sp.
a mountain and associated river. Lit.
‘Dímán’s mouth’. dodimórón (dodimórónì-) v. to be
frozen or paralyzed (out of fear).
dimés (dimésí-) v. to deny, refuse, reject.
Dɔ́dɔ̀f (Dɔ́dɔ̀fà-) n. name of a river.
dimésá bubue ŋɔɛsí n. dyspepsia, indi-
gestion. Lit. ‘refusal of the stomach to dódòka (dódòkù-) pl. dódokaikwa .
grind’. n. malnourished child (as when births
are not spaced adequately, leading to a
dimités (dimitésí-) v. to forbid, prohibit, lack of breastmilk).
proscribe. See also itáléés.
dódòn (dódònì-) v. to ache, be painful,
dimitetés (dimitetésí-) v. to forbid, pro- hurt.
hibit, proscribe.
dɔ́dɔ̀rɔ̀n (dɔ́dɔ̀rɔ̀nì-) v. to move on one’s
dìr (dìrì) ideo. compactedly. buttocks.
diriɓá (<diriɓóón) v. dɔ́dɔrɔnʉƙɔta (dɔ́dɔrɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to
diriɓóón (diriɓóónì-/diriɓá-) v. to be im- move away on one’s buttocks.
movable, stabile, stationary. dòɗa (dòɗì-) pl. doɗitín. n. vagina.
diridírón (diridírónì-) v. to be sugary, dòɗìdòɗìɡwà (dòɗìdòɗì-ɡwàà-) n. bird
sweet. species. Lit. ‘vagina-vagina bird’.
dirídòn (dirídònì-) 1 v. to be compacted, dòɗìèkwa (dòɗì-èkù-) n. uterine cervix.
hard (of a full container like a bag of Lit. ‘vagina-eye’.
cement or sack of grain). 2 v. to be dɔ́ɡɔ̀lɔ̀mɔ̀n (dɔ́ɡɔ̀lɔ̀mɔ̀nì-) v. to be bent,
insolent, insubordinate. bowed (like a bow or bowlegged per-
diriʝiʝa (diriʝiʝí-) pl. diríʝíʝìka . n. gingiva, son).
gum. doʝánónuƙota (doʝánónuƙotí-) v. to
dɨrɨɲíɲɔ́n (dɨrɨɲíɲɔ́nì-) v. to be tough: freak out, go crazy, panic, go into pan-
hard to chew or crush. demonium.

dòkìr dúduránón

dòkìr (dòkìrà-) pl. dokíraikwa . n. old donitiésuƙota (donitiesúƙotí-) v. to do-

honeycomb filled with crystallized nate or give out sporadically.
honey. dòòn (dòònì-/da-) 1 v. to be at-
doƙofiés (doƙofiesí-) v. to bark at, speak tractive, beautiful, fair, fine, good-
harshly to. looking, handsome, lovely, pretty. 2
dòl (dòlò) ideo. loosely or unfastenedly. v. to be agreeable, nice, pleas-
ant. 3 v. to be generous, magnani-
dolés (dolésí-) v. to pull back, retract
mous,philanthropic. 4 v. to be glori-
(e.g. the foreskin). See also rʉʝɛ́s.
ous, radiant, resplendent, splendid. 5
doletés (doletésí-) v. to pull back, retract v. holy, saintly.
(esp. the foreskin).
dòònìàm (dòònì-àmà-) pl. dooniika .
doletésá kwaní v. to pull back or retract n. generous, magnanimous person.
the foreskin.
doonuƙota (doonuƙotí-/daiƙot-) v. to
doletésá ɔ́zàɛ v. to project an anorectal
become better, improve (in any of the
appendage (to catch prey).
characteristics expressed by dòòn). See
dolódòn (dolódònì-) v. to be loose, unaf- also xɔ́dɔnʉƙɔta .
fixed, unfastened (like a hoe on its han-
dle). See also roiróón. dosés (dosésí-) v. to thatch.
dololoƙa (dololoƙí-) pl. dolólóƙìka . dɔ̀x (dɔ̀xà-) pl. dɔxɨtín. n. dried rheum,
n. grain kernels hollowed out by wee- mucopurulent discharge: thin mucus
vils. See also dololotsʼa . secreted from the eyes, nose, or mouth.
dololotsʼa (dololotsʼí-) pl. dolólótsʼìka . dɔxɛ́s (dɔxɛ́sí-) v. to berate, chide, re-
n. grain kernels hollowed out by wee- buke, reprimand, scold.
vils. See also dololoƙa . dɔxɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (dɔxɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to berate,
dóm (dómá-) pl. dómítín. n. cooking chide, rebuke, reprimand, scold.
pan or pot. dɔ̂ba (dɔ́bà-) pl. dɔ́bɨtín. n. mire, muck,
dómá na buɗám n. clay pot blackened mud.
from soot.
dʉbam (dʉbamá-) n. dough. Lit. ‘knead-
dómáìm (dómá-ìmà-) pl. dómítíníwika . able’.
n. small cooking pan or pot.
dʉbɛ́s (dʉbɛ́sí-) 1 v. to knead, work (mix-
dómóɔ̀z (dómó-ɔ̀zà-) pl. dómítíníɔzɨtín. ing a solid with a liquid). 2 v. to ruffle,
n. bottom of a cooking pot or pan. tousle. 3 v. to call for rain by putting
dómóɔ̀zà mɛ̀sɛ̀ n. beer dregs left at the leaves in water in a calabash and then
bottom of a pot. sprinkling water into the air.
dónés (dónésì-) v. to donate, give out, dʉ́bɛ̀s (dʉ́bɛ̀sì-) v. to capture, catch
present. (with the hands).
dónésìàm (dónésì-àmà-) pl. dónésiika . dúduránón (dúduránónì-) v. to be puffy,
n. donor, philanthropist. swollen (of skin, as from a bee-sting,
dónésuƙota (dónésuƙotí-) v. to donate, poisonous plant, or rash). See also
give out, present. leɓúdòn.

dʉɗɛ́r duxúdòn

dʉɗɛ́r (dʉɗɛ́rɛ̀-) pl. dʉɗɛ́ríka . n. biting dunaakóniika (dunaakóni-icé-) n. the el-

water beetle (reported to draw blood if derly, old people.
swallowed). dúnéìm (dúné-ìmà-) pl. dúnéikwa .
dʉ́ɡʉ̀mɛ̀tɔ̀n (dʉ́ɡʉ̀mɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to bend or n. old woman.
hunch over. Dúnémoróka (Dúné-morókú-) n. name
dʉ́ɡʉ̀mɔ̀n (dʉ́ɡʉ̀mɔ̀nì-) v. to be bent or of a hill or mountain. Lit. ‘old-voice’.
hunched over. dúnésìàm (dúnésì-àmà-) pl. dúnésiika .
a n. elderly or old person.
duƙésúƙot (duƙésúƙotí-) v. to take
(somewhere). dúnésòn (dúnésònì-) 1 v. to be elderly,
duƙésúƙota mòràe v. to flee, run away. old. 2 v. to be doddery, senile.
Lit. ‘to take the fear’. dunétón (dunétónì-) v. to age, grow old.
dùl (dùlù) ideo. mushily, squishily. dununúòn (dununúònì-) v. to be minis-
dulátsʼámòn (dulátsʼámònì-) v. to be cule, tiny.
juicy (of oily foods like meat). duŋúlúmòn (duŋúlúmònì-) 1 v. to be
Dúlél (Dúlélí-) n. name of a certain blunt, dull. 2 v. to be born without
stream with a rock beehive. a hand. See also líídòn and tufádòn.
dulúdòn (dulúdònì-) v. to be mushy, dùràtsa (dùràtsì-) pl. dúrátsìka .
squishy (like feces, mud, or rotten n. brown jewel beetle. Buprestidae.
fruit). See also duxúdòn. dʉrʉdʉr (dʉrʉdʉrá-) pl. dʉrʉ́dʉ̀rìka . 1
dúlúƙuƙú (dúlúƙuƙúù-) pl. dúlúƙuƙú- n. carpenter bee. Xylocopa sp. 2 n. ra-
ìka . n. small round or oval gourd used dio. 3 n. mobile phone.
as cup or container. dʉrʉdʉra na tímoí n. hand-held HF ra-
dulúmón (dulúmónì-) 1 v. to become dio, walkie-talkie . Lit. ‘carpenter bee
suddenly diarrheal, loose. 2 v. to erupt, with a tail’.
flare up, ignite. dús (dúsé-) pl. dúsítín. n. grassland,
dʉmɛ́ɗɛ́mɔ̀n (dʉmɛ́ɗɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be dis- plain, savannah.
tractible, have a short attention span. dùù (dùù) ideo. deeply.
dʉmʉ́n (dʉmʉ́ná-) pl. dʉmʉ́náikw . dʉʉdʉ́ (dʉʉdʉ́) nurs. sitty-sit! (a nurs-
n. dung beetle. ery word for sitting down).
dʉmʉ́ná mòrìɗòe n. bruchid beetle. Lit. dùx (dùxù) ideo. mushily, squishily.
‘beetle of beans’. Bruchidae. duxúdòn (duxúdònì-) v. to be mushy,
dunaakón (dunaakónì-) v. to be elderly, squishy (like feces, mud, or rotten
old (of many). fruit). See also dulúdòn.

ɗa ɗàwa

ɗa (ɗi-) pro. these ones. ɗáƙón (ɗáƙónì-) v. to slur, speak indis-
ɗa (ɗɨ-) pro. this one. tinctly. See also iŋáʝápánón.
ɗa áɗònì pro. the third (one). ɗalés (ɗalésí-) v. to scoop out (water
slowly seeping out of river sand). See
ɗa ʝírì pro. the last (one).
also ɨlaɓɛtɛ́s and tɛ́bɛtɛ́s.
ɗa kɔ́nɔ̀nì pro. the first (one).
ɗálútés (ɗálútésí-) v. to hit, strike.
ɗa leɓétsónì pro. the second (one).
ɗam (ɗamʉ́-) pl. ɗamɨtín. n. brain.
ɗa na pro. this one.
ɗamatés (ɗamatésí-) 1 v. to set fire to. 2
ɗa ne pro. that one. v. to fire or open fire on.
ɗa ni pro. these ones. ɗamɨɗámɔ́n (ɗamɨɗámɔ́nì-) v. to jump
ɗa tsʼaɡúsónì pro. the fourth (one). up and down excitedly.
ɗa túdònì pro. the fifth (one). ɗàmʉ̀s (ɗàmʉ̀sʉ̀) 1 adv. fast, quickly. 2
ɗa wáxì pro. the first (one). subordconn. before. 3 subordconn. un-
ɗàɗa (ɗàɗà-) pl. ɗaɗitín. n. honey. less. 4 subordconn. until. See also
ɗàɗàɡwà (ɗàɗà-ɡwàà-) n. dragonfly.
Lit. ‘honey-bird’. ɗàŋìɗàŋ (ɗàŋìɗàŋì) quant. all, entire,
ɗàɗàhò (ɗàɗà-hòò-) pl. ɗaɗahoíka .
n. honeycomb. Lit. ‘honey-house’. See ɗapálámɔ̀n (ɗapálámɔ̀nì-) v. to be flat
also tsʼɨƙáhò. (of objects rather than land).
ɗaɗátésuƙota (ɗaɗátésuƙotí-) 1 v. to ɗaráɗáránón (ɗaráɗáránónì-) v. to be
drop or spill. 2 v. to hold or push down losing, molting, or shedding.
(e.g. a person in a fight). ɗarámɔ́n (ɗarámɔ́nì-) v. to slide or
ɗàɗèèwa (ɗàɗè-èò-) pl. ɗaɗeewitín. slough off (like boiled feathers or dead
n. leather honey bag. tissue).
ɗáɗítés (ɗáɗítésí-) v. to consume, de- Ɗàsòƙa (Ɗàsòƙò-) n. Dodoth County,
vour, inhale (food or drink). area around Kàlàpàtà.
ɗáɗítésa ríʝáe v. to crash through brush. ɗàsòn (ɗàsònì-) v. to be even, flat, level
Lit. ‘to devour forest’. (of an area).
ɗàka (ɗàkà) ideo. dryly as a bone. ɗatáɗátánón (ɗatáɗátánónì-) v. to be
ɗakɨtár (ɗakɨtárì-) pl. ɗakɨtárìka . decayed, decomposed, rotted.
n. clinic, health center, hospital, infir- ɗatáɲámòn (ɗatáɲámònì-) v. to be
mary. barrel-shaped, cylindrical.
ɗakɨtárìàm (ɗakɨtárì-àmà-) pl. ɗakɨtá- ɗatólóɲòn (ɗatólóɲònì-) v. to be unsta-
riika . 1 n. doctor, physician. 2 n. nurse. ble, unsturdy. See also ikáɓóɓánón.
ɗakɨtárɨama ínóe n. animal doctor, vet- ɗàwa (ɗàò-) pl. ɗáwítín. 1 n. blade,
erinarian, vet. knife. 2 n. propeller blade.

ɗɛɗɛanón ɗìɗa

ɗɛɗɛanón (ɗɛɗɛanónì-) v. to crack, clothing; hunters often remove cloth-

crackle, pop (like roasting maize, tree ing before trying to penetrate its brush;
on fire, thunder, gunfire, or people talk- found down in the Turkana plains, it is
ing angrily). See also rɛɗɛɗánón. used for fencing and is eaten by live-
ɗɛ́f (ɗɛ́fɛ́-) pl. ɗɛ́fítín. n. small well- stock. Acacia senegal. See also lofílitsí.
worn leather mat (often used as a sleep- ɗɛ̀rɛ̀tsa (ɗɛ̀rɛ̀tsà-) n. small pieces or
ing mat for children). sticks of kindling or tinder.
ɗɛ̀ka (ɗɛ̀kà-) pl. ɗɛ́kítín. n. small gourd ɗérócɛmɛ́r (ɗéró-cɛmɛ́rí-) n. rat poison
used to churn butter. (modern or traditional).
ɗɛ̀ƙwɔ̀n (ɗɛ̀ƙwɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be bland, fla- ɗéródɛíka (ɗéró-dɛíká-) n. pitter-
vorless, tasteless, vapid. 2 v. to not pattering rain. Lit. ‘mouse-feet’.
make any sense. See also ʝɔ̀lɔ̀n. ɗɛsɛ́ɗɛ́sánón (ɗɛsɛ́ɗɛ́sánónì-) v. to
ɗɛlɛ́mɔ́n (ɗɛlɛ́mɔ́nì-) 1 v. to cling, stick break or come apart (like an old rope).
(e.g. parasites). 2 v. to stick to, ɗɛsɛ́mɔ́n (ɗɛsɛ́mɔ́nì-) 1 v. to break, cut
stick with (as in to continue on, remain (like a rope or wire). 2 v. to connect,
with). join, rejoin.
ɗɛ̀m (ɗɛ̀mɛ̀) ideo. chattily, talkatively. ɗɛtɛ́ɗɛ́tánón (ɗɛtɛ́ɗɛ́tánónì-) 1 v. to
ɗɛmɛ́dɔ̀n (ɗɛmɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be chatty, be strewn about (like bones or feces).
talkative. See also ɗɛmɨɗɛ́mɔ́n and 2 v. to laugh uproariously (‘fall over
ɨkʉ́tʉ́kánón. laughing’).
ɗɛ́tɛ́s (ɗɛ́tɛ́sì-) v. to blow (a projectile).
ɗɛmɨɗɛ́mɔ́n (ɗɛmɨɗɛ́mɔ́nì-) v. to be
chatty, talkative. See also ɗɛmɛ́dɔ̀n and ɗɛ̀tsɛ (ɗɛ̀tsɛ̀) ideo. fetidly, foully.
ɨkʉ́tʉ́kánón. ɗɛtsɨɗɛ́tsɔ́n (ɗɛtsɨɗɛ́tsɔ́nì-) v. to be fetid,
ɗɛ̀mʉ̀s (ɗɛ̀mʉ̀sʉ̀) 1 adv. fast, quickly. 2 foul, rank.
subordconn. before. 3 subordconn. un- ɗɛʉɗɛ́wɔ́n (ɗɛʉɗɛ́wɔ́nì-) v. to ring hol-
less. 4 subordconn. until. See also low, sound empty.
ɗàmʉ̀s. ɗewen (ɗewení-) pl. ɗewéníkwa .
ɗɛ̀ɲ (ɗɛ̀ɲɛ̀) ideo. flatly. n. large tree species with small ed-
ible yellow fruits and whose bark
ɗɛɲɨɗɛɲɔs (ɗɛɲɨɗɛɲɔsí-) v. to be restless,
is decocted and drunk for abdomi-
nal ailments associated with the ap-
ɗɛ̀pɛ (ɗɛ̀pɛ̀) ideo. thinly. pendix, pancreas, liver, pancreas, etc.
ɗɛpɛ́dɔ̀n (ɗɛpɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be undesir- Berchemia discolor.
ably thin (like a thin sleeping mat). ɗɛ̂ɡa (ɗɛ́ɡɛ̀-) n. tamarind seeds.
Compare with bɛɗɛ́dɔ̀n.
ɗì (ɗì) 1 ideo. switch! (sound made by a
ɗér (ɗéró-) n. mouse, rat. small stick hitting skin). 2 ideo. snapǃ
ɗérá na áwìkàe n. house rat. (sound of small sticks breaking).
ɗeréta (ɗerétú-) pl. ɗerétíkwa . n. Sudan ɗiaka (ɗiaká-) pl. ɗiakáikwa . n. baby,
gum arabic or gum acacia: tree species infant, suckling.
with hooked thorns that rip skin and ɗìɗa (ɗìɗè-) n. ass, donkey.

Ɗìɗèàwa ɗɔanés

Ɗìɗèàwa (Ɗìɗè-àwà-) n. name of a down low (e.g. into a deep valley). 3

place in Timu Forest. Lit. ‘donkey- v. to screw around on an errand.
place’. ɗípɔ̀ (ɗípɔ̀ɔ̀-) pl. ɗɨpɔ́íka . 1 n. clearing
ɗiɗecúrúka (ɗiɗe-cúrúkù-) n. jack: male or glade where crops are dried and/or
donkey. threshed. 2 n. animal bed. 3 n. open
ɗìɗèìm (ɗìɗè-ìmà-) pl. ɗiɗewika . n. foal: air market. See also ɓɔɗa .
young donkey. ɗìr (ɗìrì) adv. right or straight away.
ɗìɗèkwàtsa (ɗìɗè-kwàtsì-) n. stale, wa- ɗír (ɗírá-/ɗíró-) 1 n. semen, sperm. 2
tery beer (often with a reddish color). n. nocturnal emission.
Lit. ‘donkey-piss’.
ɗis (ɗisá-) n. belowground, under-
ɗìɗèŋàm (ɗìɗè-ŋàmà-) n. sorghum va- ground.
riety with brownish-gray seeds. Lit.
ɗítá (ɗítá) prep. as, like. A noun follow-
ing this word takes the genitive case.
ɗiɗeŋwa (ɗiɗe-ŋwaá-) n. jenny: female
ɗítɛ́s (ɗítɛ́sì-) v. to remove or take gin-
gerly (as when uprooting seedlings for
ɗìɗèsɔ̀ka (ɗìɗè-sɔ̀kɔ̀-) n. stool with two transplating).
legs and circular foot and head. Lit.
ɗítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɗítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to remove or
take away gingerly.
ɗìɗèwàz (ɗìɗè-wàzò-) n. female foal:
young female donkey. ɗiwaakón (ɗiwaakónì-) v. to be red (of
ɗíɗítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɗíɗítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to pick-
pocket, sneak, snitch. Ɗiwamúce (Ɗiwa-múceé-) n. August:
month of worn trails. Lit. ‘the trail is
ɗíɗítɛtɛ́s (ɗíɗítɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pick-pocket, worn’. See also Iɗátáŋɛ́r and Lósʉ́ɓán.
sneak, snitch.
ɗiwiɗíwón (ɗiwiɗíwónì-) v. to be pink-
ɗíɗítɔ̀n (ɗíɗítɔ̀nì-) v. to breathe fitfully
(like a crying child or someone dying).
ɗiwítésuƙota (ɗiwítésuƙotí-) v. to make
ɗiisí (ɗiisíì-) n. District Commissioner.
red, redden.
ɗɨɨta (ɗɨɨtí-) n. bird species.
ɗìwòn (ɗìwònì-) 1 v. to be red. 2 v. to be
ɗilata (ɗilatí-) pl. ɗilátikwa . n. vine brown-skinned. 3 v. to be well worn
species whose root decoction is highly (of footpaths or roads).
ɗìwònìàm (ɗìwònì-àmà-) pl. ɗiwoniika .
ɗɨnɛ́s (ɗɨnɛ́sí-) v. to block, obstruct, stop n. brown-skinned person.
ɗiwonuƙota (ɗiwonuƙotí-) v. to become
ɗɨnɔ́s (ɗɨnɔ́sí-) 1 v. to be blocked, ob- red, redden.
structed, stopped up. 2 v. to be con-
gested (e.g. from nasal allergies). 3 Ɗɔan (Ɗɔaní-) n. a personal name.
v. to be stone-deaf. ɗɔan (ɗɔaní-) 1 n. weed(s). 2 n. weed-
ɗipímón (ɗipímónì-) 1 v. to calm, cool, ing.
die, or settle down. 2 v. to descend, go ɗɔanés (ɗɔanésí-) v. to weed.

ɗoɗékwa ɗɔmɔ́dɔ̀n

ɗoɗékwa (ɗoɗékú-) n. corner of the eye, ɗóɗoŋwa (ɗóɗo-ŋwaá-) n. ewe: female

peripheral vision. sheep.
ɗóɗés (ɗóɗésì-) 1 v. to indicate, point ɗóɗòsìtsʼa (ɗóɗò-sìtsʼà-) n. fleece, wool.
at/to/out. 2 v. to show.
ɗóɗotimóya (ɗóɗo-timóí-) pl. ɗóɗo-
ɗóɗésa muceé v. to get going, set out, timóíka . n. tail of fat-tailed sheep,
take off. Lit. ‘to show the way’. highly prized for its oil content.
ɗoɗésúƙota (ɗoɗésúƙotí-) 1 v. to indi- ɗɔ́f (ɗɔ́fá-) n. shrew.
cate, point at/out/to. 2 v. to demon-
strate, illustrate, show. 3 v. to expose, ɗɔ́ɡɨɗɔ̂ɡa (ɗɔ́ɡɨɗɔ́ɡɔ̀-) pl. ɗɔ́ɡɨɗɔ́ɡìka .
reveal. 4 v. to introduce. 5 v. to an- n. yellow sugar-ant species often found
nounce, report. eating honey.
ɗoɗésúƙota ɲásáatí v. to tell the time. ɗɔ̀kɔ (ɗɔ̀kɔ̀) ideo. scrumptiously, yum-
Lit. ‘to point to the hour’. mily.
ɗóɗiés (ɗóɗiesí-) 1 v. to pinpoint. 2 ɗɔkɔ́dɔ̀n (ɗɔkɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be scrump-
v. to bewitch by pointing, point to se- tious, yummy.
cretly so as to curse. ɗɔkɔ́lɔ́mɔ̀n (ɗɔkɔ́lɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to stammer,
ɗóɗiesá tsòònì v. to point at the sunset stutter. See also ɗákón and ɨkʉʝʉ́kʉ́ʝɔ̀n.
as a curse: “Go down with the sun at ɗókótsa (ɗókótsì-) n. sorghum variety
sunset!”. with yellow seeds and sweet canes.
ɗóɗítetés (ɗóɗítetésí-) v. to reveal, ɗòku (ɗòkù) adv. sole, solitary.
show. See also enitésúƙota .
ɗɔƙítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɗɔƙítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to dam-
ɗóɗítetésá así v. to let oneself be known,
pen, make wet, moisten.
show oneself.
Ɗóɗò (Ɗóɗòò-) n. name of a river. Lit. ɗɔ̀ƙɔ̀n (ɗɔ̀ƙɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be damp, moist,
‘sheep’. wet. 2 n. mucus, phlegm, snot, spu-
ɗóɗò (ɗóɗòò-) pl. ɗóɗòìkwa . n. sheep.
ɗɔƙɔnʉƙɔta (ɗɔƙɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to become
ɗoɗôba (ɗoɗóbà-) pl. ɗoɗóbìka . n. baby
damp, moist, or wet.
carrier or sling.
ɗòl (ɗòlì-) pl. ɗólítín. 1 n. tattered ani-
ɗóɗòbàr (ɗóɗò-bàrɔ̀-) pl. ɗóɗobarɨtín.
mal carcass with only the skin remain-
n. flock of sheep.
ing. 2 n. shell of an abandoned bee-
ɗóɗocurúka (ɗóɗo-curúkú-) n. ram: hive.
male sheep.
ɗɔ̀l (ɗɔ̀lɛ̀-) pl. ɗɔ́lítín. 1 n. small un-
ɗóɗòèm (ɗóɗò-èmè-) n. mutton: sheep
ripe pumpkin. 2 n. ulcer. See also
ɗóɗòìm (ɗóɗò-ìmà-) pl. ɗóɗowika .
ɗòlà kòn n. one billion. Lit. ‘one bee-
n. lamb: young sheep.
hive shell’.
ɗóɗòƙwàz (ɗóɗò-ƙwàzà-) 1 n. sheep-
leather clothing (with wool removed). ɗɔ̀m (ɗɔ̀mɔ̀) ideo. gluily, gooily.
2 n. short sheep-leather skirt worn by ɗɔmɔ́dɔ̀n (ɗɔmɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be gluey,
young girls. gooey.

Ɗómòka ɗués

Ɗómòka (Ɗómòkò-) n. name of a place ɗɔtsɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (ɗɔtsɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) 1 v. to add. 2

in Timu and its associated human habi- v. to add or mix in. 3 v. to add together,
tations. combine, join.
ɗooɲómòn (ɗooɲómònì-) 1 v. to be de- ɗɔtsɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta mɛnáɛ v. to summarize,
formed or missing (of an eye). 2 v. to sum up.
have a bad eye, monocular vision. ɗɔtsɛtɛ́s (ɗɔtsɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to add up, com-
ɗɔ̀r (ɗɔ̀rɔ̀) ideo. slickly, slipperily. bine. 2 v. to attach, join. 3 v. to list.
ɗɔtsɛtɛ́sá así v. to gather oneselves.
ɗoriɗórón (ɗoriɗórónì-) v. to happen
quickly (like a person appearing near ɗɔtsɛtɛ́sá tódàe v. to negotiate, reach a
after being seen from afar, or foods consensus. Lit. ‘to add up speech’.
that are cooked quickly, like rice). ɗɔtsɔ́s (ɗɔtsɔ́sí-) 1 v. to be added. 2
ɗɔrɔ́dɔ̀n (ɗɔrɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be slick, slip- v. to be attached, joined. 3 v. to be
pery. compacted.
ɗòwòn (ɗòwònì-) 1 v. to be pristine, un-
ɗorôɡa (ɗoróɡè-) pl. ɗoróɡìka . n. roan
spoiled, untouched, virginal (like a for-
antelope. Hippotragus equinus.
est). 2 v. to be left alone, unused (like
ɗòs (ɗòsì-) n. gum, mucilage. a path or old village).
ɗɔ̀s (ɗɔ̀sɔ̀) ideo. gummily. ɗòx (ɗòxò) ideo. fitly, healthily.
ɗɔsɔ́ (ɗɔsɔ́ɔ̀-) n. vine species whose ɗɔ̀x (ɗɔ̀xɔ̀) ideo. unsteadily.
seeds are eaten raw or cooked and ɗɔ́xɛáta (ɗɔ́xɛatí-) pl. ɗɔ́xɛatíka . n. star.
whose roots are eaten raw, cooked, or Ɗɔ́xɛatá na baratsóe n. morning star.
roasted. Vigna sp.
ɗɔ́xɛatá na ɓɛƙɛ́s n. satellite. Lit. ‘star
ɗɔsɔ́dɔ̀n (ɗɔsɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to gummy. that moves’.
ɗotíɗótòn (ɗotíɗótònì-) v. to go rest- ɗɔ́xɛatá na tsúwà n. meteor, shooting
lessly from place to place. star. Lit. ‘start that runs’.
ɗɔtɔ́ (ɗɔtɔ́ɔ̀-) 1 n. rubbery gum (like that Ɗɔ́xɛatá tsòònì n. morning star.
of barata ). 2 n. rubber. 3 n. chewing Ɗɔ́xɛatá xìŋàtàe n. evening star.
gum. ɗoxódòn (ɗoxódònì-) v. to be fit, heal-
ɗɔtsánón (ɗɔtsánónì-) 1 v. to be joined thy, in shape.
together. 2 v. to cooperate. 3 v. to be ɗɔxɔ́dɔ̀n (ɗɔxɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be rickety,
compacted. See also kumutsánón. wobbly (of people, while walking).
ɗɔtsánónuƙota (ɗɔtsánónuƙotí-) 1 v. to ɗɔ̀xɔ̀ƙa (ɗɔ̀xɔ̀ƙɔ̀-) pl. ɗɔxɔ́ƙíka . n. gourd
join or meet together. 2 v. to cooper- flesh, pulp.
ate. ɗuɗuanón (ɗuɗuanónì-) v. to growl,
ɗɔtsɛ́s (ɗɔtsɛ́sí-) 1 v. to add. 2 v. to grumble, gurgle (of digestion).
add or mix in. 3 v. to add together, ɗʉ̀ɗʉ̀ŋ (ɗʉ̀ɗʉ̀ŋʉ̀) ideo. to the end. See
combine, join. also tùtùr.
ɗɔtsɛ́sá ɦyekesí v. to contribute re- ɗués (ɗuesí-) v. to deracinate, extirpate,
sources. Lit. ‘to add life’. pull up, uproot. See also rués.

ɗuetés ɗùtu

ɗuetés (ɗuetésí-) v. to deracinate, extir- ɗʉmɛtɛ́s (ɗʉmɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to pick up.

pate, pull up, uproot. 2 v. to choose, pick, select. See also
ɗʉká (ɗʉkáí-) pl. ɗʉkáíka . n. beer ɨɗɛpɛtɛ́s.
residue, draff, dregs. See also dàʝa . ɗʉmʉ́dɔ̀n (ɗʉmʉ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be cooked
ɗʉkán (ɗʉkánì-) pl. ɗʉkánìka . n. kiosk, well-done.
shop, store. See also ɲáɗʉkán. ɗúó pro. because (of), due to (the fact
ɗukes (ɗukesí-) 1 n. pollen. 2 n. egg that). This word is followed either by a
yolk. 3 n. yellow color. noun in the genitive case or a subordi-
nate clause with the dummy pronoun
ɗukés (ɗukésí-) v. to strain (muscles, on its verb.
causing burning pain, especially when
climbing a steep hill or mountain). ɗʉ́r (ɗʉ́rá-) pl. ɗʉ́rítín. n. fetus.

ɗùku (ɗùkù) ideo. circularly, roundly. ɗʉ́rɛ́s (ɗʉ́rɛ́sì-) v. to pull on, tug, yank.
See also ɗʉtɛ́s.
ɗùku (ɗùkù) ideo. very smelly or stinky.
ɗʉrɛtɛ́s (ɗʉrɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pull out, yank
ɗukúditésúƙota (ɗukúditésúƙotí-) v. to out. See also ɗʉtɛtɛ́s.
make round, round.
ɗʉ̀rʉ̀ (ɗʉ̀rʉ̀ʉ̀-) n. mild vulgarity: a damn
ɗukúdòn (ɗukúdònì-) 1 v. to be circular, thing, shit, squat.
round. 2 v. to be in large denomina-
ɗʉ́rʉɗɔ́ɔ̀ (ɗʉ́rʉɗɔ́ɔ̀) interj. fool! idiotǃ
tions, undivided (of cash).
(an insult to someone who made a mis-
ɗukuɗúkón (ɗukuɗúkónì-) v. to boom, take).
rumble, thunder.
ɗusés (ɗusésí-) 1 v. to break, pull apart,
ɗukúmétòn (ɗukúmétònì-) v. to crum- separate, sever, tear. 2 v. to harvest
ble, disintegrate, fall apart. (honey by pulling out honeycombs).
ɗukúmón (ɗukúmónì-) v. to crumble, ɗusésúƙota (ɗusésúƙotí-) v. to break off,
disintegrate, fall apart. pull apart, separate, sever, tear off.
ɗuƙúkón (ɗuƙúkónì-) v. to suffer inter- ɗusúmón (ɗusúmónì-) v. to break, come
nally or quietly (from hunger or sick- apart, cut, snap, tear (of rope-like ob-
ness). jects).
ɗùl (ɗùlù) ideo. thud! (sound of a person ɗusutes (ɗusutesí-) v. to break, cut, pull
landing on the ground). apart, sever, tear (rope-like objects).
ɗúlúnós (ɗúlúnósí-) v. to be at odds, un- ɗusutesíáwa (ɗusutesí-áwà-) pl. ɗusute-
cooperative with each other. síáwíka . n. breakage point.
ɗúlútés (ɗúlútésí-) v. to pound, pummel ɗùta (ɗùtà-) pl. ɗútítín. n. huge wide-
(with a fist or stick). bottom gourd.
ɗʉ̀m (ɗʉ̀mʉ̀) ideo. very well-cooked. ɗʉtɛ́s (ɗʉtɛ́sí-) v. to pull on, tug, yank.
Ɗʉmánámérìx (Ɗʉmáná-mérìxì-) See also ɗʉ́rɛ́s.
n. name of a hill or mountain. ɗʉtɛtɛ́s (ɗʉtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pull out, yank
ɗʉmɛ́s (ɗʉmɛ́sí-) v. to pick up. See also out. See also ɗʉrɛtɛ́s.
ɨɗɛpɛs. ɗùtu (ɗùtù) ideo. very decayed or rotten.

ɗutúdòn ɗutúɗútánónuƙota

ɗutúdòn (ɗutúdònì-) v. to be decayed, ɗutúɗútánónuƙota (ɗutúɗútánónuƙotí-)

decomposed, rotten. v. to decay, decompose, rot. See also
ɗutúɗútánón (ɗutúɗútánónì-) v. to be masánétòn and mʉsánétòn.
decaying, decomposing, rotting.

dzàbùl dzôɡa

dzàbùl (dzàbùlà-) pl. dzábùlìka . n. fe- dzíɡwam (dzíɡwamá-) n. commodity,
male eland. Tragelaphus (Taurotragus) merchandise, product, or ware (bought
oryx. or sold).
dzàƙa (dzàƙà-) pl. dzáƙaikwa . n. son. dzíɡwès (dzíɡwèsì-) v. to do commerce,
dzàƙɛ̀da (dzàƙɛ̀dɛ̀-) n. his/her son. trade (sell or buy).
dzálón (dzálónì-) v. to cry easily (usu- dzíɡwèsèda (dzíɡwèsèdè-) n. price.
ally for no good reason). See also dzíɡwèsìàm (dzíɡwèsì-àmà-) pl. dzíɡw-
ɨɲɛ́ɛ́mɔ̀n. esiika . n. buyer, customer.
dzàr (dzàrà-) n. red-billed oxpecker, dzíɡwesuƙota (dzíɡwesuƙotí-) v. to sell.
tickbird. Buphagus erythrorhynchus. dzíɡwesuƙotíám (dzíɡwesuƙotí-ámà-)
dzɛ́rɛ́dzɛránón (dzɛ́rɛ́dzɛránónì-) v. to pl. dzíɡwesuƙotííka . n. seller.
be in shreds, shredded. dzíɡwetam (dzíɡwetamá-) n. commod-
dzɛrɛ́s (dzɛrɛ́sí-) 1 v. to rend, rip, shred, ity, merchandise, product, or ware (to
tear. 2 v. to strike (a match). 3 v. to be bought). Lit. ‘buyable’.
gash, slash. dzíɡwetés (dzíɡwetésí-) v. to buy.
dzeretiés (dzeretiesí- ) 1 v. to shred, dzííƙotam (dzííƙotamá-) n. commodity,
strip, tear off. 2 v. to make facial in- merchandize, product, or ware (to be
cisions. 3 v. to stripe. sold). Lit. ‘sellable’.
dzeretiésuƙota (dzeretiesúƙotí-) v. to dziŋ (dziŋá-) pl. dziŋitín. n. base, foot,
shred, strip, tear off. floor (of a house or hill).
dzɛ̀rɔ̀n (dzɛ̀rɔ̀nì-) v. to dash, tear off. dziŋánànès (dziŋánànèsì-) n. lowland
dzɛrɔ́sɔ́n (dzɛrɔ́sɔ́nì-) v. to be rent,
ripped, shredded, torn. dzɔɗáta (dzɔɗátí-) pl. dzɔɗátíka . n. rec-
dzibér (dzibérí-) pl. dzíbèrìka . n. axe,
hatchet. dzɔɗátínànès (dzɔɗátínànèsì-) n. grab-
biness, greediness. Lit. ‘acting like a
dzíbèrìkàmɛ̀s (dzíbèrìkà-mɛ̀sɛ̀-) n. an-
nual agricultural ceremony during
which beer is drunk as a reward for dzôɡa (dzóɡà-) pl. dzóɡitín. n. large
clearing new gardens and beer dregs tree species whose small red berries are
are poured all over the axes used for loved by children and baboons alike;
clearing. Lit. ‘axes-beer’. the seeds, when dried and ground,
yield a sooty black, smelly paste that
dzîɡwa (dzíɡwà-) 1 n. business, com-
women put into their hair and onto
merce, trade. 2 n. price.
their skin for cosmetic purposes; this
dzíɡwààm (dzíɡwà-àmà-) pl. dzíɡwaika . paste is also used to tan hides; the
n. buyer, customer. tree’s twigs make toothbrushes, and its
dzíɡwààwa (dzíɡwà-àwà-) pl. dzíɡwaa- wood is used for building and fencing.
wíka . n. market. See also ɲámákɛ̀ta . Pappea capensis.

dzoluɡánón dzúnánès

dzoluɡánón (dzoluɡánónì-) v. to have dzuesetés (dzuesetésí-) v. to burgle,

hidden motives. steal, thieve (and bring this way).
dzòn (dzònì-) pl. dzóníkwa . n. hand-dug dzuƙés (dzuƙésí-) 1 v. to displace, move,
well. relocate. 2 v. to pass, waste (time).
dzònìàm (dzònì-àmà-) pl. dzoniika .
dzuƙésúƙota (dzuƙésúƙotí-) v. to dis-
n. Toposa person. Lit. ‘well-person’.
place, move, or relocate away.
dzú (dzúú-) n. burglary, larceny, theft,
thievery. dzuƙetés (dzuƙetésí-) v. to displace,
move, or relocate this way.
dzúám (dzú-ámà- ) pl. dzúíka . n. bur-
gler, stealer, thief. dzúƙudzuƙiés (dzúƙudzuƙiesí-) v. to
dzuesés (dzuesésí-) v. to burgle, steal, postpone or put off repeatedly.
thieve. dzúnánès (dzúnánèsì-) n. thievery,
dzuesésúƙota así v. to sneak off/away. thieving.

eakwa eɡésá ɨtsɨkɛsí

eakwa (eakwá-) pl. ɲɔta . 1 n. man. 2 ɛdéìm (ɛdé-ìmà-) pl. ɛdɛ́wika . n. my
n. husband. niece or nephew (brother’s child).
eakwánánès (eakwánánèsì-) n. man- édès (édèsì-) v. to carry on the back.
hood, manliness, masculinity. éditíníkabáɗa (éditíní-kabáɗá-) n. list of
ɛán (ɛání-) pl. ɛáníkwa . 1 n. co-wife: names, record of attendance.
one of multiple wives of one man. 2 eɗa (eɗí-) 1 n. cereal, grain. 2 n. tip, top.
n. sister-in-law (wife of one’s hus-
ɛɗá (ɛɗá) adv. alone, only, solely.
band’s brother).
eɗa ni erútsa n. harvest of new grain.
eaŋanes (eaŋanesí-) v. to be happy, joy-
ful. eɗeda (eɗede-) pl. eɗin. 1 n. kernel, seed.
2 n. embryo. 3 n. bullet. 4 n. glans
eas (easí-) 1 n. truth, verity. 2 n. hon- penis. See also ekweda .
esty, integrity, transparency.
eɗímɛ́s (eɗí-mɛ́sɛ̀-) n. grain beer.
easíám (easí-ámà-) pl. easííka . n. honest
person, truthful person. eɗin (eɗini-) n. fruit(s).
ee interj. yeah, yes. The tone on this
easíke n. really, truly.
word may vary in pronunciation.
ɛ́bàdɛ̀ (ɛ́bà-dɛ̀à-) pl. ɛ́badɛíka . n. gun-
éétòn (éétònì-) v. to become full, fill.
stock, stock. Lit. ‘gun-foot’.
ɛfás (ɛfásí-) pl. ɛfásíka . n. adipose tissue,
ɛbam (ɛbamá-) pl. ɛ́baikwa . n. fellow, in-
fat (esp. when eaten).
group friend (an Ik or an incorporated
foreigner only). Compare with ɲòta . ɛfɨtɛs (ɛfɨtɛsí-) 1 v. to flavor, season,
spice (especially with oil). 2 v. to
ɛbamánánès (ɛbamánánèsì-) n. friend-
sweeten (a deal or offer). 3 v. to spice
liness, friendship (with Ik or in-group
up: make it fun or funny.
ɛ̀fɔ̀n (ɛ̀fɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be flavorful, tasty,
ébetiés (ébetiesí-) v. to blaspheme,
well-seasoned. 2 v. to be funny, inter-
curse, cuss out.
esting. 3 v. to be entertaining, fun.
éɓútòn (éɓútònì-) v. to groan, moan. See ɛfɔnʉƙɔta (ɛfɔnʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to be become
also ɛ́mítɔ̀n and émúròn. flavorful or tasty. 2 v. to become fun
ècòn (ècònì-) v. to get out of the way, or funny. 3 v. to become ecstatic, or-
move aside. Also pronounced as èkòn. gasmic, or rapturous.
êda (édì-) pl. éditín. n. name. eɡés (eɡésí-) v. to place, put.
éda na moranâde n. name of honor, title. eɡésá ekwí v. to go to seed, produce
Lit. ‘name that is feared’. seeds, seed. Lit. ‘to put an eye’.
ɛdɛ́ (ɛdɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. ɛdɛ́ín. 1 n. my brother. 2 eɡésá hòòke v. to imprison, jail, lock up.
n. my cousin (father’s brother’s son). Lit. ‘to put in the house’.
ɛdɛ́cèka (ɛdɛ́-cèkì-) n. wife of my brother eɡésá ɨtsɨkɛsí v. to pass a law. Lit. ‘to
or of a paternal male cousin. put a law’.

eɡésá kwɛtáɛ emitaakón

eɡésá kwɛtáɛ v. to sign. Lit. ‘to put the ekúɔ́ka (ekú-ɔ́kà-) pl. ekwitíníɔkɨtín.
hand’. n. brow bone, supraorbital bone.
eɡésá ɲáʝálaáke v. to jail, put in jail. ekúsítsʼa (ekú-sítsʼà-) 1 n. eyelash. 2
eɡésá zíkɛ́sìkɛ v. to imprison, jail, lock n. eyebrow.
up. Lit. ‘to put in tying’. ekwa (ekú-) pl. ekwitín. 1 n. eye. 2
eɡetés (eɡetésí-) v. to place, put. n. seed. 3 n. center, center point,
éítésuƙota (éítésuƙotí-) v. to fill up.
ekweda (ekwede-) pl. ekwin. 1 n. kernel,
éítetés (éítetésí-) v. to fill up. See also
seed. 2 n. core, essence, point. See also
eɗeɗa .
eʝá (eʝá) adv. not: do not, let not.
ɛkwɛ́tɔ́n (ɛkwɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to start early or
ɛkɛwa (ɛkɛʉ́-) pl. ɛkɛ́wíka . n. iliolumber first.
ligament that joins the backbone to the
ekwin (ekwini-) 1 n. seeds. 2 n. points.
ɛkwɨtɛs (ɛkwɨtɛsí-) v. to put ahead or in
Ɛ́kìtɛ̀là (Ɛ́kɨtɛlaá) n. a personal name.
ekoɗita (ekoɗití-) n. tree species whose
ɛkwítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɛkwítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to put
young roots are eaten raw and whose
ahead or in front.
fruit is liked by children and birds; its
bark is chewed as medicine for cough- ɛ̀kwɔ̀n (ɛ̀kwɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be early or first.
ing, and its wood is used to carve stools 2 v. to be ahead or in front.
and wooden containers. Lannea schim- elánétòn (elánétònì-) v. to accompany
peri. See also meleke. here, come after/with.
èkòn (èkònì-) v. to get out of the way, elánónuƙota (elánónuƙotí-) v. to accom-
move aside. Also pronounced as ècòn. pany away, follow or go after.
ekúám (ekú-ámà-) pl. ekúíka . n. one eletiesá mɛnáɛ v. to blunder, blurt out
with the ‘evil eye’: the magical power news or secrets.
to cause harm by staring too long or eletiésuƙota (eletiesúƙotí-) v. to blow,
too intensely at something admirable. squander, waste. See also iɲékésuƙota .
Lit. ‘eye-person’.
em (emé-) 1 n. flesh, meat. 2 n. muscle.
ekúcé (ekú-céè-) n. tears. Lit. ‘eye-
emetá (emetáa-) pl. emetátikwa . n. par-
ent in-law (of men).
ekúcúédidí (ekú-cúé-didíì-) n. teardrop
eminés (eminésí-) v. to draw, pull.
rain: light drizzle after a death or dur-
ing a funeral. eminésúƙota (eminésúƙotí-) v. to draw
or pull away/off.
ekúkɔ́ɔ́kwarósítsʼa (ekú-kɔ́ɔ́-kwaró-
sítsʼà-) n. eyebrow. Lit. ‘north-of-eye eminetés (eminetésí-) v. to draw or pull
hair’. out/up.
ekúnánès (ekúnánèsì-) n. having the eminiés (eminiesí-) v. to draw apart,
‘evil eye’: the magical power to cause pull apart, stretch.
harm by staring too long at something emitaakón (emitaakónì-) v. to swell (of
admirable. many).

emites eréɡam

emites (emitesí-) v. to make swell, enitésúƙota (enitésúƙotí-) v. to reveal,

tumefy. show. See also ɗóɗítetés.
ɛ́mítɔ̀n (ɛ́mítɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to groan, moan. Enitetés (Enitetésí-) n. Revelation: last
2 v. to wheeze. See also éɓútòn and book in the New Testament.
émúròn. enitetés (enitetésí-) 1 v. to clarify, ex-
èmòn (èmònì-) v. to swell, tumefy. plain. 2 v. to reveal, show.
émúròn (émúrònì-) v. to groan, moan. eŋún (eŋúnú-) pl. eŋúnáikwa . n. last-
See also ɛ́mítɔ̀n and éɓútòn. born. See also ʝìrìàm.
èmùsìà (èmùsìà-) n. tree species used eŋúnúnànès (eŋúnúnànèsì-) n. being
for fencing and whose black seeds the last born in a family.
are eaten raw and whose bitter roots eódòn (eódònì-) v. to be full.
are eaten by children, turning their ɛ̀ɔ̀m (ɛ̀ɔ̀mɔ̀) ideo. breakably, brittlely.
tongues yellow; also, the root rinds are
ɛɔmɔ́dɔ̀n (ɛɔmɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be breakable,
crushed and added to water or porridge
brittle. See also wɛtsʼɛ́dɔ̀n and pokódòn.
to cleanse the digestive system. Euclea
schimperi. epa (epú-) 1 n. sleep, slumber. 2 n. sex,
sexual relations or intercourse.
emuta (emutí-) pl. emútíka . 1 n. narra-
tive, story, tale. 2 n. news. 3 n. infor- epítésuƙota (epítésuƙotí-) 1 v. to lay
mation. down. 2 v. to put to sleep. 3 v. to
settle down.
emuta ínóe n. animal fable.
epitésúƙòtà ɗèɲ v. to flatten, lay flat.
emútíka (emútíkà-) 1 n. storytelling. 2
epitésúƙota tódàe v. to resolve an issue,
n. news. 3 n. information.
settle a dispute.
emutíká nùù kɔ̀wa n. history. Lit. ‘sto-
èpòn (èpònì-) 1 v. to be lying down. 2
ries of old’.
v. to be sleeping, sleep, slumber. 3 v. to
emútíkààm (emútíkà-àmà-) pl. emútí- have sex, make love.
kaika . n. narrator, storyteller. See also
epona ŋabéro v. to lie on the side. Lit.
‘to lie on the rib’.
enés (enésí-) 1 v. to see. 2 v. to feel, eponuƙota (eponuƙotí-) 1 v. to lie down,
perceive. 3 v. to know, underestand. recline. 2 v. to go to sleep. See also
4 v. to discover. 5 v. to achieve, attain. bukonuƙota and itsólóŋòn.
enésá mɛnáɛ v. to confirm the case, find epopos (epoposí-) 1 v. to sleep a lot. 2
proof. Lit. ‘to see matters’. v. to sleep around, be sexually promis-
enésúƙota (enésúƙotí-) v. to catch sight cuous.
of, see. epúám (epú-ámà-) pl. epúíka . 1 n. lover
ɛ́nɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɛ́nɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to seize, take of sleep, sleeper. 2 n. lover.
by force. epúáwa (epú-áwà-) pl. epúáwíka . 1
enésúƙotíám (enésúƙotí-ámà-) pl. enés- n. sleeping place. 2 n. hostel, hotel,
úƙotííka . n. spectator, witness. lodge, motel, inn. 3 n. uterus, womb.
énímós (énímósí-) v. to visit. Lit. ‘to see See also ɲapéryɛ́ta .
each other’. eréɡam (eréɡamá-) n. useable, useful.

eréɡes ɛ̂ba

eréɡes (eréɡesí-) 1 v. to employ, make esetésúƙota (esetésúƙotí-) v. to ask, in-

use of, use. 2 v. to deploy, send. quire.
eréɡesíám (eréɡesí-ámà-) pl. eréɡesííka . esetetés (esetetésí-) v. to ask, inquire.
n. emissary, envoy, errand-runner. esetiés (esetiesí-) v. to question, interro-
érítòn (érítònì-) v. to flitter, flutter (of gate, investigate.
termite alates underground just before etsʼa (etsʼí-) n. droppings, dung, excre-
emerging and taking flight). ment, feces, poop, scat, stool.
erumén (eruméní-) pl. eruméníka . etsʼíhò (etsʼí-hòò-) pl. etsʼíhoíka . n. la-
n. short spear shaft (with ɲɛlɨráta as its trine, outhouse, toilet. See also ɲót-
spearhead). sorón.
erún (erúná-) pl. erúníka . n. edible ter- etsʼíƙwâz (etsʼí-ƙwázà-) pl. etsʼíƙwázíka .
mite alate that takes flight during the n. diaper, nappy.
night just before the day when the rest eûz (eúzè-) pl. eúzìka . n. buffalo bull.
of the colony does the same. Syncerus caffer.
Erupe (Erupeé-) n. a personal name. eúzòn (eúzònì-) v. to be predawn, in
erutánón (erutánónì-) 1 v. to low, moo. the small or ‘wee’ hours of the morn-
2 v. to roar (e.g. lions). ing (3:00-4:00 am, when buffalos come
to waterholes to drink).
erútsón (erútsónì-) 1 v. to be new. 2
v. to be fresh. 3 v. to be recent. èwa (èò-) pl. ewitín. n. leather bag
used for carrying honey and other wild
eruxam (eruxamá-) n. loose feces or foods.
ewanes (ewanesí-) 1 v. to notice, take
erúxón (erúxónì-) v. to have loose feces note off. 2 v. to attend to, show hospi-
or stool. tality to, welcome warmly.
ɛs (ɛsá-) n. termite(s). ewanetés (ewanetésí-) 1 v. to notice,
ɛ́s (ɛ́sá-) n. alcoholism, drunkenness, take note of. 2 v. to attend to, show
inebriation. hospitality to, welcome warmly.
ɛ́sáàm (ɛ́sá-àmà-) pl. ɛ́sáika . n. alcoholic, ewêda (ewédì-) n. wild potato-like vine
drunkard, drunk. species whose tubers are peeled and
cooked multiple times to remove tox-
ɛsánón (ɛsánónì-) v. to be drunk, inebri-
ins and are then eaten. Dioscorea sp.
ated, intoxicated.
eya (eí-) n. chyme: stomach contents.
ɛ́sátòda (ɛ́sá-tòdà-) n. drunken talk. See also ŋkʉ́ʝíta .
eséánètòn (eséánètònì-) v. to be tri- ɛ̂ba (ɛ́bà-) pl. ɛ́bɨtín. 1 n. antler, horn.
colored (brown, ruddy, yellow). 2 n. insect antenna. 3 n. musical
esetés (esetésí-) 1 v. to ask, inquire. 2 horn traditionally made from an ani-
v. to assess, test. 3 n. inquiry, ques- mal horn (often oryx). 4 n. firearm,
tion. gun, weapon.

fá fenétón

fá (<féés) v. fátárààka (fátárà-àkà-) pl. fátárikóákí-
fâda (fádò-) pl. fádikwa . n. scale, shell. tín. n. top of a vertically running ridge.
Lit. ‘ridge-mouth’.
faɗás (faɗásí-) n. divination, prophecy.
fátárààkànànès (fátárààkànànèsì-)
faɗetés (faɗetésí-) v. to extract, pull out n. having the habit of going to the
(like jiggers or a thorn). escarpment’s vertical-running ridges
faɗétón (faɗétónì-) v. to be casual, cav- and valleys to look for food as a way
alier, nonchalant about life. to escape domestic problems like con-
flict or hunger.
fàɗìɡùr (fàɗì-ɡùrò-) n. grass species
with a pungent odor and taste, used for fatsámánòn (fatsámánònì-) v. to be laid
thatching houses; the Didinga are said flat.
to use a decoction of its roots to treat fatsifatsos (fatsifatsosí-) v. to lie around
children’s diarrhea. Lit. ‘bitter-heart’. or sleep flat on one’s back.
Fadigura sp. fátsón (fátsónì-) v. to like on the back,
faɗites (faɗitesí-) 1 v. to make bitter in lie face-up.
taste. 2 v. to discourage, embitter. féés (féésì-/fá-) v. to cook by boiling.
fàɗòn (fàɗònì-) 1 v. to be bitter. 2 v. to féésa íditíní v. to cook for one’s unmar-
divine, prophesy. ried friends (of a newly married man,
as a celebration of getting access to
fàɗònìàm (fàɗònì-àmà-) pl. faɗoniika . ‘breasts’, i.e. his new wife). Lit. ‘to
n. diviner, prophet. cook breasts’.
fáídomés (fáídomésí-) v. to brew beer féíàwa (féí-àwà-) pl. féíawíka . n. bath,
and/or cook food for a housewarming bathroom, shower.
party. Lit. ‘to pot-boil’.
féítetés (féítetésí-) v. to bathe.
fàìdwa (fàìdò-) pl. faidíkwa . n. hard- fekifekos (fekifekosí-) v. to be giggly,
wood tree species with a black heart laugh a lot.
that is used for making beautiful black-
fekitetés (fekitetésí-) v. to amuse, enter-
brown walking sticks.
tain, make laugh.
fàka (fàkà) ideo. broad-bladedly. fèkòn (fèkònì-) v. to laugh.
fakádòn (fakádònì-) v. to be broad- fen (fení-) pl. fenitín. n. digging stick
bladed (like a leaf or spearhead). with a wide flat end.
fàlòn (fàlònì-) v. to fail to get, miss, miss fèn (fènì-) n. fart, flatulence, gas.
out on. fɛ̀n (fɛ̀nɛ̀) ideo. flatulently, gassily.
fàr (fàrà) adv. in the future. Also pro- fɛnɛ́dɔ̀n (fɛnɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be flatulent,
nounced as fàrò. gassy.
fátár (fátárà-) pl. fátárikwa . n. ridge fenétón (fenétónì-) v. to break wind,
running vertically. See also ɲɔɗɔ́kɛ́ta . fart, pass gas.

féón fɔrɔ́sìtà

féón (féónì-) v. to bathe, shower. fírítsʼés (fírítsʼésí-) v. to trample to

fet (fetí-) 1 n. sun.
2 n. thirst. 3 pieces.
n. clock, watch. fítés (fítésì-) v. to clean, wash.
fɛtɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀n (fɛtɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be flatly or fítésa kíʝáe v. to create peace. Lit. ‘to
shallowly concave. See also ɓɛtɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀n. wash the land’.
Fetíám (Fetí-ámà-) pl. Fetííka . n. Jie per- fítésuƙota (fítésuƙotí-) v. to wash up/
son. Lit. ‘sun-person’. away.
fetíbàs (fetí-bàsà-) pl. fetíbàsìn. n. sun- fítésuƙota ɡúróe v. to repent, self-
beam, sunray. cleanse. Lit. ‘to wash the heart’.
fetíékùàm (fetí-ékù-àmà-) pl. fetíékuika . fítésuƙota kwɛ́tìkàɛ v. to wash hands
n. easterner. Lit. ‘sun-eye person’. (for health or peace).
fetíékuxan (fetí-éku-xaná-) dem. east- fitetés (fitetésí-) v. to wash up.
erly direction. fitídòn (fitídònì-) v. to be dull (of
fetíékwa (fetí-ékù-) n. east. Lit. ‘sun-
eye’. fìtⁱ (fìtì) ideo. dully (of blades).
fètìfèta (fètìfètì-) pl. fetífétìka . n. nape fiuu (fiuu) ideo. zing! (sound of a bullet
of the neck, scruff. passing close by). The vowels in this
word are pronounced silently.
fetíɡwà (fetí-ɡwàà-) n. bird species. Lit.
‘sun bird’. fɔ́ɗa (fɔ́ɗɛ́-) pl. fɔ́ɗítín. 1 n. long
goat-leather loincloth worn by women
fetíhò (fetí-hòò-) pl. fetíhoíka . n. range (wider at the waist and at the knees,
on both horizons in which the sun rises narrower in between). 2 n. tiny gar-
and sets relatively constantly during den plot. 3 n. mudflap.
dry and rainy seasons. Lit. ‘sun-hut’.
fɔ́ɗítíníàm (fɔ́ɗítíní-àmà-) pl. fɔ́ɗítí-
Fetíícétôda (Fetí-ícé-tódà-) n. Jie dialect níika . n. old woman. Lit. ‘loincloths-
of the Ateker (Teso-Turkana) speech person’. See also dúnéìm.
varieties. Lit. ‘sun-people speech’.
fɔfɔ́ʝa (fɔfɔ́ʝá-) pl. fɔfɔ́ʝíka . n. dried fruit
féya (féí-) n. bathing, showering. of the tsʼɔƙɔm tree.
fìfòn (fìfònì-) v. to be annoying, bother- fɔ́fɔ́tɛ́s (fɔ́fɔ́tɛ́sí-) v. to drag, grate, scrape
some, irritating. See also ɨtsánánòn. (along the ground). See also ɨfɔɛs.
fiifíón (fiifíónì-) v. to be felt on the skin fóʝón (fóʝónì-) v. to whistle.
(like a breeze or scratching an itch). fɔ̀kɔ (fɔ̀kɔ̀) ideo. lightweightly.
fìr (fìrì) ideo. fully. fɔkɔ́dɔ̀n (fɔkɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be lightweight.
firifíránón (firifíránónì-) v. to be avoid- See also ɔfɔ́dɔ̀n and olódòn.
ant, circumventing, evasive, steering folólómòn (folólómònì-) v. to be wide
clear. See also wirifíránón. open (like an open road).
firímón (firímónì-) v. to be clogged or fòlòn (fòlònì-) v. to exuviate, molt, shed
constipated from overeating. (scales or skin).
fíritsʼár (fíritsʼárì-) n. bird species. fɔrɔ́sìtà (fɔrɔ́sìtàà-) n. forest.

fɔrɔ́tsʼɔ́mɔ̀n fùùtu

fɔrɔ́tsʼɔ́mɔ̀n (fɔrɔ́tsʼɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be de- furés (furésí-) 1 v. to scavenge, scrounge

flated, flat (like a ball or tire). for. 2 v. to be sexually promiscuous.
fɔ́tɛ́s (fɔ́tɛ́sì-) v. to winnow by tossing furésíàm (furésí-àmà-) pl. fúrésiika .
up and down in an open container (us- n. scavenger.
ing one’s breath or the wind to remove
chaff). furúdòn (furúdònì-) v. to pour out or
stream out (and part ways).
fotólón (fotólónì-) v. to be clear, open,
unobstructed (like a line-of-sight). fútés (fútésì-) v. to blow.
fòtsa (fòtsà-) pl. fotsitín. n. gorge, fútésuƙota (fútésuƙotí-) v. to blow off/
ravine. See also ɲɔ́kɔ́pɛ. away.
fòtsàìka (fòtsà-ìkà-) pl. fotsitíníikitín. fútón (fútónì-) 1 v. to blow. 2 v. to make
n. top end of a steep gorge. Lit. ‘gorge- noise (vehicle).
fùtsʼàtsʼa (fùtsʼàtsà) ideo. carelessly,
fɔ̀tsʼɔ (fɔ̀tsʼɔ̀) ideo. boggily, marshily,
fɔtsʼɔ́dɔ̀n (fɔtsʼɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be boggy, futsʼátsʼésuƙota (futsʼátsʼésuƙotí-) v. to
marshy, soggy, swampy. throw down carelessly.
fʉ́fʉ́ta (fʉ́fʉ́tà-) pl. fʉ́fʉ́tìka . n. fresh fútsʼiés (fútsʼiesí-) 1 v. to resuscitate, re-
footpath or trail (of animals or people, vive (especially with steam). 2 v. to
e.g. through grass). rekindle (with one’s breath).
fuʝúlúmòn (fuʝúlúmònì-) v. to be cliff- fùtu (fùtù) ideo. cut off completely.
like, cliffy.
fùù (fùù) ideo. sound of an empty gourd.
fúluƙurú (fúluƙurúù-) n. turaco (Ross’s
and white-crested species). Also pro- fúútòn (fúútònì-) 1 v. to breathe heavily.
nounced as ƙúlufurú. 2 v. to hiss (of snakes).
fùr (fùrù) ideo. streaming out, going sep- fùùtu (fùùtù) ideo. whoosh! (sound of
arate ways. flowing).

ɡaanaakón ɡamés

ɡaanaakón (ɡaanaakónì-) v. to be bad, Gaɗukúɲ (Gaɗukúɲù-) n. Gaɗukuɲ:
evil, wicked (of many). one of the Ik’s twelve clans.
ɡaánàs (ɡaánàsì-) 1 n. badness, evil, Gaɗukúɲùàm (Gaɗukúɲù-àmà-) pl.
wickedness. 2 n. anger, annoyance, Gaɗukúɲuika . n. Gaɗukuɲ clan mem-
fury, rage. 3 n. danger, peril, risk. ber.
ɡàànìke v. badly, poorly. ɡafarɛs (ɡafarɛsí-) v. to jab, stab. Also
pronounced as ɡɛfɛrɛs.
ɡaanítésuƙot (ɡaanítésuƙotí-) 1 v. to

make bad, worsen. 2 v. to anger, an- ɡafariés (ɡafariesí-) 1 v. to jab or stab

noy, upset. repeatedly. 2 v. to scoop up and eat
with fingers.
ɡaanón (ɡaanónì-) 1 v. to be bad, evil,
wicked. 2 v. to be angry, annoyed, ɡàfìɡàf (ɡàfìɡàfù-) pl. ɡafíɡáfìka . 1
upset. 3 v. to be dangerous, perilous, n. lung. 2 n. radiator.
risky. 4 v. to really like, be ‘into’ (e.g. ɡafíɡáfikaɲeɗeké (ɡafíɡáfika-ɲeɗekéè-)
playing football). n. pulmonary tuberculosis in animals.
Lit. ‘lung-disease’.
ɡaanónuƙota (ɡaanónuƙotí-) 1 v. to be-
come worse, worsen. 2 v. to become ɡaɡaanón (ɡaɡaanónì-) v. to chuckle,
angry, annoyed, upset. giggle.
ɡaɗa (ɡaɗɛ́-) n. destruction and violence ɡáí (ɡáí) quant. both.
directed treacherously towards one’s ɡàʝa (ɡàʝà) ideo. stammeringly, stutter-
own family, property, clan, neighbor, ingly.
etc. See also ɡaɗɛ́s. ɡaʝádòn (ɡaʝádònì-) v. to be stammer-
ɡaɗár (ɡaɗárá-) pl. ɡaɗáríka . 1 n. goo, ing, stuttering. See also ɨƙʉʝʉ́kʉ́ʝɔ̀n.
goop, slime. 2 n. chyme. 3 n. cervical ɡaʝádònìtòda (ɡaʝádònì-tòdà-) n. stam-
mucus. mering or stuttering speech.
ɡaɗɛ́ám (ɡaɗɛ́-ámà-) pl. ɡaɗéíka . n. per- ɡakímón (ɡakímónì-) v. to lurch, reel,
son who destroys property and as- stagger (due to drunkenness, sickness,
saults people from within his own or old age).
home, garden, or community. ɡáƙón (ɡáƙónì-) v. to leave early (before
ɡaɗɛ́s (ɡaɗɛ́sí-) v. to violently destroy dawn). See also isókón.
one’s own property, leading to the ces- ɡaƙúrúmòn (ɡaƙúrúmònì-) v. to be
sation of rain and a poor harvest for the grouchy, grumpy. See also ŋízìmɔ̀ɔ̀n.
whole community.
Gàlàtsa (Gàlàtsì-) n. name of a hill or
ɡaɗikam (ɡaɗikamá-) n. foraging. mountain.
ɡaɗikamáám (ɡaɗikamá-ámà-) pl. ɡaɗi- ɡamam (ɡamamá-) n. firewood, kin-
kamáíka . n. forager. See also wààm. dling, tinder. Lit. ‘kindlable’.
ɡàɗɔ̀n (ɡàɗɔ̀nì-) v. to be insufficient, ɡamés (ɡamésí-) v. to kindle, light or
lacking, not be enough. start (a fire).

ɡamésá tsʼaɗí ɡìɡa

ɡamésá tsʼaɗí v. to kindle, light, or start ɡasoŋwa (ɡaso-ŋwaá-) n. warthog sow.

a fire. ɡàtsa (ɡàtsà) ideo. rockily, stonily.
ɡàràʝa (ɡàràʝì-) pl. ɡáráʝìka . n. tree ɡatsádòn (ɡatsádònì-) v. to be rocky,
species with slick, reddish bark and stony.
branches which are ideal for placing ɡaúsúmòn (ɡaúsúmònì-) v. to be shag-
beehives; its seed-pods split open ex- gy, unruly (of hair).
posing little black seeds with red tips
and itchy hairs; these are fried, ground, ɡáʒàda (ɡáʒàdì-) pl. ɡáʒàdìka . n. red-
and cooked, yielding a nice edible seed- pod terminalia: large shady tree
butter. Sterculia stenocarpa. species whose branches can support
beehives and whose trunks are carved
Gàràʝìàwa (Gàràʝì-àwà-) n. name of a into beehives; the heart is ground and
place and village near Lopokóka . Lit. mixed with oil to make a perfume
‘ɡàràʝ-place’. called ɓʉ́ɓʉ́s; and a bark decoction is
ɡárés (ɡárésì-) v. to dish out/up, serve drunk with rukûdza and tikorotóta . Ter-
(food). minalia brownii.
ɡáruɓúɓón (ɡáruɓúɓónì-) v. to flourish, ɡáʒadɨŋwa (ɡáʒadɨ-ŋwaá-) n. blabber-
thrive (of plants). Also pronounced as mouth, gossiper.
karuɓúɓón. ɡɛbɛʝa (ɡɛbɛʝí-) pl. ɡɛbɛ́ʝíka . n. shrub
ɡàsàr (ɡàsàrà-) n. Cape buffalo. Syn- species found down in the Kenyan
cerus caffer. plains where the Turkana eat its fruits.
Boscia coriacea.
Gasaraika (Gasara-icé-) n. traditional
men’s age-group with the cape buffalo ɡɛf (ɡɛfá-) n. deadly abdominal disease
as its totem (#10 in historical line). Lit. (possibly cancer).
‘Buffalo-Folk’. ɡɛfɛrɛs (ɡɛfɛrɛsí-) v. to jab, stab. Also
ɡàsàràìm (ɡàsàrà-ìmà-) pl. ɡasarawika . pronounced as ɡafarɛs.
n. buffalo calf. ɡéɡès (ɡéɡèsì-) v. to chug, gulp, guzzle.
ɡàsàràkwàtsa (ɡàsàrà-kwàtsì-) n. small See also ɨʝíírɛ́sʉƙɔta .
plant species that resembles a potato ɡɛrɛ́sà (ɡɛrɛ́sàà-) n. British colonial gov-
and smells like buffalo urine; its leaves ernment in East Africa.
are rubbed curatively into foot sores. ɡerúsúmòn (ɡerúsúmònì-) v. to
Lit. ‘buffalo-urine’. Plecthranthus sp. be flabby, pudgy, tubby. See also
ɡasaraŋwa (ɡasara-ŋwaá-) n. buffalo rexúkúmòn.
cow. ɡìda (ɡìdà-) pl. ɡíditín. n. cloud.
ɡaso (ɡasoó-) 1 n. warthog. Phaco- ɡida ná buɗám n. dark raincloud.
choerus aethiopicus. 2 n. military tank. ɡìdà nà ɓètsʼa n. rainless cloud.
ɡasoa na ɨlír n. armored military vehicle ɡìdòɔ̀ka (ɡìdò-ɔ̀kà-) 1 n. clear, cloudless
with machine-gun turret. Lit. ‘wart- sky. 2 n. Heaven. Lit. ‘cloud-bone’.
hog that rotates’. See also dìdìɔ̀ka .
ɡasóím (ɡasó-ímà-) pl. ɡasówíka . ɡìɡa (ɡìɡà-) pl. ɡíɡitín. n. elephant
n. warthog piglet. trunk, proboscis.

ɡíɡìr ɡɔ́lɔ́ɡɔlánón

ɡíɡìr (ɡíɡìrò-) n. downward place, low- ɡɔɗɔ́ɛ̀ (ɡɔɗɔ́ɛ̀-) pl. ɡɔɗɔ́ìka . n. brownish-
land. black worm that eats bee larvae and
ɡíɡìròke n. down, downward. honeycomb.
ɡíɡiroxan (ɡíɡiro-xaná-) dem. southerly ɡóɡès (ɡóɡèsì-) v. to nail, peg, perforate
direction. with a tool.
ɡíʝɛ́s (ɡíʝɛ́sì-) v. to shave (hair). ɡɔɡɔm (ɡɔɡɔmɔ́-) pl. ɡɔ́ɡɔ̀mìka .
ɡɨʝɛtɛ́s (ɡɨʝɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to shave off (hair). n. breastbone, sternum. See also toroɓa .
2 v. to massacre, raze. ɡɔ̀ɡɔ̀r (ɡɔ̀ɡɔ̀rɔ̀) ideo. decrepitly.
ɡìʝìta (ɡìʝìtà-) pl. ɡíʝítìka . n. handmade ɡòɡòròʝa (ɡòɡòròʝì-) pl. ɡóɡòròʝìka . 1
razor. n. spine. 2 n. midrib. 3 n. straight
ɡirés (ɡirésí-) 1 v. to keep, save, store. 2 middle part. 4 n. ridge.
v. to have, possess. ɡòɡòròʝòɔ̀ka (ɡòɡòròʝò-ɔ̀kà-) n. back-
ɡirésá así v. to keep one’s business to bone, spine, vertebrae.
oneself. ɡɔ́ɡɔ̀rɔ̀mɔ̀n (ɡɔ́ɡɔ̀rɔ̀mɔ̀nì-) v. to be bony,
ɡirésá ìtsìkà v. to keep the law. decrepit, rickety, scraggy.
ɡirésá mɛnáɛ v. to keep one’s thoughts ɡòka (ɡòkà-) n. insomnia, sleeplessness,
secret. wakefulness.
ɡirésíàwa (ɡirésí-àwà-) pl. ɡirésíawíka . ɡɔ̀ka (ɡɔ̀kà-) pl. ɡɔ́kítín. 1 n. larynx,
n. storage place, store (cupboard, cabi- voicebox. 2 n. eyeball.
net, cave, etc.). ɡokirós (ɡokirósí-) v. to be unsettled.
ɡirú (ɡirúù-) n. locust. ɡɔ̀kɔ (ɡɔ̀kɔ̀) ideo. stiffly.
ɡɨzá (ɡɨzáì-) pl. ɡɨzáìk . n. large flat boul- ɡɔkɔ́dɔ̀n (ɡɔkɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be stiff : impli-
der or table rock (where many people able or unsupple.
can grind their grains together at one
time). ɡòkòn (ɡòkònì-) 1 v. to be sleepless,
have insomnia. 2 v. to be awake for
ɡobétón (ɡobétónì-) v. to become over- sex. Not to be confused with ɡóƙón.
cast, cloud up.
ɡóƙa (ɡóƙá-) n. sitting as a group.
ɡɔ̀ɓa (ɡɔ̀ɓà-) pl. ɡɔ́ɓítín. n. knot in wood.
ɡoƙaakétòn (ɡoƙaakétònì-) v. to sit
ɡɔ̀ɓɔ (ɡɔ̀ɓɔ̀) ideo. hardly.
down (of many).
ɡɔɓɔ́dɔ̀n (ɡɔɓɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be impenetra-
ɡóƙáàwa (ɡóƙá-àwà-) pl. ɡóƙáawíka .
bly hard (like a tree knot or the seeds
n. place where groups of people sit to-
of the tílaŋ tree).
ɡodiywa (ɡodiyó-) pl. ɡodiíka . n. large
shady tree species whose wood is ɡóƙón (ɡóƙónì-) v. to be seated, sitting
used to make digging sticks and (of many). Not to be confused with
in whose branches beehives can be ɡòkòn.
placed. Diospyros scabra. ɡɔ́lìɗa (ɡɔ́lìɗì-) n. gold.
ɡɔɗírímɔ̀n (ɡɔɗírímɔ̀nì-) v. to be puny, ɡɔ́lɔ́ɡɔlánón (ɡɔ́lɔ́ɡɔlánónì-) v. to be
tiny, weeny. crooked, twisted (like a river or stick).

ɡomóí Góʒòwìka

ɡomóí (ɡomóíá-) n. small shrub species ɡóózés (ɡóózésí-) 1 v. to cast, throw,

whose bitter yellow berries are cooked toss. 2 v. to abandon, desert, forsake.
and eaten; the plant is beaten on paths 3 v. to vote for.
to thwart enemies, and it also serves ɡóózésíàm (ɡóózésí-àmà-) pl. ɡóó-
as a treatment for stomach ailments. zésíika . 1 n. one who throws meat
Maerua pseudopetalosa. at people sitting in age-groups. 2
Gomóíàwa (Gomóí-àwà-) n. name of a n. voter.
hill. Lit. ‘ɡomóí-place’. ɡóózésíàwa (ɡóózésí-àwà-) pl. ɡóózésía-
ɡòmòʝòʝa (ɡòmòʝòʝì-) n. small plant wíka . n. polling station.
species whose round roots are worn ɡóózesuƙota (ɡóózesuƙotí-) 1 v. to cast,
around the neck and whose smell is throw, or toss away. 2 v. to abandon,
believed to frighten snakes away; the desert, forsake. 3 v. to lose, misplace.
roots (or seeds, Heine 1999) are chewed
ɡóózetés (ɡóózetésí-) v. to cast, throw,
and the bitter juice swallowed for colds
or toss this away.
and coughs. Cyperus distans.
ɡóózinósúƙota (ɡóózinósúƙotí-) v. to
ɡɔmɔr (ɡɔmɔrʉ́-) pl. ɡɔmɔ́ríka . n. Nu-
forsake each other.
bian acacia: thorn tree species whose
bark is pounded and added to porridge ɡóózosuƙota (ɡóózosuƙotí-) 1 v. to be
or the juice is mixed with sheep blood abandoned, deserted, forsaken. 2 v. to
and fat and taken as a treatment for be lost, misplaced.
the loɓáí disease; the bark is also made ɡórés (ɡórésì-) 1 v. to cross over, go
into children’s necklaces and charms across, pass over. 2 v. to pass (an ex-
for spiritual protection. Acacia nubica. amination or test). Also pronounced as
ɡɔn (ɡɔnɛ́-) pl. ɡɔ́nítín. n. stump. íɡorés.
ɡònè (ɡònè) prep. all the way to, un- ɡóriés (ɡóriesí-) v. to cross over, go
til, up to. A noun following this word across, or pass over repeatedly. Also
takes the oblique case. pronounced as íɡoriés.
ɡonés (ɡonésí-) 1 v. to check out, in- ɡóriesá ɓɨsáɛ v. to cross or pass over a
spect, look at, view. 2 v. to be alert, spear.
awake. ɡɔ̀rìɡɔ̀r (ɡɔ̀rìɡɔ̀rì-) pl. ɡɔ́ríɡɔ̀rìka . 1
ɡonésá komo v. to be wide-eyed (when n. hoof. 2 n. bare foot.
alert to danger or embarassed). Lit. ‘to ɡɔ́ríɡɔ̀rìkɔ n. barefoot. Lit. ‘on hooves’.
see much’. Gɔrɨs (Gɔrɨsí-) n. name of a river
ɡonésétòn (ɡonésétònì-) v. to awaken, near Kàlàpàtà where the Dodoth and
wake up. Turkana fought each other.
ɡonésúƙota (ɡonésúƙotí-) v. to check ɡɔrɔ́x (ɡɔrɔ́xí-) pl. ɡɔrɔ́xíka . n. eyelid,
out, inspect, look at, view (over there). palpebra (upper and lower).
ɡonetés (ɡonetésí-) v. to check out, in- ɡóʒòwa (ɡóʒòù-) pl. ɡóʒòwìka . n. fog,
spect, look at, view (here). mist.
ɡónímós (ɡónímósí-) v. to look at each Góʒòwìka (Góʒòwìkà-) n. name of a hill
other. or mountain. Lit. ‘mists’.

ɡubes ɡwáím

ɡubes (ɡubesí-) pl. ɡúbèsìka . n. thigh. ɡúróàm (ɡúró-àmà-) pl. ɡúróika . 1

ɡubés (ɡubésí-) v. to blanket, cover. n. hothead, hot-tempered person. 2
n. calm, even-keeled person.
ɡubesíɔ́ka (ɡubesí-ɔ́kà-) pl. ɡúbesikɔɔ-
ɡúróèɗa (ɡúró-èɗì-) n. physical heart.
kɨtín. n. femur, thighbone.
Lit. ‘heart-kernel’. See ɡúr for the emo-
ɡubésúƙota (ɡubésúƙotí-) v. to blanket tional heart.
over, cover or wrap up. ɡúróɛ́nɔ n. from the heart, sincerely.
ɡʉɓɛ́r (ɡʉɓɛ́rá-) n. leopard. Panthera Gutí (Gutíì-) n. a personal name.
ɡʉtsʼʉrɛs (ɡʉtsʼʉrɛsí-) v. to do away
ɡúɗúsam (ɡúɗúsamá-) n. fragment, with, get rid of, rid oneself of.
shard. ɡutsʼuriés (ɡutsʼuriesí-) v. to do away
ɡuf (ɡufá-) pl. ɡúfítín. n. foam, froth. with, get rid of.
ɡuféém (ɡufé-émè-) n. armpit muscle, ɡutsʼuriesá tódàe v. to speak harshly,
teres major. Lit. ‘froth-muscle’. meanly. Lit. ‘to get rid of speech’.
ɡʉ́ɡʉ̀rɔ̀n (ɡʉ́ɡʉ̀rɔ̀nì-) v. to be severely ɡʉtsʼʉ́rínɔ́s (ɡʉtsʼʉ́rínɔ́sí-) v. to repulse
hunched or stooped over. each other out of mutual hatred.
ɡùʝa (ɡùʝè-) n. small plant species whose ɡwa (ɡwaá-) 1 n. bird, fowl. 2 n. air,
flat leaves tortoises like to eat and peo- sky. Not to be confused with ɡwà.
ple may boil as an edible vegetable. ɡwà (ɡwàà-) pl. ɡwaitín. 1 n. stomach.
Commelina sp. 2 n. craw, crop. Not to be confused
with ɡwa.
ɡʉ̀lʉ̀ʝ ᶶ (ɡʉ̀lʉ̀ʝʉ̀) ideo. gulp! (sound of
swallowing something big). ɡwaa na awáe n. domestic bird.
ɡúr (ɡúró-) pl. ɡúrítín. 1 n. inner chest ɡwááka (ɡwá-ákà-) pl. ɡwáákítín.
containing the ‘heart’ (emotional and n. beak, bill. Lit. ‘bird-mouth’.
physical). 2 n. heart, soul, psyche. 3 ɡwábàr (ɡwá-bàrɔ̀-) pl. ɡwábarɨtín.
n. battery. 4 n. engine, motor. See n. flock of birds.
ɡúróèɗ for the physical heart. ɡwácúrúka (ɡwá-cúrúkú-) n. male bird:
ɡʉ̀r (ɡʉ̀rà-) pl. ɡʉ́rítín. n. sickle cock, rooster, tercel, etc.
bush: small, fast-growing hardwood ɡwadam (ɡwadamá-) 1 n. congealed an-
tree species with strong thorns and imal fat. 2 n. delicacy, treat.
which is used in blacksmithing and Gwáɡwààm (Gwáɡwà-àmà-) pl.
building and whose bark juice can act Gwáɡwaika . n. Dodoth person.
as a mouthwash. Dichrostachys cinerea.
Not to be confused with ɡúr. Gwáɡwaicétôda (Gwáɡwaicé-tódà-)
n. Dodoth dialect of the Ateker (Teso-
ɡúránòn (ɡúránònì-) v. to be hotheaded, Turkana) speech varieties.
hot-tempered, irascible.
ɡwáho (ɡwá-hoó-) pl. ɡwáhoíka .
ɡúránós (ɡúránósí-) v. to be hotheaded, n. birdhouse, nest.
hot-tempered, irascible. ɡwáím (ɡwá-ímà-) pl. ɡwáwíka .
ɡúréda dakwí n. duramen, heartwood. n. chick.

ɡwaítón ɡwìrɔ̀n

ɡwaítón (ɡwaítónì-) v. to leave in a huff, ɡwas (ɡwasá-) pl. ɡwàsìka . 1 n. pebble,

storm off. See also íɡwìʝìrɔ̀n. small rock, stone. 2 n. grinding stone.
ɡwaítsʼa (ɡwaítsʼí-) 1 n. giraffe. Giraffa 3 n. nugget. 4 n. battery. 5 n. medal.
camelopardalis. 2 n. camel. ɡwasa na féí n. bathing stone (for rub-
ɡwaítsʼícikwa (ɡwaítsʼí-cikó-) n. giraffe bing one’s heels).
bull. ɡwàsìkàkìtsa (ɡwàsìkà-kìtsà-) n. grave
Gwaítsʼíika (Gwaítsʼí-icé-) n. traditional marked by a pile of stones. Lit. ‘stones-
men’s age-group with the giraffe as its pile’.
totem (#8 in the historical line). Lit. ɡwɛɛ́tsʼɛ́mɔ̀n (ɡwɛɛ́tsʼɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to stop
‘Giraffe-Folk’. seasonal swarming (of termites).
ɡwaítsʼíìm (ɡwaítsʼí-ìmà-) pl. ɡwaítsʼí- ɡweɡweritiés (ɡweɡweritiesí-) v. to
wika . n. giraffe calf. scratch, scribble, scrawl.
ɡwaítsʼílɔ̀da (ɡwaítsʼí-lɔ̀dà-) pl. ɡwaítsʼí-
ɡweɡweritiós (ɡweɡweritiosí-) 1 v. to
lɔ́dɨtín. n. tassel made from the bushy
be scratched, scribbled, scrawled. 2
end of a giraffe’s tail.
v. to be striped.
ɡwaítsʼíŋwa (ɡwaítsʼí-ŋwaá-) n. giraffe
ɡwɛ̀ʝɛ (ɡwɛ̀ʝɛ̀) ideo. roughly.
ɡwàʝa (ɡwàʝà) ideo. wham! (sound of ɡwèlèʝe (ɡwèlèʝè) 1 ideo. unsteadily,
hitting the ground heavily). wobbly. 2 ideo. empty-handedly.
ɡwàʝa (ɡwàʝì-) pl. ɡwaʝitín. n. belly, ɡwelítésuƙota (ɡwelítésuƙotí-) v. to dis-
paunch, pot-belly. tract, make forget.
ɡwaláta (ɡwalátí-) pl. ɡwalátíka . ɡwèlòn (ɡwèlònì-) v. to be forgotten.
n. labret, lip plug. See also iɓíléròn.
ɡwamétón (ɡwamétónì-) v. to stand up ɡwɛɲɛ́mɔ́n (ɡwɛɲɛ́mɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be
(of more than one person). bright, brilliant (of the sun at day-
ɡwámón (ɡwámónì-) v. to stand (of break). 2 v. to be wide awake, wide
more than one person). open (of one’s eyes).
ɡwan (ɡwaní-) 1 n. bushbaby, lesser ɡwɛrɛ́ʝɛ́ʝɔ̀n (ɡwɛrɛ́ʝɛ́ʝɔ̀nì-) v. to be
galago. Galago senegalensis. 2 n. pair coarse, gritty, mealy (like poorly
of trousers. ground flour or boiled maize with loose
ɡwaŋwa (ɡwa-ŋwaá-) n. female bird,
biddy, hen. ɡwétsʼón (ɡwétsʼónì-) v. to be sweet,
ɡwarés (ɡwarésí-) v. to throw multiple tasty, yummy.
things in a downward motion. ɡwi (ɡwié-) pl. ɡwiitín. n. grove, stand.
ɡwarí (ɡwaríì-) 1 n. top. 2 n. location, May also be spelled as ɡuya .
presence. ɡwidídòn (ɡwidídònì-) v. to be limber,
ɡwaríêda (ɡwaríédè-) n. top part. lithe.
ɡwaríédeke n. on, on top. ɡwìdⁱ (ɡwìdì) ideo. limberly, lithely.
ɡwárixan (ɡwári-xaná-) dem. northerly ɡwìrɔ̀n (ɡwìrɔ̀nì-) v. to squirm away,
direction. wriggle out.

hà harítɔ́n

hà (hà) interj. whateverǃ (an expression hakaikitetés (hakaikitetésí-) v. to dis-
of scornful disbelief). tract, make forget.
hàba (hàbù-) pl. hábikwa . n. natural bee- hakaikós (hakaikósí-) v. to be forgotten,
hive in a hollow tree trunk. neglected, overlooked.
hábàs (hábàsì-) n. selfishness, stingi- hákátòn (hákátònì-) v. to clear the
ness. Lit. ‘hotness’. throat, harrumph, hawk. See also
hábatsésúƙota (hábatsésúƙotí-) v. to xaƙarés.
cast away, discard, ditch, toss aside. hákátònìàm (hákátònì-àmà-) pl. há-
Also pronounced as ábadzésúƙota . kátoniika . n. one who speaks harshly
hábatsetés (hábatsetésí-) v. to cast or meanly.
down, discard, toss aside. Also pro- hakítésuƙota (hakítésuƙotí-) v. to lead
nounced as ábadzetés. astray, mislead. See also itwáŋítés-
hábètòn (hábètònì-) v. to become hot, úƙota .
heat up. hakonuƙota (hakonuƙotí-) 1 v. to drift
hábitésúƙota (hábitésúƙotí-) 1 v. to heat off, get lost, go astray, lose the way,
up, make hot. 2 v. to charge (electri- stray off. 2 v. to err, make a mistake.
cally). 3 v. to digress, go off topic. 4 v. to be
hábòn (hábònì-) 1 v. to be hot. 2 v. to forgotten, leave one’s memory.
be selfish, stingy. hakwés (hakwésí-) v. to harvest (wild
hábona kíʝáe n. hot weather. Lit. ‘heat foods like honey and edible termites).
of the land’. hakwésá dáŋáe v. to harvest edible ter-
hábona nébwì n. fever, high tempera- mites.
ture. Lit. ‘heat of the body’.
hamomos (hamomosí-) v. to sample or
hábonuƙota (hábonuƙotí-) v. to become try out in large numbers.
hot, heat up.
hamʉʝɛ́s (hamʉʝɛ́sí-) 1 v. to finish grind-
hádaadánón (hádaadánónì-) v. to be in- ing well (grain that had been poorly
ept, maladroit, uncoordinated. ground). 2 v. to botch, bungle, do
hádoletés (hádoletésí-) v. to open wide, wrongly, mess or screw up.
set agape. hár (hárí-) pl. hárítín. n. diarrhea.
hádòlòmòn (hádòlòmònì-) v. to be gap-
hárá na ɡwɛrɛʝɛ́ʝa n. chunky diarrhea.
ing, yawning (of any opening).
hárá na tílɨwa n. liquid diarrhea.
hàʝa (hàʝà) ideo. loosely.
haʝádòn (haʝádònì-) v. to be loosely hárá ná zè n. severe diarrhea.
tied, unsecured. See also laʝádòn and háríɡaɗár (hárí-ɡaɗárá-) n. diarrheal
yaŋádòn. mucus.
hakaikés (hakaikésí-) v. to forget, ne- harítɔ́n (harítɔ́nì-) v. to diarrhate, have
glect, overlook. diarrhea.

harítɔ́na pɨɔ hoetés

harítɔ́na pɨɔ v. to have liquidy diarrhea. hoaƙwa (ho-aƙɔ́-) n. inside of a house or

The sound represented by pɨɔ is whis- hut.
pered. hɔɓɔ́mɔ́n (hɔɓɔ́mɔ́nì-) v. to be hungry
hataikánón (hataikánónì-) 1 v. to ripen quickly, have a high metabolism.
quickly. 2 v. to cook quickly. hodzíŋ (ho-dzíŋá-) n. porch, veranda.
haú (haúù-) n. hyena. hoɗés (hoɗésí-) 1 v. to free, liberate, re-
haʉ́dɔ̀n (haʉ́dɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be be tough lease, set free. 2 v. to divorce. See also
when cooked. 2 v. to be munchy (hun- talakes.
gry between meals). hoɗésúƙota (hoɗésúƙotí-) 1 v. to free,
hà ᶶ (hàʉ̀) ideo. cooked very tough. liberate, release, set free. 2 v. to re-
hèɓu (hèɓù) ideo. softly, squeezably. move, take off, undress. 3 v. to fire,
sack, terminate (from employment).
heɓúdòn (heɓúdònì-) v. to be soft,
squeezable, squeezy (like a ball, belly, hoɗetés (hoɗetésí-) 1 v. to free, liberate,
or breast). release, set free. 2 v. to remove, take
off, undress. 3 v. to save spiritually.
heɓúlúmòn (heɓúlúmònì-) v. to be
paunchy, potbellied (like beer-drinkers hoɗetésá así 1 v. to free oneself. 2 v. to
or pregnant women). be born again, get saved (in the Chris-
tian sense).
hɛ́ɗɔ́nʉƙɔta (hɛ́ɗɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to shrink
or shrivel up. See also kɨɗɔnʉƙɔta . hoɗetésá taƙáíkàɛ v. to remove or take
off shoes.
hééʼ (hééʼ) interj. yeah right! (an ex-
pression of disbelief or doubt). The hoɗetésíàm (hoɗetésí-àmà-) pl. hoɗe-
apostrophe at the end marks a glottal tésíika . 1 n. freer, releaser (e.g. of pris-
stop, which makes an abrupt end to the oners or trapped animals). 2 n. re-
word’s voicing. deemer, savior.
hɛ̀ɡa (hɛ̀ɡà-) pl. hɛ́ɡɨtín. n. bone mar- hoɗómón (hoɗómónì-) v. to come
row. free/off/undone, loosen.

heʝú (heʝúù-) pl. heʝúìka . n. suprapubic hoés (hoesí-) 1 v. to cut, slice. 2 v. to

area: space above the pubis but below butcher, slaughter. 3 v. to skin. 4 v. to
the abdomen. operate on, perform a surgery on. See
also tɔŋɔlɛs.
hèz (hèz) interj. hey! (an expression of
strong disapproval). hoesíàm (hoesí-àmà-) pl. hoesíika . 1
n. butcher. 2 n. surgeon.
hɨíʝa (hɨíʝá) 1 adv. slowly. 2 adv. care-
fully. hoesího (hoesí-hoó-) pl. hoesíhoíka . 1
n. abattoir, butchery, slaughterhouse.
hɨíʝɔ (hɨíʝɔ́) 1 adv. slowly. 2 adv. care- 2 n. operating room (OR), surgery, the-
fully. ater.
híƙɔ́ (híƙɔ́ɔ̀-) pl. híƙɔ́ìka . n. chameleon. hoetés (hoetésí-) 1 v. to cut into/out/up.
hò (hòò-) pl. hóíka . 1 n. house, hut. 2 2 v. to do surgery on, operate on. 3
n. casing, housing. 3 n. class, grade, v. to figure out, solve. 4 v. to divide or
level (in school). divvy up.

hoetésá ɲásáatí hyeaa

hoetésá ɲásáatí v. to plan a time. Lit. to be confused with hɔnɛ́s.

‘to cut out an hour’. hɔnɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (hɔnɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) 1 v. to drive
hoɡwarí (ho-ɡwaríì-) n. roof. off/away. 2 v. to exorcize.
hóítá kwí interj. oh my goodness/God/ hɔnɛtɛ́s (hɔnɛtɛ́sí-) v. to drive out (in
wordǃ (an expression of strong emo- this direction).
tions like fear or astonishment). Bor-
rowed from Ateker (Teso-Turkana). hɔnɛtɛ́sá ínóe v. to drive out animals (as
from a thicket).
hoƙʉtsʼa (ho-ƙʉtsʼá-) n. type of biting
worm that lives in dirt floors. hɔ́tɔ̀ (hɔ́tɔ̀ɔ̀-) n. bustard.
hómò (hómòò-) n. laundry detergent or hòwɛ̀l (hò-wɛ̀là-) pl. howélíkwa .
soap. From the detergent brand called n. house window.
OMO; see also ɲéómò. húbutés (húbutésí-) v. to perforate,
hɔnɛ́s (hɔnɛ́sí-) 1 v. to drive (a vehicle). punch (e.g. a hole in a gourd or a skull).
2 v. to ride (a bicycle or motorcycle). See also pulés.
Not to be confused with hɔ́nɛ́s. hyeaa (hyeaa) ideo. sound of a tree
hɔ́nɛ́s (hɔ́nɛ́sì-) v. to drive (animals). Not falling.

ɦyakwés ɦyɔɛn

ɦyakwés (ɦyakwésí-) v. to hush, shush. ɦyekes (ɦyekesí-) 1 v. to be alive, live. 2
ɦyàƙàtàka (ɦyàƙàtàkà-) n. a bit far, far- n. being, existence, life. 3 n. livelihood,
away, some distance away. living, survival.
ɦyàtàka (ɦyàtàkà-) n. close by, nearby, ɦyekesíám (ɦyekesí-ámà-) pl. ɦye-
in the vicinity. kesííka . n. dependant, long-term guest
(who may be asked to help work with-
ɦyeés (ɦyeesí-) v. to know. Another
out payment).
form of the root of this word is íye-.
ɦyekétón (ɦyekétónì-) v. to come back
ɦyeésúƙota (ɦyeésúƙotí-) v. to come to
to life, resurrect, revive.
know, learn, learn how.
ɦyekitetés (ɦyekitetésí-) v. to reani-
ɦyeímós (ɦyeímósí-) v. to be kin, re- mate, resurrect, revive.
lated. Lit. ‘to know each other’. Also
ɦyɛnɛ́tɔ́n (ɦyɛnɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to barf, hurl,
pronounced as ɦyeínós.
puke, regurgitate, vomit, upchuck.
ɦyeínós (ɦyeínósí-) v. to be kin, related.
ɦyɛnɛ́tɔ́na pɨɔ v. to vomit pure liquid.
Lit. ‘to know each other’. Also pro-
The sound represented by pɨɔ is whis-
nounced as ɦyeímós.
ɦyeínósá ƙwaatéo v. to be related by
ɦyɛ̀nɔ̀n (ɦyɛ̀nɔ̀nì-) v. to barf, hurl, puke,
regurgitate, vomit, upchuck.
ɦyeínósá na ƙɔ́ɓàɛ v. kinship or relation ɦyɛtás (ɦyɛtásí-) n. ferocity, fierceness,
by birth. Lit. ‘relation of the umbilical meanness, savagery.
ɦyɛtɨɦyɛtɔs (ɦyɛtɨɦyɛtɔsí-) v. to be fero-
ɦyeínósá na séàe v. to be related by cious, fierce, mean, savage.
blood. Lit. ‘relation of blood’.
ɦyɛ̀tɔ̀n (ɦyɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to be ferocious,
ɦyeínósá sitsʼésú v. to be related by mar- fierce, mean, savage.
ɦyɔ̀ (ɦyɔ̀ɔ̀-) n. cattle, cow(s). Can refer
ɦyeités (ɦyeitésí-) 1 v. to check out, fa- to one or more cattle/cows.
miliarize oneself with, get to know. 2 ɦyɔ̀àm (ɦyɔ̀-àmà-) pl. ɦyoika . n. for-
v. to discern, recognize, tell apart. 3 eigner: non-Ik, especially a member of
v. to prospect, survey. a pastoralist tribe. Lit. ‘cattle-person’.
ɦyeitésá arííkàɛ v. to haruspicate: to di- ɦyɔ̀bàr (ɦyɔ̀-bàrò-) pl. ɦyɔbarɨtín.
vine the future by inspecting patterns n. herd of cattle.
in animal entrails.
ɦyɔ̀cèka (ɦyɔ̀-cèkì-) pl. ɦyɔcɨkám. n. for-
ɦyeítésihò (ɦyeítési-hòò-) pl. ɦyeítési- eign woman: non-Ik, especially a mem-
hoíka . n. examination room. ber of a pastoralist tribe. Lit. ‘cattle-
ɦyeitésúƙota (ɦyeitésúƙotí-) v. to in- woman’.
form, let know, tell. ɦyɔɛn (ɦyɔ-ɛní-) n. foreign language:
ɦyeitetés (ɦyeitetésí-) v. to inform, let any but especially that of a pastoralist
know, tell. tribe. Lit. ‘cattle’s (language)’.

ɦyɔ̀ètsʼa ɦyʉƙʉ́n

ɦyɔ̀ètsʼa (ɦyɔ̀-ètsʼì-) n. cowdung, ma- ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɛ̀tɔ̀n (ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to ap-

nure. See also ŋɔta . proach, come close, draw near. 2 v. to
ɦyòìdwa (ɦyò-ìdò-) pl. ɦyoiditín. 1 be approximate.
n. cow udder. 2 n. cow milk. ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɨmɔ́s (ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɨmɔ́sí-) v. to be
ɦyòìm (ɦyò-ìmà-) pl. ɦyowika . n. for- close/near to each another.
eign child: non-Ik, especially of any ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɔ̀n (ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be close,
pastoralist tribe. Lit. ‘cattle-child’. near. 2 v. to be approximate. 3 v. to
ɦyɔjejé (ɦyɔ-jejéì-) n. cowhide, cow be almost.
leather, cowskin. ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɔ̀nìàm (ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɔ̀nì-àmà-) pl. ɦyɔ-
ɦyɔ̀ʝàn (ɦyɔ̀-ʝànì-) n. short grass species tɔ́ɡɔniika . n. friend or neighbor whom
loved by cattle and used to make you want to stay close to.
brooms. Eragrostis braunii.
ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɔnʉƙɔta (ɦyɔtɔ́ɡɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to ap-
ɦyòm (ɦyòmò) ideo. crack! (sound of a proach (going), go near.
stick breaking easily).
ɦyʉƙʉm (ɦyʉƙʉmʉ́-) pl. ɦyʉ́ƙʉ́mìka .
ɦyɔŋwa (ɦyɔ-ŋwaá-) n. cow. This is the n. neck.
term for a female cow; see ɦyɔ̀ for ‘cow’
in general. ɦyʉƙʉma ƙwázàe n. collar, neckband.
Lit. ‘neck of clothing’.
ɦyoós (ɦyoosí-) v. to be famous, known,
reputed, well-known. ɦyʉƙʉmʉ́ɔ́ka (ɦyʉƙʉmʉ́-ɔ́kà-) n. cervi-
cal vertebrae, neckbone.
ɦyɔtaƙáya (ɦyɔ-taƙáí-) pl. ɦyɔtaƙáíka .
n. cow-leather shoe. ɦyʉƙʉmʉ́tsírím (ɦyʉƙʉmʉ́-tsírímʉ́-) pl.
ɦyɔ̀tòda (ɦyɔ̀-tòdà-) pl. ɦyɔtodaicíka . ɦyʉƙʉmʉ́tsírímíka . n. metal neckring
n. foreign language: any but espe- worn as jewelry.
cially that of a pastoralist tribe like the ɦyʉƙʉ́n (ɦyʉƙʉ́ná-) pl. ɦyʉƙʉ́níka .
Dodoth, Toposa, and Turkana. Lit. n. back interior wall of a house/hut (op-
‘cattle-talk’. posite the front door).

ɨáíá íbɔtsɛ́s

ɨáíá (<ɨáíɛ́ɛ́s) v. ibéta (ibétí-) pl. íbètìka . n. thorn-tree
ɨákɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨákɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to take away. species whose wood is used for build-
See also duƙésúƙota . ing, fencing, and carving tool handles;
ɨakɛtɛ́s (ɨakɛtɛ́sí-) v. to bring. See also its twigs are used as toothbrushes, and
detés. its red seeds are worn as beads by the
Turkana. Commiphora africana.
ɨatɛs (ɨatɛsí-) v. to add, increase.
íbìrìbìròn (íbìrìbìrònì-) v. to babble,
ɨatiés (ɨatiesí-) v. to add repeatedly, keep blather.
íbɨtɛ́s (íbɨtɛ́sí-) v. to plant, sow.
ɨatiésuƙota (ɨatiesúƙotí-) v. to add re-
íbɔbɔtsɛ́s (íbɔbɔtsɛ́sí-) v. to agitate,
peatedly, keep adding.
churn, shake vigorously.
ɨatímétòn (ɨatímétònì-) v. to be added,
iboboya (iboboí-) n. African paradise fly-
grow, increase.
catcher (both rufous and white). Terp-
ɨatɔs (ɨatɔsí-) 1 v. to added, increased. 2 siphone viridis.
v. to be expanded, widened.
íboɗolés (íboɗolésí-) v. to lean or tip
ìàwìàwa (ìàwìàʉ̀-) pl. ɨáíwíáwìka . over (e.g. a beer gourd in order to drink
n. creek, small stream. from it).
íbaɗɛ́s (íbaɗɛ́sí-) v. to bang into, bump, íbòfòn (íbòfònì-) v. to make an alarm
hit, knock, run into. call (of animals, like a baboon’s bark an
íbaɗiés (íbaɗiesí-) v. to bang into, bump, oribi’s whistle).
hit, knock, run into repeatedly. íbokés (íbokésí-) 1 v. to put up: elevate
íbànètòn (íbànètònì-) v. to come in for safe storage. 2 v. to postpone, put
the late afternoon or evening. See also off.
irípétòn. ɨbɔta (ɨbɔtá-) pl. íbɔ̀tìka . 1 n. ring of dried
íbànòn (íbànònì-) v. to go in the late af- out pumpkin. 2 n. wrist knife. See also
ternoon or evening. See also irípón. ɲáɓaaráta .
íbatalɛ́s (íbatalɛ́sí-) v. to put in a sling, íbotitésúƙota (íbotitésúƙotí-) v. to
sling. bounce, jounce, make jump.
íbatɛ́s (íbatɛ́sí-) v. to knock down/over, íbotitetés (íbotitetésí-) v. to bounce,
topple, tumble. jounce, make jump.
íbatɛsa así v. to tumble down. Íbotokoka (Íbotokokó-) n. name of a
íbatɛtɛ́s (íbatɛtɛ́sí-) v. to knock river.
down/over, topple, tumble. íbòtòn (íbòtònì-) 1 v. to jump, leap,
íbatiés (íbatiesí-) v. to knock down/over, spring. 2 v. to bounce, rebound.
topple, or tumble repeatedly. íbɔtsam (íbɔtsamá-) n. butter. Lit.
íbɛ̀ɗìbɛ̀ɗɔ̀n (íbɛ̀ɗìbɛ̀ɗɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to blink, ‘churnable’.
nictate, wink. 2 v. to creep or sneak íbɔtsɛ́s (íbɔtsɛ́sí-) v. to agitate, churn,
up. See also irwapírwápòn. shake vigorously.

íbɔtsɛ́sá así ɨɓatíɓátɛ́s

íbɔtsɛ́sá así v. to be agitated, churn, roil. ɨɓáɓɛ́ɛ́s (ɨɓáɓɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨɓáɓá-) v. to handle

íbʉbʉŋɛ́s (íbʉbʉŋɛ́sí-) 1 v. to inclose, in- carefully, treat gently.
sert, slip or tuck into (e.g. when one is ɨɓákínɔ́s (ɨɓákínɔ́sí-) v. to be next to
secretly passing an item into a friend’s each other.
pocket). 2 v. to butt in, disrupt, inter- ɨɓákɔ́n (ɨɓákɔ́nì-) v. to be adjacent, be-
fere. side, next to.
íbʉbʉŋɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (íbʉbʉŋɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) 1 v. to ɨɓákɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨɓákɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to move
inclose, insert, slip or tuck into (e.g. adjacent, beside, or next to.
when one is secretly passing an item ɨɓálɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨɓálɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to appall, aston-
into a friend’s pocket). 2 v. to butt in, ish, horrify, shock. The one who expe-
disrupt, interfere. riences this sensation takes the dative
íbuɗés (íbuɗésí-) v. to trample, tromp. case in a sentence.
íbuɗésá cué v. to slosh through water. ɨɓalíɓálɛ́s (ɨɓalíɓálɛ́sí-) v. to consume,
Lit. ‘to trample water’. misuse, waste.
íbunutsés (íbunutsésí-) v. to brace, ɨɓálɔ́n (ɨɓálɔ́nì-) v. to be appalling, as-
splint. tonishing, horrifying, shocking. See
also toɓúlón.
íburuburés (íburuburésí-) v. to mingle
or stir in (e.g. flour into water to make ɨɓámɔ́n (ɨɓámɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be free, unoc-
meal mush). cupied. 2 v. to be extra, spare, unused.
3 v. to be loose, unfixed. 4 v. to be
íbutsés (íbutsésí-) v. to beat down, beat free of charge. 5 v. to be plain, simple,
out (e.g. to put out fire by beating unadorned.
it with leafy branches; to clear away
ɨɓámɔ́nìàm (ɨɓámɔ́nì-àmà-) pl. ɨɓámɔ́-
brush before cutting larger trees; to
niika . n. care-free person.
beat dust out of clothing).
ɨɓámɔ́nìtòda (ɨɓámɔ́nì-tòdà-) n. point-
íbutsurés (íbutsurésí-) v. to flavor, sea-
less talk.
son. See also iwéwérés and iwówórés.
ɨɓaɲɛs (ɨɓaɲɛsí-) v. to bump, jab (e.g
ɨɓááŋàs (ɨɓááŋàsì-) 1 n. innocence, with the elbow).
naivete. 2 n. folly, foolishness. 3
ɨɓaŋíɓáŋɔ̀n (ɨɓaŋíɓáŋɔ̀nì-) v. to be awk-
n. idiocy, stupidity. 4 n. illiteracy.
ward, clumsy, uncoordinated (in move-
ɨɓááŋàsìàm (ɨɓááŋàsì-àmà-) pl. ɨɓáá- ment or speech). See also betsínón.
ŋasiika . n. idiot, imbecile, moron,
ɨɓatɛs (ɨɓatɛsí-) 1 v. to block, deflect,
stupid person.
knock back, parry. 2 v. to hamper,
ɨɓááŋàsìtòda (ɨɓááŋàsì-tòdà-) n. bunk, handicap, hinder, impede, stymie. See
hogwash, nonsense. also ɨƙɨɛs.
ɨɓááŋɔ̀n (ɨɓááŋɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be innocent, ɨɓátɛ́sʉƙɔta mɛnáɛ v. to digress, side-
naive, unknowing. 2 v. to be foolish, track a discussion.
unwise. 3 v. to be dumb, idiotic, stupid, ɨɓatíɓátɛ́s (ɨɓatíɓátɛ́sí-) 1 v. to block, de-
unintelligent. 4 v. to be illiterate, une- flect, knock back, or parry repeatedly.
ducated. 2 v. to hamper, handicap, hinder, im-
ɨɓáɓá (<ɨɓáɓɛ́ɛ́s) v. pede, or stymie repeatedly.

ɨɓatíɓátɔ̀n iɓolíɓólésuƙota

ɨɓatíɓátɔ̀n (ɨɓatíɓátɔ̀nì-) v. to be ham- iɓélúkéés (iɓélúkéésí-/iɓélúká-) v. to

pered, handicapped, hindered. overturn, turn over, upset. See also
iɓátísa (<iɓátíseés) v. bukures and iɓéléés.
iɓátíseés (iɓátíseesí-/iɓátísa-) v. to dunk, ɨɓɛ́rɔ́ánón (ɨɓɛ́rɔ́ánónì-) v. to be ener-
baptize. getic, hard-working, industrious.

ɨɓɛ́ɓɛ́ (<ɨɓɛ́ɓɔ́ɔ̀n) v. ɨɓɛsíɓɛ́sɛ́s (ɨɓɛsíɓɛ́sɛ́sí-) v. to break up

into small pieces (like sticks for kin-
ɨɓɛ́ɓɛ́ɛsʉƙɔta (ɨɓɛ́ɓɛ́ɛsʉƙɔtí-) v. to lay dling).
iɓíléròn (iɓílérònì-) 1 v. to be forgotten,
ɨɓɛ́ɓɛ́ɛ̀tɔ̀n (ɨɓɛ́ɓɛ́ɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to hatch out misplaced. 2 v. to be baffled, confused,
(of chicks). See also ɓɛkɛ́tɔ́n. perplexed. See also ɡwèlòn.
ɨɓɛ́ɓɛ́lɛ́s (ɨɓɛ́ɓɛ́lɛ́sí-) v. to split into iɓíléronuƙota (iɓíléronuƙotí-) v. to be-
pieces. come forgotten or misplaced.
ɨɓɛ́ɓɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨɓɛ́ɓɔ́ɔ̀nì-/ɨɓɛ́ɓɛ́-) v. to hatch (of iɓilíɓílésá así v. to keep turning oneself
chicks). over (e.g. in bed at night).
ɨɓɛkíɓɛ́kɛ́s (ɨɓɛkíɓɛ́kɛ́sí-) v. to break or ɨɓíɔ́n (ɨɓíɔ́nì-) v. to shart: defecate unin-
snap off (e.g. dry sticks). tentionally while passing gas.
ɨɓɛ́lɛ́ (<ɨɓɛ́lɔ́ɔ̀n) v. ɨɓɨtsíɓítsɛ́s (ɨɓɨtsíɓítsɛ́sí-) v. to struggle
ɨɓɛ́lɛ́ánón (ɨɓɛ́lɛ́ánónì-) v. to be impetu- or wriggle into (an opening).
ous, impulsive. iɓóɓólés (iɓóɓólésí-) v. to chip or pull
iɓéléés (iɓéléésí-) 1 v. to overturn, roll or (bark) off in pieces (rather than strips).
turn over. 2 v. to alter, change, trans- iɓóɓóŋètòn (iɓóɓóŋètònì-) v. to come
form. See also bukures and iɓélúkéés. back, return, turn around this way. See
iɓéléésuƙota así v. to change one’s direc- also itétón.
tion, turn oneself around. iɓóɓóŋòn (iɓóɓóŋònì-) v. to go back, re-
iɓéléetés (iɓéléetésí-) v. to overturn, roll turn, turn around.
or turn over. iɓóɓórés (iɓóɓórésí-) v. to core or hol-
iɓéléìmètòn (iɓéléìmètònì-) 1 v. to over- low out.
turn, roll or turn over (on its own). iɓóɓórós (iɓóɓórósí-) v. to be cored or
2 v. to change, transform. See also hollowed out.
iɓékúkáìmètòn. iɓokes (iɓokesí-) v. to jiggle, shake.
iɓelíɓélésa tódàe v. to change state- iɓókésuƙota (iɓókésuƙotí-) v. to shake
ments or the story. or throw off.
ɨɓɛ́lɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨɓɛ́lɔ́ɔ̀nì-/ɨɓɛ́lɛ́-) v. to be impetu- iɓoletés (iɓoletésí-) v. to covenant, pro-
ous, impulsive. mise.
iɓélúká (<iɓélúkéés) v. iɓolíɓólés (iɓolíɓólésí-) v. to plunder,
iɓélúkáìmètòn (iɓélúkáìmètònì-) v. to ransack, rifle through.
overturn, turn over (on its own). See iɓolíɓólésuƙota (iɓolíɓólésuƙotí-) v. to
also iɓéléìmètòn. plunder, ransack, rifle through.

iɓólínós Icédìywa

iɓólínós (iɓólínósí-) v. to enter a ɨɓʉrɛtɛ́síàm (ɨɓʉrɛtɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɨɓʉrɛt-

covenant with each other, promise ɛ́síika . n. attractive or vivacious person.
each other. Lit. ‘warm-person’.
iɓólínósa na séàe v. blood covenant. ɨɓʉ́rɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨɓʉ́rɛ́tɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to warm up. 2
iɓólóɲés (iɓólóɲésí-) v. to hole, make a v. to arouse, incite desire.
hole in. iɓurímétòn (iɓurímétònì-) 1 v. to warm
ɨɓɔ́lɔ́tsɛ́s (ɨɓɔ́lɔ́tsɛ́sí-) v. to strip off (e.g. up. 2 v. to be aroused, turned on,
strips of sisal or tree bark). See also worked up (sexually).
ɨɓɔtɛs. ɨɓʉ́rítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨɓʉ́rítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to make
ɨɓɔníɓɔ́nɛ́s (ɨɓɔníɓɔ́nɛ́sí-) v. to caress, warm, warm up.
stroke afffectionately. ɨɓʉ́rɔ́n (ɨɓʉ́rɔ́nì-) v. to be warm.
iɓoníɓóniés (iɓoníɓóniesí-) v. to caress, ɨɓʉrʉ́ɓʉ́rɔ̀n (ɨɓʉrʉ́ɓʉ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to do
stroke affectionately. quickly, hasten, hurry.
iɓóŋón (iɓóŋónì-) v. to do again, repeat. iɓutes (iɓutesí-) v. to atone for, expiate.
iɓóótánón (iɓóótánónì-) v. to be her- ɨɓʉtsɛs (ɨɓʉtsɛsí-) v. to elude, evade, get
mitic: living in solitude. away from.
ɨɓɔtɛs (ɨɓɔtɛsí-) v. to strip off (e.g. strips ɨɓʉtsɛtɛ́sá así v. to evade, elude, get
of sisal or tree bark). See also ɨɓɔ́lɔ́tsɛ́s. away from.
iɓótóŋés (iɓótóŋésí-) v. to lock, shut up. iɓutsúmétòn (iɓutsúmétònì-) v. to es-
iɓótóŋésá akáe v. to keep one’s mouth cape, evade, get away.
shut, shut up (e.g. in anger). iɓutúɓútés (iɓutúɓútésí-) v. to dump or
Ìɓùɓù (Ìɓùɓùù-) n. December: month of shake out (of a container).
clearing. See also Raraan. iɓutúɓútòn (iɓutúɓútònì-) 1 v. to defec-
iɓúɓúés (iɓúɓúésí-) v. to clear off/out tate frequently (of children). 2 v. to be
(uncut brush for a garden). obese, overweight.
iɓues (iɓuesí-) v. to sear (e.g. fresh ani- ɨɓʉ́tʉ́ŋɔ̀n (ɨɓʉ́tʉ́ŋɔ̀nì-) v. to pout, sulk.
mal hides). See also imutúmútòn.
iɓúlíánón (iɓúlíánónì-) v. to be destitute, ɨɓʉyákòn (ɨɓʉyákònì-) v. to enter pu-
dirt-poor. berty, mature sexually (of boys).
iɓúlíánónìàm (iɓúlíánónì-àmà-) pl. iɓú- iɓwates (iɓwatesí-) v. to jerk, pull, yank.
líánoniika . n. destitute, dirt-poor per- See also ipoles.
son (who does not work). iɓwátésuƙota (iɓwátésuƙotí-) v. to
iɓúŋá (<iɓúŋéés) v. shove away.
iɓúŋéés (iɓúŋéésí-/iɓúŋá-) v. to flog, iɓwatetés (iɓwatetésí-) v. to pull force-
lash, scourge. fully, yank over (this way).
ɨɓʉ́ŋɔ́n (ɨɓʉ́ŋɔ́nì-) v. to be in a hurry, Icéám (Icé-ámà- ) pl. Ika . n. Ik person.
hurry, rush. Icédìkwa (Icé-dìkwà-) pl. Icédikwitín.
iɓures (iɓuresí-) v. to replant (a garden n. Ik dance.
a second time in a single year). Icédìywa (Icé-dìyò-) n. Ik tribe.

Icéɛ́n ídʉlɨdʉlɛ́s

Icéɛ́n (Icé-ɛ́ní-) n. Ik culture and/or lan- ídèmèdàkwa (ídèmè-dàkù-) n. small

guage. plant species with yellow flowers; its
Icéhò (Icé-hòò-) pl. Icéhoíka . n. tradi- roots, when roasted and ground, are
tional beehive-shaped grass hut once used to treat snakebites. Lit. ‘snake-
the primary dwelling of the Ik people. plant’. Also called ídemecɛmɛ́r.
Lit. ‘Ik-hut’. ídèmèìm (ídèmè-ìmà-) pl. ídemewika .
Icékíʝa (Icé-kíʝà-) n. Ikland, Ik country n. earthworm. Lit. ‘snake-child’.
or county. ídèmèkwàywa (ídèmè-kwàyò-) pl. í-
Icémóríɗa (Icé-móríɗó-) n. cowpeas. demekwaitín. n. snake fang.
Lit. ‘Ik-beans’. ídemeƙɨdzɛ́s (ídeme-ƙɨdzɛ́sí-) n. snake-
Icémóríɗókàka (Icé-móríɗó-kàkà-) bite.
n. cowpea leaves (which the Ik eat ídèmètàta (ídèmè-tàtì-) n. snake venom.
as a vegetable). Lit. ‘Ik-bean leaves’. Lit. ‘snake-spit’.
Icénáƙáf (Icé-náƙáfʉ̀-) n. Ik language, ídirés (ídirésí-) v. to smack.
the Ik tongue. Lit. ‘Ik-tongue’. See ídocɛmɛ́r (ído-cɛmɛ́rí-) n. herb that
also Icétôda . is soaked in water with hot quartz
Icénánès (Icénánèsì-) n. Iklikeness, Ik- and applied as a treatment to women’s
ness. swollen breasts. Lit. ‘breast-herb’.
Evolvus alsinoides.
icéɲʝeés (icéɲʝeesí-) v. to change.
ídoeɗa (ído-eɗí-) pl. ídoeɗitín. n. breast
icéɲʝèìmètòn (icéɲʝèìmètònì-) v. to areola. Lit. ‘breast-kernel’.
ídoho (ído-hoó-) pl. ídohoíka . n. udder.
Icéódòwa (Icé-ódòù-) n. Ik day: a gen- Lit. ‘milk-housing’.
eral Ik gathering held every January in
ídòkàka (ídò-kàkà-) n. milk-leaf: a
Kamion to celebrate Ik identity and dis-
shrub species whose bark fibers are
cuss challenges.
used for tying and whose large leaves
Icétôda (Icé-tódà-) n. Ik language. Lit. are used to wrap meat, honeycomb,
‘Ik-speech/talk’. See also Icénáƙáf. or mira (khat); livestock also eat this
ɨcɔ́ŋáimetona ikáe v. to be baffled, con- plant. Abutilon sp.
fused, perplexed. ídòkàtsa (ídò-kàtsì-) pl. ídokatsín.
ídadamɛ́s (ídadamɛ́sí-) v. to fondle, grab, n. nipple. Lit. ‘breast-tip’.
grope. See also tárábes. ídòkwàywa (ídò-kwàyò-) pl. ídokwai-
ídadamɔ́s (ídadamɔ́sí-) v. to be groping tín. n. milk tooth.
(e.g. walking in darkness or on a slope). ídoɲeɗeké (ído-ɲeɗekéè-) n. mastitis.
ídèm (ídèmè-) pl. ídèmìka . 1 n. serpent, Lit. ‘breast-disease’.
snake. 2 n. intestinal worm. ídulés (ídulésí-) v. to commingle, com-
ídemecɛmɛ́r (ídeme-cɛmɛ́rí-) n. small mix, mix in (e.g. contaminating a liquid
plant species with yellow flowers; its or refreshing beer by adding more por-
roots, when roasted and ground, are ridge).
used to treat snakebites. Lit. ‘snake- ídʉlɨdʉlɛ́s (ídʉlɨdʉlɛ́sí-) 1 v. to pour out
herb’. Also called ídèmèdàkwa . noisily (from a small opening). 2 v. to

ídʉlɨdʉlɛ́sa tódàe Iɗátáŋɛ́r

rub vigorously (e.g. when one is hit on ɨɗafesa sáwátìkàɛ v. to slap the shoul-
the body, or to soften up a fruit). ders.
ídʉlɨdʉlɛ́sa tódàe v. to murmur, mutter. ɨɗáfɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨɗáfɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to slap.
íduludulés (íduludulésí-) v. to commin-
2 v. to beat back/down, repel, subdue,
gle, commix, mix in (e.g. by kneading
or mashing). ɨɗáfɛ́sʉƙɔta así v. to be beat back, re-
pelled, subdued, suppressed.
ídulumona cué v. to flow in waves (of
water). ɨɗafiés (ɨɗafiesí-) v. to slap around.
ɨɗáíƙɔta (<ɨɗɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta ) v.
ídʉrɛ́s (ídʉrɛ́sí-) v. to bombard, pelt,
shower, spray (with projectiles). ɨɗáínɔ́s (ɨɗáínɔ́sí-) v. to murder each
ídʉrɛ́sá tódàe v. to barrage or bombard
with words. ɨɗaiyes (ɨɗaiyesí-) 1 v. to hide repeat-
edly, keep hiding. 2 v. to keep murder-
îdwa (ídò-) pl. íditín. 1 n. breast. 2 ing, murder repeatedly.
n. teat. 3 n. milk. 4 n. young maize
ɨɗaka (ɨɗakí-) pl. ɨɗákíka . n. small plant
kernels filled with a milky white liquid.
species whose salty-tasting leaves are
5 n. sebum: whitish oily substance ex-
boiled as a vegetable or mixed in with
uded from skin pores.
meal mush or edible termites. Portu-
ídwà nì ɓàr n. sour milk. laca quadrifida.
ídzànànès (ídzànànèsì-) n. affluence, ɨɗakɛ́s (ɨɗakɛ́sí-) v. to lack, miss.
prosperity, success. ɨɗákɔ́n (ɨɗákɔ́nì-) v. to be deficient, in-
ídzès (ídzèsì-) 1 v. to discharge, emit, ex- sufficient, lacking.
pel. 2 v. to fire, shoot. ɨɗalɛs (ɨɗalɛsí-) v. to spring, trigger, trip
ídzesa así v. to shoot across/over, whiz (a trap).
by (e.g. a shooting star or a person ɨɗálɛ́sʉƙɔta así v. to spring, trip (of a
dashing somewhere). trap).
ídzesuƙota (ídzesuƙotí-) 1 v. to dis- ɨɗámɔ́n (ɨɗámɔ́nì-) v. to go for a walk.
charge, emit, expel. 2 v. to fire, shoot, ɨɗaɲɛtɛ́s (ɨɗaɲɛtɛ́sí-) v. to accumulate,
take a shot at. amass. See also torítéetés.
ídziidziés (ídziidziesí-) 1 v. to discharge, ɨɗaŋíɗáŋɛ́s (ɨɗaŋíɗáŋɛ́sí-) v. to knead,
emit, or expel continuously. 2 v. to fire press repeatedly.
or shoot repeatedly. ɨɗaŋíɗáŋɔ̀n (ɨɗaŋíɗáŋɔ̀nì-) v. to persist,
ídzòn (ídzònì-) v. to discharge, drain, persevere, press on.
emit, run out. iɗásón (iɗásónì-) v. to be sneaky,
ɨɗá (<ɨɗɛɛs) v. stealthy.
ɨɗaarɛ́s (ɨɗaarɛ́sí-) v. to ambush, lie in Iɗátáŋɛ́r (Iɗátá-ŋɛ́rá-) n. August: the
wait for, waylay. See also taɗapes. month when mingling sticks are heard
banging on cooking pots (due to the
ɨɗafɛs (ɨɗafɛsí-) 1 v. to slap. 2 v. to clap. presence of food from freshly har-
ɨɗafɛsa kwɛ́tìkà v. to clap the hands. vested gardens). Lit. ‘mingling sticks

ɨɗatɛs iɗikitetés

are banging’. See also Ɗiwamúce and v. to be covered, scoured, searched

Lósʉ́ɓán. over thoroughly.
ɨɗatɛs (ɨɗatɛsí-) v. to bang on, pound ɨɗɛ́ɔ́n (ɨɗɛ́ɔ́nì-) v. to be jumping out/up,
(e.g. a hammer on metal). springing, striking (e.g. a grasshopper
ɨɗɛ́bɛtɛ́s (ɨɗɛ́bɛtɛ́sí-) v. to amass or accu- or snake, or pumpkin seeds in a pan).
mulate one-by-one. ɨɗɛpɛs (ɨɗɛpɛsí-) v. to pick up. See also
ɨɗɛ́ɗɛ́ (<ɨɗɛ́ɗɔ́ɔ̀n) v. ɗʉmɛ́s.
iɗéɗéŋés (iɗéɗéŋésí-) v. to necrotize: ɨɗɛpɛtɛ́s (ɨɗɛpɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pick up. See
eat away body tissue. also ɗʉmɛtɛ́s.
ɨɗɛ́ɗɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨɗɛ́ɗɔ́ɔ̀nì-/ɨɗɛ́ɗɛ́-) v. to lie on ɨɗɛpíɗɛ́pɛ́s (ɨɗɛpíɗɛ́pɛ́sí-) v. to pick up
one’s back, recline, repose. (many things).
ɨɗɛɛs (ɨɗɛɛsí-/ɨɗá-) 1 v. to conceal, hide. ɨɗɛpíɗɛ́pɛtɛ́s (ɨɗɛpíɗɛ́pɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pick
2 v. to bump off, get rid of, murder, off. up (many things).
ɨɗɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨɗɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔtí-/ɨɗáíƙɔt-) 1 v. to
ɨɗɛrɛs (ɨɗɛrɛsí-) 1 v. to scatter, strew (e.g.
conceal, hide away. 2 v. to bump off,
seeds). 2 v. to bead, decorate with
get rid of, kill off.
beads (e.g. gourds or hides).
ɨɗɛ́ɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨɗɛ́ɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to jump out or up ,
launch, spring (e.g. a grasshopper or ɨɗɛríɗɛ́rɛ́s (ɨɗɛríɗɛ́rɛ́sí-) v. to scatter
snake, or popcorn or pumpkin seeds around, strew about.
when heated up). ɨɗɛríɗɛ́rɔ́s (ɨɗɛríɗɛ́rɔ́sí-) v. to be scat-
ɨɗɛɨɗɛ́ɛ́s (ɨɗɛɨɗɛ́ɛ́sí-) 1 v. to rap or tap tered around, strewn about. See also
repeatedly. 2 v. to burn around the apétépétánón.
edge of, make a firebreak on. See also ɨɗɛrɔs (ɨɗɛrɔsí-) 1 v. to be scattered,
ɨlɛrílɛ́rɛ́s. strewn. 2 v. to be beaded, decorated
iɗékè (iɗékèè-) pl. iɗékèìka . n. aircraft, with beads. See also kazaanón.
airplane, plane (with propellers). ɨɗɛtɛs (ɨɗɛtɛsí-) v. to cut, mow, or slash
ɨɗɛmɛs (ɨɗɛmɛsí-) v. to bewitch by star- (vegetation).
ing at with the ‘evil eye’. ɨɗɨɗɛs (ɨɗɨɗɛsí-) v. to cut into strips.
iɗenes (iɗenesí-) v. to borrow, credit,
ɨɗíɗíwɛ́s (ɨɗíɗíwɛ́sí-) v. to clear a nar-
take on credit.
row furrow or path in.
iɗenetés (iɗenetésí-) v. to borrow, cred-
it, take on credit. See also wáánɛtɛ́s. ɨɗííɗɛ́s (ɨɗííɗɛ́sí-) v. to swish, swoosh.
ɨɗɛŋɛs (ɨɗɛŋɛsí-) 1 v. to pack down, tamp iɗíkétòn (iɗíkétònì-) 1 v. to clot, coagu-
(e.g. cement or dirt). 2 v. to cover, late, congeal, solidify, thicken. 2 v. to
scour, or search (an area). escalate, intensify.
ɨɗɛŋíɗɛ́ŋɛ́s (ɨɗɛŋíɗɛ́ŋɛ́sí-) v. to pack ɨɗíkílɔ̀n (ɨɗíkílɔ̀nì-) v. to be obstinate,
down or tamp repeatedly (e.g. cement stubborn.
or dirt floor). iɗikitetés (iɗikitetésí-) 1 v. to clot, coag-
iɗéŋímètòn (iɗéŋímètònì-) 1 v. to be- ulate, congeal, solidify, thicken. 2 v. to
come packed or tamped down. 2 esclate, intensify.

iɗíkón iɗókóliés

iɗíkón (iɗíkónì-) 1 v. to be clotted, coag- ɨɗɨmɔ́s (ɨɗɨmɔ́sí-) 1 v. to be fixed, made,

ulated, congealed, solidifed, thickened. repaired. 2 v. to be organized, pre-
2 v. to be intense. pared, tidy.
iɗiles (iɗilesí-) 1 v. to gain ground or ɨɗɨmɔtɔ́s (ɨɗɨmɔtɔ́sí-) 1 v. to be created,
make headway on. 2 v. to work made. 2 n. creature.
on/over: slang for clobbering some- ɨɗɨmɔtɔ́sá kwɛ̀tìkɔ v. to be hand-crafted,
body. handmade.
ɨɗɨlɛs (ɨɗɨlɛsí-) v. to bundle, jam, pack. ɨɗɨmɔtɔ́sá ròɓo v. to be artificial, man-
iɗílón (iɗílónì-) v. to get a headstart (e.g. made.
on the day by leaving early). ɨɗíɲɔ́n (ɨɗíɲɔ́nì-) v. to grunt, strain.
ɨɗɨmɛ́s (ɨɗɨmɛ́sí-) 1 v. to fix, make, repair. ɨɗíŋɔ́n (ɨɗíŋɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be narrow. 2
2 v. to organize, prepare, ready. v. to be tight (of a space, e.g. inside a
ɨɗɨmɛ́sá así v. to sit decently (by arrang- vehicle).
ing your legs and clothes modestly). ɨɗíɔ́n (ɨɗíɔ́nì-) v. to drop down (of seeds
ɨɗɨmɛ́sá buƙúⁱ v. to arrange a marriage. from a dried out plant pod).
ɨɗɨmɛ́sá ìʉ̀màɛ v. to arrange a marital en- ɨɗíɔ́na ikáe v. migraine headache.
gagement. iɗipes (iɗipesí-) v. to dip into (e.g. a con-
ɨɗɨmɛ́síàm (ɨɗɨmɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɨɗɨmɛ́- tainer, fire, etc.).
síika . 1 n. fixer, mechanic. 2 n. artist, ɨɗírírɔ̀n (ɨɗírírɔ̀nì-) v. to move straight
creator, inventor. ahead.
ɨɗɨmɛ́sɔ́n (ɨɗɨmɛ́sɔ́nì-) v. to be prepared, ɨɗírítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨɗírítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to
ready. straighten, unbend.
ɨɗɨmɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (ɨɗɨmɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) 1 v. to fix, ɨɗírɔ́n (ɨɗírɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be or move in a
make, repair. 2 v. to organize, prepare, straight line. 2 v. to aim, take aim.
ɨɗɨtsɛs (ɨɗɨtsɛsí-) v. to cane, lash, whip.
ɨɗɨmɛtɛ́s (ɨɗɨmɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to create, make.
2 v. to fix, repair. See also iroketes and ɨɗɔ́bɛ̀s (ɨɗɔ́bɛ̀sì-) v. to arrange, order.
tɔsʉɓɛs. See also ɨnábɛ̀s and itíbès.
ɨɗɨmɛtɛ́síàm (ɨɗɨmɛtɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɨɗɨ- ɨɗɔ́bɛtɛ́s (ɨɗɔ́bɛtɛ́sí-) v. to arrange, order.
mɛtɛ́síika . n. creator, maker. ɨɗɔ́ɗɔ́ɛ́s (ɨɗɔ́ɗɔ́ɛ́sí-) v. to cook up, rustle
iɗimiés (iɗimiesí-) v. to organize, plan, up (a light meal or snack).
prepare, ready. iɗóɗókánón (iɗóɗókánónì-) v. to be
iɗimiesá así v. to prepare or ready one- heaped, piled or stacked up.
self. iɗóɗókés (iɗóɗókésí-) v. to heap, pile,
iɗimiesíàm (iɗimiesí-àmà-) pl. iɗimie- or stack on top of.
síika . 1 n. organizer. 2 n. usher. iɗoes (iɗoesí-) v. to drop into (e.g. food
iɗimiesúƙota (iɗimiesúƙotí-) v. to orga- in the mouth).
nize, plan, prepare, ready. iɗokes (iɗokesí-) v. to add on top.
ɨɗímɔ́n (ɨɗímɔ́nì-) v. to speak a foreign iɗókóliés (iɗókóliesí-) v. to choose, pick,
language, talk foreignly. select (e.g. fruit that is ripe).

iɗolíɗólés ɨɛ́ƙímɔ́s

iɗolíɗólés (iɗolíɗólésí-) v. to dot, speck- iɗúzòn (iɗúzònì-) v. to flee, fly, or run

le, stipple. away (as a group).
iɗolíɗólòn (iɗolíɗólònì-) 1 v. to be dot- iɗyates (iɗyatesí-) v. to blend, combine,
ted, speckled, spotted. 2 v. to get rusty. mix. See also iɲales.
iɗomes (iɗomesí-) v. to do in intervals, ɨɛ́bɛ̀s (ɨɛ́bɛ̀sì-) 1 v. to bump, glance,
intersperse. sideswipe. 2 v. to go by, pass via,
iɗómíòn (iɗómíònì-) v. to be alternated, swing by. 3 v. to give a lift or ride
in intervals, interspersed. to, pick up and take. See also toyeres.
ɨɛ́bɛsʉƙɔta (ɨɛ́bɛsʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to bump,
iɗómóés (iɗómóésí-) v. to toss in the
glance, swipe. 2 v. to go by, pass via,
mouth one by one.
swing by. 3 v. to give a lift or ride to,
ɨɗɔ́nɔ́n (ɨɗɔ́nɔ́nì-) v. to dribble, drip con- pick up and take.
tinously. See also tsʼòlòn.
ɨɛ́bɛtɛ́s (ɨɛ́bɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to bump, glance,
iɗoŋes (iɗoŋesí-) v. to punish (often by swipe. 2 v. to come by, pass here via,
beating or caning). swing by. 3 v. to give a ride to, pick up
ɨɗɔŋíɗɔ́ŋɛ́s (ɨɗɔŋíɗɔ́ŋɛ́sí-) v. to knock or and bring. See also tɔmɛɛtɛ́s.
rap on (esp. wood, e.g. a beehive). See ɨɛ́ɓɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨɛ́ɓɛ́tɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to become cold. 2
also ikoŋíkóŋés. v. to become ashamed or embarrassed.
ìɗɔ̀r (ìɗɔ̀rɔ̀-) n. cultivation done early in ɨɛ́ɓítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨɛ́ɓítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to make
the farming season. cold.
ɨɗɔ́rɛ́ʉƙɔta (ɨɗɔ́rɛ́ʉƙɔtí-) v. to cultivate ɨɛ́ɓítɛ́sʉƙɔta ɡúróe v. to calm or cool
early in the farming season. down emotionally.
iɗoses (iɗosesí-) v. to crush, pound (of- ɨɛ́ɓítɛtɛ́s (ɨɛ́ɓítɛtɛ́sí-) v. to douse, soak,
ten between stones, e.g. the spermatic souse (e.g. flour in a pot).
cords of an animal during castration). ɨɛ́ɓɔ́n (ɨɛ́ɓɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be cold. 2 v. to be
iɗotíɗótòn (iɗotíɗótònì-) 1 v. to hop weak. 3 v. to be meek, mild. 4 v. to be
along. 2 v. to appear randomly at dif- frigid: sexually unresponsive.
ferent places. ɨɛ́ɓɔ́na kíʝáe v. cold weather.
iɗótón (iɗótónì-) 1 v. to bound, hop, ɨɛ́ɓɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨɛ́ɓɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to become
jump, leap, spring. 2 v. to bounce or cold. 2 v. to clear up (of sickness).
glance off, rebound, ricochet.
ɨɛƙás (ɨɛƙásí-) n. distance, farness.
ɨɗɔtsɛs (ɨɗɔtsɛsí-) v. to belabor, press, ɨɛƙɨɛƙa (ɨɛƙɨɛƙí-) n. vine species whose
push. hollow yellow seedpods children like
ɨɗɔ́tsɔ́n (ɨɗɔ́tsɔ́nì-) v. to jam, stick (e.g. to use as rattles or blow as whistles
of a gun). (with the seeds inside). Crotalaria lach-
iɗúkóós (iɗúkóósí-) v. to stay put, stick nocarpoides.
around one place. ɨɛƙíɛ́ƙɔ̀n (ɨɛƙíɛ́ƙɔ̀nì-) v. to be slightly dis-
iɗupes (iɗupesí-) v. to follow, stick to, tant or far.
trace (specifically landscape features ɨɛ́ƙímɔ́s (ɨɛ́ƙímɔ́sí-) v. to be far from each
like rivers, ridges, or roads). other.

ɨɛƙítɛ́sʉƙɔta ifúlón

ɨɛƙítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨɛƙítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to dis- ɨɛ́pɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨɛ́pɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to ease off:

tance, take far away. move away slowly and carefully.
ìɛ̀ƙɔ̀n (ìɛ̀ƙɔ̀nì-) v. to be distant, far. íɛ́s (íɛ́sì-) v. to clear or hoe (grass, leav-
ɨɛmɛs (ɨɛmɛsí-) v. to lead slowly and gen- ing only soil). See also ireɲes.
tly. ɨɛtɛ́s (ɨɛtɛ́sí-) v. to defend, rescue, save.
See also hoɗés.
ɨɛmɛtɛ́s (ɨɛmɛtɛ́sí-) v. to bring slowly
and gently. ɨɛtɛ́sá así v. to save oneself.
ɨɛmíɛ́mɛ́s (ɨɛmíɛ́mɛ́sí-) v. to mangle, mu- ɨɛtɛ́sá ɨsíítɛ́sʉ́ v. to acquit, clear, exoner-
tilate. ate. Lit. ‘to save from accusation’.
ɨɛ́mɔ́n (ɨɛ́mɔ́nì-) v. to walk slowly (e.g. ɨɛtɛ́síàm (ɨɛtɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɨɛtɛ́síika . n. de-
when sick). See also ɨsɔ́wɔ́ɔ̀n. fender, rescuer, savior.
ɨfáfáɲɛ́s (ɨfáfáɲɛ́sí-) v. to scramble, stir
ɨɛ́nɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨɛ́nɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to discuss, have a
around (e.g. coals to put out fire, or
talk, talk.
grain spread out to dry).
ɨɛ́nítɛtɛ́s (ɨɛ́nítɛtɛ́sí-) v. to draw out,
ifáfúkés (ifáfúkésí-) v. to gobble down
elicit speech, get to talk. See also
or wolf down. See also ŋɔfɛ́s.
ifáfúkós (ifáfúkósí-) v. to be comatose,
ɨɛ́nɔ́n (ɨɛ́nɔ́nì-) v. to converse, discuss, unconscious.
speak, talk. See also tódòn.
ɨfalífálɛ́s (ɨfalífálɛ́sí-) v. to chase, drive,
ìɛ̀ŋààwa (ìɛ̀ŋà-àwà-) pl. ɨɛŋaawíka . impel (e.g. animals, wild or domestic).
n. resting place.
ɨfátɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨfátɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to check
ɨɛ́ŋɔ́n (ɨɛ́ŋɔ́nì-) 1 v. to breathe, respire. on/out, keep an eye on, monitor.
2 v. to rest. See also sʉ̀pɔ̀n. ɨfɛ́ɗɛ́lɛ́s (ɨfɛ́ɗɛ́lɛ́sí-) v. to scramble,
ɨɛ́ŋɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨɛ́ŋɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to catch scurry, or shinny up.
one’s breath. 2 v. to rest up, take a ɨfɛlɛsa así 1 v. to glide, slide, slip (like an
break. adze off of wood). 2 v. to slip or sneak
ɨɛpɛs (ɨɛpɛsí-) v. to ease: place slowly away/off.
and carefully. ɨfɛ́lɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨfɛ́lɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to glide,
ɨɛpɛsa así v. to ease over: move slowly skid, slide (e.g. on one’s buttocks).
and carefully. ifitífítés (ifitífítésí-) v. to cut bluntly,
ɨɛpɛsa asíɛ́ ámáke v. to ease up on some- saw away at.
one. ɨfɔɛs (ɨfɔɛsí-) v. to drag, grate, scrape
ɨɛ́pɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨɛ́pɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to ease off (along the ground). See also fɔ́fɔ́tɛ́s.
with: move away with slowly and care- ɨfɔɛsa así v. to drag oneself.
fully. ifófóés (ifófóésí-) n. taboo of eating the
ɨɛ́pɛ́sʉƙɔta así v. to ease off: move away year’s new crops prematurely, before
slowly and carefully. the culturally appointed time.
ɨɛpɛtɛ́s (ɨɛpɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to ease down: put ifúƙúfuƙés (ifúƙúfuƙésí-) v. to snort or
down slowly and carefully. 2 v. to snuffle at loudly.
abduct, kidnap, smuggle. ifúlón (ifúlónì-) v. to go at dawn.

ifulúfúlòn ɨʝíírɛ́sʉƙɔta

ifulúfúlòn (ifulúfúlònì-) 1 v. to be vio- íɡùlàʝòn (íɡùlàʝònì-) 1 v. to boil, bubble.

lent. 2 v. to have explosive diarrhea. 2 v. to churn, roil. See also wádòn.
See also iréɲíánón. íɡùm (íɡùmà-) pl. íɡùmìka . n. unripe
íɡaɗɛ́s (íɡaɗɛ́sí-) v. to displease, dissat- maize (with small milky kernels). See
isfy. also káruɓú and ɲaŋárʉ́tɛ̀.
íɡatsɨɡatsɛ́s (íɡatsɨɡatsɛ́sí-) v. to chink íɡwɨɡwɨʝɛ́s (íɡwɨɡwɨʝɛ́sí-) v. to beautify,
or clink against (e.g. rocks in soil). embellish.
íɡòmòn (íɡòmònì-) 1 v. to bark, woof. 2 íɡwìʝìrɔ̀n (íɡwìʝìrɔ̀nì-) v. to leave in a
v. to bluster, boast, brag. huff, storm off. See also ɡwaítón.
íɡɔɲɛ́s (íɡɔɲɛ́sí-) v. to cater or provide iíɗón (iíɗónì-) v. to clench one’s but-
for, supply (e.g. people working your tocks.
garden whom you had already paid in ɨíɗɔ́n (ɨíɗɔ́nì-) v. to disappear, vanish.
beer earlier). See also wɨɗímɔ́nʉƙɔta .
íɡorés (íɡorésí-) v. to cross over, go iikííkés (iikííkésí-) v. to rock back and
across, pass over. Also pronounced as forth (like a tree loose in its hole, a
ɡórés. rock rooted in the soil, or one’s body
íɡorésúƙota (íɡorésúƙotí-) 1 v. to cross in dancing). May also be spelled as
over, go across, pass over. 2 v. to give iyikíyíkés. See also iukúúkés.
across/over the top (e.g. of a fence). iʝákáánón (iʝákáánónì-) v. to be rich,
íɡoriés (íɡoriesí-) 1 v. to cross over, go wealthy, well-off.
across, or pass over repeatedly. 2 v. to ɨʝaƙíʝáƙɛ́s (ɨʝaƙíʝáƙɛ́sí-) v. to lap up.
leapfrog: jump over repeatedly. Also ɨʝárɔ́n (ɨʝárɔ́nì-) v. to be dazed, in shock,
pronounced as ɡóriés. stunned (e.g. over bad news). See also
íɡoriesá simáe v. to jump or skip rope. ʝarámétòn.
íɡɔ̀rɔ̀bɔ̀n (íɡɔ̀rɔ̀bɔ̀nì-) v. to bound, leap, Íʝéekwa (Íʝéekú-) n. a personal name.
spring. ɨʝɛ́ɛ́lɔ̀n (ɨʝɛ́ɛ́lɔ̀nì-) v. to grow under-
íɡʉʝɛ́s (íɡʉʝɛ́sí-) v. to guzzle. Also pro- ground (of roots).
nounced as áɡʉʝɛ́s. ɨʝɛ́mítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨʝɛ́mítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to hush,
íɡʉʝʉɡʉʝɛ́s (íɡʉʝʉɡʉʝɛ́sí-) v. to rinse, quiet down, shut up, silence.
swish (the mouth). See also ɨmʉ́mʉ́ʝɛ́s. ɨʝɛ́mɔ́n (ɨʝɛ́mɔ́nì-) v. to be hushed, quiet,
íɡuʝuɡuʝés (íɡuʝuɡuʝésí-) v. to fiddle silent, still.
with, twiddle. ɨʝɛ́mɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨʝɛ́mɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to become
íɡuʝuɡuʝésa tódàe v. to repeat a point of still, calm down, hush up, quiet down,
discussion endlessly. Lit. ‘to twiddle shut up.
(one’s) talk’. ɨʝíílɔ̀n (ɨʝíílɔ̀nì-) v. to move in single file.
íɡùʝùɡùʝòn (íɡùʝùɡùʝònì-) v. to be busy, ɨʝíírɛ́s (ɨʝíírɛ́sí-) v. to pour to the last
preoccupied (e.g. in the house or in the drop.
garden). ɨʝíírɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨʝíírɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to pour
íɡulaʝitetés (íɡulaʝitetésí-) v. to boil, out to the last drop. 2 v. to chug, down,
make bubble. drink to the last drop. See also ɡéɡès.

ɨʝɨlɛtɛ́s ɨkákɛ́ɛ́s

ɨʝɨlɛtɛ́s (ɨʝɨlɛtɛ́sí-) v. to cream or skim off ɨʝʉlɔs (ɨʝʉlɔsí-) v. to be flipped, switched,

(e.g. cream from liquid milk). turned.
iʝíŋáánón (iʝíŋáánónì-) v. to be dull, iʝúrúʝúròn (iʝúrúʝúrònì-) v. to be down-
sluggish, torpid. cast, downward (of eyes).
ɨʝɨwɛs (ɨʝɨwɛsí-) v. to filter, strain. See iʝúrúròn (iʝúrúrònì-) v. to be downcast,
also ɨtɨwɛs. downward (of eyes or head, e.g. in
iʝokes (iʝokesí-) v. to give, leave to, pass prayer, deep thought, or timidity).
off/on, transfer, transmit.
Ika (Icé-) n. Ik people.
iʝokesa mɛnáɛ v. to pass on problems,
transmit trouble. ika (iká-) pl. ikitín. n. head.
iʝókésuƙota (iʝókésuƙotí-) v. to give, ɨkáábɛs (ɨkáábɛsí-) v. to pick or skim off
leave to, pass off/on, transfer, transmit. (e.g. the top of hot food to cool it, or
iʝókón (iʝókónì-) v. to drivel, drool, the top layer of termites in a trapping
slaver, slobber. hole). See also ɨkákápɛ́s.
ɨʝɔƙíʝɔ́ƙɛ́s (ɨʝɔƙíʝɔ́ƙɛ́sí-) v. to stick in and ikáburés (ikáburésí-) v. to enshroud, en-
out repeatedly (e.g. the penis during wrap, wrap (the body in clothing).
sexual intercourse or one’s finger in ikáɓóɓánón (ikáɓóɓánónì-) v. to be un-
and out of mud). stable, unsteady: not having good con-
ɨʝɔƙíʝɔ́ƙɛ́sá kwaní v. to masturbate (of tact with a surface. See also ɗatólóɲòn.
males). ikáɗóés (ikáɗóésí-) v. to blend, combine,
ɨʝʉkɛs (ɨʝʉkɛsí-) v. to push. or mix (different kinds of grain). See
ɨʝʉkɛsííka búbùìkàe n. obese elders (of also ɨtsɔɓítsɔ́ɓɛ́s and itsulútsúlés.
long ago). Lit. ‘pushers of bellies’. ikáɡwarí (iká-ɡwaríì-) n. crown, pate,
ɨʝʉ́kɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨʝʉ́kɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to push top of head, vertex.
ikáɡwaríìke n. midday, noon. Lit. ‘at
ɨʝʉkɛtɛ́s (ɨʝʉkɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to pull. 2 v. to the top of the head’.
ɨkaɨká (<ɨkaɨkɛ́ɛ́s) v.
ɨʝʉ́kítɛtɛs (ɨʝʉ́kítɛtɛ́sí-) v. to make pull.
ɨkaɨkɛ́ɛ́s (ɨkaɨkɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨkaɨká-) v. to flit
ɨʝʉkʉ́ʝʉ́kɛ́s (ɨʝʉkʉ́ʝʉ́kɛ́sí-) v. to goad,
(from one person or thing to another).
push along, spur (e.g. an animal).
iʝúkúmiés (iʝúkúmiesí-) v. to push aside ɨkáká (<ɨkákɛ́ɛ́s) v.
brusquely and repeatedly. ɨkákáɨƙɔta (<ɨkákɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta ) v.
ɨʝʉƙʉ́ʝʉ́ƙɛ́s (ɨʝʉƙʉ́ʝʉ́ƙɛ́sí-) v. to break ɨkákápɛ́s (ɨkákápɛ́sí-) v. to pick or skim
apart/up, dismantle, take apart. off (e.g. the top of hot food to cool it, or
ɨʝʉlɛs (ɨʝʉlɛsí-) v. to flip, switch, turn. the top layer of termites in a trapping
ɨʝʉlɛsa tódàe v. to change the subject. hole). See also ɨkáábɛs.
ɨʝʉlɛtɛ́s (ɨʝʉlɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to flip, switch, or ɨkákɛ́ɛ́s (ɨkákɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨkáká-) v. to separate
turn around/over. 2 v. to give birth to by shaking (e.g. unground grains from
(a child legs first). ground ones, or seeds from dirt).

ɨkákɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta ikeda mɛ́sɛ̀

ɨkákɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨkákɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔtí-/ ɨkákáɨƙɔt-) ɨkárɔ́n (ɨkárɔ́nì-) v. to be gaunt, haggard,

v. to separate out by shaking (e.g. un- ragged, thin. See also kɔrɔ́ɗɔ́mɔ̀n.
ground grains from ground ones, or ikásíés (ikásíésí-) v. to work. See also
seeds from dirt). tereɡanés.
ɨkáláʝaránón (ɨkáláʝaránónì-) v. to be ikásíetam (ikásíetamá-) v. doable, feasi-
feckless, inept, irresponsible. ble, viable, workable.
ɨkálámɛ́s (ɨkálámɛ́sí-) v. to gap, leave ikásíìmètòn (ikásíìmètònì-) v. to hap-
gaps in (e.g. when taking big steps, or pen, occur, take place, transpire. See
when sewing in wide passes). also itíyáìmètòn.
ɨkámárɛ́s (ɨkámárɛ́sí-) v. to stretch ikásíitetés (ikásíitetésí-) v. to employ,
across. hire, put to work, work. See also
ɨkamɛs (ɨkamɛsí-) v. to grip, handle, teréɡanitetés.
hold. See also tokopes. ikásítsʼa (iká-sítsʼà-) n. head hair.
ɨkamɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (ɨkamɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) 1 v. to catch, ɨkatɛs (ɨkatɛsí-) v. to assay, attempt, try.
grab, grip, take hold of. 2 v. to capture,
seize. See also ɨkamɛs. ɨkatíkátɛ́s (ɨkatíkátɛ́sí-) v. to attempt or
try repeatedly.
ɨkamɛtɛ́s (ɨkamɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to catch, grab,
grip, take hold of. 2 v. to build on the ɨkátínɔ́s (ɨkátínɔ́sí-) v. to compete with
ground (e.g. a granary or roof). each other. See also ɨlɔ́ínɔ́s.
ɨkamíkámɛ́s (ɨkamíkámɛ́sí-) v. to grab ɨkatsɛs (ɨkatsɛsí-) v. to care, mind. See
or grip repeatedly, hold onto (e.g. a also ɨmɨsɛs.
tree when climbing it). ɨkáʉ́tɛ́s (ɨkáʉ́tɛ́sí-) v. to cool down (e.g.
ɨkámʉ́nɔ́sʉ́ƙɔta (ɨkámʉ́nɔ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to food by pouring or stirring).
take hold of each other. ɨkáwílɔ̀n (ɨkáwílɔ̀nì-) v. to burn poorly
ɨkanɛ́s (ɨkanɛ́sí-) v. to appease, placate (of firewood, when it burns quickly and
(e.g. the bride’s parents by negotiating does not hold fire).
favorably for a reasonable brideprice). ɨkáyá (<ɨkáyɛ́ɛ́s) v.
ɨkaníkánɛ́s (ɨkaníkánɛ́sí-) v. to appease, ɨkáyɛ́ɛ́s (ɨkáyɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨkáyá-) v. to canvass,
pacify, placate (e.g. an infant by rock- cover, or spread over (an area). See also
ing it back and forth). ɨɗɛŋɛs.
ɨkáɲɔ́n (ɨkáɲɔ́nì-) v. to abstain, fast. ɨkázànà (<ɨkázànòòn) v.
ɨkaŋíkáŋɛ́s (ɨkaŋíkáŋɛ́sí-) 1 v. to grind ɨkázànòòn (ɨkázànòònì-/íkazana-) v. to
coarsely. 2 v. to chew roughly (e.g. be ambituous, determined, tenacious.
uncooked maize). See also ɨŋaíŋɛ́ɛ́s. ikeda (ikede-) 1 n. head, top part, upper
ɨkarɛtɛ́s (ɨkarɛtɛ́sí-) v. to discourage, end. 2 n. heading, title.
frustrate. ikeda ƙwázàe 1 n. collar. 2 n. waist,
ikarímétòn (ikarímétònì-) v. to be de- waistline (of clothing). Lit. ‘head of
pleted, exhausted, wiped out. the cloth’.
ɨkárímétòn (ɨkárímétònì-) v. to become ikeda mɛ́sɛ̀ n. beer head: the foamy,
fruitless, futile, or vain. frothy top layer of beer.

ɨkɛɗɛs ikómá

ɨkɛɗɛs (ɨkɛɗɛsí-) v. to curse with a diffi- ɨkɨríkírɔ̀n (ɨkɨríkírɔ̀nì-) v. to get a move

cult labor and delivery. on, hurry, rush.
ɨkɛɗíkɛ́ɗɛ́s (ɨkɛɗíkɛ́ɗɛ́sí-) v. to stimulate ɨkɨta (ɨkɨtí-) pl. ɨkítíka . n. head-pad:
digitally, titillate, touch lightly. See twisted clothing, grass, or leaves used
also ɨkwatíkwátɛ́s. to cushion the weight of a load on the
ɨkɛɗɔs (ɨkɛɗɔsí-) v. to be cursed by rela- head.
tives with a difficult birth. ikitínícɛmɛ́r (ikitíní-cɛmɛ́rí-) n. shrub
ikéé kɔ̀n n. at once, in concert, simulta- species whose roots are crushed,
neously, together. Lit. ‘at one head’. soaked in water, and drunk as a rem-
edy for headaches. Lit. ‘heads-
ɨkɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨkɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to elevate, lift
herb’. Withania somnifera. See also
or raise up.
ɨkɛɛtɛ́s (ɨkɛɛtɛ́sí-) v. to elevate, lift or
ɨkɔɓɛs (ɨkɔɓɛsí-) 1 v. to hand, pass, trans-
raise up. See also ɓuƙés.
fer. 2 v. to render, translate.
ikeimétòn (ikeimétònì-) 1 v. to be lifted,
ɨkɔ́ɓɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨkɔ́ɓɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to hand
raised up. 2 v. to be developed.
over, pass along/on, transfer there.
ɨkɛ́ítɛtɛ́s (ɨkɛ́ítɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to make elevate,
ɨkɔɓɛtɛ́s (ɨkɔɓɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to hand over,
lift, or raise. 2 v. to benefit, profit.
pass along/on, transfer (this way). 2
ɨkɛ́kɛ́mɔ̀n (ɨkɛ́kɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to cackle. v. to translate.
ikékéɲòn (ikékéɲònì-) 1 v. to be stable, ɨkɔ́ɓínɔ́s (ɨkɔ́ɓínɔ́sí-) 1 v. to pass around
steady, sturdy. 2 v. to be dependable, to each other. 2 v. to translate back
reliable (in work). and forth.
ɨkɛɲíkɛ́ɲɛ́s (ɨkɛɲíkɛ́ɲɛ́sí-) v. to kill seri- ɨkɔɗíkɔ́ɗɔ̀n (ɨkɔɗíkɔ́ɗɔ̀nì-) v. to mean-
ally. der, weave, zigzag. See also iƙulúƙúlòn
ɨkɛɲíkɛ́ɲɛ́síàm (ɨkɛɲíkɛ́ɲɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɨ- and lúkúɗukuɗánón.
kɛɲíkɛ́ɲɛ́síika . n. serial killer. ikokes (ikokesí-) v. to crack open (bones
ɨkɛ́ŋɛ́ɗɛ́s (ɨkɛ́ŋɛ́ɗɛ́sí-) v. to break, cut, to extract the marrow).
pull apart, sever, tear (rope-like ob- ikókíánón (ikókíánónì-) v. to be or-
jects). See also ɗusutes and tɔŋɛɗɛs. phaned.
ɨkɛtɛs (ɨkɛtɛsí-) 1 v. to choke. 2 v. to ikókórés (ikókórésí-) v. to crawl up,
hang (by the neck to kill). scale.
ɨkɛtɛsa así v. to hang oneself. ikókóretés (ikókóretésí-) v. to crawl up
iketiés (iketiesí-) v. to choke, strangle, or scale this way.
throttle. ikókótés (ikókótésí-) v. to shadow, tail,
ɨkíɗítsɛ́s (ɨkíɗítsɛ́sí-) v. to stick out of trail.
sight, tuck away. ɨkɔ́kɔ́yà (ɨkɔ́kɔ́yàà-) n. armoured
ikíkóanón (ikíkóanónì-) v. to convene, ground cricket. Bradyporidae.
meet (for a discussion). ikólípánón (ikólípánónì-) v. to be bar-
ɨkílɔ́n (ɨkílɔ́nì-) 1 v. to rumble, thunder. ren, childless, infertile, sterile. See also
2 v. bellow, holler, shout, yell. 3 v. to osorosánón.
trumpet. ikómá (<ikómóòn) v.

ikómáiƙota ikutúkútés

ikómáiƙota (<ikómóonuƙota ) v. fact that, for the reason that. 3 subor-

ikóméètòn (ikóméètònì-) v. to come dconn. in order that, so that. A noun
quickly, hasten here, hurry this way. following this word takes the oblique
case. See also kóteré.
ikómóòn (ikómóònì-/ikómá-) v. to has-
ten, hurry, move quickly. ikuɗúkúɗés (ikuɗúkúɗésí-) v. to dig or
pick out with a finger (e.g. from an ear
ikómóonuƙota (ikómóonuƙotí-
or a nostril).
/ikómáiƙot-) v. to go quickly, hasten
there, hurry over there. ikues (ikuesí-) v. to warm up (e.g. por-
ridge or water).
ìkɔ̀ŋ (ìkɔ̀ŋà-) pl. ɨkɔ́ŋíka . n. malt: soaked
flour that is fried and dried for brewing ikuetés (ikuetésí-) v. to warm up (e.g.
beer. porridge or water).
ikoŋetés (ikoŋetésí-) v. to corral, round ɨkʉʝɛs (ɨkʉʝɛsí-) v. to look or search for,
up. See also ƙalíƙálɛ́s. seek. See also bɛɗɛtɛ́s.
ikoŋíkóŋés (ikoŋíkóŋésí-) v. to knock or ikúʝíánón (ikúʝíánónì-) 1 v. to perform
rap on (e.g. a door). See also ɨɗɔŋíɗɔ́ŋɛ́s. a miracle. 2 v. to prophesy.
ikúkúrés (ikúkúrésí-) v. to claw or dig
ikoŋíkóŋòn (ikoŋíkóŋònì-) v. to live
up by scratching.
ɨkʉlɛs (ɨkʉlɛsí-) 1 v. to clean, clear (a
ikóŋítetés (ikóŋítetésí-) v. to make
surface). 2 v. to even, plane, shave (e.g.
tool handles or poles). See also ɨkwalɛs.
ikóŋón (ikóŋónì-) v. to avow, swear,
ɨkʉ́lɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨkʉ́lɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to clean or
take an oath.
clear off (a surface). 2 v. to plane off,
ikóóbés (ikóóbésí-) 1 v. to close, fold up shave off (e.g. tool handles or poles).
or in half (e.g. a book or leather mat). 2
ɨkʉlɛtɛ́s (ɨkʉlɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to clean or clear
v. to collect, gather (e.g. yard rubbish).
up (a surface). 2 v. to even out, plane,
ikóóbetés (ikóóbetésí-) 1 v. to close, fold shave (e.g. tool handles or poles).
up or in half (e.g. a book or leather mat). ikúrúfánón (ikúrúfánónì-) 1 v. to be des-
2 v. to collect, gather up (e.g. rubbish). titute, poor, poverty-stricken. 2 v. to
ikóóbetésá así v. to come together, con- be undeveloped.
gregate. ikúrúfánóníàm (ikúrúfánóní-àmà-) pl.
ikóɔ́ka (ikó-ɔ́kà-) pl. ikitíníɔkɨtín. n. cra- ikúrúfánóníika . n. destitute, poor,
nium, skull. Lit. ‘head-bone’. poverty-stricken person.
ɨkɔɔtɔ́s (ɨkɔɔtɔ́sí-) v. to be elevated, lifted ikutses (ikutsesí-) v. to chase off/away,
or raised up. run off (e.g. a beggar or a dog).
ikópíòn (ikópíònì-) v. to condense (of ikútsésuƙota (ikútsésuƙotí-) v. to chase
water vapor). See also tsɨpɨtsípɔ́n. off/away, run off (e.g. a beggar or a
ikórímés (ikórímésí-) v. to peek or peep dog).
at (by bobbing the head up-and-down ɨkʉ́tʉ́kánón (ɨkʉ́tʉ́kánónì-) v. to be
like small animals do). See also ilóíkés. chatty, talkative. See also ɗɛmɛ́dɔ̀n.
ikóteré (ikóteré) 1 prep. because of, due ikutúkútés (ikutúkútésí-) v. to back up,
to. 2 subordconn. because, due to the reverse.

ikutúkútòn ɨƙɨrɛs

ikutúkútòn (ikutúkútònì-) v. to back up, ɨƙaíƙá (<ɨƙaíƙɛ́ɛ́s) v.

reverse. ɨƙaíƙɛ́ɛ́s (ɨƙaíƙɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨƙaíƙá-) v. to fight,
ikwá (<ikwóón) v. oppose, resist.
íkwà (íkwà) adv. apparently, seemingly, ɨƙáƙá (<ɨƙáƙɛ́ɛ́s) v.
it seems. See also ókò. ɨƙáƙɛ́ɛ́s (ɨƙáƙɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨƙáƙá-) v. to fight, op-
ikwáánitetés (ikwáánitetésí-) 1 v. to pose, resist.
equalize, equate, treat equally. 2 v. to ɨƙáƙɛ́ɛtɛ́s (ɨƙáƙɛ́ɛtɛ́sí-) v. to fight, op-
model, simulate. See also iríánitetés. pose, resist.
ikwáánòn (ikwáánònì-) 1 v. to be the ɨƙalíƙálɛ́s (ɨƙalíƙálɛ́sí-) v. to confine,
same. 2 v. to resemble, be similar. 3 hold back/in, restrain (e.g. animals in
v. to be symmetrical. a pen or someone in a fight).
ɨkwákwárɛ́s (ɨkwákwárɛ́sí-) v. to spread ɨƙaŋɛs (ɨƙaŋɛsí-) v. to hold or prop up,
around . support.
ɨkwalɛs (ɨkwalɛsí-) 1 v. to clean, clear (a ɨƙárárɔ̀n (ɨƙárárɔ̀nì-) v. to sit on a stool.
surface). 2 v. to even, plane, shave (e.g. ɨƙɛɓíƙɛ́ɓɛ́sa tsʼaɗí v. to slash a firebreak.
tool handles or wooden poles). See also
ɨƙɛ́ƙɛ́ɛ́s (ɨƙɛ́ƙɛ́ɛ́sí-) 1 v. to crack open (e.g.
the seeds of gourds or pumpkins). 2
ikwárétòn (ikwárétònì-) v. to resusci- v. to pick out, select.
tate, revive.
ɨƙɛ́lɛ́mɛ́s (ɨƙɛ́lɛ́mɛ́sí-) v. to castrate (by
ɨkwaríkwárɛ́s (ɨkwaríkwárɛ́sí-) 1 v. to crushing the spermatic cords).
spread around. 2 v. to spend wildly.
ɨƙɛlɛs (ɨƙɛlɛsí-) v. to choose, pick out,
ɨkwaríkwarɔ́s (ɨkwaríkwárɔ́sí-) v. to be select.
spread around.
ɨƙɛlɛtɛ́s (ɨƙɛlɛtɛ́sí-) v. to choose, pick out,
ɨkwatíkwátɛ́s (ɨkwatíkwátɛ́sí-) v. to select.
stimulate digitally, titillate, touch
iƙémíƙémés (iƙémíƙémésí-) v. to cut or
lightly. See also ɨkɛɗíkɛ́ɗɛ́s.
slice away, fillet (i.e. meat or skin).
ɨkwɛ́rɛ́ɗɔ̀n (ɨkwɛ́rɛ́ɗɔ̀nì-) v. to wrestle
iƙenes (iƙenesí-) 1 v. to beseech, entreat,
out, wriggle free (of a hold).
plead with. 2 v. to forgive, have mercy
ɨkwɛtíkwɛ́tɛ́s (ɨkwɛtíkwɛ́tɛ́sí-) v. to cor- on, pardon.
ral, round up (e.g. animals, by lightly ɨƙɛníƙɛ́nɛ́s (ɨƙɛníƙɛ́nɛ́sí-) v. to cluck at
hitting them). (e.g. animals or a honeyguide).
ɨkwɨlíkwílɛ́s (ɨkwɨlíkwílɛ́sí-) v. to tickle. ɨƙɛrɛs (ɨƙɛrɛsí-) v. to draw, mark, trace
ɨkwílílɔ̀n (ɨkwílílɔ̀nì-) v. to scream, (non-linguistically).
shriek. ɨƙɨɛs (ɨƙɨɛsí-) v. to block, deflect, shield.
ɨkwɨɲíkwíɲɔ́n (ɨkwɨɲíkwíɲɔ́nì-) v. to be See also ɨɓatɛs.
active, energetic. See also kwɨɲídɔ̀n. ɨƙɨlíƙílɔ̀n (ɨƙɨlíƙílɔ̀nì-) v. to drip. See also
ikwóón (ikwóónì-/ikwá-) v. to crow. ɨlímɔ́n.
ɨƙáálɛ́s (ɨƙáálɛ́sí-) v. to skim off. See also ɨƙɨrɛs (ɨƙɨrɛsí-) v. to draw, mark, write
iripetés. (linguistically).

ɨƙɨrɔs ɨlá

ɨƙɨrɔs (ɨƙɨrɔsí-) 1 v. to be recorded, writ- iƙulúƙúlòn (iƙulúƙúlònì-) v. to mean-

ten. 2 v. to be striped. der, weave, wind around. See also
iƙofes (iƙofesí-) v. to cut off, interrupt. ɨkɔɗíkɔ́ɗɔ̀n and lúkúɗukuɗánón.

iƙóƙós (iƙóƙósí-) v. to be doubftul, dubi- ɨƙʉlʉ́ƙʉ́lɔ̀n (ɨƙʉlʉ́ƙʉ́lɔ̀nì-) v. to come

ous. back around, retrace one’s steps.

iƙólésuƙota (iƙólésuƙotí-) v. to score (a iƙumes (iƙumesí-) v. to jab, poke, prod

goal). (physically or verbally).

ìƙòlòta (ìƙòlòtà-) pl. iƙólótaikwa . iƙúmúnós (iƙúmúnósí-) v. to bicker,

n. dried out gourd. clash, fight, skirmish, squabble. Lit. ‘to
jab each other’.
ɨƙɔmɛs (ɨƙɔmɛsí-) v. to annihilate, oblit-
iƙúón (iƙúónì-) 1 v. to howl, wail. 2
erate, wipe out.
v. to holler, shout, yell.
ɨƙɔ́nɔ́nɔ̀ɔ̀n (ɨƙɔ́nɔ́nɔ̀ɔ̀nì-) v. to droop, sag
iƙúónuƙota (iƙúónuƙotí-) 1 v. to howl,
(e.g. an overloaded fruit tree, or some-
wail. 2 v. to holler, shout, yell.
one hunched over in hunger).
iƙures (iƙuresí-) 1 v. to stir. 2 v. to pad-
ɨƙɔŋɛs (ɨƙɔŋɛsí-) 1 v. to lean, prop, or
dle, row. 3 v. to confound, confuse.
rest on/against. 2 v. to depend or rely
on. See also tonokes. iƙurúƙúròn (iƙurúƙúrònì-) v. to be cor-
rupt, crooked.
ɨƙɔ́ŋítɛ́s (ɨƙɔ́ŋítɛ́sí-) v. to lean, prop, or
rest on/against. iƙúrúmétona ikáe v. to be confounded,
ɨƙɔ́ŋítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨƙɔ́ŋítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to lean,
prop, or rest on/against. iƙúrúmós (iƙúrúmósí-) v. to be agitated,
incited, roused, stirred up (as a group).
ɨƙɔ́ŋítɔ́s (ɨƙɔ́ŋítɔ́sí-) v. to be leaned,
propped, or rested on/against. ɨƙʉ́ʉ́lɛ́s (ɨƙʉ́ʉ́lɛ́sí-) v. to swipe or wipe
clean (e.g. a bowl, with one’s finger).
ɨƙɔ́ɔ́rɛ́sá así v. to strut, swagger. See
See also ɨtsɨɗɛs.
also ƙɔrɔn.
ɨƙwáƙwárɛ́s (ɨƙwáƙwárɛ́sí-) v. to prune,
iƙoríƙórés (iƙoríƙórésí-) v. to work with
a long tool (e.g. stir gourd innards or
shave the interior of a hive or mortar ɨƙwɛ́ƙwɛ́rɛ́s (ɨƙwɛ́ƙwɛ́rɛ́sí-) v. to shave
when making it). off (e.g. thorns from a tree’s trunk or
iƙórú (iƙórúù-) pl. iƙórúìka . 1 n. milli-
pede. 2 n. trailer. iƙwéón (iƙwéónì-) v. to yelp, yip.
iƙúétòn (iƙúétònì-) 1 v. to howl, wail. 2 ɨƙwɛrɛs (ɨƙwɛrɛsí-) 1 v. to brush, comb.
v. to holler, shout, yell. 2 v. to rake. See also ŋírés.
ɨƙʉʝʉ́kʉ́ʝɔ̀n (ɨƙʉʝʉ́kʉ́ʝɔ̀nì-) v. to stam- ɨƙwɛ́rɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨƙwɛ́rɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to brush
mer, stutter (when cold). See also or comb out.
ɗákón and ɡaʝádòn. ɨƙwɛrɔs (ɨƙwɛrɔsí-) 1 v. to be brushed,
iƙúƙúrés (iƙúƙúrésí-) v. to enlarge, combed. 2 v. to be down-striped.
erode (a hole in the ground). ɨlá (<ɨlɔ́ɔ́n) v.

ɨlaɓɛtɛ́s ilébìlèbètòn

ɨlaɓɛtɛ́s (ɨlaɓɛtɛ́sí-) v. to scoop or skim ɨlámááránón (ɨlámááránónì-) v. to dis-

off (e.g. water from sand). See also perse, dissipate (like ants or a crowd of
ɗalés and tɛ́bɛtɛ́s. people). See also alámáárón.
iláɓúés (iláɓúésí-) v. to smoothen (with ɨlamɛs (ɨlamɛsí-) v. to curse, damn, im-
water). precate.
iláfúkòn (iláfúkònì-) v. to hurt in the ɨlámɔ́n (ɨlámɔ́nì-) v. to go through, pass,
chest (e.g. from acid reflux or heart- succeed, win.
attack). ɨlamɔs (ɨlamɔsí-) v. to be cursed,
ɨláíƙɔta (<ɨlɔ́ɔ́nʉƙɔta ) v. damned, doomed.
ɨlaɨlá (<ɨlaɨlɛ́ɛ́s) v. ɨláŋ (ɨláŋí-) pl. ɨláŋíka . n. Indian jujube:
ɨlaɨlɛ́ɛ́s (ɨlaɨlɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨlaɨlá-) v. to rinse. See a tree whose round yellow fruits are
also ɨlɔ́lɔ́tsɛ́s. eaten by people and goats and whose
roots are decocted as a cure for stom-
ɨláítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨláítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to take for ach and chest ailments; its forked poles
a walk, walk. are used for building houses and plat-
ɨlaʝíláʝɛ́s (ɨlaʝíláʝɛ́sí-) 1 v. to loosen. 2 forms. Ziziphus mauritiana.
v. to fail, neglect, overlook. ilaŋés (ilaŋésí-) v. to leave behind, over-
ɨlákásítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨlákásítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to take, pass.
delight, make happy, please. 2 v. to ap- ɨláŋíɡwì (ɨláŋí-ɡwìè-) pl. ɨláŋíɡwiitín.
preciate, thank. See also ɨmʉ́mʉ́ɨtɛtɛ́s. n. grove of Indian jujube trees.
ɨlákásɔ̀n (ɨlákásɔ̀nì-) v. to be glad, ɨlápɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨlápɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to overflow, spill
happy. over.
ɨlákásɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨlákásɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to be- ɨlarɛs (ɨlarɛsí-) v. to abuse, misuse, uti-
come glad or happy. 2 v. to be appre- lize inappropriately. See also ɨlwarɛs.
ciative, thankful.
ɨlárímétòn (ɨlárímétònì-) v. to become
ɨlaƙɛs (ɨlaƙɛsí-) v. to pan, shake in a pan distressed or stressed out. See also ɨl-
(e.g. looking for gold). wárímétòn.
ɨlaƙíláƙɛ́s (ɨlaƙíláƙɛ́sí-) v. to pan, shake ɨlarɨtɛtɛ́s (ɨlarɨtɛtɛ́sí) v. to keep waiting,
in a pan (e.g. looking for gold). make wait, waste the time of. See also
iláƙízòn (iláƙízònì-) v. to feel ill, nause- ɨlwarɨtɛtɛ́s.
ated, queasy. ɨlárɔ́n (ɨlárɔ́nì-) v. to be inactive, idle,
ɨláláƙɛ́s (ɨláláƙɛ́sí-) v. to pan, shake in a unused, unutilized. See also ɨlwárɔ́n.
pan (e.g. looking for gold). ɨlatɛs (ɨlatɛsí-) v. to add water to (e.g.
ɨláláŋɛ́s (ɨláláŋɛ́sí-) v. to eat gingerly cement, grist, or flour).
(hot food). ílebéɗa (ílebéɗé-) n. small green snake
ɨlálátɛ́s (ɨlálátɛ́sí-) v. to add water to (e.g. (possibly a boomslang).
cement, grist, or flour). ilébìlèbètòn (ilébìlèbètònì-) v. to be sat-
ìlàm (ìlàmà-) n. curse, imprecation, urated, water-logged (e.g. cement or
malediction. sand).

ileɓíléɓòn ɨlɛ́tʉ́ránón

ileɓíléɓòn (ileɓíléɓònì-) v. to blister, ɨlɛ́lɛ́ɨmɔ́s (ɨlɛ́lɛ́ɨmɔ́sí-) v. to despise each

vesicate. See also bubuxánónuƙota . other.
ɨlɛɗɛs (ɨlɛɗɛsí-) v. to crush, smash, ɨlɛ́lɛ́ítɛtɛ́s (ɨlɛ́lɛ́ítɛtɛ́sí-) v. to disgust, re-
squash. See also ɨtsakɛs. pulse, revolt.
ilééránitetés (ilééránitetésí-) v. to dis- ilélémùòn (ilélémùònì-) v. to be loud,
close, expose, reveal, show. noisy, make a racket.
ilééránón (ilééránónì-) v. to be clearly ilemílémòn (ilemílémònì-) v. to blabber,
seen, exposed, visible. jabber, prattle.
ɨlɛ́ɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨlɛ́ɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to come for a visit, Iléŋ (Iléŋí-) n. Iléŋ: one of the Ik’s twelve
travel here. clans.
íleɡûɡa (íleɡúɡù-) 1 n. black ant species ileŋes (ileŋesí-) v. to be higher than, sur-
that transports grain. pass in height.
Iléŋíàm (Iléŋí-àmà-) pl. Iléŋíika . n. Iléŋ
iléʝíánón (iléʝíánónì-) v. to be undepend-
clan member.
able, unreliable.
ɨlɛ́ɔ́n (ɨlɛ́ɔ́nì-) v. to rage, rampage.
ɨlɛʝílɛ́ʝɛ́s (ɨlɛʝílɛ́ʝɛ́sí-) v. to do odd jobs,
work temporarily. ɨlɛ́pɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨlɛ́pɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to clamber
or scramble up.
ɨlɛʝílɛ́ʝɨtɛtɛ́s (ɨlɛʝílɛ́ʝɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to hire
temporarily. ilépón (ilépónì-) v. to meet a member of
the opposite gender in the middle of a
ɨlɛkílɛ́kɛ́s (ɨlɛkílɛ́kɛ́sí-) v. to waste. See dance circle during a group dance.
also iɲekíɲékés.
ɨlɛ́pɔ́n (ɨlɛ́pɔ́nì-) v. to clamber, scramble
ílekó (ílekóò-) pl. ílekóìka . n. edible yel- (e.g. like monkeys).
low seeds of the ʝàwa shrub.
ɨlɛrílɛ́rɛ́s (ɨlɛrílɛ́rɛ́sí-) v. to rap on repeat-
ɨlɛ́ƙwɛ́rɛ́s (ɨlɛ́ƙwɛ́rɛ́sí-) v. to make stum- edly (e.g. a gourd or head). See also
ble, trip. ɨɗɛɨɗɛ́ɛ́s.
ɨlɛ́ƙwɛ́rɛtɛ́s (ɨlɛ́ƙwɛ́rɛtɛ́sí-) v. to make ilérón (ilérónì-) v. to be bare, naked,
stumble, trip up. nude.
iléƙwéries (iléƙwériesí-) 1 v. to thread, ilérúmùòn (ilérúmùònì-) v. to argue,
weave around (e.g. reeds to build a gra- dispute, quarrel (as a large group).
nary). 2 v. to whip all over . ilététà (<ilététòòn) v.
ilélébés (ilélébésí-) 1 v. to lift and carry ilététaitetés (ilététaitetésí-) v. to expose,
together (as when a killed animal or a leave out in the open.
prisoner is being hauled by more than
ilététòòn (ilététòònì-/ilététa-) v. to be
one person). 2 v. to winnow.
exposed, left out in the open, unpro-
ilélébètòn (ilélébètònì-) v. to buoy, float. tected.
ilélébonuƙota (ilélébonuƙotí-) v. to drift ɨlɛtílɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨlɛtílɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to be insensi-
or float away. tive, unresponsive. See also ɨlɛ́tʉ́ránón.
ɨlɛ́lɛ́ɛ́s (ɨlɛ́lɛ́ɛ́sí-) v. to despise, detest, dis- ɨlɛ́tʉ́ránón (ɨlɛ́tʉ́ránónì-) v. to be insen-
dain. sitive, unresponsive. See also ɨlɛtílɛ́tɔ̀n.

iléúrés ɨlíŋírɛ́s

iléúrés (iléúrésí-) 1 v. to light up (e.g. ɨlílíŋɛ́s (ɨlílíŋɛ́sí-) v. to shake back and

with fire or a torch). 2 v. to view (e.g. forth or side to side (like one’s head
through binoculars or a microscope). saying ‘no’ or like a dog with some-
See also inwakes. thing in its mouth).
ilíánòn (ilíánònì-) v. to reek, stink (e.g. ɨlílíɔ̀n (ɨlílíɔ̀nì-) v. to be angry, annoyed,
the stench of blood). heated, pissed. See also ɡaanón.
ɨlɨɓaakón (ɨlɨɓaakónì-) v. to be green (of ɨlílíɔnʉƙɔta (ɨlílíɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to become
many). angry, annoyed, heated, or pissed off.
ɨlɨɓaakónuƙota (ɨlɨɓaakónuƙotí-) v. to ilílítsés (ilílítsésí-) v. to shake off/out
turn green (of more than one). (e.g. how a bird or dog shakes off dust
or water).
ɨlíɓɔ́n (ɨlíɓɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be green. 2 v. to
be new (of foliage). ɨlɨmɛs (ɨlɨmɛsí-) v. to pare, trim (e.g. a
tanned skin or a piece of wood). See
ɨlíɓɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨlíɓɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to turn also ɨpɛlɛs.
ɨlɨmɛsa así v. to drip.
ɨlɨɗɛ́s (ɨlɨɗɛ́sí-) v. to tie off (e.g. one’s ɨlɨmɛtɛ́s (ɨlɨmɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pare down,
stomach when very hungry, or one’s trim back.
gold flecks in a small pouch, or a penis
ɨlɨmílímɔ̀n (ɨlɨmílímɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to drizzle.
in a practical joke boys play on each
2 v. to be flecked, spotted.
ilímítés (ilímítésí-) v. to bring up, men-
ɨlɨɗɛtɛ́s (ɨlɨɗɛtɛ́sí-) v. to tie off (e.g.
one’s stomach when very hungry, gold
flecks in a small pouch, or a penis in a ɨlímɔ́n (ɨlímɔ́nì-) v. to drip. See also
practical joke boys play on each other). ɨƙɨlíƙílɔ́n.
ɨlíŋánètòn (ɨlíŋánètònì-) v. to be
ɨlɨɗɔ́s (ɨlɨɗɔ́sí-) v. to be tied off.
streaked, striped.
ilies (iliesí-) v. to paste, seal.
Ilíŋéètsʼa (Ilíŋé-ètsʼì-) v. July: month
iliílíés (iliílíésí-) v. to paste, seal. when feces have streaks in them due
iliílíós (iliílíósí-) v. to be pasted, sealed, to a change in diet resulting from sea-
seamless. sonal foods. Lit. ‘the feces are
ilíítés (ilíítésí-) v. to snitch, tattle, or tell streaked’. See also Lomoɗokoɡéc.
on. ɨlɨŋɛs (ɨlɨŋɛsí-) v. to do partially, streak-
ily (e.g. cut only a portion of one’s hair,
ɨlɨkílíkɛ́s (ɨlɨkílíkɛ́sí-) v. to jerk, jiggle,
or bathe only a portion of one’s body).
tug back and forth (e.g. a dog with cat
in its mouth, or jerking a kid’s ears). ɨlɨŋílíŋɛ́s (ɨlɨŋílíŋɛ́sí-) v. to shake back
and forth or side to side (like one’s
ilílíés (ilílíésí-) v. to fill up. See also head saying ‘no’ or like a dog with
éítetés. something in its mouth). See also ilit-
ɨlílíɛ́s (ɨlílíɛ́sí-) v. to dry over fire (e.g. sílítsés.
meat or tobacco). ɨlíŋírɛ́s (ɨlíŋírɛ́sí-) 1 v. to cut around, cut
ɨlílíɨnɔ́s (ɨlílíɨnɔ́sí-) v. to be angry at each a ring in, ring. 2 v. to circumcise. Also
other. pronounced as ɨlɛ́ŋɛ́rɛ́s. See also ɨlɨrɛs.

ɨlíŋírɛ́síàwa ɨlɔkílɔ́kɛ́s

ɨlíŋírɛ́síàwa (ɨlíŋírɛ́sí-àwà-) pl. ɨlíŋírɛ́- ɨlɔ́ɓɔ́tɛtɛ́s (ɨlɔ́ɓɔ́tɛtɛ́sí-) v. to hurl, spew,

síawíka . n. place on an arrow where upchuck, vomit.
grooved rings have been made for hold- ɨlɔ́ɗɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨlɔ́ɗɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to come around.
ing while nocking the arrow.
ɨlɔɗílɔ́ɗɔ̀n (ɨlɔɗílɔ́ɗɔ̀nì-) v. to go round
ɨlíŋɔ́n (ɨlíŋɔ́nì-) v. to be streaked, and round.
striped. ɨlɔ́ɗíŋánón (ɨlɔ́ɗíŋánónì-) v. to be dis-
ilios (iliosí-) 1 v. to be pasted, sealed. 2 criminatory, marginalizing, segrega-
v. to be deaf, hard-of-hearing. tive.
ilírá (<ilíróòn) v. ɨlɔ́ɗíŋɛ́s (ɨlɔ́ɗíŋɛ́sí-) v. to discriminate,
ilíráitetés (ilíráitetésí-) v. to coordinate, isolate, marginalize, segregate.
synchronize. ɨlɔ́ɗɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨlɔ́ɗɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to go
ɨlɨram (ɨlɨramá-) n. meal mush stirred around.
solid. Lit. ‘rotatable’. See also tɔbɔŋ ɨlɔɛs (ɨlɔɛsí-) 1 v. to beat, defeat, exceed,
and tʉɗʉtam. outdo, surpass. 2 v. to be more or less
ilíréètòn (ilíréètònì-) v. to act in sync than (in terms of an attribute). See also
or in unison (e.g. vehicles in a convoy, kurés.
birds in an echelon, or people mourn- ɨlɔɛtɛ́s (ɨlɔɛtɛ́sí-) v. to beat, defeat, outdo,
ing a death). surpass.
ɨlɨrɛs (ɨlɨrɛsí-) 1 v. to circumvolve, move ɨlɔ́ɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨlɔ́ɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to be beat, bored,
around, rotate (e.g. when stirring food). tired out, worn out.
2 v. to circumcise, cut around, ring (e.g. ɨlɔ́ɡɔtsɛ́s (ɨlɔ́ɡɔtsɛ́sí-) v. to drape, lay
when removing the anus of a wild ani- over.
mal). See also ɨlíŋírɛ́s. ilóíkés (ilóíkésí-) v. to peek or peep at
ɨlɨrílírɛ́s (ɨlɨrílírɛ́sí-) v. to circumvolve, (by bobbing the head up-and-down like
move around, or rotate repeatedly (e.g. small animals do). See also ikórímés.
when trying to balance something). iloílóés (iloílóésí-) v. to dislodge, loosen
ilíróòn (ilíróònì-/ilírá-) v. to be coordi- by moving back and forth.
nated, synchronized, in unison. iloimétòn (iloimétònì-) v. to be defeated
ilitsílítsés (ilitsílítsésí-) v. to shake or overcome, lose.
back and forth or side to side (like ɨlɔ́ímɔ́s (ɨlɔ́ímɔ́sí-) v. to compete, con-
one’s head saying ‘no’ or like a dog tend.
with something in its mouth). See also ɨlɔ́ínɔ́s (ɨlɔ́ínɔ́sí-) v. to compete, contend.
ɨlɨŋílíŋɛ́s. See also ɨkátínɔ́s.
ɨlɨwɛs (ɨlɨwɛsí-) v. to clean, clear (e.g. ɨlɔ́ítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨlɔ́ítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to beat
smooth surfaces). See also ɨkʉlɛs. down, discourage, frustrate, wear
ɨlɨwílíwɛtɛ́s (ɨlɨwílíwɛtɛ́sí-) v. to clean down.
or clear off (e.g. smooth surfaces). ilóʝésuƙota (ilóʝésuƙotí-) v. to displace,
ɨlɨwílíwɔ́s (ɨlɨwílíwɔ́sí-) v. to be cleaned relocate, transfer.
or cleared off (e.g. smooth surfaces). ɨlɔkílɔ́kɛ́s (ɨlɔkílɔ́kɛ́sí-) v. to wind or
ɨlɔɓílɔ́ɓɛ́s (ɨlɔɓílɔ́ɓɛ́sí-) v. to plaster. wrap around.

ɨlɔkílɔ́kɛtɛ́s ɨlʉlʉŋam

ɨlɔkílɔ́kɛtɛ́s (ɨlɔkílɔ́kɛtɛ́sí-) v. to wind or ɨlɔpílɔ́pɛ́s (ɨlɔpílɔ́pɛ́sí-) v. to move

wrap around. around in (e.g. a crowd or village).
ilókótsés (ilókótsésí-) v. to exchange, ilores (iloresí-) v. to intersperse, space.
swap, trade. See also ɨxɔtsɛs and xɔ́tsɛ́s. ɨlɔ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨlɔ́tɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to wash.
ilókótsésa mɛnáɛ v. to exchange words. ɨlɔ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta kíʝáe v. to create peace. Lit.
ɨlɔ́ƙɛ́rɛ́s (ɨlɔ́ƙɛ́rɛ́sí-) v. to interlace, inter- ‘to wash the land’.
lock, interweave, mesh. ilotses (ilotsesí-) 1 v. to change, trans-
form. 2 v. to relay, translate. 3 v. to
ɨlɔƙɛs (ɨlɔƙɛsí-) v. to dissolve, emulsify.
confuse, mistake for, mix up.
ɨlɔ́líɛ́s (ɨlɔ́líɛ́sí-) v. to displace, expel,
ilotsesa mɛnáɛ v. to change decisions,
force out, oust.
override, veto.
ɨlɔ́líɛ́sá así v. to drift, wander. ilotsesa zɛƙɔ́ɛ v. to migrate, move, relo-
ɨlɔ́líɛtɛ́s (ɨlɔ́líɛtɛ́sí-) v. to threaten to dis- cate one’s home.
place (by encircling several times). ilotsímétòn (ilotsímétònì-) v. to change,
ɨlɔ́lɔ́kɛ́s (ɨlɔ́lɔ́kɛ́sí-) v. to space, thin out transform. See also iɓéléìmètòn.
(e.g. seedlings). ɨlɔ́yɔ́n (ɨlɔ́yɔ́nì-) v. to be beat, bored,
ɨlɔ́lɔ́mɔ̀n (ɨlɔ́lɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be roomy, tired, weary.
spacious. See also lalʉ́ʝɔ́n. iluʝúlúʝés (iluʝúlúʝésí-) v. to fill up to the
ɨlɔ́lɔ́ŋɛ́s (ɨlɔ́lɔ́ŋɛ́sí-) v. to agitate, stir. brim.
ɨlʉ́kánètòn (ɨlʉ́kánètònì-) v. to point
ɨlɔ́lɔ́rɛ́s (ɨlɔ́lɔ́rɛ́sí-) v. to smear, smudge
downward (of horns).
(e.g. food on a child’s face to trick its
parents into believing it has eaten). ɨlʉkɛs (ɨlʉkɛsí-) v. to carry under (e.g.
tucked under one’s arm).
ɨlɔ́lɔ́tsɛ́s (ɨlɔ́lɔ́tsɛ́sí-) v. to rinse. See also
ɨlaɨlɛ́ɛ́s. Ilʉ́kɔ́l (Ilʉ́kɔ́lì-) n. a personal name.
ilúkúɗòn (ilúkúɗònì-) v. to arc, curve.
ilólúés (ilólúésí-) v. to bombinate, buzz
around. ilúkútsés (ilúkútsésí-) v. to inject, in-
terject, interpose (objects or comments,
ɨlɔmílɔ́mɔ̀n (ɨlɔmílɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to circu- e.g. in a conversation without knowing
late, move around (e.g. a snake or a the topic).
thief in a house).
ilúƙúretés (ilúƙúretésí-) v. to coil, curl,
ɨlɔŋɛs (ɨlɔŋɛsí-) v. to chase, go after, pur- spiral, wind.
sue. See also irukes.
ilúƙúrètòn (ilúƙúrètònì-) v. to coil or
ɨlɔ́ŋɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨlɔ́ŋɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to chase, go, curl up (as in the fetal position).
or pursue after. ilúƙúròn (ilúƙúrònì-) v. to be coiled or
ɨlɔ́ɔ́n (ɨlɔ́ɔ́nì-/ɨlá-) v. to go for a visit, take curled up (as in the fetal position).
a trip, travel. See also ipásóòn. ilúlúés (ilúlúésí-) v. to badger, bug,
ɨlɔ́ɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨlɔ́ɔ́nʉƙɔtí-/ɨláíƙɔt-) v. to go pester.
for a visit or on a trip, travel away. ɨlʉ́lʉ́mʉ̀ɔ̀n (ɨlʉ́lʉ́mʉ̀ɔ̀nì-) v. to swim.
ɨlɔpɛs (ɨlɔpɛsí-) v. to move, reassign, ɨlʉlʉŋam (ɨlʉlʉŋamá-) 1 n. fist. 2 n. fist-
transfer. ful, handful. See also mʉkʉtam.

ɨlʉ́lʉ́ŋɛ́s imákwéètòn

ɨlʉ́lʉ́ŋɛ́s (ɨlʉ́lʉ́ŋɛ́sí-) v. to make ball- ɨmá (<ɨmɛɛs) v.

shaped, round, or spherical. ima na interj. this kid, I tell you! (an
ɨlʉ́lʉ́ŋɔ́s (ɨlʉ́lʉ́ŋɔ́sí-) v. to be made ball- expression of any positive or negative
shaped, round, or spherical. opinion about a single object or per-
ilumes (ilumesí-) v. to dip (into liquid), son). Lit. ‘this child’.
immerse, submerge. ɨmaarɛ́s (ɨmaarɛ́sí-) v. to count, enumer-
ate, number.
ilúmésuƙota (ilúmésuƙotí-) v. to dip
(into liquid), immerse, submerge. ɨmaarɛ́sá dɛ̀ìkàɛ v. to pace or step off.
Lit. ‘to count feet’.
ilumetésá así v. to enter, immerse on-
self. ɨmaarɔ́s (ɨmaarɔ́sí-) v. to be few, num-
ɨlʉ́mʉ́lʉ́mɛ́s (ɨlʉ́mʉ́lʉ́mɛ́sí-) v. to munch
happily. imácéka (imá-cékì-) pl. wicécíkám.
n. daughter-in-law. Lit. ‘child’s-wife’.
ilúɲón (ilúɲónì-) v. to go by, pass, pass
ɨmaɗɛs (ɨmaɗɛsí-) v. to apply heat to,
by (e.g. a person or time).
ilúɲónuƙota (ilúɲónuƙotí-) v. to go by,
ɨmaɗɛsa ɔ́ʝáɛ v. to treat a wound.
pass, pass by (e.g. a person or time).
ɨmáɗɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨmáɗɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to apply
ɨlʉŋʉ́lʉ́ŋɛ́s (ɨlʉŋʉ́lʉ́ŋɛ́sí-) 1 v. to bribe, heat to, heat up.
corrupt, buy or pay off. 2 v. to pay to
ɨmaɗímáɗɔ̀n (ɨmaɗímáɗɔ̀nì-) v. to
have killed.
treacherous, tricky (e.g. enemies that
ilúrón (ilúrónì-) v. to mourn. come in peace and then turn violent, or
Ilúúkori (Ilúúkorií-) n. name of a place. a sickness that sets in slowly but then
ɨlʉ́zɛ̀tɔ̀n (ɨlʉ́zɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to doze or nod worsens rapidly).
off. imáɗíŋánón (imáɗíŋánónì-) v. to be for-
ɨlʉ́zɔ̀n (ɨlʉ́zɔ̀nì-) v. to feel drowsy or getful, undependable, unreliable (e.g.
sleepy. when given a message to deliver to
ɨlwarɛs (ɨlwarɛsí-) v. to abuse, misuse,
utilize inappropriately. See also ɨlarɛs. ɨmakɛs (ɨmakɛsí-) v. to bandage, bind.
ɨmakímákɛ́s (ɨmakímákɛ́sí-) v. to wind
ɨlwárímétòn (ɨlwárímétònì-) v. to be-
up. See also ɨlɔkílɔ́kɛ́s.
come distressed or stressed out. See
also ɨlárímétòn. imákóitetés (imákóitetésí-) 1 v. to con-
tort, distort, twist up. 2 v. to get to
ɨlwarɨtɛtɛ́s (ɨlwarɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to keep
misbehave, make difficult.
waiting, make wait, waste the time of.
See also ɨlarɨtɛtɛ́s. imákóòn (imákóònì-) 1 v. to be con-
torted, distorted, twisted up. 2 v. to be
ɨlwárɔ́n (ɨlwárɔ́nì-) v. to be inactive, idle, in a long and difficult labor. 3 v. to be
unused, unutilized. See also ɨlárɔ́n. difficult, misbehaving, unmanageable.
ɨlwárɔ́na teréɡù v. to be jobless, out of imákwéètòn (imákwéètònì-) 1 v. to be-
work, unemployed. come contorted, distorted, or twisted
im (imá-) pl. wika . n. baby, child, kid, up. 2 v. to become unmanageble, grow
youngster. difficult, misbehave.

imáƙɔ́fɔ́ iméníkánón

imáƙɔ́fɔ́ (imá-ƙɔ́fɔ́ɔ̀-) pl. imáƙófóikwa . ɨmasɛtɛ́s (ɨmasɛtɛ́sí-) v. to hurl, throw,

n. child’s small gourd bowl. or toss this way.
ɨmáláánón (ɨmáláánónì-) v. to be sexu- imásítsʼa (imá-sítsʼà-) n. baby hair.
ally loose or promiscuous. ɨmátáŋɛ́s (ɨmátáŋɛ́sí-) v. to chew, mas-
ɨmalímálɛ́s (ɨmalímálɛ́sí-) v. to spread ticate (esp. tobacco). Also pronounced
around in a circular motion (e.g. lotion as mataŋɛs.
on skin or peanuts in a frying pan). imátôda (imá-tódà-) n. babble, baby
imámáɗós (imámáɗósí-) v. to deviate, talk.
go off track, wander off (as if innon- ɨmátsárɛ́s (ɨmátsárɛ́sí-) v. to brand, la-
cently, e.g. to look for food or escape bel, mark.
imáúròn (imáúrònì-) v. to feel dizzy,
ɨmámɛ́ɛ́s (ɨmámɛ́ɛ́sí-) v. to cajole, coax, lightheaded, woozy.
sweet-talk, wheedle.
ɨmáxánɛ́s (ɨmáxánɛ́sí-) 1 v. to wave. 2
ɨmámɛ́ɛtɛ́s (ɨmámɛ́ɛtɛ́sí-) v. to call v. to greet, say hello to.
sweetly, coax into coming.
ɨmáxánínɔ́s (ɨmáxánínɔ́sí-) v. to great
ɨmánán (ɨmánánɨ-) pl. ɨmánánìka . each other.
n. castor-oil plant: large shrub species
whose hollow stems are used to make imeda ɡwasáe n. grinding stone held in
pipes and straws (for drinking from the hand. Lit. ‘child of the stone’.
rock wells) and whose seeds are friend, ɨmɛ́ɗɛ́lɛ́s (ɨmɛ́ɗɛ́lɛ́sí-) v. to rebuff, reject,
ground, and made into a body lotion snub, spurn, turn down.
for women. Ricinus communis. ɨmɛ́ɗɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨmɛ́ɗɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to flare up,
imánánès (imánánèsì-) n. childhood, flash.
childlikeness, childishness. Lit. ‘being ɨmɛ́ɗɛ́tɔna ekwí v. to see stars (when
a child’. concussed). Lit. ‘flashing of the eye’.
ɨmanɛs (ɨmanɛsí-) v. to plot against, vow ɨmɛɗímɛ́ɗɔ̀n (ɨmɛɗímɛ́ɗɔ̀nì-) v. to
to harm. flicker, glitter.
imánétòn (imánétònì-) v. to connect, en- ɨmɛ́ɗɔ́n (ɨmɛ́ɗɔ́nì-) 1 v. to flare, flash. 2
counter, meet, run into. v. to be bright, brilliant.
imanímánés (imanímánésí-) v. to curl ɨmɛ́ɗɔ́nà dìdìì n. lightning. Lit. ‘flashing
or wind around (e.g. a vine on a tree). of rain’.
imánónuƙota (imánónuƙotí-) v. to con- iméérés (iméérésí-) v. to shift, transfer
nect, encounter, join up, meet up, run (from one like thing to another, i.e. con-
into. tainer, place, etc.).
ɨmáráɗàɗà (<ɨmáráɗàɗòòn) v. ɨmɛɛs (ɨmɛɛsí-/ɨmá-) v. to warm (by fire
ɨmáráɗàɗòòn (ɨmáráɗàɗòònì-/ɨmáráɗa- or sunlight).
ɗa-) v. to be fancy, flashy, gaudy. ɨmɛlɛs (ɨmɛlɛsí-) v. to flicker, flitter (e.g.
ɨmasɛs (ɨmasɛsí-) v. to hurl, throw, toss. the tongue).
ɨmásɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨmásɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to hurl, iméníkánón (iméníkánónì-) v. to be un-
throw, or toss away. true to one’s word, untrustworthy.

Ìmɛ̀r ɨmʉ́káánón

Ìmɛ̀r (Ìmɛ̀rà-) n. name of a hill or moun- ɨmɔ́ɗɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨmɔ́ɗɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to cheat,

tain. heist, rip off.
imetsés (imetsésí-) 1 v. to fill in for, re- ɨmɔɗɛtɛ́s (ɨmɔɗɛtɛ́sí-) v. to allure, bait,
place, substitute for, take over for. 2 entice, lure.
v. to inherit. ɨmɔɗímɔ́ɗɛ́s (ɨmɔɗímɔ́ɗɛ́sí-) v. to
imetsités (imetsitesí-) v. to fill or put in, slather, smear, spread.
replace, substitute. ɨmɔ́ɗɔ́rɔ̀n (ɨmɔ́ɗɔ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to be sooty.
ɨmɨɗímíɗɛ́s (ɨmɨɗímíɗɛ́sí-) v. to dilate, ɨmɔ́ʝírɛ́s (ɨmɔ́ʝírɛ́sí-) v. to intertwine,
enlarge (a small hole). twine, twist.
ɨmɨɗímíɗɛ́sa mɛnáɛ 1 v. to elaborate or ɨmɔlɛs (ɨmɔlɛsí-) v. to administer, allot,
expand on the issues. 2 v. to exagger- apportion, deal or dish out.
ate or hyperbolize.
ɨmɔlɛsíám (ɨmɔlɛsí-ámà-) pl. ɨmɔlɛsííka .
ɨmíɗítsɛ́s (ɨmíɗítsɛ́sí-) v. to fill, plug, n. administrator.
stop up (a hole).
ɨmɔ́lɔ́ŋɛtɛ́s (ɨmɔ́lɔ́ŋɛtɛ́sí-) v. to heat or
ɨmíɗítsɛ́sa así v. to commit, devote, or warm up (e.g. water for bathing).
plug oneself in. ɨmɔ́mɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨmɔ́mɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to hesitate,
ɨmíʝílɛ́s (ɨmíʝílɛ́sí-) v. to wink. pause, stop, take a break. See also
ɨmɨlɛtɛ́s (ɨmɨlɛtɛ́sí-) v. to dribble, drip, mɔ́mɛ́tɔ̀n.
drop. ɨmɔ́mɔ́ɗɛ́s (ɨmɔ́mɔ́ɗɛ́sí-) v. to slather,
ɨmɨlímílɔ̀n (ɨmɨlímílɔ̀nì-) v. to pool, pud- smear, spread.
dle (in small amounts). imóɲíka (<imóɲíkees) v.
ɨmímíʝɛ́s (ɨmímíʝɛ́sí-) 1 v. to convulse, imóɲíkees (imóɲíkeesí-/imóɲíka-) 1
twitch (the face for fun). 2 v. to shrug. v. to dishevel, rumple, tangle. 2 v. to
ɨmɨnímínɛ́s (ɨmɨnímínɛ́sí-) 1 v. to feel, mess up, ruin, spoil.
finger, play with. 2 v. to con- imóɲíkeetés (imóɲíkeetésí-) 1 v. to di-
serve, economize, ration. See also shevel, rumple up, tangle up. 2 v. to
mɨnímínatés. mess up, ruin, spoil.
imíŋá (<imíŋóòn) v. ɨmɔrímɔ́rɛ́s (ɨmɔrímɔ́rɛ́sí-) v. to jumble,
imíŋóòn (imíŋóònì-/imíŋá-) v. to come mix, or scramble up.
uninvitedly, show up unwelcomely. ɨmɔrímɔ́rɔ́s (ɨmɔrímɔ́rɔ́sí-) v. to be jum-
ɨmɨsɛs (ɨmɨsɛsí-) v. to care, mind. See bled, mixed, or scrambled up.
also ɨkatsɛs. ɨmʉɗʉ́mʉ́ɗɔ̀n (ɨmʉɗʉ́mʉ́ɗɔ̀nì-) v. to
ɨmítíŋa (<ɨmítíŋɛɛ́s) v. squint. See also wízɨlɛ́s.
ɨmítíŋɛɛ́s (ɨmítíŋɛɛsí-/ɨmítíŋa-) v. to pur- ɨmʉ́ítɛtɛ́s (ɨmʉ́ítɛtɛ́sí-) v. to bear twins.
sue, seek (e.g. a wife). ɨmʉʝʉ́mʉ́ʝɔ̀n (ɨmʉʝʉ́mʉ́ʝɔ̀nì-) v. to draw
imítíròn (imítírònì-) v. to be hazy, indis- or gather saliva.
tinct, vague. ɨmʉ́ká (<ɨmʉ́kɔ́ɔ̀n) v.
ɨmɔɗɛs (ɨmɔɗɛsí-) 1 v. to deceive, trick. ɨmʉ́káánón (ɨmʉ́káánónì-) v. to be de-
2 v. to cheat, con, rip off, swindle. termined, driven.

ɨmʉ́káitetés ɨnápɛ́sʉƙɔta

ɨmʉ́káitetés (ɨmʉ́káitetésí-) v. to encour- imutúmútòn (imutúmútònì-) v. to pout,

age, spur on, urge. sulk (often expressed in refusing food).
ɨmʉ́kɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨmʉ́kɔ́ɔ̀nì-/ɨmʉ́ká-) v. to en- See also ɨɓʉ́tʉ́ŋɔ̀n.
dure, persevere, press on. ɨmʉtʉ́mʉ́tɔ́s (ɨmʉtʉ́mʉ́tɔ́sí-) v. to be
ɨmʉ́mʉ́ɨtɛtɛ́s (ɨmʉ́mʉ́ɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to de- pouty, sulky.
light, make smile, please. See also ɨmwaímwá (<ɨmwaímwɛ́ɛ́s) v.
ɨlákásítɛ́sʉƙɔta .
ɨmwaímwɛ́ɛ́s (ɨmwaímwɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨmwaí-
ɨmʉ́mʉ́ʝɛ́s (ɨmʉ́mʉ́ʝɛ́sí-) v. to rinse, mwá-) 1 v. to spit on. 2 v. to bless. See
swish (the mouth). See also íɡʉʝʉɡʉʝɛ́s. also tatiés.
ɨmʉ́mʉ́ɔ̀n (ɨmʉ́mʉ́ɔ̀nì-) v. to grin, smile. imwáŋón (imwáŋónì-) v. to look around
May also be spelled as ɨmʉ́mwɔ́ɔ̀n. cautiously (e.g. so as to avoid enemies
ɨmʉ́mʉ́rɛ́s (ɨmʉ́mʉ́rɛ́sí-) v. to do faster or one’s mother-in-law).
than others (e.g. eating at a feast). ín (ínà) 1 adv. what exactly …? (an ex-
ɨmʉ́mʉ́rɔ̀n (ɨmʉ́mʉ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to be faster pression of uncertainty). 2 adv. wow!
than others (in doing, eating, etc.). (an expression of surprise).
ɨmʉ́mwárés (ɨmʉ́mwárésí-) v. to amuse, ɨnábɛs (ɨnábɛsí-) v. to arrange, order,
entertain, regale, treat (with singing stack. See also ɨɗɔ́bɛ̀s and itíbès.
and dancing, e.g. visitors or one’s in-
ɨnábɛ̀sìàwa (ɨnábɛ̀sì-àwà-) pl. ɨnábɛsɨa-
laws during marriage ceremonies).
wíka . n. parking place.
imúnúkukúón (imúnúkukúónì-) 1 v. to
ball up, clench (e.g. fists or clouds). 2 ɨnábɛ̀sʉ̀ƙɔ̀ta (ɨnábɛ̀sʉ̀ƙɔ̀tì-) v. to arrange,
v. to cramp up (of limbs). put in order, stack up.
ɨmʉ́nʉ́kʉ̀kʉ̀ɔ̀n (ɨmʉ́nʉ́kʉ̀kʉ̀ɔ̀nì-) v. to be ɨnábɛtɛ́s (ɨnábɛtɛ́sí-) v. to arrange, order,
numb (of body parts). set up, stack up.
ɨmʉ́ɲɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨmʉ́ɲɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to finish ɨnaka (ɨnakí-) n. nit(s): lice egg(s).
off, wipe out (e.g. food, enemies, work). ináƙúés (ináƙúésí-) v. to destroy, ruin,
See also iɲóɗésuƙota . wreck. May also be spelled as ináƙwíés.
ɨmʉɲɛtɛ́s (ɨmʉɲɛtɛ́sí-) v. to finish off, ináƙúetés (ináƙúetésí-) v. to destroy,
wipe out (e.g. food, enemies, work). ruin, wreck. May also be spelled as in-
imúɲúmétòn (imúɲúmétònì-) v. to be áƙwíetés.
finished off. ináƙúós (ináƙúósí-) v. to be destroyed,
ɨmʉ́ɔ́n (ɨmʉ́ɔ́nì-) v. to be a twin. ruined, wrecked. May also be spelled
ɨmʉ́ránón (ɨmʉ́ránónì-) v. to be under- as ináƙwóós.
cooked. See also kìtsòn. ináƙúotós (ináƙúotósí-) v. to be de-
ɨmʉ́sá (<ɨmʉ́sɔ́ɔ̀n) v. stroyed, ruined, wrecked. May also be
ɨmʉ́sɛ́ɛ̀tɔ̀n (ɨmʉ́sɛ́ɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to become spelled as ináƙwíotós.
foul, rank, smelly, or stinky. ɨnapɛs (ɨnapɛsí-) v. to put alongside or
ɨmʉ́sɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨmʉ́sɔ́ɔ̀nì-/ɨmʉ́sá-) v. to be beside.
foul, rank, smelly, stinky. See also ɨnápɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨnápɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to leave or
wízɨlílɔ́n. put aside (e.g. in someone’s care).

ɨnapɛtɛ́s ɨnwa

ɨnapɛtɛ́s (ɨnapɛtɛ́sí-) v. to bring along- ɨnɔɛs (ɨnɔɛsí-) v. to coil, loop, wind (e.g.
side or beside. a snake, or beads around the neck).
ɨnapɛtɛ́sá así v. to come. ɨnɔɛtɛ́s (ɨnɔɛtɛ́sí-) v. to coil, loop around,
ɨnatsínátsɛ́s (ɨnatsínátsɛ́sí-) v. to pat or wind around.
down (e.g. dough, hair, or mud). ɨnɔɨnɔɛ́s (ɨnɔɨnɔɛ́sí-) v. to loosen by
inénéés (inénéésí-) v. to hang or tie up. pulling back and forth.
inénéésuƙota (inénéésuƙotí-) v. to hang ínóƙwàz (ínó-ƙwàzà-) pl. ínóƙwazíka .
or tie up. n. leather clothing. Lit. ‘animal-cloth’.
ɨnɛpínɛ́pɔ̀n (ɨnɛpínɛ́pɔ̀nì-) v. to lick (of ɨnɔmɛs (ɨnɔmɛsí-) v. to beat, cane, whip.
flames). ɨnɔmɛtɛ́s (ɨnɔmɛtɛ́sí-) v. to ‘hit’: exploit,
ínés (ínésì-) v. to inhabit, live or stay in. harvest, take advantage of.
inésá (<inésóòn) v. ínónànès (ínónànèsì-) n. animal-like-
ness, animateness.
inésóòn (inésóònì-/inésá-) v. to parade
about, show off. ínósìtsʼa (ínó-sìtsʼà-) n. fur, pelt.
ínésuƙota (ínésuƙotí-) v. to colonize, in- ɨnɔtsɛs (ɨnɔtsɛsí-) v. to adhere, cling, or
habit, move in, populate, settle. stick to.
iníámésuƙota (iníámésuƙotí-) v. to ac- ɨnʉɛs (ɨnʉɛsí-) 1 v. to burden, encumber,
company, escort. weigh down. 2 v. to make ill.
inietés (inietésí-) v. to pull down (e.g. a ɨnʉ́ítɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (ɨnʉ́ítɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to make
tree branch). heavy.
ɨnɨƙwíníƙwɛ́s (ɨnɨƙwíníƙwɛ́sí-) v. to ɨnʉkʉ́nʉ́kɛ́s (ɨnʉkʉ́nʉ́kɛ́sí-) v. to
wiggle, wriggle, or work in (e.g. a stick mound: heap or pile up in a mound.
to support something). ɨnʉƙʉ́nʉ́ƙwɛ́s (ɨnʉƙʉ́nʉ́ƙwɛ́sí-) v. to dis-
ɨnɨnɛ́s (ɨnɨnɛ́sí-) v. to interrogate, press solve, melt (in the mouth, e.g. soft
for details, probe. foods).
ínínós (ínínósí-) v. to coinhabit, live or ɨnʉmʉ́nʉ́mɛ́s (ɨnʉmʉ́nʉ́mɛ́sí-) v. to cel-
stay together. ebrate, observe.
iniŋes (iniŋesí-) 1 v. to assess, evaluate, ɨnʉ́nʉ́mɛ́s (ɨnʉ́nʉ́mɛ́sí-) v. to celebrate,
test. 2 v. to try in court. observe.
iniŋíníŋés (iniŋíníŋésí-) v. to make inunúmétòn (inunúmétònì-) v. to ap-
flinch, startle (e.g. by pretending to proach death or near death, be dying.
hit). inunúmónuƙota (inunúmónuƙotí-) v. to
inipes (inipesí-) v. to bash, wallop, be almost dead or dying.
whack. ínwa (ínó-) n. animal(s), beast(s),
a brute(s).
inípónítésúƙot (inípónítésúƙotí-) v. to
delay, retard, slow down. ɨnwa (ɨnɔ́-) pl. ɨnɨtín. 1 n. arboreal vine
inípónòn (inípónònì-) v. to be slow, species with square stems and milky
move slowly. sap. 2 n. milk bush: a euphorbia

ínwá na awáe iɲóɗésuƙota

species with narrow round stems con- iɲéráánón (iɲéráánónì-) v. to be girl-

taining milky sap toxic to the eyes; it crazy, obsessed with girls.
is used widely as a protective hedge íɲɛ́s (íɲɛ́sì-) 1 v. to pound (with a pestle,
around homes. Euphorbia tirucalli. e.g. termites or tobacco). 2 v. to pump
ínwá na awáe n. domestic animal. (e.g. water from a borehole).
ínwá na riʝááƙɔ̀ɛ n. wild animal. iɲétsé (<iɲétsóòn) v.
inwakes (inwakesí-) 1 v. to light up iɲétséetés (iɲétséetésí-) v. to abort, mis-
(e.g. with fire or a torch). 2 v. to carry, terminate. See also iyétséetés.
view (e.g. through binoculars or micro- iɲétsóòn (iɲétsóònì-/iɲétsé-) 1 v. to act,
scope). See also iléúrés. feign, pretend. 2 v. to abort, fail (e.g. of
ɨɲáɗʉ́tɛ́s (ɨɲáɗʉ́tɛ́sí-) v. to chew, masti- weather, being drier than normal). See
cate, ruminate. also iyétsóòn.
iɲaƙes (iɲaƙesí-) v. to do again, redo, re- ɨɲɨbɛs (ɨɲɨbɛsí-) v. to nibble. See also
peat. Also pronounced as iɲoƙes. tɔʝɨpɛs.
iɲales (iɲalesí-) v. to blend, combine, ɨɲɨɨɲíɔ̀n (ɨɲɨɨɲíɔ̀nì-) v. to mewl, whim-
fuse, mix. See also iɗyates. per. See also ɨɲíɲíɔ̀n.
iɲíkáiƙota (<iɲíkéésuƙota ) v.
ɨɲatɛs (ɨɲatɛsí-) v. to knock, thump,
whack (e.g. with a gunstock or stick). iɲíkéésuƙota (iɲíkéésuƙotí-/ iɲíkáiƙot-)
v. to flatten, stamp down, trample.
ɨɲatiés (ɨɲatiesí-) v. to knock, thump, or
whack repeatedly. iɲíkétòn (iɲíkétònì-) 1 v. to change, fluc-
tuate. 2 v. to begin frowning or scowl-
iɲatiesá kíʝáe v. to stumble or trip repeat- ing.
iɲikiétòn (iɲikiétònì-) v. to fluctuate,
ɨɲɛ́ɓɛ́rɛ́s (ɨɲɛ́ɓɛ́rɛ́sí-) v. to grimace: con- vacillate.
tort the face to show emotion.
iɲikíɲíkòn (iɲikíɲíkònì-) v. to fluctuate,
ɨɲɛ́ɛ́mɔ̀n (ɨɲɛ́ɛ́mɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to cry easily vacillate.
when threatened. 2 v. to snarl, snap.
iɲíkón (iɲíkónì-) 1 v. to be in flux, fluc-
3 v. to be fierce, savage, vicious. See
tuate. 2 v. to frown, scowl.
also dzálón.
ɨɲɨlíɲílánón (ɨɲɨlíɲílánónì-) v. to be dis-
ɨɲɛɛs (ɨɲɛɛsí-) 1 v. to enlarge, expand. 2
integrating, falling apart.
v. to elaborate or expound on. See also
taɲɛɛs. iɲíɲíés (iɲíɲíésí-) v. to erase, rub off.
iɲekes (iɲekesí-) 1 v. to blow, squander, ɨɲíɲínɛ́s (ɨɲíɲínɛ́sí-) v. to dole, mete, or
waste. 2 v. to lose (something valu- parcel out (e.g. food or money).
able). ɨɲíɲíɔ̀n (ɨɲíɲíɔ̀nì-) v. to mewl, whimper.
See also ɨɲɨɨníɔ̀n.
iɲékésuƙota (iɲékésuƙotí-) 1 v. to blow,
squander, waste. 2 v. to lose (some- iɲipes (iɲipesí-) v. to snip, tip.
thing valuable). See also eletiésuƙota . iɲipíɲípòn (iɲipíɲípònì-) v. to smolder.
iɲekíɲékés (iɲekíɲékésí-) v. to blow, iɲóɗésuƙota (iɲóɗésuƙotí-) v. to finish
squander, waste. off. See also ɨmʉ́ɲɛ́sʉƙɔta .

iɲoƙes iŋáyá

iɲoƙes (iɲoƙesí-) v. to do again, redo, ɨŋáɗɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨŋáɗɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔtí-/ɨŋáɗáɨƙɔt-)

repeat. Also pronounced as iɲaƙes. v. to put or set aside.
iɲóƙésuƙota (iɲóƙésuƙotí-) v. to do ɨŋaíŋá (<ɨŋaíŋɛ́ɛ́s) v.
again, redo, repeat. ɨŋaíŋɛ́ɛ́s (ɨŋaíŋɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨŋaíŋá-) 1 v. to grind
iɲóɲóés (iɲóɲóésí-) v. to anoint, be- coarsely. 2 v. to chew roughly (e.g. un-
smear. cooked maize). See also ɨkaŋíkáŋɛ́s and
íɲɔ́s (íɲɔ́sì-) v. to be pounded (with a ɨŋáŋɛ́ɛ́s.
pestle). ɨŋaɨŋɛ́ɛ́sa tódae v. to speak vaguely. Lit.
ɨɲɔ́táánón (ɨɲɔ́táánónì-) v. to be men- ‘to grind speech coarsely’.
crazy, obsessed with men. iŋáʝápánón (iŋáʝápánónì-) v. to slur,
ɨɲʉ́ɲʉ́ánón (ɨɲʉ́ɲʉ́ánónì-) 1 v. to be speak indistinctly. See also ɗáƙón.
faint, obscure, vague (e.g. in a fog). iŋáléètòn (iŋáléètònì-) v. to ease up, get
2 v. to be jinxed: bring bad luck in better, get well, heal up, improve.
food-gathering activities like hunting
and gathering. iŋáléòn (iŋáléònì-) v. to be healthy, in
good condition, well.
ɨɲʉ́ɲʉ́rɔ̀n (ɨɲʉ́ɲʉ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to bicker, quib-
ble, squabble. See also ŋʉ́zʉmánón. ɨŋáŋá (<ɨŋáŋɛ́ɛ́s) v.
ɨŋaalɛ́s (ɨŋaalɛ́sí-) 1 v. to poison. 2 v. to ɨŋáŋárɛtɛ́s (ɨŋáŋárɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to collabo-
blackmail, threaten. rate or cooperate on. 2 v. to gang up
on (e.g. in a fight).
ɨŋaalɛ́síàm (ɨŋaalɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɨŋaalɛ́-
síika . n. poisoner. ɨŋáŋɛ́ɛ́s (ɨŋáŋɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨŋáŋá-) 1 v. to grind
ɨŋáámɛ́s (ɨŋáámɛ́sí-) v. to grind coarsely coarsely. 2 v. to chew roughly (e.g. un-
(into large particles). cooked maize). See also ɨkaŋíkáŋɛ́s and
ɨŋaarɛ́s (ɨŋaarɛ́sí-) v. to aid, assist, help.
iŋárúrètòn (iŋárúrètònì-) 1 v. to form
ɨŋaarɛ́síàm (ɨŋaarɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɨŋaarɛ́- seeds, seed (esp. grains). 2 v. to
síika . n. assistant, helper. break out, flare up (e.g. skin bumps or
ɨŋaarímétòn (ɨŋaarímétònì-) v. to be rashes).
aided, assisted, helped.
iŋárúròn (iŋárúrònì-) 1 v. to be seeded,
ɨŋáárínɔ́s (ɨŋáárínɔ́sí-) v. to help each have seeds (esp. grains). 2 v. to be
other. broken out, flared up (of skin bumps
ɨŋaarínɔ́sá ƙwaatéo v. to help give birth. due to feeling cold, shaving the head,
iŋáɓólés (iŋáɓólésí-) v. to leave open. or getting a rash).
iŋáɓúkés (iŋáɓúkésí-) v. to grind a sec- iŋátsátsá (<iŋátsátsóòn) v.
ond time, regrind (e.g. after first pound- iŋátsátsóòn (iŋátsátsóònì- /iŋátsátsá-)
ing the grain). v. to sit with one’s legs apread apart.
ɨŋáɗá (<ɨŋáɗɛ́ɛ́s) v. iŋáúánón (iŋáúánónì-) v. to sit inde-
ɨŋáɗáɨƙɔta (<ɨŋáɗɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta ) v. cently (e.g. a woman with an open
ɨŋáɗɛ́ɛ́s (ɨŋáɗɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨŋáɗá-) v. to put or skirt).
set aside. iŋáyá (<iŋáyéés) v.

iŋáyéés ɨpáláƙɔ̀n

iŋáyéés (iŋáyéésí-/iŋáyá-) v. to doubt, ɨŋʉrʉ́ŋʉ́rɔ̀n (ɨŋʉrʉ́ŋʉ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to com-

question. plain, grumble, murmur.
ɨŋɨlíŋílánón (ɨŋɨlíŋílánónì-) v. to be cut ɨɔ́ɓɔ́rɛ́s (ɨɔ́ɓɔ́rɛ́sí-) 1 v. to lightly roast,
up in pieces. toast. 2 v. to intimidate.
ɨŋɨlíŋílɛ́s (ɨŋɨlíŋílɛ́sí-) v. to cut up into ɨɔka (ɨɔkɔ́-) n. nectar, pollen.
pieces. ɨɔ́kɔ́n (ɨɔ́kɔ́nì-) 1 v. to bloom, blossom,
ɨŋɨníŋínɔ̀n (ɨŋɨníŋínɔ̀nì-) v. to coo (of flower. 2 v. to be fertile, flourish.
infants). ɨɔ́lɔ́lɔ̀n (ɨɔ́lɔ́lɔ̀nì-) v. to be steep.
ɨŋísímɔ̀n (ɨŋísímɔ̀nì-) v. to be buck- ìòn (ìònì-) 1 v. to be (somewhere). May
toothed, toothy. also be spelled as ìyòn.
ɨŋɨtɛs (ɨŋɨtɛsí-) v. to reenact, retell. iona aráɡwaníkɛ v. to flow, menstruate.
iŋitiés (iŋitiesí-) v. to copy, emulate, im- Lit. ‘to be in the month’.
itate. ìònà ɗòku v. to be alone, solitary, the
ɨŋɔ́ɓɛ́lɛ́s (ɨŋɔ́ɓɛ́lɛ́sí-) v. to glance side- only/sole.
long at. iona ɛɗá v. to be alone, solitary.
iŋóɗyáìmètòn (iŋóɗyáìmètònì-) v. to iona muceéke v. to be en route, on the
become chaotic, descend into chaos. way.
iŋókíánón (iŋókíánónì-) v. to be as poor iona ńdà v. to be with, have.
or wretched as a dog. iona ńda sea ni itsúr v. to be active, en-
iŋolíŋólés (iŋolíŋólésí-) v. to oscillate, ergetic. Lit. ‘to have blood that boils’.
swing side to side. iona ŋítsaníkɛ v. to be in trouble, have
e problems.
iŋolíŋólésa tódà v. to garble one’s
speech. ɨɔ́ɔ́rɛ́s (ɨɔ́ɔ́rɛ́sí-) v. to glide, send soaring,
iŋolíŋólós (iŋolíŋólósí-) v. to be wary: sail.
looking this way and that. ɨɔ́ɔ́rɔ̀n (ɨɔ́ɔ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to glide, sail, soar.
ɨŋɔ́lɔ́ɓɔ́ɲɛ́s (ɨŋɔ́lɔ́ɓɔ́ɲɛ́sí-) v. to roll íɔ́s (íɔ́sì-) v. to be cleared, hoed up (e.g.
around (in one’s mouth). patch of ground).
iŋomes (iŋomesí-) v. to chomp. ɨpáɗáɲɔ̀n (ɨpáɗáɲɔ̀nì-) v. to be flat, level.
ɨŋɔ́písà (<ɨŋɔ́písɔ̀ɔ̀n) v. ɨpáʝɔ́n (ɨpáʝɔ́nì-) v. to sit on the ground.
ɨŋɔ́písɔ̀ɔ̀n (ɨŋɔ́písɔ̀ɔ̀nì-/ɨŋɔ́písa-) v. to ɨpakɛs (ɨpakɛsí-) v. to swipe: make a
bounce along, walk with springy steps. sweeping motion with one’s hand.
iŋóyáánón (iŋóyáánónì-) v. to be angry, ɨpakɛsa cué v. to fling water.
annoyed, upset. ɨpákɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨpákɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to fling,
iŋulúŋúlés (iŋulúŋúlésí-) 1 v. to cut swipe away/off.
with a dull knife. 2 v. to spear with ɨpáláƙɔ̀n (ɨpáláƙɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be feeble,
a blunt tip. 3 v. to gum, mumble: chew frail, weak. 2 v. to be fickle at work,
without teeth. reliable only when the boss is around.
ɨŋʉ́ŋʉ́nɔ̀n (ɨŋʉ́ŋʉ́nɔ̀nì-) v. to whine. See also ʝuódòn.

ɨpalípálɛ́s ɨpííríánón

ɨpalípálɛ́s (ɨpalípálɛ́sí-) v. to brush or ɨpɛípɛ́ɛ́sá kíʝáe v. to wander aimlessly.

sweep aside (e.g. the layer of slime ɨpɛípɛ́ɛ́sá tódàe v. to speak pointlessly.
on top of stagnant water so one can
drink). ɨpɛlɛs (ɨpɛlɛsí-) v. to pare, peel, shave.
See also ɨlɨmɛs.
ipáŋƙa (<ipáŋƙeés) v.
ɨpɛlɛtam (ɨpɛlɛtamá-) n. peeling, shav-
ipáŋƙeés (ipáŋƙeesí-/ipáŋƙa-) 1 v. to
hire, lease, rent. 2 v. to organize, make
plans, plan. ɨpɛlípɛ́lɔ̀n (ɨpɛlípɛ́lɔ̀nì-) v. to be sleek,
slick. See also pɨɗídɔ̀n.
ipáŋwá (<ipáŋwéés) v.
ɨpɛ́pɛ́tánón (ɨpɛ́pɛ́tánónì-) v. to sprawl.
ipáŋwéés (ipáŋwéésí-/ipáŋwá-) v. to
conceal, hide, hold in (e.g. food or emo- ɨpɛ́pɛ́tánónuƙota (ɨpɛ́pɛ́tánónuƙotí-)
tions). v. to sprawl out.
ɨpápá (<ɨpápɛ́ɛ́s) v. ɨpɛ́pɛ́tɛ́s (ɨpɛ́pɛ́tɛ́sí-) v. to lay out, spread
ɨpápɛ́ɛ́s (ɨpápɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨpápá-) v. to moisten. about.
ipáríés (ipáríésí-) v. to demolish, de- ɨpɛrípɛ́rɔ̀n (ɨpɛrípɛ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to flit
stroy, wreck (e.g. a house during a rob- around, flitter (e.g. in fighting, speak-
bery or vandalism). See also ɨtɔ́tɔ́ɛ́s. ing).
ɨpáríŋánón (ɨpáríŋánónì-) v. to be per- ipés (ipésí-) 1 v. to thresh. 2 v. to thrash,
ilous, precarious. trounce. 3 v. to cast, toss (for divina-
ìpàs (ìpàsɔ̀-) n. dance involving walking
and the stomping of feet. ipésá ɡwàsìkàe v. to cast or toss stones
(to divine the future).
ɨpásɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨpásɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to dance by
singing, stomping, and walking. ipésá taƙáíkàɛ v. to cast or toss sandals
ipásóòn (ipásóònì-) 1 v. to be unoccu- (to divine the future).
pied, have free time, kill time. 2 v. to ɨpɛ́tá (<ɨpɛ́tɛ́ɛ́s) v.
go for a visit. See also ɨlɔ́ɔ́n. ɨpɛ́tɛ́ɛ́s (ɨpɛ́tɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨpɛ́tá-) v. to make a
ɨpátsɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨpátsɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to isolate, platform or scaffolding.
seclude, sequester (often in anger). ipéyéés (ipéyéésí-) v. to kill (an animal)
ɨpátsɛ́sʉƙɔta así v. to isolate, seclude, or and serve (to one’s friends or relatives
sequester oneself (often in anger). as a part of initiation to an age-group).
ìpèɗààm (ìpèɗà-àmà-) pl. ipeɗaika . See also topues.
n. bewitcher, hexer, jinxer. ipéyéitésúƙota (ipéyéitésúƙotí-) v. to
ipeɗes (ipeɗesí-) v. to bewitch, hex, jinx. make (an initiate) kill and serve (a rit-
See also sʉɓɛ́s. ual animal).
ɨpɛ́ɛ́ɲɛ́sá así v. to amble, saunter (esp. ipiipíòn (ipiipíònì-) v. to blow (of a
with flat, thin buttocks). chilly breeze).
ɨpɛ́ɛ́rɔ̀n (ɨpɛ́ɛ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to get away, re- ipiipíyeés (ipiipíyeesí-) v. to smoothen.
treat, withdraw (e.g. from home). ɨpííríánón (ɨpííríánónì-) v. to have a
ɨpɛípɛ́ɛ́s (ɨpɛípɛ́ɛ́sí-) v. to do aimlessly. great memory, remember clearly.

ipííròn ɨpʉ́pʉ́ŋɛtɛ́s

ipííròn (ipíírònì-) 1 v. jump down/off. 2 ɨpɔ́pírɛ́s (ɨpɔ́pírɛ́sí-) v. to roll or twist up

v. to jump to it, leap into action. See (e.g. cigarette or mat).
also apííròn. ipúká (<ipúkéés) v.
ɨpíʝíkɛ́s (ɨpíʝíkɛ́sí-) v. to inspect, investi- ɨpʉ́kákòn (ɨpʉ́kákònì-) v. to congeal
gate, scrutinize (e.g. someone on trial, when cooled (of hot foods). See also
or an animal’s footprints). tɔsɔ́ɗɔ́kɔ̀n.
ɨpíʝíkɨmɔ́s (ɨpíʝíkɨmɔ́sí-) v. to suspect ipúkéés (ipúkéésí-/ipúká-) v. to govern,
each other. reign over, rule.
ipíká (<ipíkéés) v. ipúkéésíàm (ipúkéésí-àmà-) pl. ipúkéé-
ipíkéés (ipíkéésí-/ipíká-) v. to paddle, síika . n. governor, ruler, sovereign. See
spank. also tòtwàrààm.
ɨpɨmɛs (ɨpɨmɛsí-) 1 v. to measure, weigh. ipukes (ipukesí-) 1 v. to fan. 2 v. to
2 v. to diagnose, test. 3 v. to aim for, wave (e.g. objects for wishes and bless-
target. ings).
ɨpɨnípínɔ̀n (ɨpɨnípínɔ̀nì-) v. to dribble, ipukúpúkés (ipukúpúkésí-) 1 v. to flap,
leak. See also tɔlɛ́lɛ́ɔ̀n. flutter. 2 v. to batter, clobber.
ipíríntiŋeetés (ipíríntiŋeetésí-) v. to ipúkútsésuƙota (ipúkútsésuƙotí-) v. to
print. jam, push, or ram into.
ɨpɨrípírɛ́s (ɨpɨrípírɛ́sí-) v. to bore, drill. ɨpʉ́mɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨpʉ́mɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to dart or dash
See also pulutiés. out.
ɨpɨrípírɛ̀tɔ̀n (ɨpɨrípírɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to dawn ɨpʉ́mɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨpʉ́mɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to dart
red (before the orb of the sun is visible). or dash away/off.
ɨpírísɛtɛ́s (ɨpírísɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pop or ɨpʉnɛs (ɨpʉnɛsí-) 1 v. to push (e.g. some-
squeeze out (e.g. pus from a wound). one on a swing). 2 v. to grind
ɨpɨtɛs (ɨpɨtɛsí-) v. to tighten hard (e.g. a quickly (by pushing one stone against
cap or rope). another).
ɨpɨtɔs (ɨpɨtɔsí-) v. to be tight, tightened ipúɲá (<ipúɲéés) v.
hard. ipúɲéés (ipúɲéésí-/ipúɲá-) v. to make a
ipíyáiƙota (<ipíyéésuƙota ) v. funeral goat sacrifice to prevent the de-
ipíyéésuƙota (ipíyéésuƙotí- /ipíyáiƙot-) ceased’s ghost from disturbing the rela-
v. to defeat, outdo, overcome. tives (by stunting their growth and the
ɨpɔkɛs (ɨpɔkɛsí-) v. to slosh, splosh (a yield of their crops). See also sɛ́ɛ́s.
liquid in a container). ipuŋes (ipuŋesí-) 1 v. to tilt. 2 v. to tuck
ɨpɔ́kɔ́n (ɨpɔ́kɔ́nì-) v. to be stuck (e.g. (into one’s clothing).
from sloshing back and forth). ipuŋetés (ipuŋetésí-) v. to tilt over.
ipoles (ipolesí-) v. to jerk, pull, yank. ɨpʉ́pʉ́ŋɛ́s (ɨpʉ́pʉ́ŋɛ́sí-) v. to enclose,
See also iɓwates. wrap (e.g. in clothing or leaves).
ipoletés (ipoletésí-) v. to jerk, pull, or ɨpʉ́pʉ́ŋɛtɛ́s (ɨpʉ́pʉ́ŋɛtɛ́sí-) v. to enclose,
yank out/up. wrap up (e.g. in clothing or leaves).

ipúrá ɨrɛɓɛs

ipúrá (<ipúréés) v. ɨrakiesúƙota así v. to have seizures,

ipúrá (<ipúróòn) v. seize.
ipúréés (ipúréésí-/ipúrá-) 1 v. to fumi- ɨrákímétòn (ɨrákímétònì-) 1 v. to have a
gate, smoke out. 2 v. to ritually cover seizure, seize. 2 v. to feel sexual after-
in smoke (by sacrificing a chicken). See glow. Lit. ‘to be stunned’.
also iwaŋíwáŋés and tsʼudités. iram (iramá-) pl. irámíka . n. thinly-
ipúréètòn (ipúréètònì-) v. to begin to sliced dehydrated food (e.g. meat and
smoke, billow up, evaporate. pumpkin). Lit. ‘sliceable’.
ipúróòn (ipúróònì-/ipúrá-) v. to billow, ɨramírámɛ́s (ɨramírámɛ́sí-) v. to hit re-
fume, smoke, waft. peatedly.
ɨpʉtɛs (ɨpʉtɛsí-) v. to beat or knock ɨraɲ (ɨraɲí-) n. small corncobs and
down/off (e.g. dew from grass). pieces of cobs left over after the larger
cobs have been tied together by the
ɨpʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta así v. to rush or take off. husks.
ɨpʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta muceé v. to blaze a trail. ɨraŋɛs (ɨraŋɛsí-) v. to ruin, spoil.
ɨpʉtsɛs (ɨpʉtsɛsí-) v. to plaster. ɨraŋɛtɛ́s (ɨraŋɛtɛ́sí-) v. to ruin, spoil.
ipwáákés (ipwáákésí-) v. to accuse or ɨraŋímétòn (ɨraŋímétònì-) 1 v. to be-
act falsely. come ruined or spoiled. 2 v. to become
ɨrá (<ɨrɛɛs) v. upset.
ɨrábɛs (ɨrábɛsí-) v. to harvest finger mil- ɨraŋɔs (ɨraŋɔsí-) v. to be ruined, spoiled.
let. ɨráŋʉ́nánón (ɨráŋʉ́nánónì-) 1 v. to be
Iraf (Irafá-) n. name of a river that flows ruined, spoiled. 2 v. to be corrupt, de-
down from Kamion. praved. 3 v. to be dirty, soiled.
ɨraírá (<ɨraírɔ́ɔ̀n) v. ɨrapɛs (ɨrapɛsí-) v. to reclaim, recover.
ɨraírɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨraírɔ́ɔ̀nì-/ɨraírá-) v. to glare, ɨrápɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨrápɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to reclaim,
shine brightly. recover.
ɨrákáánás (ɨrákáánásì-) n. envy, jeal- ɨrapɛtɛ́s (ɨrapɛtɛ́sí-) v. to reclaim, re-
ousy. cover.
ɨrákáánón (ɨrákáánónì-) v. to be envi- ɨráráƙɛ́s (ɨráráƙɛ́sí-) v. to crack into
ous, jealous. pieces .
ɨrakɛs (ɨrakɛsí-) v. to daze, stun (e.g. by ɨrárátés (ɨrárátésí-) v. to gather, glean,
slapping very hard). harvest, reap (from the ground).
ɨrakɛsa así v. to make oneself envious or ɨrarɛs (ɨrarɛsí-) v. to gather, glean, har-
jealous. vest, reap (from the ground). See also
ɨrákɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨrákɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to daze, ɨrárátés and tarares.
stun. ɨratírátɛ́s (ɨratírátɛ́sí-) v. to spatter,
ɨrákɛ́sʉƙɔta así 1 v. to get oneself high splatter (e.g. heavy rain on the ground).
(on drugs). 2 v. to be in ecstasy, have See also irwates and irwaírwéés.
an orgasm. ɨrɛɓɛs (ɨrɛɓɛsí-) v. to clip, snip.

ɨrɛ́ɓɛ́sʉƙɔta ɨrɨʝɔs

ɨrɛ́ɓɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨrɛ́ɓɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to clip or iríáiƙota (<iríóonuƙota ) v.

snip off. iríánitetés (iríánitetésí-) 1 v. to equal-
ɨrɛɓírɛ́ɓɛ́s (ɨrɛɓírɛ́ɓɛ́sí-) v. to cause sharp ize, make equal (amounts, portions). 2
pain in. v. to compare, equate. 3 v. to bal-
ɨrɛɗɛs (ɨrɛɗɛsí-) v. to grab, seize, snatch. ance (figures, the books). See also ik-
ɨrɛɛs (ɨrɛɛsí-/ɨrá-) v. to beat, trounce,
vanquish (in a game). iríánòn (iríánònì-) v. to be equal, the
ɨrɛɛsa dikwáe v. to keep the beat (of a
dance by clapping). iríánònà dɛ̀ìkàɛ v. to march. Lit. ‘the
being equal of legs’.
ɨrɛʝɛs (ɨrɛʝɛsí-) v. to cut, mow, slash (veg-
etation). iríánonuƙota (iríánonuƙotí-) v. to be-
come equal, equate.
ɨrɛ́kɔ́ɗɨŋa (<ɨrɛ́kɔ́ɗɨŋeés) v.
iríɓá (<iríɓéés) v.
ɨrɛ́kɔ́ɗɨŋeés (ɨrɛ́kɔ́ɗɨŋeesí- /ɨrɛ́kɔ́ɗɨŋa-)
iríɓéés (iríɓéésí-/iríɓá-) v. to assault,
v. to record (music, voice, etc.).
attack, conduct an operation against,
ɨrɛmɛs (ɨrɛmɛsí-) v. to frighten or scare mount an offensive against.
irídòn (irídònì-) v. to gravitate, move to
irémóòn (irémóònì-) v. to cause conflict, a point.
create insecurity.
ɨrɨɗɛs (ɨrɨɗɛsí-) 1 v. to bind, constrict,
ireɲes (ireɲesí-) v. to clear, hoe up squeeze. 2 v. to confine, limit, restrict.
(grass, leaving only soil). See also íɛ́s.
ɨrɨɗɛsá bùbùàe v. to bind the stomach (to
iréɲésuƙot (iréɲésuƙotí-) v. to clear relieve hunger pangs).
away (grass, leaving only soil).
ɨrɨɗɛtɛ́s (ɨrɨɗɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to bind, com-
iréɲíánón (iréɲíánónì-) v. to be violent. press, constrict, squeeze. 2 v. to con-
See also ifulúfúlòn. fine, limit, restrict.
irés (irésí-) v. to medicate, treat. ɨríɗɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨríɗɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to decease, expire,
írés (írésì-) 1 v. to cut in slices, slice. 2 perish.
n. to conduct a ceremony, do a ritual. ɨríɗɔ́n (ɨríɗɔ́nì-) v. to hurt, suffer.
See also irikíríkés. ɨrɨɗɔs (ɨrɨɗɔsí-) 1 v. to be bound, com-
irésíàm (irésí-àmà-) pl. irésíika . n. tradi- pressed, constricted, narrow, tight. 2
tional healer. See also ŋƙwa. v. to be constrained, limited, restricted.
írésiŋƙáƙa (írési-ŋƙáƙá-) n. banquet, iríétòn (iríétònì-) v. to come of age,
ceremonial meal, feast. grow, mature.
iretes (iretesí-) v. to do like, make like. ɨríítánón (ɨríítánónì-) v. to be gluey,
ɨrɛtɛs (ɨrɛtɛsí-) v. to prevent, resist (e.g. sticky (e.g. gum, honey, okra).
diseases). iríítés (iríítésí-) v. to ferry, transfer,
irex (irexí-) pl. iréxíka . n. shell of a small transport.
white water-snail. ɨrɨʝɛs (ɨrɨʝɛsí-) v. to tie tightly.
iríá (<iríóòn) v. ɨrɨʝɔs (ɨrɨʝɔsí-) v. to be tied tightly.

Irikakokor iríríʝés

Irikakokor (Irika-kokoró-) n. name of a ɨrɨnɛs (ɨrɨnɛsí-) v. to peer over the side

ridge where there used to be several Ik at (e.g. of a cliff or container).
villages. Lit. ‘surround-the-ridge’. ɨríŋɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨríŋɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to turn this way.
ɨrɨkɛs (ɨrɨkɛsí-) v. to encircle, surround. ɨríŋítɛ́s (ɨríŋítɛ́sí-) v. to spin, turn.
ɨríkɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨríkɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to encircle, ɨríŋítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨríŋítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to turn
surround. 2 v. to finish, fulfill (e.g. a around/away.
work contract). 3 v. to finish off. ɨríŋɔ́n (ɨríŋɔ́nì-) 1 v. to spin, turn. 2 v. to
ɨrɨkɛtɛ́s (ɨrɨkɛtɛ́sí-) v. to encircle, sur- orbit, revolve.
round. ɨríŋɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨríŋɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to turn
irikíríkés (irikíríkésí-) v. to cut in slices, around/away (that way).
slice up. See also írés. iríóòn (iríóònì-/iríá-) v. to spend or take
irikíríkòn (irikíríkònì-) 1 v. to twitch, time (during the day).
vellicate (e.g. an eyelid or muscle). iríóonuƙota (iríóonuƙotí-/iríáiƙot-) v. to
2 v. to quake, tremor. See also spend the day, spend time.
kwalíkwálɔ̀n. iripetés (iripetésí-) v. to skim off (the
iríƙá (<iríƙéés) v. top layer, e.g. cream from milk or
iríƙéés (iríƙéésí-/iríƙá-) v. to polish, rub leaves from the surface of water. See
(e.g. wax in a beehive, mud on a sculp- also ɨƙáálɛ́s.
ture, or sand to clean pots). irípétòn (irípétònì-) v. to come late
in the afternoon or evening. See also
iríƙímánón (iríƙímánónì-) v. to lounge,
sit around (as a group, e.g. while taking
a break from work). irípón (irípónì-) v. to go late in the af-
ternoon or evening. See also íbànòn.
iriƙíríƙés (iriƙíríƙésí-) v. to saw.
irírá (<iríréés) v.
irímá (<iríméés) v.
ɨrírá (<ɨrírɛ́ɛ́s) v.
iríméés (iríméésí-/irímá-) v. to treat re-
ɨríráɨƙɔta (<ɨrírɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta ) v.
iríréés (iríréésí-/irírá-) v. to feed or fuel
irimes (irimesí-) v. to circulate, go
around, or rotate around in.
ɨrírɛ́ɛ́s (ɨrírɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨrírá-) v. to collect,
irimesíám (irimesí-ámà-) pl. irimesííka . gather. See also ɨtsʉnɛtɛ́s.
1 n. scout, spy. 2 n. roamer, rover.
ɨrírɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨrírɛ́ɛ́sʉƙɔtí-/ɨríráɨƙɔt-)
irímétòn (irímétònì-) v. to circulate, v. to assemble, collect, gather up.
come around, rotate.
iríréetés (iríréetésí-) 1 v. to feed or fuel
irimírímés (irimírímésí-) v. to recce, re- (fire). 2 v. to mobilize, muster, rally,
connoiter, scout out. summon.
irímítetés (irímítetésí-) v. to circulate, ɨrírɛ́ɛtɛ́sá así v. to assemble, congregate,
rotate, spin. gather oneselves .
irímón (irímónì-) v. to circulate, move iríríʝés (iríríʝésí-) v. to spread around
around, rotate, spin. (coals in a fire, to reduce heat).

iríríƙòn irúpá

iríríƙòn (iríríƙònì-) v. to be ready to iróróbes (iróróbesí-) v. to burn off

fight, in a fighting posture. (land).
ɨrɨtsɛ́s (ɨrɨtsɛ́sí-) 1 v. to guard, hang on ɨrɔ́rɔ́kánón (ɨrɔ́rɔ́kánónì-) v. to have an
to, keep. 2 v. to care for, take care of. appetite, craving, hankering.
3 v. to manage, oversee, supervise. 4 iróróƙés (iróróƙésí-) v. to hollow out.
v. to contain. iróróòn (iróróònì-) v. to corrode, rust.
ɨrɨtsɛ́sá así 1 v. to care for oneself. 2 See also sɨmírɔ́n.
v. to be self-controlled. iroroya (iroroí-) n. tree species used
ɨrɨtsɛ́sá ɲeɗekéícíkáo v. to keep healthy for fencing and whose root decoc-
(from illnesses). tion is mixed with the contents of
ɨrɨtsɛ́síàm (ɨrɨtsɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɨrɨtsɛ́síika . the third stomach and stomach fat of
1 n. caretaker, keeper, manager. 2 goats or sheep and drunk as a cure for
n. heir, inheritor. 3 n. deacon. headaches and a head disease called
iriwes (iriwesí-) v. to fence (the outer lokóú. Maerua triphylla.
fence). irotes (irotesí-) 1 v. to shift, ship, trans-
fer, transport. 2 v. to transplant. 3
ɨrɔɗírɔ́ɗɛ́s (ɨrɔɗírɔ́ɗɛ́sí-) v. to burn a lit-
v. to delegate.
tle in a controlled manner (e.g. some
grass around the village, still a bit irotírótés (irotírótésí-) 1 v. to shift, ship,
green). or transfer repeatedly. 2 v. to post-
pone or put off repeatedly.
iróʝíés (iróʝíésí-) v. to search for in vain.
iruɓes (iruɓesí-) v. to crunch, munch.
ɨrɔʝírɔ́ʝɛ́s (ɨrɔʝírɔ́ʝɛ́sí-) v. to clack, crack,
crunch (to evoke such sounds, e.g. ìrùka (ìrùkà-) n. singing, song, vocals.
cracking knuckles or a plastic bottle, or ìrùkààm (ìrùkà-àmà-) pl. irukaika .
cocking a gun). n. singer, vocalist. See also irukósíàm.
ɨrɔʝírɔ́ʝɛ́sá kɔrɔ́kíkàɛ v. to crack the ìrùkàhò (ìrùkà-hòò-) pl. irukahoíka .
knuckles. n. singing hall.
iroketés (iroketésí-) 1 v. to create, de- irukes (irukesí-) v. to chase or run after.
vise, invent, make up. 2 v. to compose See also ɨlɔŋɛs.
(music). See also ɨɗɨmɛtɛ́s and tɔsʉɓɛs. irúkésuƙota (irúkésuƙotí-) v. to chase or
iróƙóòn (iróƙóònì-) v. to be bony, ca- run after.
daverous, emaciated, skeletal. See also iruketés (iruketésí-) v. to heap or pile
itóƙóƙòòn and kwédekwedánón. up. See also kitsetés.
ɨrɔmɛs (ɨrɔmɛsí-) v. to cycle, recycle. irúkón (irúkónì-) v. to sing.
ìròn (ìrònì-) v. to be (somehow). irukósíàm (irukósí-àmà-) pl. irukósíika .
ironuƙota (ironuƙotí-) v. to become n. singer, vocalist. See also ìrùkààm.
(somehow). ɨrʉmɛs (ɨrʉmɛsí-) v. to cling to, embrace,
iróríkés (iróríkésí-) n. to ceremonially hug.
finish off (the crops by harvesting last ɨrʉ́mʉ́nɔ́s (ɨrʉ́mʉ́nɔ́sí-) v. to embrace or
seedheads and cutting and chewing the hug each another.
stalks). irúpá (<irúpóòn) v.

irúpéètòn isálílòn

irúpéètòn (irúpéètònì-) v. to be the final Irwátà (Irwátàà-) n. a personal name.

one to come, last to show up (e.g. a per- irwates (irwatesí-) v. to spatter, sprin-
son to a meeting or the last rain of the kle. See also ɨratírátɛ́s and irwaírwéés.
irwatesa kíxo v. to whip lightly. Lit. ‘to
irúpóòn (irúpóònì-/irúpá-) v. to be the spatter with a switch’.
final one to arrive, last to show up (e.g.
iryámétòn (iryámétònì-) v. to acquire,
a person to a meeting or the last rain
get, meet with. The object acquired
of the season).
takes the dative case.
ɨrʉ́rʉ́ɓɛ́s (ɨrʉ́rʉ́ɓɛ́sí-) n. to brace, stabi- iryámétona ŋiléétsìke v. to become
lize (e.g. a beehive’s grass cover by in- ashamed, disgraced, or embarrassed.
serting several small sticks to hold it in
place). iryámíryámètòn (iryámíryámètònì-)
v. to assemble, congregate, meet to-
irúrúƙés (irúrúƙésí-) v. to push in and gether.
out (back and forth, like a stick in a
fire). iryámítetésá ŋiléétsìke v. to disgrace,
embarrass, shame.
irúrúmà (<irúrúmòòn) v.
Iryɔ́kɔ́ (Iryɔ́kɔ́ɔ̀-) n. name of a river and
irúrúmòòn (irúrúmòònì-/irúrúma-) ravine near Lopokóka .
v. to howl, roar, thunder (e.g. a woman
ìs (ìsì-) pro. what?
in labor, a swarm of bees, or a jet plane
taking off). isá (<isóón) v.
ɨrʉtsɛs (ɨrʉtsɛsí-) v. to fling, hurl, ɨsá (<ɨsɛɛs) v.
project (e.g. food in the mouth, or bul- ɨsáánɨŋa (<ɨsáánɨŋeés) v.
lets). ɨsáánɨŋeés (ɨsáánɨŋeesí-/ɨsáánɨŋa-) v. to
ɨrʉtsɛsa así v. to dart, race, speed. sign.
irutumén (irutuméní-) n. half of a ɨsáɓísɨŋa (<ɨsáɓísɨŋɛɛ́s) v.
butchered hyrax, including the front ɨsáɓísɨŋɛɛ́s (ɨsáɓísɨŋɛɛsí-/ɨsáɓísɨŋa-)
leg, ribs, and the back leg on one side. v. to maintain, service (a vehicle).
irúútés (irúútésí-) v. to ream out: clear ɨsaɨsáyá (<ɨsaɨsáyées) v.
out with a back and forth motion. ɨsaɨsáyées (ɨsaɨsáyéesí-/ɨsaɨsáyá-) v. to
irwaírwá (<irwaírwéés) v. miss repeatedly.
irwaírwéés (irwaírwéésí-/irwaírwá-) ɨsalɛs (ɨsalɛsí-) 1 v. to sieve, sift, sort. 2
v. to spatter, sprinkle. See also ɨratí- v. to disprove, refute. See also rɔrɛ́s.
rátɛ́s and irwates. ɨsalɛtɛ́s (ɨsalɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to sieve, sift, sort.
irwanes (irwanesí-) v. to cache, hoard, 2 v. to disprove, refute.
stash. isálílètòn (isálílètònì-) v. to go asleep,
irwapírwápòn (irwapírwápònì-) v. to go into paresthesia (of limbs).
blink, nictate, wink. See also isálílòn (isálílònì-) 1 v. to ache, hurt (of
íbɛ̀ɗìbɛ̀ɗɔ̀n. teeth, e.g. when exposed to sourness).
irwápón (irwápónì-) v. to droop, sag (of 2 v. to be asleep or in paresthesia (of
eyelids). limbs).

ɨsálímétòn ɨsɨkɛs

ɨsálímétòn (ɨsálímétònì-) v. to be dis- isémúreés (isémúreesí-/isémúra-) v. to

proven, refuted. fall for, fall in love with.
ɨsalɨtɛ́s (ɨsalɨtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to make sieve, sift, isépón (isépónì-) v. to course, flow.
or sort. 2 v. to disprove, refute, show ɨsɛ́pɔ́n (ɨsɛ́pɔ́nì-) v. to gimp, hobble. See
to be wrong. also ɨtɔ́ƙɔ́ɔ̀n and itsúkúkòn.
ísánòn (ísánònì-) v. to be apprehensive, isépónuƙota (isépónuƙotí-) v. to flow
concerned, worried. away.
ísánonuƙota (ísánonuƙotí-) v. to be- isér (isérá-) n. jackal (black-backed
come apprehensive, concerned or wor- and/or side-striped). Canis sp.
ried. isérérèòn (isérérèònì-) 1 v. to be hori-
Ísɛ́ (Ísɛ́ɛ̀-) n. name of a river. zontally straight. 2 v. to go straight
ɨsɛɓɛs (ɨsɛɓɛsí-) 1 v. to notch, mark, ahead.
score. 2 v. to scarify: make cosmetic iséréròn (isérérònì-) v. to be vertically
cuts or marks on the skin. straight, upright.
ɨsɛɓísɛ́ɓɛ́s (ɨsɛɓísɛ́ɓɛ́sí-) v. to scarify: ɨsɛ́sɛ́kɛ́s (ɨsɛ́sɛ́kɛ́sí-) v. to sample from
make cosmetic cuts or marks on the (e.g. different grains during a famine,
skin. so as to not eat all of one kind, leaving
some for planting).
ɨsɛɓɔs (ɨsɛɓɔsí-) 1 v. to be notched,
marked, scored. 2 v. to be scarified: isésélés (isésélésí-) v. to crop, lop, prune,
have cosmetic cuts or mark on the skin. trim back.
isíɗá (<isíɗóòn) v.
ɨsɛɛs (ɨsɛɛsí-/ɨsá-) 1 v. to miss (a shot). 2
v. to survive (a mishap). isíɗéètòn (isíɗéètònì-) v. to fall
back/behind, lag. See also maɗámón.
ɨsɛɛsa mɛnáɛ v. to miss the point.
isíɗóòn (isíɗóònì-/isíɗá-) v. to hang
iséétòn (iséétònì-) v. to begin, com- back, lag, stay behind.
mence, start. See also itsyákétòn.
isiɛníkɛ n. for what? why?
ɨsɛ́ísɛ́ɔ̀n (ɨsɛ́ísɛ́ɔ̀nì-) v. to drizzle.
ɨsíílɛ́s (ɨsíílɛ́sí-) v. to assort, categorize,
ɨsɛkísɛ́kɛ́s (ɨsɛkísɛ́kɛ́sí-) v. to sample classify.
from (e.g. different grains during a ɨsíílɛtɛ́s (ɨsíílɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pick or select
famine, so as to not eat all of one kind, according to categories.
leaving some for planting).
ɨsíítɛ́s (ɨsíítɛ́sí-) v. to accuse, charge.
ɨsɛ́ƙɔ́ánón (ɨsɛ́ƙɔ́ánónì-) v. to be disobe-
ɨsíítɛ́sìàm (ɨsíítɛ́sì-àmà-) pl. ɨsíítɛ́siika .
dient, insubordinate.
n. accuser, prosecutor.
ɨsɛ́lɛ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta así v. to glide, slide, or slip
ìsìka (ìsìkà-) n. bullrush, cat’s-tail, nail-
through (e.g. the air).
rod, reedmace.
iséméés (iséméésí-) v. to admire, check ɨsɨkares (ɨsɨkaresí-) v. to press, pressure,
out, eye, inspect, look over. pressurize.
iséméetés (iséméetésí-) v. to admire, ɨsɨkɛs (ɨsɨkɛsí-) 1 v. to cram, pack, stuff.
check out, eye, inspect, look over. 2 v. to inflate, pump up (e.g. a ball). See
isémúra (<isémúreés) v. also rʉtsɛ́s.

isíƙá isólólòètòn

isíƙá (<isíƙéés) v. isísá (<isíséés) v.

isíƙá (<isíƙóòn) v. isíséés (isíséésí-/isísá-) v. to narrate, re-
isíƙéés (isíƙéésí-/isíƙá-) v. to hold back, count, tell.
prevent, restrain (some intended ac- isíséésíàm (isíséésí-àmà-) pl. isíséé-
tion). síika . n. narrator, storyteller. See also
isíƙóòn (isíƙóònì-/isíƙá-) v. to hesitate, emútíkààm.
pause, waver. isites (isitesí-) v. to burden, encumber,
ɨsílíánɨtɛtɛ́s (ɨsílíánɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to devas- make heavy, weigh down.
tate, lay waste to, ravage (e.g. what isítíya (<isítíyeés) v.
bushpigs do to a garden, or sexual vi-
isítíyeés (isítíyeesí-/isítíya-) v. to ex-
olence against women).
pend, use, utilize.
ɨsílíánón (ɨsílíánónì-) v. to be brutal,
ɨsɔ́ɓɔ́lɛ́s (ɨsɔ́ɓɔ́lɛ́sí-) v. to maintain
feral, savage, vicious.
poorly, neglect (e.g. home or garden).
ɨsílítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨsílítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to concili-
ɨsɔɛs (ɨsɔɛsí-) v. to slide, slip (e.g. when
ate, harmonize, make peace, reconcile.
swallowing food without chewing).
ɨsílɔ́n (ɨsílɔ́nì-) v. to be harmonious,
ɨsɔɛtɛ́s (ɨsɔɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to slide, slip (e.g.
when swallowing without chewing). 2
ɨsílɔ́nìàm (ɨsílɔ́nì-àmà-) pl. ɨsílɔ́niika . v. to give birth to prematurely.
n. peaceful person.
ɨsɔɛtɛ́sá así v. to slide or slip oneself
ɨsílɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨsílɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to become through.
peaceful, stabilize.
isókétòn (isókétònì-) v. to get up and
ɨsɨmam (ɨsɨmamá-) n. food peelable
come early.
with the teeth (e.g. the sweet canes of
maize and sorghum). isókítésuƙota (isókítésuƙotí-) v. to get
up and send away early.
ɨsɨmɛs (ɨsɨmɛsí-) v. to peel with the
teeth (e.g. the sweet canes of maize and Isókóìàƙwa (Isókóì-àƙɔ̀-) n. name of a
sorghum). place. Lit. ‘among euphorbias’.
ɨsínákòn (ɨsínákònì-) v. to sprout (of isókón (isókónì-) v. to get up and go
maize cobs). early.
isipísípòn (isipísípònì-) v. to jog, ɨsɔ́kɔ́ta (<ɨsɔ́kɔ́teés) v.
lope, trot. See also ɨsɔƙísɔ́ƙɔ̀n and ɨsɔ́kɔ́teés (ɨsɔ́kɔ́teesí-/ɨsɔ́kɔ́ta-) v. to
ɨsʉmʉ́sʉ́mɔ̀n. smoke (a cigarette).
isires (isiresí-) v. to decorate, embellish, isókóya (isókóì-) pl. isókóìka . n. tall eu-
embroider. phorbia tree species from which bees
isiresa akáe v. to speak eloquently, wax makes bitter honey. Euphorbia bussei.
eloquent. Lit. ‘to embellish the mouth’. ɨsɔƙísɔ́ƙɔ̀n (ɨsɔƙísɔ́ƙɔ̀nì-) v. to jog,
ɨsɨrísírɔ́n (ɨsɨrísírɔ́nì-) v. to have a lope, trot. See also isipísípòn and
squeaky voice. ɨsʉmʉ́sʉ́mɔ̀n.
isiros (isirosí-) v. to be decorated, em- isólólòètòn (isólólòètònì-) v. to clear
bellished, embroidered. off/up visually (eyes, skies).

isólólòòn ɨsʉ́wɔ́ɔ̀n

isólólòòn (isólólòònì-) v. to be visually isuɗesa mɛnáɛ v. to be ‘full of it’, lie, pre-

clear (eyes, sky). varicate. Lit. ‘to distort matters’.
isómá (<isóméés) v. isuɗetés (isuɗetésí-) v. to distort, falsify,
isómáìmètòn (isómáìmètònì-) v. to be make up, perjure.
legible, readable. ɨsʉkɛs (ɨsʉkɛsí-) 1 v. to bypass, go
around, overtake. 2 v. to exceed, sur-
isómáitetés (isómáitetésí-) v. to educate,
pass, top . 3 v. to win. See also sʉ́kɛ́s.
teach to read.
ɨsʉ́mɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨsʉ́mɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to sneak up:
isóméés (isóméésí-/isómá-) 1 v. to read.
come without informing anyone.
2 v. to study.
ɨsʉ́mɔ́n (ɨsʉ́mɔ́nì-) v. to sneak: come or
isóméésíàm (isóméésí-àmà-) pl. isóméé-
go without informing anyone.
síika . 1 n. reader. 2 n. pupil, student.
ɨsʉ́mɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨsʉ́mɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to sneak
ɨsɔmɛs (ɨsɔmɛsí-) v. to toss out of sight off: go without informing anyone.
(e.g. into tall grass or brush).
ɨsʉmʉ́sʉ́mɔ̀n (ɨsʉmʉ́sʉ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to
ìsòn (ìsònì-) v. to be burdensome, heavy, jog, lope, trot. See also isipísípòn and
weighty. ɨsɔƙísɔ́ƙɔ̀n.
ɨsɔ́nɛ́sɔ̀n (ɨsɔ́nɛ́sɔ̀nì-) v. to be dejected, ɨsʉɲɛs (ɨsʉɲɛsí-) v. to take all of.
depressed, downcast.
ɨsʉ́ɲɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨsʉ́ɲɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to give or
isóón (isóónì-/isá-) 1 v. to begin, com- take away all of.
mence, start. 2 n. taboo of eating be-
ɨsʉɲɛtɛ́s (ɨsʉɲɛtɛ́sí-) v. to bring all of.
fore the elders eat.
ɨsʉ́ŋʉ́rɛ́s (ɨsʉ́ŋʉ́rɛ́sí-) v. to entice, get to
Isópìà (Isópìà-) n. Abyssinia, Ethiopia.
come, lure (e.g. by pinching, poking, or
See also Sópìà.
winking, esp. to do something like eat
ɨsɔrɔɓam (ɨsɔrɔɓamá-) n. slurpable food or have sex).
(e.g. thick porridge). ɨsʉ́rʉ́mɔ̀n (ɨsʉ́rʉ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to back out,
ɨsɔ́rɔ́ɓɛ́s (ɨsɔ́rɔ́ɓɛ́sí-) v. to slurp. See also draw back, withdraw (e.g. an animal
xáɓútés. from a trap).
ɨsɔ́rɔ́kánón (ɨsɔ́rɔ́kánónì-) v. to be a ɨsʉ́sʉ́ɛ́s (ɨsʉ́sʉ́ɛ́sí-) v. to egg on, incite,
youth. provoke, urge on. See also itsótsóés.
ɨsɔ́sɔ́ŋɔ́s (ɨsɔ́sɔ́ŋɔ́sí-) v. to shift, stir ɨsʉtɛs (ɨsʉtɛsí-) v. to move (an object).
(while sitting or sleeping). ɨsʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨsʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to move (an
ɨsɔ́wá (<ɨsɔ́wɔ́ɔ̀n) v. object) away/off.
ɨsɔ́wɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨsɔ́wɔ́ɔ̀nì-/ɨsɔ́wá-) v. to walk ɨsʉtɛtɛ́s (ɨsʉtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to move (an obect)
feebly (e.g. from sickness or thirst). See this way.
also ɨɛ́mɔ́n. ɨsʉ́tɔ́n (ɨsʉ́tɔ́nì-) v. to change position,
isuɗam (isuɗamá-) pl. isúɗámìka . move, shift.
n. false information, lie. ɨsʉ́wá (<ɨsʉ́wɔ́ɔ̀n) v.
isuɗes (isuɗesí-) v. to distort, falsify, ɨsʉ́wɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨsʉ́wɔ́ɔ̀nì-/ɨsʉ́wá-) 1 v. to be
make up, perjure. sterile, unproductive (e.g. of grains

íswa ɨtɛɓɛs

which are overcrowded, thereby no ɨtalɔs (ɨtalɔsí-) v. to be accustomed, ha-

producing heads). 2 v. to be overfull to bituated, used to.
the bursting point of the container (e.g. itam (itamá-) n. carrion. Lit. ‘findable’.
a granary or a sack).
ɨtámáánón (ɨtámáánónì-) v. to be nec-
íswa (ísó-) n. flood, torrent. essary: must, ought, should. Must be
isyá (<isyees) v. followed by another verb.
isyees (isyeesí-/isyá-) v. to harass, ítánésuƙota (ítánésuƙotí-) v. to hope,
harry. long, or yearn for.
isyones (isyonesí-) v. to have mercy or ítánòn (ítánònì-) v. to hope, long, yearn.
take pity on. ɨtáŋátɔ̀n (ɨtáŋátɔ̀nì-) v. to like or tend (to
isyónón (isyónónì-) v. to be merciful, do). Must be followed by another verb
have pity. in the infinitive.
isyónónuƙota (isyónónuƙotí-) v. to be- itáósés (itáósésí-) v. to slight, snub (by
come merciful, soften (emotionally). giving a lesser portion to).
ɨtá (<ɨtɔ́ɔ́n) v. ɨtapítápɔ̀n (ɨtapítápɔ̀nì-) v. to feel or
itáɓóòn (itáɓóònì-) v. to drip, drizzle. fumble around (e.g. on the ground like
a small child or elderly person).
ɨtaɨtɛ́s (ɨtaɨtɛ́sí-) v. to get there, make
reach. itárákáɲés (itárákáɲésí-) v. to hide
where easily found.
ɨtaɨtɛtɛ́s (ɨtaɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to get here, make
reach here. itásónòn (itásónònì-) v. to be sad, sor-
rowful. See also tasónón.
ɨtakɛs (ɨtakɛsí-) v. to strip, unstick (e.g.
an adhesive bandage). ɨtátá (<ɨtátɛ́ɛ́s) v.
ɨtákɛ́sʉƙɔt (ɨtákɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to strip off, ɨtátámɛ́s (ɨtátámɛ́sí-) 1 v. to instruct,
unstick (e.g. a bandage). teach, train. 2 v. to evangelize, preach.
See also nɔɔsanitetés.
ɨtáƙálɛ́s (ɨtáƙálɛ́sí-) 1 v. to mislay, mis-
place. 2 v. to do/make poorly . ɨtátámɛ́síàm (ɨtátámɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ɨtátá-
mɛ́síika . 1 n. instructor, teacher,
ɨtáƙálɛ́sá así v. to hibernate, hole up.
trainer. 2 n. evangelist, preacher. See
itáƙúòn (itáƙúònì-) v. to go on, follow, also ŋímaalímùàm.
ɨtátɛ́ɛ́s (ɨtátɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨtátá-) 1 v. to take for
itáléánón (itáléánónì-) v. to be forbid- a walk, walk. 2 v. to balance (e.g. on
den, off limits, prohibited, taboo. one’s head).
itáléés (itáléésí-) 1 v. to forbid, prohibit, ɨtátsámánón (ɨtátsámánónì-) v. to
make taboo. 2 v. to menstruate. See be lazy, negligent, slack. See also
also dimités. wéésánón.
ɨtalɛs (ɨtalɛsí-) v. to accustom, habituate, ɨtɛɓɛs (ɨtɛɓɛsí-) 1 v. to nick (e.g. the
make used to. branch stubs off of the reeds used for
itálóós (itálóósí-) v. to be forbidden, off building granaries and houses). 2 v. to
limits, prohibited, taboo. notch (the ears of oxen for decoration).

itéɓúkòn ɨtɛ́tɔ́n

itéɓúkòn (itéɓúkònì-) 1 v. to swell, be itélínós (itélínósí-) v. to watch each

swollen (body part or whole body). 2 other.
v. to be gorged, stuffed (from eating). ɨtɛ́má (<ɨtɛ́mɔ́ɔ̀n) v.
iteɗes (iteɗesí-) v. to cut or lop off (e.g. itemes (itemesí-) v. to continue, keep
branches from a trunk). on.
ɨtɛ́ɛ́lɔ̀n (ɨtɛ́ɛ́lɔ̀nì-) v. to lie or sit with legs itemetés (itemetésí-) v. to continue,
straight. keep on.
ɨtɛ́ɛ́rɨtɛtɛ́s (ɨtɛ́ɛ́rɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to face in one itemités (itemitésí-) 1 v. to make ready,
direction. prepare, ready. 2 v. to resolve, solve.
ɨtɛ́ɛ́rɔ̀n (ɨtɛ́ɛ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to face in one direc- itémítuƙotam (itémítuƙotamá-) n. solv-
tion. able problem.
ɨtɛítɛ́ɛ́s (ɨtɛítɛ́ɛ́sí-) v. to break up into itémón (itémónì-) v. to be appropriate,
pieces (e.g. when making aggregate). enough, fitting, proper, suitable.
itéƙélés (itéƙélésí-) v. to dam up (i.e. us- ɨtɛ́mɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨtɛ́mɔ́ɔ̀nì-/ɨtɛ́má-) 1 v. to be at
ing logs or rocks). leisure, hang out, pass time. 2 v. to
itéƙítéƙés (itéƙítéƙésí-) v. to nod, shake stroll, walk leisurely.
up and down (as when saying ‘yes’). ɨtɛ́nɨtɛtɛ́s (ɨtɛ́nɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to set straight,
iteles (itelesí-) v. to watch. straighten.
itelesa bàrìrrr v. to gaze or stare at emp- ɨtɛ́nɨtɛtɛ́sá tódàe v. to set the record
tily (e.g. when angry, pregnant, or in straight, talk straight to the issue. Lit.
pain). ‘to straighten speech out’.
itelesa ceŋetíámàe n. taboo of watching ɨtɛ́nɔ́n (ɨtɛ́nɔ́nì-) v. to be straight.
one’s mother-in-law. itéón (itéónì-) v. to go back, return
itelesa fetí 1 v. to watch the sun (to pre- there.
dict the seasons). 2 v. to tell the time. ɨtɛpɛs (ɨtɛpɛsí-) 1 v. to inseminate (of an-
itelesíám (itelesí-ámà-) pl. itelesííka . 1 imals). 2 v. to fuck.
n. sentry, watchman. 2 n. caretaker. 3 ɨtɛrítɛ́rɔ̀n (ɨtɛrítɛ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to reel, stag-
n. witness. See also ŋítsaɗénìàm. ger.
itelesíáma fetí n. sun watcher: an elder ítés (ítésì-) 1 v. to find missing. 2 v. to
who is an expert in observing the sea- find the remains of (left by thieves or
sonal cycle of the sunrise and sunset. predators).
itelesíáma kíʝáe pl. itelesííka kíʝáe . itétémés (itétémésí-) 1 v. to demon-
n. sentry, watchman. strate, illustrate, show. 2 v. to exercise,
itelesíáwa fetí n. point from which an practice.
elder observes solar cycles. itétón (itétónì-) v. to come back, return
itélésuƙota (itélésuƙotí-) v. to watch here. See also iɓóɓóŋètòn.
(there). ɨtɛ́tɔ́n (ɨtɛ́tɔ́nì-) 1 v. to arrive (here). 2
iteletés (iteletésí-) v. to watch (here). v. to get, find.

itíbès Itírá

itíbès (itíbèsì-) v. to arrange, order, put ɨtɨlɛtɛ́s (ɨtɨlɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pull over.

in order. See also ɨɗɔ́bɛ̀s and ɨnábɛ̀s. ɨtílɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨtílɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to come in a con-
itíbesúƙota (itíbesúƙotí-) v. to arrange, voy or procession.
order, put in order. ɨtɨlítílɔ̀n (ɨtɨlítílɔ̀nì-) v. to ache (of
itiɓes (itiɓesí-) v. to section, segment joints).
(e.g. a felled tree). ɨtílɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨtílɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to go in con-
itiɓítíɓés (itiɓítíɓésí-) v. to section, seg- voy or procession.
ment (e.g. a felled tree). ɨtɨnítínɛ́s (ɨtɨnítínɛ́sí-) v. to move rhyth-
ɨtɨɓítíɓɔ̀n (ɨtɨɓítíɓɔ̀nì-) v. to contract, mically (e.g. a body part while danc-
cramp (during childbirth or defeca- ing).
tion). ɨtɨnítínɛ́sá así v. to move oneself rhyth-
ɨtíɗíɗɛ́s (ɨtíɗíɗɛ́sí-) v. to filch, lift, pilfer, mically (as in dancing).
sneak. ítínós (ítínósí-) v. to find each other
ɨtíɗíɗɛ́sá así v. to slink,sneak, tiptoe. missing.
ɨtíílɛ́s (ɨtíílɛ́sí-) v. to repel, repulse, turn ɨtíŋá (<ɨtíŋɛ́ɛ́s) v.
away. ɨtíŋɛ́ɛ́s (ɨtíŋɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨtíŋá-) v. to compel,
itíírà (<itííròòn) v. force. See also ɨtɨŋɛs.
itííròòn (itííròònì-/itííra-) v. to hold fast, itiŋés (itiŋésí-) v. to cook, prepare
stand firm. (food). Compare with kɔŋɛ́s.
itikes (itikesí-) 1 v. to hold down, over- ɨtɨŋɛs (ɨtɨŋɛsí-) v. to compel, force. See
power, subdue, suppress. 2 v. to chase also ɨtíŋɛ́ɛ́s.
down (food or drink by eating or drink- ɨtɨŋɛsa así v. to force oneself.
ing something else).
itiŋésíàwa (itiŋésí-àwà-) pl. itiŋésía-
itiketésá ɡúróe kíʝáke v. to calm down. wíka . n. cooking place, kitchen.
Lit. ‘to suppress the heart’.
itíón (itíónì-) v. to go back, return there.
itikiesúƙota (itikiesúƙotí-) v. to rape, as- See also itéón.
sault or violate (sexually). Lit. ‘to sup-
press repeatedly’. ɨtíɔ́n (ɨtíɔ́nì-) v. to delay. See also asínón.
itikítíkòn (itikítíkònì-) v. to feel queasy, itíónàs (itíónàsì-) n. miracles, wonders.
sick, woozy (as when oil or sugar en- itíónòn (itíónònì-) 1 v. to be difficult,
ters one’s bloodstream). The experi- hard. 2 v. to do miracles, wonders. 3
encer of this feeling is marked with the v. to be important, significant. 4 v. to
dative case. be expensive, exorbitant, high.
itíƙírà (<itíƙíròòn) v. itípá (<itípéés) v.
itíƙíròòn (itíƙíròònì-/itíƙíra-) v. to rum- itípéés (itípéésí-/itípá-) v. to deviate,
ble or thunder off (e.g. a vehicle taking divert (e.g. enemies by making a pre-
off quickly or a herd of animals stam- ventative sacrifice or by talking them
peding). Also pronounced as itíríƙòòn. down from their plan).
ɨtílɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨtílɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to push over. Itírá (Itíráà-) n. a personal name.

itírákés itóŋílés

itírákés (itírákésí-) v. to recoil from, itoɓítóɓés (itoɓítóɓésí-) v. to hole or

shrink back from (i.e. something dan- make holes in repeatedly.
gerous or embarrassing). itoɓítóɓésa tódàe v. to cut in or interrupt
itíríƙà (<itíríƙòòn) v. a conversation or discussion. Lit. ‘to
itíríƙòòn (itíríƙòònì-/itíríƙa-) v. to rum- make holes in speech’.
ble or thunder off (e.g. a vehicle taking itoɗítóɗés (itoɗítóɗésí-) v. to peck, pick
off quickly or a herd of animals stam- at.
peding). Also pronounced as itíƙíròòn. ɨtɔ́ɗɔ́n (ɨtɔ́ɗɔ́nì-) v. to wilt, wither.
itirítírés (itirítírésí-) v. to stamp, stomp, itoʝiés (itoʝiesí-) v. to pick a fight with,
tamp. start a fight with.
itírónòn (itírónònì-) v. to be fast, quick, ɨtɔ́kɔ́ánòn (ɨtɔ́kɔ́ánònì-) v. to be grabby,
speedy. See also wɛ́ɛ́nɔ̀n. grasping (e.g. of food from others).
ɨtítí (ɨtítíì-) pl. ɨtítíìka . n. flame tree: em- ɨtɔkɔɗɛs (ɨtɔkɔɗɛsí-) v. to clench, grip
blematic East African tree species with (e.g. one’s side while running).
brilliant red flowers; its seeds are used itóƙóƙòòn (itóƙóƙòònì-) v. to be bony,
as necklace beads; its wood is used to cadaverous, emaciated, skeletal. See
make door planks, bowls, and contain- also iróƙóòn and kwédekwedánón.
ers, and a decoction of its bark or flow- ɨtɔ́ƙɔ́ɔ̀n (ɨtɔ́ƙɔ́ɔ̀nì-) v. to gimp, hobble.
ers is used as a treatment for chicken See also ɨsɛ́pɔ́n and itsúkúkòn.
and dog diseases. Erythrina abyssinica.
ɨtɔlɛs (ɨtɔlɛsí-) v. to barbeque, grill.
itítíkés (itítíkésí-) v. to hold back, re-
ɨtɔlɔs (ɨtɔlɔsí-) v. to be barbequed,
strain, retain.
itítíketés (itítíketésí-) v. to hold back, re- ɨtɔ́mɔ́n (ɨtɔ́mɔ́nì-) v. to be near, next to.
strain, retain.
ɨtɔ́mɔ́nìàm (ɨtɔ́mɔ́nì-àmà-) pl. ɨtɔ́mɔ́-
itítíŋòn (itítíŋònì-) v. to be brave, coura- niika . n. neighbor.
geous, dauntless, fearless, intrepid.
ɨtɔ́mʉ́nɔ́s (ɨtɔ́mʉ́nɔ́sí-) v. to be neigh-
itítírés (itítírésí-) v. to hinder, obstruct, bors, next to each other.
ítón (ítónì-) v. to be (some size or
ɨtɨwɛs (ɨtɨwɛsí-) v. to filter, strain. See amount).
also ɨʝɨwɛs.
ítónà dìdìke v. to become big or many.
itíyá (<itíyéés) v. Lit. ‘to reach high’.
itíyáìmètòn (itíyáìmètònì-) v. to be ítóna kíʝée tsʼɛɛ v. to dawn, get light.
done, happen, occur, take place, tran- ítónuƙota (ítónuƙotí-) v. to become
spire. See also ikásíìmètòn. (some size or amount).
itíyéés (itíyéésí-/itíyá-) v. to do. itoŋes (itoŋesí-) v. to twine, twist.
itíyéetam (itíyéetamá-) n. actionable, itoŋetésá tódàe v. to lie, prevaricate,
doable, feasible, possible. twist the truth. Lit. ‘to twist up
itíyéetés (itíyéetésí-) v. to do, get done. speech’.
itoɓes (itoɓesí-) 1 v. to hole, make a hole itóŋílés (itóŋílésí-) v. to hurt (of teeth,
in. 2 v. to cut in, interrupt. from coldness or sourness).

ɨtɔŋítɔ́ŋɛ́s itséƙóòn

ɨtɔŋítɔ́ŋɛ́s (ɨtɔŋítɔ́ŋɛ́sí-) v. to tap out (e.g. itóyéésa así v. to assemble, congregate,

salt or tobacco from a container). converge, meet.
ɨtɔ́ŋɔ́ɛ́s (ɨtɔ́ŋɔ́ɛ́sí-) v. to get a rise out of, itsáɗénés (itsáɗénésí-) v. to attest, bear
incite or provoke verbally. witness, or testify to.
itóŋóiesá mɛnáɛ v. to doubt matters, ɨtsakɛs (ɨtsakɛsí-) v. to crush, smash
question things. (e.g. melon, pumpkin, squash). See also
itóŋóòn (itóŋóònì-) v. to doubt, hesitate, ɨlɛɗɛs.
waver. ɨtsakítsákɛ́s (ɨtsakítsákɛ́sí-) v. to crush
ɨtɔ́ɔ́n (ɨtɔ́ɔ́nì-/ɨtá-) 1 v. to reach (a desti- or smash up (e.g. bark or roots as
nation). 2 v. to find, get. medicine).
itópénòn (itópénònì-) 1 v. to be hideous, ɨtsánánòn (ɨtsánánònì-) v. to be annoy-
ugly, unattractive. 2 v. to be boring, ing, bothersome, irritating. See also
dull, monotonous, uninteresting. See fìfòn.
also làlòn. ɨtsanɛs (ɨtsanɛsí-) v. to annoy, disturb,
itóróɲés (itóróɲésí-) v. to make ridges irritate.
in, ridge (e.g. for planting potatoes).
ɨtsánítɛtɛ́s (ɨtsánítɛtɛ́sí-) v. to cause
itórópés (itórópésí-) v. to cut out the problems or make trouble for.
meat and organs of the respiratory
ɨtsanítsánɛ́s (ɨtsanítsánɛ́sí-) v. to an-
and upper digestive systems (i.e. the
guish, torment, torture.
tongue, throat, lungs, and heart).
ɨtɔ́tɔ́ɛ́s (ɨtɔ́tɔ́ɛ́sí-) v. to demolish, destroy ɨtsanítsánɨtɛtɛ́s (ɨtsanítsánɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to
(sth. hard). See also ipáríés. cause anguish or torment for.
itotoles (itotolesí-) v. to crack or split ɨtsárʉ́ánón (ɨtsárʉ́ánónì-) 1 v. to be fake,
apart (e.g. hard roots or seeds). hypocritical, insincere, phony. 2 v. to
be unwanted, useless.
ɨtɔ́tɔ́ŋɛ́s (ɨtɔ́tɔ́ŋɛ́sí-) v. to peck, rap or tap
on (e.g. wood, like a woodpecker). ɨtsɛɗítsɛ́ɗɛ́s (ɨtsɛɗítsɛ́ɗɛ́sí-) v. to dig ran-
domly (e.g. holes for seeds).
ɨtɔ́tɔ́rɔ̀n (ɨtɔ́tɔ́rɔ̀nì-) v. to wipe after defe-
cating. itseɗítséɗòn (itseɗítséɗònì-) 1 v. to tip-
itówá (<itówéés) v. toe, walk on tippytoes. 2 v. to get a
running jump, take off hopping (like a
itówá (<itówóòn) v. vulture).
itówéés (itówéésí-/itówá-) n. to kick
ɨtsɛ́ɛ́rà (<ɨtsɛ́ɛ́rɔ̀ɔ̀n) v.
off, inaugurate, launch, or usher in (the
new year of agriculture by conducting ɨtsɛ́ɛ́rɔ̀ɔ̀n (ɨtsɛ́ɛ́rɔ̀ɔ̀nì-/ɨtsɛ́ɛ́rɛ-) v. to
a ceremony). cloud up but only rain elsewhere.
itówóòn (itówóònì-/itówá-) v. to be en- itséƙé (<itséƙóòn) v.
haloed, ringed (e.g. the moon, sun, or a itséƙéés (itséƙéésí-) v. to climb with
saint). gear (e.g. a honey-tree or mountain).
itóyá (<itóyéés) v. itséƙóòn (itséƙóònì-/itséƙé-) 1 v. to
itóyéés (itóyéésí-/itóyá-) v. to assemble, climb with gear (e.g. a honey-tree or
bring or put together. mountain). 2 v. to walk with a cane.

itsélélèòn itsomítsómés

itsélélèòn (itsélélèònì-) v. to perch, ɨtsírɔ́na tódàke v. to tell the truth. Lit.

roost. ‘to go directly to truth’.
itsemes (itsemesí-) 1 v. to poke, prod. 2 ɨtsɔɓítsɔ́ɓɛ́s (ɨtsɔɓítsɔ́ɓɛ́sí-) 1 v. to blend,
v. to provoke, push buttons. commingle, conflate, mix. 2 v. to dap-
itsemítsémés (itsemítsémésí-) v. to poke ple, mottle, spot. See also iɲales and it-
around in/on (e.g. a patch of ground be- sulútsúlés.
ing prospected for minerals or tapped ɨtsɔɓítsɔ́ɓɔ̀n (ɨtsɔɓítsɔ́ɓɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be
on with a cane). blended, commingled;conflated, mixed.
itsenes (itsenesí-) 1 v. to beg. 2 v. to 2 v. to be dappled, mottled, spotty.
curse. ɨtsɔɓítsɔ́ɓɔ́s (ɨtsɔɓítsɔ́ɓɔ́sí-) 1 v. to
itseniés (itseniesí-) 1 v. to beg relent- be blended, commingled, conflated,
lessly. 2 v. to lament, wail for. mixed. 2 v. to be dappled, mottled,
itsenietés (itsenietésí-) v. to begin beg-
ging relentlessly. itsoɗiétòn (itsoɗiétònì-) v. to come edg-
ing or inching one’s way (e.g. to get
ɨtsɛ́tsɛ́ɛ́s (ɨtsɛ́tsɛ́ɛ́sí-) 1 v. to clamber or
food where one is not invited).
scamper up (e.g. a mountain or tree). 2
v. to spear from a distance. ɨtsɔ́ɗɔ́kɔ̀n (ɨtsɔ́ɗɔ́kɔ̀nì-) v. to hop on one
ɨtsɨɗɛs (ɨtsɨɗɛsí-) v. to wipe clean (e.g.
with a finger). See also ɨƙʉ́ʉ́lɛ́s. itsóɗón (itsóɗónì-) 1 v. to edge, inch. 2
v. to limp. 3 v. to hedge, skirt, sur-
ɨtsɨkɛs (ɨtsɨkɛsí-) 1 v. to charge, instruct,
order. 2 n. law, rule.
itsóɗónìàwa (itsóɗónì-àwà-) pl. itsóɗó-
ɨtsɨkɛsa Ɲákuʝí v. divine commandment,
niawíka . n. hunting ground: where
law of God.
hunters split up, edge forward, and
ɨtsɨkɛsíám (ɨtsɨkɛsí-ámá-) pl. ɨtsɨkɛsííka . hedge animals in between two pha-
n. commander. lanxes.
ɨtsɨkɛsíícíká kíʝáe v. laws of the land, lo- ɨtsɔ́ítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨtsɔ́ítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to satisfy
cal laws. (someone’s) hunger for meat.
ɨtsɨpítsípɛ́s (ɨtsɨpítsípɛ́sí-) 1 v. to tattoo: itsóka (itsókó-) n. sunbird.
mark skin with a piece of grass used in
ɨtsɔkítsɔ́kɛ́s (ɨtsɔkítsɔ́kɛ́sí-) v. to whip
a twirling motion to leave pock-marks
back and forth.
that scar. 2 v. to immunize, vaccinate
(by injection). itsól (itsólá-) n. bird species.
ɨtsírítɛtɛ́s (ɨtsírítɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to erect, put itsólóŋòn (itsólóŋònì-) 1 v. to lie down,
or set upright. 2 v. to aim, direct, guide. recline. 2 v. to go down, set (of sun).
3 v. to correct, make right, rectify. See See also eponuƙota .
also tɔɓɛɨtɛtɛ́s and tsírítɛtɛ́s. itsomes (itsomesí-) v. to crush into pow-
ɨtsírɔ́n (ɨtsírɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be erect, upright. der, pulverize.
2 v. to go directly, hit the target. 3 v. to itsomítsómés (itsomítsómésí-) v. to
be correct, right, true. See also tɔɓɛ́ɔ́n pound repeatedly (e.g. grain, edible ter-
and tsírɔ́n. mites).

ɨtsɔŋɛtɛ́s itsútúmétòn

ɨtsɔŋɛtɛ́s (ɨtsɔŋɛtɛ́sí-) v. to chance, come ɨtsʉ́lítɛtɛ́s (ɨtsʉ́lítɛtɛ́sí-) v. to fine for un-

across, happen upon. See also ŋawɨlɛs. lawful impregnation.
ɨtsɔ́ɔ́n (ɨtsɔ́ɔ́nì-) v. to satisfy hunger for itsulútsúlés (itsulútsúlésí-) v. to blend,
meat. commingle, conflate, mix. See also
ɨtsɔ́ɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨtsɔ́ɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to satisfy iɲales and ɨtsɔɓítsɔ́ɓɛ́s.
hunger for meat. itsumés (itsumésí-) v. to pierce, punc-
itsópé (<itsópóòn) v. ture.
itsópóòn (itsópóònì-/itsópé-) v. to be ɨtsʉnɛs (ɨtsʉnɛsí-) v. to collect, gather.
alert, attentive, watchful. ɨtsʉnɛtɛ́s (ɨtsʉnɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to collect,
ɨtsɔ́rɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨtsɔ́rɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to heave gather. 2 v. to summarize. See also
or shove away. bɔsɛtɛ́s and ɨrírɛ́ɛ́s.
ɨtsɔrɛtɛ́s (ɨtsɔrɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pull or yank ɨtsʉnɛtɛ́sá así v. to gather socially, get
this way. together, meet.
ɨtsɔrɛtɛ́sá así v. to clamber down . ɨtsʉ́nɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨtsʉ́nɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to assemble,
ɨtsɔ́rɔ́nʉƙɔta (ɨtsɔ́rɔ́nʉƙɔtí-) v. to clam- congregate, gather, meet.
ber down (e.g. a steep slope). ɨtsʉŋɛs (ɨtsʉŋɛsí-) 1 v. to burn. 2 v. to
itsótsóés (itsótsóésí-) v. to egg on, incite, fire. 3 v. to brand. 4 v. to mend with
provoke, urge on. See also ɨsʉ́sʉ́ɛ́s. fire.
ɨtsʉ́bʉ̀ɗɔ̀n (ɨtsʉ́bʉ̀ɗɔ̀nì-) v. to be herni- ɨtsʉ́ŋɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨtsʉ́ŋɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to burn
ate, invert, prolapse. up.
ɨtsʉ́bʉ̀ɗʉ̀mɔ̀n (ɨtsʉ́bʉ̀ɗʉ̀mɔ̀nì-) v. to be itsúrítetés (itsúrítetésí-) v. to boil, bring
herniated, inverted, prolapsed. to a boil.
itsuɗútsúɗés (itsuɗútsúɗésí-) v. to itsúrón (itsúrónì-) v. to boil.
crowd, space too closely (e.g. hair itsúrúés (itsúrúésí-) v. to do away with,
when braiding, grass when thatching, get rid of, rid oneself of.
or seeds when planting). See also
itsúrútsa (<itsúrútseés) v.
itsúrútseés (itsúrútseesí-itsúrútsa-)
itsues (itsuesí-) 1 v. to emit, give off, let
v. to do business, make money.
out (e.g. a gas). 2 v. to let or set loose,
release (e.g. an animal). 3 v. to cauter- ɨtsʉ́rʉ́tsʉ́rɛ́s (ɨtsʉ́rʉ́tsʉ́rɛ́sí-) v. to spill
ize. all over.
itsuetés (itsuetésí-) 1 v. to emit, give off, ɨtsʉ́rʉ́tsʉ́rɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (ɨtsʉ́rʉ́tsʉ́rɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-)
let out (e.g. a gas). 2 v. to let or set v. to spill all over.
loose, release (e.g. an animal). ɨtsʉtɛs (ɨtsʉtɛsí-) v. to finish off, wipe
itsúkúkòn (itsúkúkònì-) v. to gimp, hob- out (e.g. food, people, etc.).
ble. See also ɨsɛ́pɔ́n and ɨtɔ́ƙɔ́ɔ̀n. ɨtsʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨtsʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to do in,
itsúkúku (itsúkúkù) ideo. gimpily, hob- finish off, wipe out.
blingly. itsútúmétòn (itsútúmétònì-) v. to be fin-
ɨtsʉlɛs (ɨtsʉlɛsí-) v. to pay a fine for (im- ished off (of what had remained from
pregnating a girl out of wedlock). earlier).

ɨtswɛtítswɛ́tɔ̀n itúrútésá así

ɨtswɛtítswɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨtswɛtítswɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to itúkúɗètòn (itúkúɗètònì-) v. to bend,

click or cluck with disapproval. crook, flex.
itsyákétòn (itsyákétònì-) 1 v. to begin, itúkúɗòn (itúkúɗònì-) v. to bend, crook,
commence, start. 2 v. to take office. flex.
See also iséétòn. itúlákáɲés (itúlákáɲésí-) v. to down,
itsyákétònìàwa (itsyákétònì-àwà-) pl. gulp, quaff. See also lakatiés.
itsyákétoniawíka . n. beginning point, ɨtʉ́lɛ́ɛtɛ́s (ɨtʉ́lɛ́ɛtɛ́sí-) v. to attract, catch
origin, source. the attention of.
itsyátón (itsyátónì-) 1 v. to be impervi- itúléròn (itúlérònì-) v. to be doddery, se-
ous, resilient, resistant, tough. 2 v. to nile.
be ‘in shape’, physically fit. itúléronuƙota (itúléronuƙotí-) v. to be-
ɨtsʼíɗɛ́ɛ̀tɔ̀n (ɨtsʼíɗɛ́ɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to be the come doddery or senile.
very last (in class, in line, etc.). ɨtʉ́lɛ́sʉƙɔta así v. to die suddenly (of un-
ɨtsʼɔ́ƙɔ́n (ɨtsʼɔ́ƙɔ́nì-) v. to be nearly ripe known reasons).
(of grains). itúlúmà (<itúlúmòòn) v.
itúɓa (itúɓá-) pl. itúɓíka . 1 n. manger, itúlúmòòn (itúlúmòònì-/itúlúma-) v. to
trough. 2 n. bathtub, tub. 3 n. boat, hurdle, vault.
vessel, watercraft.
itúmésuƙota (itúmésuƙotí-) v. to delay,
ituɗútúɗés (ituɗútúɗésí-) v. to crowd, detain, hold up, keep back.
space too closely (e.g. hair when braid- itumetésíàm (itumetésí-àmà-) pl. itume-
ing, grass when thatching, or seeds tésíika . n. companion, company. Lit.
when planting). See also itsuɗútsúɗés. ‘detainer’.
itues (ituesí-) v. to form, make, shape. itúmétòn (itúmétònì-) v. to company,
ituetés (ituetésí-) v. to form, make, hang out, keep company.
shape. itúmúránitésúƙota (itúmúránitésúƙotí-)
ituetésá así v. to form, take form, take v. to absorb, distract, preoccupy.
shape (like a raincloud). itúmúránón (itúmúránónì-) v. to be ab-
ituetésá tódàe v. to discuss all points in sorbed, distracted, preoccupied.
detail, from all angles. Lit. ‘to form ɨtʉrɛs (ɨtʉrɛsí-) 1 v. to pour into. 2 v. to
speech’. give rectally. See also otés.
itukanetésá mɛnáɛ v. to discuss matters itúrón (itúrónì-) v. to be arrogant, con-
(as a group). ceited, proud, vain.
itukanitetés (itukanitetésí-) v. to orches- itúrónìtòda (itúrónì-tòdà-) n. boasting,
trate, organize (a meeting). bragging. Lit. ‘pride-speech’.
itukánón (itukánónì-) v. to congregate, itúrúmés (itúrúmésí-) v. to defame, den-
convene, gather, meet. igrate, slander, smear.
itukes (itukesí-) v. to gather, heap, pile. itúrútés (itúrútésí-) 1 v. to exalt, extol,
ituketés (ituketésí-) v. to gather, heap, praise. 2 v. to revere, worship.
or pile up. itúrútésá así v. to praise oneself.

itúrútésìàm iúpétòn

itúrútésìàm (itúrútésì-àmà-) pl. itúrú- itwelítwélós (itwelítwélósí-) v. to be

tésiika . n. worshipper. marked, pocked, speckled.
itúrútésiho (itúrútési-hoó-) pl. itúrú- itweɲítwéɲòn (itweɲítwéɲònì-) 1 v. to
tésihoíka . n. house of worship. flicker, twinkle (e.g. fire or the stars). 2
iturútúrés (iturútúrésí-) v. to pat (e.g. a v. to flash (e.g. headlights or a gunshot
baby to burp or a mat to remove dust). at night).
ìtyàkààm (ìtyàkà-àmà-) pl. ityakaika .
ɨtʉsɛtɛ́s (ɨtʉsɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to scrunch up. 2
n. blacksmith, forger, metalworker.
v. to hog-tie.
ityakes (ityakesí-) v. to forge, hammer.
itútsón (itútsónì-) v. to be cruddy, filthy,
nasty (e.g. one who never bathes or a ityakesíɡwàs (ityakesí-ɡwàsà-) pl. i-
smelly billy goat). See also tsʼáɡòn. tyakesíɡwasíka . n. forging stone,
stone anvil.
itútúés (itútúésí-) v. to brush or dust
off (e.g. charcoal from roasted meat, Ìʉ̀ɗà (Ìʉ̀ɗàà-) n. a personal name.
crumbs from clothing, dirt from roots, ìʉ̀ɗààm (ìʉ̀ɗà-àmà-) pl. ɨʉɗaika . n. mo-
etc.). bilizer, organizer.
itútúésuƙota (itútúésuƙotí-) v. to brush ɨʉɗɛs (ɨʉɗɛsí-) v. to assemble, collect,
or dust off (e.g. charcoal from roasted gather.
meat, crumbs from clothing, dirt from ɨʉɗɛtɛ́s (ɨʉɗɛtɛ́sí-) v. to assemble, col-
roots, etc.). lect, gather.
ɨtʉ́tʉ́rɛ́s (ɨtʉ́tʉ́rɛ́sí-) v. to twist round iúʝietés (iúʝietésí-) v. to make into por-
(like cloth into a head-pad). ridge.
ɨtʉ́tʉ́rɔ́s (ɨtʉ́tʉ́rɔ́sí-) v. to be twisted iukúúkés (iukúúkésí-) v. to rock back
round (e.g. a head-pad). and forth (like a tree loose in its hole,
a rock rooted in the soil, or one’s body
itúúmés (itúúmésí-) v. to catch off
in dancing). See also iikííkés.
guard, storm, surprise, take by surprise.
See also bóɡès. ɨʉ́ƙɔ́n (ɨʉ́ƙɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be heavy-laden,
loaded or weighed down. 2 v. to be
itúwá (<itúwéés) v. uncertain, unsure.
itúwéés (itúwéésí-/itúwá-) v. to break ìʉ̀m (ìʉ̀mà-) n. marital engagement.
ɨʉmɛs (ɨʉmɛsí-) v. to marry (by taking
itwáŋítésúƙota (itwáŋítésúƙotí-) v. to a girl away from her parents’ home,
lead astray, mislead, trick. See also sometimes forcibly).
hakítésuƙota .
ɨʉ́mɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨʉ́mɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to marry
itwáŋón (itwáŋónì-) 1 v. to get lost, go by taking away (a girl from her home,
astray, lose the way. 2 v. to go grazy, sometimes forcibly).
lose one’s mind. ɨʉmʉ́íʉ́mɛ́s (ɨʉmʉ́íʉ́mɛ́sí-) v. to crunch,
itwares (itwaresí-) v. to dispel, disperse, scrunch (e.g. broken glass or dry
scatter (e.g. birds or children). leaves).
itwelítwélés (itwelítwélésí-) v. to mark, iúpétòn (iúpétònì-) v. to dip or duck
pock, speckle. down.

iúpón ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɛtɛ́s

iúpón (iúpóni-) v. to dip, duck. May also ìwàŋ (ìwàŋà-) n. warming by radiated
be spelled as iwúpón. heat (i.e. fire or sunshine).
iúpónuƙota (iúpónuƙotí-) v. to dip or iwaŋíwáŋés (iwaŋíwáŋésí-) v. to fumi-
duck away. gate, smoke. See also ipúréés and tsʼu-
iupúúpòn (iupúúpònì-) v. to bob, duck dités.
up and down. iwáŋón (iwáŋónì-) v. to warm up by ra-
iúrá (<iúréés) v. diated heat (i.e. fire or sunshine).
Iwar (Iwarí-) n. name of a hill or moun-
iúréés (iúréésí-/iúrá-) v. to pick clean,
ɨwarɛs (ɨwarɛsí-) v. to daub, plaster
iwá (<iwees) v.
(with a swirling motion).
Íwá (Íwáà-) n. name of an original Ik
ɨwaríwárɛ́s (ɨwaríwárɛ́sí-) v. to move
around, swirl (e.g. one’s hand as when
iwáákós (iwáákósí-) 1 v. to be sounding plastering).
an alarm. 2 v. to be wailing. ɨwarɔs (ɨwarɔsí-) v. to be daubed, plas-
ɨwáíƙɔta (<ɨwɔ́ɔ́nʉƙɔta ) v. tered.
iwákón (iwákónì-) 1 v. to sound an ɨwasɛs (ɨwasɛsí-) v. to moisturize (e.g.
alarm (e.g. when enemies are coming skin by applying lotion).
or when a hunted animal is headed in iwásíòn (iwásíònì-) v. to stand apart
a certain direction). 2 v. to wail. 3 (e.g. being the first or last in a line).
v. to ring (of ears).
iwatíwátés (iwatíwátésí-) v. to shake off
iwakúwákòn (iwakúwákònì-) v. to flap (e.g. water from hands or one’s hand
(e.g. wings or one’s arms while danc- when burnt by fire).
ing). ɨwáwá (<ɨwáwɛ́ɛ́s) v.
iwales (iwalesí-) v. to put on, wear (non- ɨwáwáɗɛ́s (ɨwáwáɗɛ́sí-) v. to bisect, cut
clothing accessories). in two (meat only). See also pakés.
iwalesa túkàe v. to put on a feather (of- ɨwáwɛ́ɛ́s (ɨwáwɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨwáwá-) v. to ca-
ten from an ostrich). ress, fondle, stroke.
ɨwalɛtɛ́s (ɨwalɛtɛ́sí-) v. to peel or scrape ɨwɛ́ɛ́lánón (ɨwɛ́ɛ́lánónì-) 1 v. to disperse,
off (e.g. meat from a bone, pumpkin dissipate, scatter, spread out. 2 v. to
from its peel). spatter, splatter. See also ɓʉnʉ́mɔ́n.
iwálílòn (iwálílònì-) v. to escape, get ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɛ́s (ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɛ́sí-) v. to break up,
away, fly (e.g. an animal with a spear disperse, scatter, spread. See also
or a hawk with a chick). toɓwaŋes.
Iwam (Iwamá-) n. name of a river. ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɛ́sá ʝʉmwí v. to spread soil (as part
iwanetés (iwanetésí-) v. to enlarge, ex- of cursing or making threats).
pand, make bigger. See also zeites. ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to dis-
iwánétòn (iwánétònì-) v. to become perse, dissipate, scatter, spread out.
bigger, enlarge, expand. See also ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɛtɛ́s (ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɛtɛ́sí-) v. to disperse, dis-
zoonuƙota . sipate, scatter, spread out.

ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɔ́s Íwɔlɔ́

ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɔ́s (ɨwɛ́ɛ́lɔ́sí-) v. to be dispersed, dis- iwies (iwiesí-) v. to spread around (e.g.

sipated, scattered, spread out. food in order to cool it). See also ɓátsɛ́s.
iwees (iweesí-/iwá-) v. to kick off, initi- iwííɲés (iwííɲésí-) v. to singe.
ate, or start off (a group dance). ɨwírɛ́tɔ̀n (ɨwírɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to begin shining.
ɨwɛlɛ́wɛ́lánón (ɨwɛlɛ́wɛ́lánónì-) v. to be ɨwírɔ́n (ɨwírɔ́nì-) v. to shine.
brittle, crumbly.
iwítésuƙota (iwítésuƙotí-) v. to hide
iwés (iwésí-) 1 v. to hit, strike. 2 v. to
away, make disappear.
ring (a bell).
iwitités (iwititésí-) v. to deviate, divert.
iwésá dakwí v. to thump a tree (to call a
honey-guide bird). iwitíwítòn (iwitíwítònì-) 1 v. to swerve
iwésá ɲéɓulókìkàe v. to make blocks or
or veer repeatedly. 2 v. to avoid,
dodge, or evade repeatedly.
iwésá ɲémusaláɓàe v. to make the sign iwítón (iwítónì-) v. to swerve, veer.
of the cross. iwitses (iwitsesí-) v. to miss narrowly
iwésúƙota (iwésúƙotí-) 1 v. to hit, strike. (e.g. a bullet or a flame).
2 v. to call on the phone, phone out (in iwítsíwítsés (iwítsíwítsésí-) v. to wag,
that direction). waggle, wave around.
iwetés (iwetésí-) 1 v. to depict, draw. 2 iwitsíwítsésá ekwitíní v. to wave
v. to photograph, snap a photo of, take around in front of the eyes.
a picture of. 3 v. to mark, sign. 4 v. to ɨwítsɔ́n (ɨwítsɔ́nì-) v. to be pointed,
call on the phone, phone in. 5 v. to tipped (e.g. a needle or thorn).
fasten, lock.
ɨwíwínɛ́s (ɨwíwínɛ́sí-) v. to aggravate,
ɨwɛtɛs (ɨwɛtɛsí-) v. to drink slowly, sip exasperate.
(e.g. hot drinks).
iwoɗíwóɗés (iwoɗíwóɗésí-) v. to insert,
iwetésá ɲáɓúkwì v. to print or publish a work into (e.g. a finger into a hole).
ɨwɔkɛs (ɨwɔkɛsí-) v. to empty by shak-
iwetésá ɲɛ́pítsaáɛ v. to snap a photo,
ing (e.g. a gourd with pulp inside).
take a picture.
ɨwɔ́ƙɔ́n (ɨwɔ́ƙɔ́nì-) v. to be arrogant,
ɨwɛtsʼíwɛ́tsʼɛ́s (ɨwɛtsʼíwɛ́tsʼɛ́sí-) v. to
cocky, self-important.
break, chip, or knap off pieces repeat-
edly. See also wɛtsʼɛ́s. ɨwɔ́ƙɔ́nìàm (ɨwɔ́ƙɔ́nì-àmà-) pl. ɨwɔ́ƙɔ́-
niika . n. arrogant or cocky person.
iwéwérés (iwéwérésí-) 1 v. to summon
by whistling, whistle for. 2 v. to iwoles (iwolesí-) v. to fold, turn (e.g. a
flavor, season. See also íbutsurés and page).
iwówórés. iwoletés (iwoletésí-) v. to fold or turn
ɨwɨɗɛs (ɨwɨɗɛsí-) v. to grind finely. over (e.g. a page).
ɨwɨɗíwíɗɛ́s (ɨwɨɗíwíɗɛ́sí-) v. to wag, iwolíwólòn (iwolíwólònì-) v. to flitter,
waggle (tail only). flutter (e.g. in the wind).
ɨwɨɗɔs (ɨwɨɗɔsí-) v. to be finely ground, Íwɔlɔ́ (Íwɔlɔ́ɔ̀-) n. name of a dance-
powdery. ground at the foot of a fig tree.

iwóŋón ɨyáyɛ́ɛ́s

iwóŋón (iwóŋónì-) v. to exult, shout tri- iwówórés (iwówórésí-) v. to summon

umphantly (e.g. having won a contest by whistling, whistle for. See also
or killed a wild animal). iwéwérés.
ɨwɔ́ŋɔ́n (ɨwɔ́ŋɔ́nì-) v. to intend or mean ɨwɔxíwɔ́xɛ́s (ɨwɔxíwɔ́xɛ́sí-) v. to cut
(to do), premeditate. Must be followed noisily (making a shw-shw sound).
by an infinitive in the dative case. iwúlákés (iwúlákésí-) v. to aerate,
ɨwɔ́ɔ́n (ɨwɔ́ɔ́nì-) v. to be flagging, slack- loosen or turn over (soil).
ing, slowing. ɨwʉ́lɔ́n (ɨwʉ́lɔ́nì-) v. to boast, brag.
ɨwɔ́ɔ́nʉƙɔt (ɨwɔ́ɔ́nʉƙɔtí-/ɨwáíƙɔt-) v. to iwulúwúlés (iwulúwúlésí-) v. to rub
ease up, flag, slack off, slow down. around (e.g. on the ground to make
iwórón (iwórónì-) v. to roam, stray, dirty).
wander. ɨxáxá (<ɨxaxɛɛs) v.
iwórónìàm (iwórónì-àmà-) pl. iwóró- ɨxaxɛɛs (ɨxaxɛɛsí-/ɨxáxá-) v. to shake out
niika . n. roamer, stray, wanderer. noisily (making a sha-sha sound).
iworós (iworósí-) v. to be crazy, de- ɨxɔtsɛs (ɨxɔtsɛsí-) v. to exchange, swap,
ranged. trade. See also ilókótsés and xɔ́tsɛ́s.
iwósétòn (iwósétònì-) v. to be danger- ixóxóƙés (ixóxóƙésí-) v. to dump or
ously steep, preciptious. shake out (e.g. honey from a con-
tainer or seeds from a gourd). See also
iwótsa (iwótsí-) pl. iwótsíka . 1 n. mortar.
2 n. drum.
ixuƙúxúƙés (ixuƙúxúƙésí-) v. to dump
iwotses (iwotsesí-) v. to pound (with
or shake out (e.g. honey from a con-
mortar and pestle).
tainer or seeds from a gourd).
iwótsíàka (iwótsí-àkà-) n. mouth of a ixúxúƙés (ixúxúƙésí-) v. to dump or
mortar. shake out (e.g. honey from a con-
iwótsídàkwa (iwótsí-dàkù-) pl. iwótsí- tainer or seeds from a gourd). See also
dakwitín. n. pestle. Lit. ‘mortar-stick’. ixóxóƙés.
See also àʝa and kuɲuka . iyalíyálòn (iyalíyálònì-) v. to be drowsy,
iwótsíɡwà (iwótsí-ɡwàà-) n. chin-spot sleepy.
batis. Lit. ‘mortar-bird’. Batis molitor. iyaŋes (iyaŋesí-) v. to abuse verbally, in-
See also nàŋʉ̀ràmɓɔ̀. sult.
iwótsíɔ̀z (iwótsí-ɔ̀zà-) 1 n. bottom of iyaŋíyáŋés (iyaŋíyáŋésí-) v. to shuffle
mortar. 2 n. pounded edible termites (like peanuts in a frying pan).
at the bottom of a mortar.
iyaŋíyáŋòn (iyaŋíyáŋònì-) v. to feel
iwótsóòn (iwótsóònì-) v. to binge, glut, flushed or flustered.
overeat, pig out. ɨyáyá (<ɨyáyɛ́ɛ́s) v.
iwówá (<iwówéés) v. ɨyáyɛ́ɛ́s (ɨyáyɛ́ɛ́sí-/ɨyáyá-) v. to shout or
iwówéés (iwówéésí-/iwówá-) v. to yell ‘ya yaǃ’ at (e.g. to drive animals or
swarm over, teem around. control a crowd).

íyeés ízuzués

íyeés (íyeesí-) v. to know. A form of the iyomes (iyomesí-) v. to do properly,

word ‘know’ used by younger genera- make excellently.
tions of Ik speakers; see words begin- ɨyɔŋíyɔ́ŋɛ́s (ɨyɔŋíyɔ́ŋɛ́sí-) v. to jiggle.
ning with ɦye- for the older and more
standard form. iyóómètòn (iyóómètònì-) v. to cele-
brate, enjoy, have fun, party.
iyééseetés (iyééseetésí-) v. to pour
down/out. iyóón (iyóónì-) v. to be correct, right.
iyééseetésá así v. to lower oneself. iyopíyópòn (iyopíyópònì-) v. to move
iyérón (iyérónì-) 1 v. to be coiled, spi- up and down alternately, seesaw (e.g.
raled, whorled (e.g. a horn or a tree). 2 the way women jump alternately dur-
v. to be rifled. ing group dances).
iyérónuƙota (iyérónuƙotí-) v. to spiral, iyópón (iyópónì-) v. to vary in height.
whorl. iyótsóós (iyótsóósí-) v. to be deliberate,
iyétsé (<iyétsóòn) v. intentional.
iyétséetés (iyétséetésí-) v. to abort, mis- ízaɓɨzaɓɛ́s (ízaɓɨzaɓɛ́sí-) v. to switch or
carry, terminate. See also iɲétséetés. whip lightly. See also zaɓatiés.
iyétséyeés (iyétséyeesí-) v. to abort or íziɗesa tódae v. to measure or weigh
miscarry repeatedly. one’s words (e.g. when talking during
iyétsóòn (iyétsóònì-/iyétsé-) 1 v. to act, a sad or serious time).
feign, pretend. 2 v. to abort, fail (e.g. ízìɗòn (ízìɗònì-) v. to speak slowly, in-
the weather, being drier than normal). termittently, or thoughtfully (e.g. an el-
See also iɲétsóòn. der giving his last advice to his family
iyikes (iyikesí-) v. to sprinkle, spritz. before death).
iyíyá (<iyíyéés) v. ízokomés (ízokomésí-) v. to strap across
iyíyéés (iyíyéésí-/iyíyá-) 1 v. to screech, or wear across (e.g. the chest or shoul-
shriek (of raptors). 2 v. to ululate. der).
iyoes (iyoesí-) v. to aim, direct, train. ízotam (ízotamá-) n. food with a consis-
iyoesa así v. to aim for, go directly. tency between thick porridge and wa-
iyolíyólés (iyolíyólésí-) v. to let down, tery mush.
lower (e.g. by rope or vine). ízuzués (ízuzuesí-) v. to dust, sprinkle
iyomam (iyomamá-) pl. iyómíka . (e.g. flour on water, salt on food). See
n. masterpiece, work of art. also xɛɛ́s.

jèjè jíjè

jèjè (jèjèì-) pl. jéjèìka . 1 n. leather. 2 jíjè (jíjèì-) pl. jíjèìka . n. opposite side of
n. leather mat, sleeping skin. a ravine, river, or valley.

ʝá ʝíìkⁱ

ʝá (=ʝá) adv. just, then. ʝàm (ʝàmù) ideo. silkily, smoothly.
o ʝamúdòn (ʝamúdònì-) v. to be silky-
ʝâb (ʝábò) adv. after all (an expression
of counter-expectation). smooth, velvety.
ʝáɓúɡwà (ʝáɓú-ɡwàà-) n. helmeted ʝan (ʝaní-) pl. ʝanɨtín. 1 n. broomgrass:
guineafowl. Numida meleagris. grass species used to make brooms and
to cover beehives and granaries. Andro-
ʝàɡwa (ʝàɡò-) pl. ʝáɡwitín. n. daughter.
pogon chinensis. 2 n. broom. See also
ʝáɡwèda (ʝáɡwèdè-) n. his/her daughter. ʝɛn.
ʝáka (ʝáká-) n. elders, old men. Jʼàòàwa (Jʼàò-àwà-) n. name of a de-
ʝàkàlʉ̀kà (ʝàkàlʉ̀kàà-) n. ecstatic spir- serted village in the east where ʝàwa
itual dance during which drums are shrubs used to grow.
beated, songs are sung, and a men- ʝaobɔɗɔ́ka (ʝao-bɔɗɔ́ká-) n. bark of the
tally/spiritually disturbed person goes ʝàwa shrub used as soap.
into a trance and dances in order for ʝarámétòn (ʝarámétònì-) v. to be dazed,
the spirit to leave him/her. in shock, stunned. See also ɨʝárɔ́n.
ʝákám (ʝákámà-) pl. ʝáka . n. elder, old ʝaulímòn (ʝaulímònì-) v. to be soft, sup-
man. ple (like Caucasian hair).
ʝákámànànès (ʝákámànànèsì-) n. elder- ʝàwa (ʝàò-) pl. ʝáwítín. n. shrub
liness, eldership (of men). species whose yellow fruits are eaten
ʝaƙátós (ʝaƙátósí-) v. to gag, heave, raw, whose interior bark is used as
retch. See also xáƙátòn. soap and treatment against head-lice,
ʝàƙwa (ʝàƙwà) ideo. cowardly, fearfully. and whose wood and stem are used
for flutes, switches, sticks, tool handles,
ʝaƙwádòn (ʝaƙwádònì-) v. to be cow- and roof rafters. Grewia bicolor.
ardly, faint-hearted, fearful.
ʝaya (ʝaí-) pl. ʝaɨtín. n. grass species
ʝaláʝálánón (ʝaláʝálánónì-) v. to be dif- used for thatching huts and for hold-
ferent, diverse, several, various. ing a woman’s placenta when it is col-
ʝalanites (ʝalanitesí-) v. to differentiate, lected and thrown out. Gramineae sp.
distinguish. ʝɛʝɛ́tɔ́n (ʝɛʝɛ́tɔ́nì-) 1 v. to remain, stay on.
ʝalánón (ʝalánónì-) 1 v. to be different, 2 v. to be extra, leftover.
dissimilar. 2 v. to be alien, foreign, ʝɛ̀ʝɔ̀n (ʝɛ̀ʝɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to remain, stay. 2
unrelated. v. to live on, survive.
ʝalánónuƙota (ʝalánónuƙotí-) v. to be- ʝɛn (ʝɛní-) pl. ʝɛnɨtín. 1 n. broomgrass:
come different, differ. grass species used to make brooms and
ʝálátsa (ʝálátsì-) pl. ʝálátsìka . n. plant to cover beehives and granaries. Andro-
species found on the Turkana plains pogon chinensis. 2 n. broom. See also
and whose large tubers are dug up, ʝan.
roasted, and eaten. ʝíìkⁱ (ʝíìkì) adv. all the time, always.

ʝɨʝɨd̂ a ʝulamáím

ʝɨʝɨ̂da (ʝɨʝídɔ̀-) pl. ʝiʝídikwa . n. plant ʝɔ̀ƙɔ̀n (ʝɔ̀ƙɔ̀nì-) v. to be medium-sized.

species whose whitish reeds are used See also ɓarɨɓárɔ́n and lerúkúmòn.
to make granaries, houses, and termite ʝolíl (ʝolílé-) n. black kite. Milvus mi-
traps. Acalypha fruticosa. grans.
ʝìkɛ (=ʝìì) adv. also, as well, in addition, ʝɔ̀lɔ̀n (ʝɔ̀lɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be bland, flavor-
too. less, tasteless, vapid. 2 v. to be boring,
ʝikiʝíkón (ʝikiʝíkónì-) v. to sway gently. dull, lackluster, uninteresting. See also
ʝílífɨfí (ʝílífɨfíì-) n. bird species (possibly ɗɛ̀ƙwɔ̀n.
a red-winged starling). ʝooʝo (ʝooʝoó-) n. vine species whose
potato-like roots are edible.
ʝɨlíwa (ʝɨlíʉ́-) n. yellow-rumped
seedeater. Serinus reichenowi. ʝòrìʝòr (ʝòrìʝòrì-) pl. ʝoríʝórìka .
n. cricket.
ʝìr (ʝìrì-) n. back, behind, rear.
ʝɔrɔr (ʝɔrɔrɔ́-) pl. ʝɔrɔ́ríka . 1 n. singing
ʝìr (ʝìrì) ideo. hushedly, quietly, silently. ants: large black ants that can be heard
ʝírɛ̂da (ʝírɛ́dɛ̀-) pl. ʝírín. 1 n. leftover, re- as they march to and from raids on ter-
mainder. 2 n. back part, rear end. mite mounds. Pachycondyla spp. 2
ʝìrìàm (ʝìrì-àmà-) pl. ʝɨriika . 1 n. soldiers.
n. last/latest person. 2 n. lastborn. See ʝɔrɔrɔ́ám (ʝɔrɔrɔ́-ámà-) pl. ʝɔrɔr. n. sol-
also eŋún. 3 n. last wife who follows dier. Lit. ‘singing-ant person’. See also
one around, attending to every need. kéààm.
See also kárátsìkààm. ʝɔta (ʝɔtɛ́-) n. desert rose: flowering
ʝɨríʝírɛ̀tɔ̀n (ʝɨríʝírɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to fill, swell, plant species with a big base, long thin
or well up (e.g. tears, tide, water). branches, and pink flowers that attract
ʝɨríʝírɔ̀n (ʝɨríʝírɔ̀nì-) v. to fill, swell, or bees and wasps; its oblong root is dug
well up (e.g. tears, tide, water). and rolled by children who pretend it
is prey in their spearing practice. Ade-
ʝìrìkɛ n. back, backward, behind, to the nium obesum. Not to be confused with
rear. ʝɔ̂da . See also dɛrɛ́ƙa .
ʝírín (ʝírínì-) n. leftovers, remainders. ʝɔ̂da (ʝɔ́dɛ̀-) n. sisal plant whose fibers
ʝìrɔ̀ka (ʝìrɔ̀kʉ̀-) pl. ʝírɔ́kìka . n. sharpened are used to make hunting nets. Sanse-
stick-spear used in spear-throwing vieria sp. Not to be confused with ʝɔta .
practice. ʝʉɛ́s (ʝʉɛsí-) 1 v. to roast. 2 v. to bake.
ʝìrʉ̀ 1 n. after, later. 2 n. behind, in the ʝʉ́ɛ́tɔ̀n (ʝʉ́ɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to come out, shine
back/rear. forth (of heavenly bodies).
ʝɨkî (ʝíkì) 1 adv. completely, totally, very. ʝʉ̀ʝʉ̀ (ʝʉ̀ʝʉ̀ʉ̀-) n. small plant species with
2 adv. forever. 3 adv. never. See also edible cucumber-like roots.
mʉ̀kà. ʝulam (ʝulamá-) pl. ʝulámíka . n. chunk,
ʝɔɓɛ́tɔ́n (ʝɔɓɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to grow back, re- piece, segment.
grow, resprout. ʝulamáím (ʝulamá-ímà-) pl. ʝulámí-
ʝɔ̀ɓɔ̀n (ʝɔ̀ɓɔ̀nì-) v. to be regrowing, re- kawika . n. small chunk, piece, or seg-
sprouting. ment .

ʝulés ʝʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta

ʝulés (ʝulésí-) v. to section, segment, cut ʝʉ́rɛ́s (ʝʉ́rɛ́sì-) 1 v. to massage, press on,
in chunks. rub, work. 2 v. to sniff, snuff (tobacco
ʝʉm (ʝʉmʉ́-) 1 n. dirt, earth, soil. 2 through the nose).
n. ground. ʝʉ́rɛ́sìàm (ʝʉ́rɛ́sì-àmà-) pl. ʝʉ́rɛ́siika . 1
n. midwife (who massages the womb).
ʝʉma na zîz n. fertile soil. Lit. ‘soil that
is plump’.
2 n. massager, masseuse, physical ther-
ʝʉmááƙwa (ʝʉmá-áƙɔ̀-) n. underground.
ʝʉ́rɛ́sʉƙɔta (ʝʉ́rɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to massage
ʝʉmʉ́cúé (ʝʉmʉ́-cúè-) n. groundwater, out, press out, rub down/out. 2 v. to
water table. snuff (tobacco).
ʝʉmʉʝʉmás (ʝʉmʉʝʉmásí-) n. sand. ʝʉrɛtɛ́s (ʝʉrɛtɛ́sí-) v. to massage out,
ʝʉmʉ́kábaɗ (ʝʉmʉ́-kábaɗá-) pl. ʝʉmʉ́- press out, rub down/out.
kábàɗìka . n. land deed or title. ʝʉrʉm (ʝʉrʉmʉ́-) pl. ʝʉrʉ́míka . n. crook,
rod, staff, stick.
ʝùo (ʝùò) ideo. feebly, frailly, weakly.
ʝʉ́rʉ́t ᶶ (ʝʉ́rʉ́tʉ̀) ideo. schlip! (sound of
ʝuódòn (ʝuódònì-) v. to be feeble, frail,
slipping). See also sɛ̀lɛ̀tɛ .
weak. See also ɨpáláƙɔ̀n.
ʝʉrʉ́tʉ́mɔ̀n (ʝʉrʉ́tʉ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be slick,
ʝʉ̀ɔ̀n (ʝʉ̀ɔ̀nì-) v. to be out: visible and slippery. See also ʝʉrʉtʉ́tɔ́n.
shining (of heavenly bodies).
ʝʉrʉtʉ́tɔ́n (ʝʉrʉtʉ́tɔ́nì-) v. to be slick,
ʝʉɔ́s (ʝʉɔsí-) 1 v. to be roasted. 2 v. to slippery. See also ʝʉrʉ́tʉ́mɔ̀n.
be baked.
ʝʉ́tɛ́s (ʝʉ́tɛ́sì-) 1 v. to squeeze, wring (e.g.
ʝʉ́ránànès (ʝʉ́ránànèsì-) n. provocative- chyme from intestines). 2 v. to milk.
ness. See also ʝʉ́tɛ́s.
ʝʉ́ránòn (ʝʉ́ránònì-) v. to be provoking, ʝʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta (ʝʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to squeeze or
pushing. wring out (e.g. chyme from intestines).

Kaaɓɔ́ŋ kaiɗeíáƙáta

Kaaɓɔ́ŋ (Kaaɓɔ́ŋì-) n. Kaabong town. kàɓàɲ (kàɓàɲà-) pl. káɓáɲìka . n. big
Kaaɓɔ́ŋɨmucé (Kaaɓɔ́ŋɨ-mucéè-) n. Kaa- bowl made from half a gourd.
bong Road. kaɓéléɓelánón (kaɓéléɓelánónì-) v. to
Kaacikóya (Kaacikóì-) n. name of a hill bank, roll (e.g. when flying or sleep-
or mountain. ing).
Kaakámár (Kaakámárì-) n. name of a kaɓúrútsánón (kaɓúrútsánónì-) v. to be
rocky hill near Kaabong. dirty, murky, turbid.
Káákuma (Káákumaá-) n. Kaakuma Kaɓʉ́tákurí (Kaɓʉ́tákuríì-) n. name of a
town. hill or mountain.
Kaaláɓè (Kaaláɓèè-) n. name of a place. kadɨx (kadɨxá-) pl. kádìxìka . n. sorghum
Kaatíríám (Kaatíríámù-) n. name of a
hill or mountain. Kádzàn (Kádzànì-) n. name of a moun-
kàbàɗa (kàbàɗà-) pl. kábàɗìka . 1 n. rag,
shred. 2 n. document, paper, sheet of káɗìò (káɗìò) subordconn. while (not
paper. 3 n. ballot. yet).
kabaɗa na ɓɛƙɛ́sí n. passport. Lit. ‘pa- kaɗokóya (kaɗokóì-) n. vervet monkey.
per for traveling’. Ceropithecus aethiops.
kabaɗa na hɔnɛ́síɛ̀ kàèè n. driver’s li- kaɗótso (kaɗótsó) ideo. slenderly,
cense, driving permit. Lit. ‘paper for slimly.
driving of a vehicle’. kaɗótsómòn (kaɗótsómònì-) v. to be
kabaɗa na teréɡì n. work contract. Lit. slender, slim. See also sídɔ̀rɔ̀mɔ̀n and
‘paper for work’. tɔ̀kɔ̀n.
kabas (kabasá-) pl. kábàsìka . 1 n. flour, kàè (kàèè-) 1 n. tortoise. Kinixys bel-
grist. 2 n. dust, powder. liana. 2 n. small truck, vehicle.
kábàsìn (kábàsìnì-) n. dust, powder. Lit. Kaehíƙɔ́ (Kae-híƙɔ́ɔ̀-) n. name of a place.
‘its powders’. Lit. ‘tortoise-chameleon’.
kábìlànètòn (kábìlànètònì-) 1 v. to be kàèìm (kàè-ìmà-) pl. kaewika . 1 n. tor-
black with white patches. 2 v. to be toise hatchling, young tortoise. 2
flecked or mixed with fat. n. car, small vehicle.
kábùn (kábùnù-) pl. kábùnìka . n. clique, kàèƙwàz (kàè-ƙwàzà-) pl. kaeƙwazíka .
coterie, social group. n. tortoise shell. Lit. ‘tortoise-
kábusubusánón (kábusubusánónì-)
v. to be blue-gray (e.g. haze over the kaetaƙáya (kae-taƙáí-) pl. kaetaƙáíka .
land, or the color of tobacco mixed n. tire shoe. Lit. ‘car (tortoise)-shoe’.
with soda ash). See also bósánòn. kàf (kàfʉ̀-) n. sticker, thorn.
kàɓa (kàɓà-) pl. káɓítín. n. diaphragm, kaiɗeíáƙáta (kaiɗeí-áƙátí-) n. pumpkin
midriff. stem base. Lit. ‘pumpkin-nose’.

kaiɗeíbɔrɔƙɔ́ƙa Kaloturum

kaiɗeíbɔrɔƙɔ́ƙa (kaiɗeí-bɔrɔƙɔ́ƙɔ́-) pl. kakáánón (kakáánónì-) v. to be antsy,

kaiɗeíbɔrɔƙɔ́ƙíka . n. piece of a cut up fidgety, moving restlessly.
pumpkin. Lit. ‘pumpkin-cone’. Kakaɗa (Kakaɗí-) n. name of a hill or
kaiɗeícúé (kaiɗeí-cúè-) n. pumpkin mountain.
juice. Lit. ‘pumpkin-water’. kakɨrɛ́s (kakɨrɛ́sí-) v. to roll or twist up
kaiɗeíékwa (kaiɗeí-ékù-) pl. kaiɗeíék- (e.g. grass for a head-pad, or clothing
wítín. n. pumpkin seed. at the waist).
kaiɗeya (kaiɗeí-) n. pumpkin. Kàkʉ̀tà (Kàkʉ̀tàà-) n. name of a moun-
kaiká (<kaikóón) v. tain.
Kaɨkɛm (Kaɨkɛmɛ́-) n. name of a camp- Kàƙòlò (Kàƙòlòò-) n. name of a river.
ground near Lowákuʝ which was used kál (kálé-) pl. kálítín. n. credit, debt,
during the era of British road construc- loan.
tion in Karamoja. kalápátánitetés (kalápátánitetésí-) v. to
Kaɨkɔ́ɓà (Kaɨkɔ́ɓàà-) n. name of a place flatten or level out.
in Tímù and associated human habita- kalápátánón (kalápátánónì-) v. to be
tions. flat, level (of landscapes).
kaikóón (kaikóónì-/kaiká-) v. to dim, kalápátánónuƙota (kalápátánónuƙotí-)
darken. v. to flatten or level out.
kaɨn (kaɨní-) pl. kaíníka . n. year. Kàlèànàŋìrò (Kàlèànàŋìròò-) n. name of
kaíníka ńda kaíník n. forever and ever. a hill or mountain.
Lit. ‘years and years’. kalɛ́ɛ́tsɛránón (kalɛ́ɛ́tsɛránónì-) 1 v. to
kaíníkò nùk n. long ago, years ago. Lit. be scrawny, scrubby (e.g. crops or
‘in those years’. trees). 2 v. to be wimpy, wussy. See
also sikwárámòn.
kaɨnɔ na n. this year. See also nakaɨna.
Kàlèwèr (Kàlèwèrì-) n. name of a flat
kaɨnɔ na far n. three years from now.
hilltop where some Ik lived in the mid-
kaɨnɔ na táà n. a year from now, next 1900s.
Kali (Kalií-) n. a personal name.
kaɨnɔ na tso n. two years from now, year Kalɨmapʉ́s (Kalɨmapʉ́sì-) n. a personal
after next. name.
kaɨnɔ nɔkɔ n. three years ago. Kalɔbɛɲɛ́ɲ (Kalɔbɛɲɛ́ɲì-) n. name of a
kaɨnɔ nɔɔ kɛ n. four years ago. hill or mountain.
kaɨnɔ nótso n. two years ago, year be- Kàlɔ̀ʝɔ̀kɛ̀ɛ̀s (Kàlɔ̀ʝɔ̀kɛ̀ɛ̀sɛ̀-) n. name of a
fore last. See also nɔkɛɨna. river.
kaɨnɔ sɨn n. a year ago, last year, Kaloŋoléárɛ́ŋan (Kaloŋoléárɛ́ŋaní-)
yesteryear. n. name of a hill or mountain.
kaites (kaitesí-) 1 v. to taste. 2 v. to Kalɔtʉ́kɔ́ (Kalɔtʉ́kɔ́ɔ̀-) n. name of a river.
sample, test, try. Kaloturum (Kaloturumú-) n. name of a
kaka (kaká-) n. leaf, leaves. river.

Kalouwan kàŋɛ̀rèèkwa

Kalouwan (Kalouwaná-) n. name of a Kanatárúka (Kanatárúkù-) n. name of a

river. small hill in Kenya that often has vul-
Kalɔyáŋ (Kalɔyáŋì-) n. a personal name. tures perched on it. The Ik name is
kámáránón (kámáránónì-) 1 v. to be
horizontal, cross, go across. 2 v. to kànàxà (kànàxàà-) pl. kanáxáìka . n. bee-
point backward (of horns). 3 v. to be hive (traditional or modern).
cross-eyed, strabismic. kànàxàdɛ̀ (kànàxà-dɛ̀à-) pl. kanáxáɨ-
kámáránónuƙota (kámáránónuƙotí-) kadɛíka . n. base of a tree containing
v. to cross, go across, go horizontally. a beehive. Lit. ‘beehive-foot’.
kámáriés (kámáriesí-) 1 v. to horizon- kanɛda (kanɛdɛ-) 1 n. back, behind, rear.
talize: to make or mark horizontally. 2 2 n. outer part.
v. to weave the weft or woof. kànɛ̀dɛ̀kɛ 1 n. behind. 2 n. outside. Lit.
kámáriésúƙota (kámáriesúƙotí-) v. to ‘in its back’.
horizontalize: to make or mark hori- kánɛ́s (kánɛ́sì-) 1 v. to lick. 2 v. to wipe
zontally. off/up. 3 v. to annihilate, exterminate,
kámáriós (kámáriosí-) 1 v. to be horizon- wipe out.
talized: made or marked horizontally. kánì (kánì) subordconn. in order that, so
2 v. to be side-striped. that.
Kámíón (Kámíónò-) n. Kamion: the ad- kánɨ mookóo subordconn. in order that
ministrative center of Ikland and its as- … not, so that … not.
sociated human habitations.
kánɨ náa táa subordconn. in order that,
Kámíónòàka (Kámíónò-àkà-) n. name of so that.
a spring and stream near Kamion. Lit.
‘Kámíon-mouth’. kanímétòn (kanímétònì-) v. to go ex-
tinct, be annihilated, wiped out.
Kámíónomucé (Kámíóno-mucéè-)
n. Kamion Road. kanɨtínʉ́ n. behind. Lit. ‘at/from their
Kamɔ́rɔ́mɔráta (Kamɔ́rɔ́mɔrátí-)
n. name of a hill or mountain. kánɔ́n (kánɔ́nì-) v. to be clear, cloudless,
kamudurudádòn (kamudurudádònì-)
v. to be doddering, senile. Kaɲíkààl (Kaɲíkààlì-) n. name of a river.
kan (kaná-) pl. kanɨtín. n. upper back. kaɲʉm (kaɲʉmʉ́-) n. sesame, simsim.
Kanaɗápa (Kanaɗápʉ̀-) n. name of a Sesamum indicum.
river. kàŋ (kàŋà) ideo. chewily.
Kanákɛ́rɛta (Kanákɛ́rɛtɛ́-) n. name of a kaŋádòn (kaŋádònì-) 1 v. to be chewy,
river. tough to chew. 2 v. to be stammering,
Kanamútó (Kanamútóò-) n. name of a stuttering. See also kwaídòn.
hill or mountain. kàŋɛ̀r (kàŋɛ̀rà-) pl. kaŋɛ́ríka . n. cal-
Kanarɔ́ (Kanarɔ́ɔ̀-) n. name of a place in abash, gourd.
Tímù and its associated human habita- kàŋɛ̀rèèkwa (kàŋɛ̀rè-èkù-) pl. kaŋɛreek-
tions. witín. n. gourd seed.

Kapalú Kátárʉkɔ́ta

Kapalú (Kapalúù-) n. name of a place in kárɨká (kárɨká) 1 adv. most likely, prob-
Tímù between Lokinéne and Tulútúl. ably. 2 adv. actually, certainly, really.
Kàpɛ̀tà (Kàpɛ̀tàà-) n. name of a moun- karimésém (karimésémà-) n. small, red-
tain pass between Lɔɓáláŋɨt and Ɔrɔ́m. dish weed that grows on overturned
Kapɛtapʉ́s (Kapɛtapʉ́sì-) n. name of a soil and chokes out young crops.
hill or mountain. kàròƙa (kàròƙò-) pl. karóƙíka . n. burnt
Kapísima (Kapísimaá-) n. name of a ground, scorched earth.
place in Kenya. karɔŋ (karɔŋɔ́-) pl. karɔ́ŋíka . n. harvest,
kapʉrata (kapʉratá-) n. vine species harvest time . See also watsóya .
whose leaves cause skin itchiness. Ipo- káruɓú (káruɓúù-) pl. káruɓúìka . n. un-
moea wightii. ripe maize. See also íɡùm and ɲaŋárʉ́tɛ̀.
karám (karámʉ́-) pl. karámíka . n. male karuɓúɓón (karuɓúɓónì-) v. to flourish,
eland. Tragelaphus (Taurotragus) oryx. thrive (of plants). See also ɡáruɓúɓón.
karámá (<karámóòn) v. Karʉmɛmɛ́ (Karʉmɛmɛ́ɛ̀-) n. name of a
hill or mountain.
karámóòn (karámóònì-/karámá-) v. to
be irresponsible, lax, lazy. kárʉ̀tsʼa (kárʉ̀tsʼʉ̀-) pl. karʉ́tsʼíka . n. car-
karan (karaní-) pl. karáníka . n. assis-
tant, secretary. karʉ́tsʼʉ́mɔ̀n (karʉ́tsʼʉ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be
crunchy (like a carrot).
kàràtsa (kàràtsì-) pl. kárátsìka . 1
n. headrest, neckrest that doubles as a Kàsìlè (Kàsìlèè-) n. Kathile town and
stool. 2 n. chair, seat, stool. surrounding area.
kárátsìka (kárátsìkà-) n. court fee: fine kasír (kasírá-) n. cane, stalk (esp.
a defendent must pay. Lit. ‘seats’. the ones with sweet pith, like maize,
sorghum, and sugarcane).
kárátsìkààm (kárátsìkà-àmà-) pl. ká-
kásíta (kásítà-) pl. kásítìka . n. hook-
rátsɨkaika . 1 n. stool carver. 2 n. jury
thorn acacia: tree species with white
member. 3 n. last wife who attends to
flowers and whose branches are used
every need. Lit. ‘chairs-person’.
in fencing and whose twigs are used to
karatsʉ́na (karatsʉ́naá-) n. young men. make the lower (female) firesticks. Aca-
See also ŋímɔ́kɔ́ka. cia mellifera.
karatsʉ́náám (karatsʉ́na-ámà-) pl. ka- kasurúɓé (kasurúɓéè-) n. fine for sexual
ratsʉ́na. n. young man. misconduct: adultery or illegitimate
kàrɛ̀ (kàrɛ̀ɛ̀-) pl. karɛ́íka . n. tree species impregnation.
whose wood is used to carve stools. kàswa (kàsò-) pl. kásítín. n. stick bent
Canthium sp. over as the spring mechanism for a
Karéɲaŋ (Karéɲaŋá-) n. name of a snare.
mountain spring with yellow soil. katálámòn (katálámònì-) v. to be large
Kàrɛ̀ŋà (Kàrɛ̀ŋàà-) n. name of a river and leaflike (e.g. elephant ears or fig-
with reddish soil. tree leaves).
Kàrɛ̀ŋààm (Kàrɛ̀ŋà-àmà-) pl. Karɛŋaika . Kátárʉkɔ́ta (Kátárʉkɔ́tɔ́-) n. name of a
n. Napore person. hill or mountain.

Katólìkà kéda zikîba

Katólìkà (Katólìkàà-) 1 n. Catholic money). 2 n. bank check, check. Lit.

church. 2 n. Catholicism. ‘money-tree paper’.
katólìkà (katólìkàà-) n. maize variety kaúdzòmɛ̀n (kaúdzò-mɛ̀nà-) n. finance,
with multicolored kernels. financial matters.
Katólìkààm (Katólìkà-àmà-) pl. Katóli- káwa (káú-) pl. káwítín. n. ash(es).
kaika . n. Catholic person. Kawalakɔ́l (Kawalakɔ́lì-) n. name of a
Katoposiɲaŋ (Katoposiɲaŋá-) n. name place.
of a river in Turkanaland. Kàwàlɛ̀ɛ̀s (Kàwàlɛ̀ɛ̀sɛ̀-) n. name of a
Kátɔ́rɔ̀sà (Kátɔ́rɔ̀sàà-) n. name of a river. river near Lóɗwàr.
kàtsa (kàtsì-) pl. kátsín. n. tip, top. kawam (kawamá-) n. area clearable by
Katsakól (Katsakólí-) n. name of a hill cutting (e.g. to make a new garden).
and an associated river. Kawes (Kawesí-) n. a personal name.
Kátsápeto (Kátsápetoó-) n. name of a Kawés (Kawésí-) n. November: month
river. of clearing woodland. See also Loipo.
katsés (katsésí-) v. to gaze or squint at kawés (kawésí-) v. to cut with a bladed
while shielding the eyes. tool (e.g. an axe or machete).
kátsɛ̂da (kátsɛ́dɛ̀-) n. tip, top. Kàxìɛ̀rà (Kàxìɛ̀ràà-) n. name of a hill or
Katsolé (Katsoléè-) n. name of a hill or mountain.
mountain. kaxɨta (kaxɨtí-) n. grass species whose
katʉmán (katʉmání-) n. maize vari- fruits are a staple food.
ety with white kernels that matures kazaanón (kazaanónì-) v. to be scat-
quickly and has short stems and short tered, strewn. See also ɨɗɛrɔs.
cobs. kazɨta (kazɨtí-) pl. kázìtìka . n. anus.
katúrúturánón (katúrúturánónì-) v. to kâʒwa (káʒò-) pl. káʒitín. 1 n. torch
be broken out, bumpy, rashy (of skin). made of a bundle of small sticks. 2
kaûdza (kaúdzò-) 1 n. money tree: tree n. maize tassel.
species whose flat, round, brown, and ke (=ke) dem. that (over there).
sweet oily fruits are boiled many times kéà (kéàà-) n. army, military, soldiers.
and eaten, and whose wood is used for From the British King’s African Rifles
building houses and fencing. Craibia (KAR).
laurentii. 2 n. money. For some speak-
kéààm (kéà-àmà-) pl. kéà. n. soldier. See
ers, the root has the form of kaúdzè-
also ʝɔrɔrɔ́ám.
See also ŋárɔpɨyá.
kéám (kéámà-) n. every person.
kaúdzà nì ɓètsʼa n. cash, hard currency.
Lit. ‘money that is white’. kébàdà (kébàdì-) n. colossus, giant,
monster of a, whale of a. Referring to
kaúdzèèkwa (kaúdzè-èkù-) pl. kaú-
an entity some distance away.
dzeekwitín. 1 n. coin. 2 n. shilling.
Lit. ‘money-tree eye’. kêda (kédì-) n. degree, measure.
kaúdzokabáɗa (kaúdzo-kabáɗá-) pl. kéda ke dem. over there, there (far).
kaúdzokabáɗíka . 1 n. bill, note (of kéda zikîba n. a long time or while.

kedíánètòn kɛ́xɛ́s

kedíánètòn (kedíánètònì-) v. to be black kémúsánón (kémúsánónì-) v. to be

with a white rump. felted, matted.
kédìè kɔ̀n n. at one time, together. Lit. kɛ̀ɲ (kɛ̀ɲɛ̀) ideo. killing one-by-one.
‘in one measure’. Kéɲà (Kéɲàà-) n. Kenya.
kédie kwátsa n. slowly. kéŋán (kéŋánà-) n. each one.
kédììm (kédì-ìmà-) 1 n. a bit. 2 n. a time, kerêba (kerébè-) pl. kerébìka . n. layer of
a while. a grass-thatched roof.
kédiima kwátsa 1 n. a little bit. 2 n. a kèrèmìdza (kèrèmìdzà-) n. an inedibly
little while, a short time. bitter thing (e.g. some kinds of gourd).
kédò kɔ̀n n. at one time, together. Lit. kɛrɛ́s (kɛrɛ́sí-) v. to falsely accuse.
‘by one measure’. keretsʼa (keretsʼú-) pl. kerétsʼíka . n. ter-
kɛɗa (kɛ-ɗɨ-) pro. that one (over there). mite soil: soil dampened by fresh ter-
kɛɗá (kɛ-ɗí-) pro. that one (just there). mite dung and saliva.
kɛ̀ɗa (kɛ̀ɗà-) pl. kɛ́ɗítín. n. reed. kɛ́rínɔ́s (kɛ́rínɔ́sí-) v. to falsely accuse
each other.
kèɗè (kèɗè) 1 coordconn. or. 2 adv. in-
correctly, mistakenly. kɛ́rínɔ́síàm (kɛ́rínɔ́sí-àmà-) pl. kɛ́rínɔ́-
síika . n. false accuser or witness. See
Kéékoŋa (Kéékoŋaí-) n. name of a river
also lóliita .
east of Lopokóka .
Kerûba (Kerúbè-) n. name of a river.
Keepáka (Keepákà-) n. name of a rocky
hill with two peaks near Kaabong. kɛ̀s (kɛ̀sà-) pl. kɛ́sítín. n. cataract.
keîdza (keídzò-) n. wild potato: plant kesen (kesení-) pl. késénìka . n. shield.
species with edible tubers. keseníɡwà (kesení-ɡwàà-) n. bee eater.
kɛɨnatsa n. next year, the coming year. Lit. ‘shield-bird’. Merops sp. See also
A contraction of kaɨna na atsa ‘the year cooríɡwà.
that is coming’. Kɛ́tɛ́l (Kɛ́tɛ́là-) n. name of a hill or moun-
kéíta ke dem. over there, there (far). tain.
kɛtɛ́lɨtɛtɛ́s (kɛtɛ́lɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to make seen
kɛkɛrɛs (kɛkɛrɛsí-) v. to tie or wind
or visible.
kɛtɛ́lɔ́n (kɛtɛ́lɔ́nì-) v. to be clearly seen,
kɛ́láya (kɛ́láì-) pl. kɛ́láìka . n. small
visible, stand out.
fruited teclea: hardwood tree species
growing near rivers and whose wood kɛtɛ́rɛ́mɔ̀n (kɛtɛ́rɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be inflexi-
is used for building. Teclea nobilis. See ble, rigid, stiff, unbending. See also ɓot-
also ɲɛmaɨlɔŋ. sódòn.
kèlèrwa (kèlèrò-) pl. keléríka . n. thorny kétsóibarátsa (kétsói-barátsó-) n. day af-
plant species whose root decoction is ter tomorrow, tomorrow next.
drunk hot as a remedy for stomach kétsóita ke n. three days from now.
acidity. Harrisonia abyssinica. kɛ́xána kɛ dem. that direction/way.
kémús (kémúsì-) pl. kémúsìka . 1 n. old, kɛ́xɛ́s (kɛ́xɛ́sì-) 1 v. to fry (with or with-
dry, matted grass. 2 n. long, matted out oil). 2 v. to dry by cooking (when
hair. no oil is used).

kɛ́xɛ́sìàm kílíŋìta

kɛ́xɛ́sìàm (kɛ́xɛ́sì-àmà-) pl. kɛ́xɛ́siika . kíɗɔ̀ (kíɗɔ̀ɔ̀-) n. tchagra (black-

1 n. fryer: one who fries food. 2 and brown-crowned). Tchagra aus-
n. Didinga man. tralis/senegala.
ki (=ki) dem. those (over there). kiɗoɗotsa (kiɗoɗotsí-) pl. kiɗóɗótsìka .
kíbàdà (kíbàdì-) n. overabundance, plen- n. atom, molecule, particle, speck.
titude (over there). kíɗɔlɛ́ (kíɗɔlɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. kíɗɔlɛ́ìka . n. baby
kìɓèɓè (kìɓèɓèì-) pl. kiɓéɓéìka . n. pro- primate, primate infant.
lapsed uterus. See also kìtʉ̀lɛ̀. kɨɗɔnʉƙɔta (kɨɗɔnʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to shrink,
kìɓèɓèàm (kìɓèɓè-àmà-) pl. kiɓeɓeika . shrivel (e.g. one’s stomach when inhal-
n. greedy, selfish person. Lit. ‘one like ing). 2 v. to dodge, sidestep. See also
a prolapsed uterus’. hɛ́ɗɔ́nʉƙɔta .
Kiɗorinamóta (Kiɗorinamótí-) n. name
kíɓɛ́zam (kíɓɛ́zamá-) n. chip, flake (of
of a river.
kíʝa (kíʝá-) pl. kíʝíka . 1 n. earth, globe,
kíɓíɓìta (kíɓíɓìtà-) n. dwarf gecko. Lygo-
world. 2 n. cosmos, universe. 3 n. en-
dactylus sp.
vironment, nature. 4 n. land, property,
Kiɓíca (Kiɓícì-) n. name of a place in real estate. 5 n. location, place. 6
Kenya. Also pronounced as Gɨbíʝa . n. country, nation, state. 7 n. floor.
kíɓɔ́ɔ̀z (kíɓɔ́ɔ̀zà-) 1 n. heartburn, pyrosis. kíʝá na ɨɗɨmɔtɔ́s n. creation.
2 n. phlegm in the mouth of a newborn kíʝáìm (kíʝá-ìmà-) pl. kíʝáwika . n. fairy,
imp, sprite: small humanoid that inhab-
kídzìmètòn (kídzìmètònì-) v. to climb its the wild places, has magical pow-
down this way, come down, de- ers, and interacts with humans in mis-
scend this way. Also pronounced as chievous and mysterious ways. Lit.
tsíɡìmètòn. ‘earth-child’.
kídzìmòn (kídzìmònì-) v. to descend, kíʝáke n. down.
move down.
kíʝámɛ̀n (kíʝá-mɛ̀nà-) n. current issues,
kídzimonuƙota (kídzimonuƙotí-) v. to recent news. Lit. ‘land-matters’.
climb down, descend, or go down that
kíʝíkààm (kíʝíkà-àmà-) pl. kíʝíkaika .
n. alien, foreigner, outsider.
kiɗa (ki-ɗi-) pro. those ones (over there). kikímón (kikímónì-) v. to be stocky,
kiɗá (ki-ɗí-) pro. those ones (just there). thickset.
kɨɗapánɛ́tɔ̀n (kɨɗapánɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to be kileleɓú (kileleɓúù-) pl. kileleɓúìka .
black with white cheeks. n. intercostal muscle: meat between
kiɗíása (ki-ɗíá-saí-) pro. other(s), the two ribs.
others. kílíkɨlɨká (kílíkɨlɨkáà-) n. long-crested
kiɗíwítsánón (kiɗíwítsánónì-) v. to be eagle. Lophaetus occipitalis.
slender, slim, slight (like a needle or a kílíŋìta (kílíŋìtà-) n. bull (male) elephant.
thin person). Loxodonta africana.

kɨlíwítánón kitétón

kɨlíwítánón (kɨlíwítánónì-) v. to be kíníŋàn (kíníŋànì-) pl. kíníŋanín.

clean, clear (e.g. area, sky, water). n. each one.
kìlòlòɓa (kìlòlòɓà-) n. bird species. kínítòda (kíní-tòdà-) n. incomprehensi-
kílootór (kílootóró-) n. kingfisher ble speech, strange talk.
(African pygmy or malachite). Alcedo kìnòròta (kìnòròtì-) pl. kinórótìka .
cristata/Ispidina picta. n. peg, stake (e.g. used to tack down
kɨlɔ́ríta (kɨlɔ́rítà-) n. Egyptian thorn or animal skins).
scented-pod acacia: tree species whose kiɲom (kiɲomú-) pl. kiɲómíka .
inner bark is chewed as cough remedy n. seed(s).
and whose seed-juice is used as a disin-
fectant. Acacia nilotica. kìŋ (kìŋì) ideo. for good, permanently.
Kilóróŋ (Kilóróŋò-) n. name of a moun- kíón (kíónì-) v. to be less-than-full, not
tain pass. full.
kímátsa (kímátsa) ideo. thump thump kɨpʉ́ránètòn (kɨpʉ́ránètònì-) v. to be
(sound of feet stepping). maroon: dark-brownish to purplish-
kímátsa (kímátsì-) pl. kímátsìka . n. foot- red.
fall, footstep, step. kɨrarapa (kɨrarapá-) 1 n. green scum or
kimír (kimírá-) n. red-billed quelea. slime found on top of stagnant water.
Quelea quelea. 2 n. skin on boiled milk. 3 n. soft outer
kìmɔ̀ɗɔ̀rɔ̀tsa (kìmɔ̀ɗɔ̀rɔ̀tsà-) n. flowering layer of stomach.
plant species whose sap, when heated kírérebú (kírérebúù-) n. millet left in the
up, is used as glue to fix metal imple- field to sprout the next year.
ments or to mend gourds. Kleinia sp. kirota (kirotí-) n. perspiration, sweat.
kímʉ́r (kímʉ́rà-) n. mosquito.
kirotánón (kirotánónì-) v. to perspire,
kíná (kíná) coordconn. so then, then. sweat.
Kɨnám (Kɨnámá-) n. May: month of kís (kísá-) n. dispersion, distribution.
mushrooms. See also Titímá.
kísáàm (kísá-àmà-) pl. kísáika . n. dis-
kɨnám (kɨnámá-) pl. kɨnámíka . n. mush-
kɨnata (kɨnataá-) pl. kɨnátáìka . n. hand- kisanes (kisanesí-) v. to dispense, dis-
held grinding stone. perse, distribute, divide out/up. See
also tɔkɔrɛs.
kíníám (kíní-ámá-) n. strangers, unrec-
ognized people (e.g. those seen from kisanesíám (kisanesí-ámà-) pl. kisane-
afar without being recognized). Plural sííka . n. distributor.
form of kɔ́nɔ́m. kísés (kísésì-) v. to dispense, disperse,
kíníɛ́n (kíní-ɛ́ní-) pro. a few, some (plu- distribute, divide out/up. See also
ral). tɔkɔrɛs.
Kinimé (Kiniméè-) n. a personal name. kitétón (kitétónì-) v. to begin quivering,
Also pronounced as Kunumé. shaking, shivering, or trembling.

kitítésuƙota kɔín

kitítésuƙota (kitítésuƙotí-) 1 v. to Kocí (Kocíì-) n. a personal name.

make quiver, shake, shiver, or trem- Kɔ́cɔ́kɨɔ (Kɔ́cɔ́kɨɔ́-) n. name of a moun-
ble. 2 v. to frighten, intimidate, scare, tain slope, associated river, and associ-
threaten. See also xɛɓɨtɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta . ated human habitation.
kìtòn (kìtònì-) 1 v. to shake, quiver, Kocom (Kocomó-) n. name of a moun-
shiver, tremble. 2 v. to be aflutter, jit- tainous area with a huge cavern that
tery, nervous. used to be frequented by baboons.
kɨtɔ́ɔ́sɔ̀n (kɨtɔ́ɔ́sɔ̀nì-) v. to be what color? kodowa (kodoú-) pl. kódòwìka . 1
what shape? what texture? n. gazelle (possibly Grant’s). Gazella
kìtsa (kìtsà-) pl. kítsín. 1 n. heap, mound, granti. 2 n. yellowish color (like that
pile. 2 n. tall anthill. See also ɲatúkíta . of a gazelle).
kìtsàɗɔ̀s (kìtsàɗɔ̀sì-) n. vine species Kodowííka (Kodowí-ícé-) n. traditional
whose roots are eaten raw or roasted. men’s age-group with a gazelle as its
Vigna oblongifolia. totem (11th and final Ik age-group). Lit.
kitsetés (kitsetésí-) v. to heap or pile up.
See also iruketés. kɔ̀dza (kɔ̀dzà-) n. yellow-necked spur-
fowl. Francolinus leucoscepus.
kìtsòn (kìtsònì-) 1 v. to be undercooked.
2 v. to be unclear, vague (of informa- koɗó (koɗóò-) n. pestilence, plague (par-
tion). See also ɨmʉ́ránón. tially manifested in skin boils).
kitsonuƙota (kitsonuƙotí-) 1 v. to under- koɗósón (koɗósónì-) v. to be bent for-
cook (due to waning fire). 2 v. to lose ward (of horns).
interest. 3 v. to fade (of color). See also Kɔɛ́s (Kɔɛ́sí-) n. a personal name. May
sɛkɔnʉƙɔta . also be spelled as Kwɛɛ́s.
kìtʉ̀lɛ̀ (kìtʉ̀lɛ̀ì-) pl. kɨtʉ́lɛ́ìka . n. pro- kɔɛ́s (kɔɛsí-) 1 v. to await, expect, wait
lapsed uterus. See also kìɓèɓè. (for/on). 2 v. to attend to, tend (e.g. a
garden, keeping watch for animal and
kɨwíl (kɨwílá-) pl. kɨwílíka . n. area
human crop thieves).
newly cleared and burnt off for cultiva-
tion. kɔ́ɛ́s (kɔ́ɛ́sì-) v. to bleed for healing,
leech, phlebotomize.
kíxána ke n. over there, that way.
kɔɛsíàm (kɔɛsí-àmà-) pl. kɔɛsíika .
kíxwa (kíxó-) pl. kíxítín. n. freshly cut
n. bird-scarer, garden attendant.
kɔɛtɛ́s (kɔɛtɛ́sí-) v. to await, expect, wait
kiyá ki dem. those areas or places.
kiyér (kiyérí-) n. bird species. koferemáásìò (koferemáásìò-) n. Con-
kíyɔɔrɔ́ (kíyɔɔrɔ́ɔ̀-) n. white-crested hel- firmation: Catholic sacrament allow-
met shrike. Prionops plumatus. ing a baptized person to fully partici-
kó (kó) nurs. wa-wa! (a nursery word pate in the church.
for drinking or water). Kòfòè (Kòfòèò-) n. name of a hill or
kɔ̀ɓɔ̀n (kɔ̀ɓɔ̀nì-) v. to be ripening (e.g. mountain.
maize when its kernels are still hard). kɔín (kɔíná-) pl. kɔíníka . n. scent, whiff.

koisiés komítésuƙota

koisiés (koisiesí-) v. to wait in vain. kɔl (kɔlá-) pl. kólíkwa . n. young goat
kóʝa (kóʝà) adv. may …, please. ram (uncastrated).
kɔ̀ka (kɔ̀kà-) n. small reeds woven to- kɔlánétòn (kɔlánétònì-) 1 v. to have a
gether to make granaries. stripe down the spine. 2 v. to be clear
(of a path).
kɔkɛ́s (kɔkɛ́sí-) 1 v. to close, shut. 2 v. to
cover. See also mʉtsʼʉtɛs. kɔlɛ́rà (kɔlɛ́ràà-) n. cholera.
kɔkɛ́sá así 1 v. to shut oneself in. 2 v. to kɔlɨl (kɔlɨlí-) n. cucumber.
cover oneself (e.g. in clothing). kɔlɨlícúé (kɔlɨlí-cúè-) n. cucumber juice.
kɔkɛ́sá mɛná v. to conceal matters, kɔlɨlíékwa (kɔlɨlí-ékù-) pl. kɔlɨlíékwítín.
cover up issues. n. cucumber seed.
kɔkɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (kɔkɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to shut out. kɔlɨlíkú (kɔlɨlí-kúà-) n. cucumber grass:
kɔkɛtɛ́s (kɔkɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to close, shut. 2 short grass species used for picking up
v. to cover. 3 v. to shut down, turn off. slippery things (like cucumber seeds)
and wiping the rear ends of infants.
kɔkɛtɛ́sá mɛnáɛ v. to bring to a close,
Gramineae sp.
conclude, wrap up (matters).
koliméwa (koliméù-) n. patas monkey.
kokímétòn (kokímétònì-) v. to close,
Erythrocebus patas.
kɔlɔlánón (kɔlɔlánónì-) 1 v. to be
kɔkíríkɔka (kɔkíríkɔkɔ́-) n. bush bar-
derelict, dilapidated, ramshackle, run-
bet, tinkerbird (red-fronted). Pogoniu-
down. 2 v. to be dried up, wasted away
lus sp./Tricholaema sp.
(crops or cadavers).
kɔkɨtɛtɛ́s (kɔkɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to make to
kólór (kólórò-) n. bird species.
kɔ́lɔ́tsa (kɔ́lɔ́tsì-) pl. kɔ́lɔ́tsìka . n. men’s
Kɔkɔ́ (Kɔkɔ́ɔ̀-) n. a personal name.
coverall, overall, or smock made of an-
kɔkɔ́ (kɔkɔ́) nurs. no-no! (a nursery imal skin.
word for ‘Don’t touchǃ’).
kom (komá-) n. lots, many, multitude.
kokoes (kokoesí-) v. to entrap, trap (ter-
mites by digging a hole and lining it kòm (kòmà) quant. many.
with sisal leaves). komás (komásí-) n. manyness, multi-
kokór (kokóró-) pl. kokóríkw . n. ridge. plicity, plurality.

kòkòròtsa (kòkòròtsì-) n. small plant kombóta (kombótì-) n. liquor, strong

species with nasty hooked thorns and drink. See also tule.
which is burned in fields to kill pests or kómétsʼàɗa (kómé-tsʼàɗì-) n. conflagra-
to stop rain. Asparagus flagellaris. tion, inferno, wildfire.
kɔkɔsánón (kɔkɔsánónì-) v. to be ma- komikómón (komikómónì-) v. to be
ture (of plants or people). slightly numerous, not few-not many.
Kókósowa (Kókósowaá-) n. name of a komitésá así v. to multiply oneselves.
hill or mountain. komítésuƙota (komítésuƙotí-) v. to in-
Kokóy (kokóí-) n. a personal name. crease, multiply.

Kòmòkùà kɔŋɛ́s

Kòmòkùà (Kòmòkùàà-) n. Komokua (I kɔ́náya (kɔ́n-áí-) pro. somewhere else.

& II): two of the Ik’s twelve clans. kɔ́nɛ́ɛ́ná ámáe n. somebody, someone.
Kòmòkùààm (Kòmòkùà-àmà-) pl. Ko- kɔ́nɛ́ɛ́ná kɔ́rɔ́ɓádì n. something.
mokuaika . n. Komokua clan member. kɔníám (kɔní-ámà-) pro. someone.
komolánón (komolánónì-) v. to be kóníátìke v. one at a time, one-by-one.
patched, spotted (in color). See also ko-
kɔ́níɛ́n (kɔ́ní-ɛ́ní-) pro. a/an, some (sin-
ríánètòn and tábàsànètòn.
kómoló (kómolóò-) pl. kómolóìka .
kóníón (kóníónì-) v. to be one at a time,
n. tree species whose large fruits
are sucked like an orange and from
whose wood branched mingling sticks kónionúƙota (kónionúƙotí-) v. to go off
are made and whose strong wood is one-by-one.
used for building. Canthium lactescens. kɔ́nís (kɔ́nísì-) n. inbreeding, incest.
kɔmɔ́m (kɔmɔ́má-) pl. kɔmɔ́míka . 1 kɔ́nísìàm (kɔ́nísì-àmà-) pl. kɔ́nísiika .
n. scale, scurf. 2 n. cracked skin on n. inbreeder, incestuous person.
the foot. 3 n. small plant species with kɔnítɛ́sʉƙɔta (kɔnítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to make
painful, paper-thin thorns that stick in into one, unite.
the feet of baboons and humans. kɔnɨtɛtɛ́s (kɔnɨtɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to take nearly
kòmòn (kòmònì-) v. to be many, multi- everything (e.g. food or things). 2 v. to
tudinous, plural. hit from behind.
komos (komosí-) pl. kómósìka . n. butt kɔ́nítɨáke 1 pro. once and for all. 2
cheek, buttock. pro. completely, totally.
kómósikaa ɓetsʼaakátìke n. young chil- kónító ódòwì n. another day, one day,
dren. Lit. ‘buttocks being white’. So- once upon a time. Often shortened to
called from their scooting around in kóntódòwì.
the dust. kɔnɔ num. once, one time. Lit. ‘by one’.
komótsa (komótsá-) pl. komótsíka . 1 kɔ́nɔ́m (kɔ́nɔ́mà-) pl. kíníám.
n. elephant trunk. 2 n. plant species n. stranger.
whose hollow bamboo-like stems are kɔ̀nɔ̀n (kɔ̀nɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be one. 2 v. to
used to blow spirits out of any bodily be alone.
orifice and whose root decoction is fed kɔnɔna áɗònù v. to be a third (fraction).
to dogs to make them fierce.
kɔnɔna leɓétsónù v. to be a half.
komótsɛ́ɛ̀ba (komótsɛ́-ɛ̀bà-) pl. ko-
kɔnɔna toomínú v. to be a tenth (frac-
mótsɛ́ɛbɨtín. n. artillery gun, cannon.
Lit. ‘elephant-trunk gun’.
kɔnɔna tsʼaɡúsónù v. to be a fourth (frac-
kon (koní-) pl. konitín. n. ligament,
sinew, tendon.
kɔnɔna túdònù v. to be a fifth (fraction).
kɔn (kɔní-) pro. another, some other.
kɔŋɛ́s (kɔŋɛ́sí-) v. to cook (by heat-
kɔ̀n (kɔ̀nà) num. one. ing water and stirring). Compare with
kɔ́náxàn (kɔ́ná-xànà-) n. unusual way. itiŋés.

kɔŋɛ́síàm Kɔrɔmɔtátôda

kɔŋɛ́síàm (kɔŋɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. kɔŋɛ́síika . kóríètòn (kóríètònì-) v. to contend,

n. chef, cook. struggle, wrestle.
kɔŋɛ́sídàkwa (kɔŋɛ́sí-dàkù-) pl. kɔŋɛ́sí- koríón (koríónì-) v. to be in labor, par-
dakwitín. n. cooking stick (for stirring turiency.
food). kɔrɨtɛtɛ́s (kɔrɨtɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to blacken,
Kóŋɡò (Kóŋɡòò-) n. Congo, Democratic char, scorch. 2 v. to beat, crush, or
Republic of Congo (DRC). destroy (slang for defeating someone).
kɔ́ɔ́ (kɔ́ɔ́) dem. there. A noun following Koríye (Koríyeé-) n. a personal name.
this word takes the genitive case. kɔrɔanón (kɔrɔanónì-) v. to struggle,
kɔ́ɔ́ kɛ dem. in that direction, over there, wrestle. See also koríón.
there. kɔ́rɔ́ɓâda (kɔ́rɔ́ɓádì-) pl. kúrúɓâda . n. en-
kɔ́ɔ́ kíʝ 1 n. down, downward. 2 n. be-
o tity, item, object, thing.
low. 3 n. south, southward. Lit. ‘there kɔ́rɔ́ɓáìdàkwa (kɔ́rɔ́ɓáì-dàkù-) n. uniden-
by the land’. tified or unknown plant or tree.
kɔ́ɔ́ kwarɔ 1 n. up, upward. 2 n. north, Koroɓé (Koroɓéè-) n. a personal name.
northward. Lit. ‘there by the moun-
kɔrɔ́ɗɔ́mɔ̀n (kɔrɔ́ɗɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be gaunt,
haggard, ragged, thin. See also ɨkárɔ́n.
kɔ́ɔ́kíʝóàm (kɔ́ɔ́kíʝó-àmà-) pl. kɔ́ɔ́kíʝóika .
kɔrɔ́ka (kɔrɔ́kʉ́-) pl. kɔrɔ́kíka . n. digit,
n. southerner.
finger, toe.
kɔ́ɔ́kwarɔ́ám (kɔ́ɔ́kwarɔ́-ámà-) pl. kɔ́ɔ́k- kɔrɔ́ká ná zè 1 n. thumb. 2 n. big toe.
waróíka . n. northerner. Lit. ‘digit that is big’.
kɔ̀pa (kɔ̀pà-) 1 n. vulture. 2 n. funerary kɔrɔ́kíkààm (kɔrɔ́kíkà-àmà-) pl. kɔrɔ́kí-
goat killed to appease the spirit of the kaika . n. kleptomaniac. Lit. ‘fingers-
deceased. See also ɲépúɲa. person’.
Kɔ̀pàkwàr (Kɔ̀pà-kwàrà-) n. name of a kɔrɔ́kíkànànès (kɔrɔ́kíkànànèsì-)
small hill in Kenya that often has vul- n. kleptomania.
tures perched on it. Lit. ‘vulture-
mountain’. Also called Kanatárúka . kɔrɔ́kɔ́ɔ̀ka (kɔrɔ́kɔ́-ɔ̀kà-) pl. kɔrɔ́kíkɔɔ-
kɨtín. n. finger bone, toe bone.
kɔpɨkɔpa (kɔpɨkɔpí-) pl. kɔpíkɔ́pìka .
n. ankle. See also dɛámóróka . Kɔrɔmɔta (Kɔrɔmɔtá-) n. Toposa.
kɔr (kɔrɛ́-) n. charred meat, muchomo. Kɔrɔmɔtáhó (Kɔrɔmɔtá-hóò-) pl. kɔ-
rɔmɔtáhóíka . n. conical hut made in
kɔrɛtɛ́s (kɔrɛtɛ́sí-) v. to blacken, char, the style of the Toposa people.
Kɔrɔmɔtáŋám (Kɔrɔmɔtá-ŋámà-)
kɔrɛ́tɔ́n (kɔrɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to get blackened, n. sorghum variety associated with the
charred, scorched. Toposa tribe, with white stalks, stems,
kòrì (kòrì) coordconn. or. and seeds.
koríánètòn (koríánètònì-) v. to be Kɔrɔmɔtátôda (Kɔrɔmɔtá-tódà-)
patched, spotted (like a giraffe). See n. Toposa dialect of the Ateker (Teso-
also komolánón and tábàsànètòn. Turkana) speech varieties.

Koror kùɓa

Koror (Kororí-) n. name of a place. kotsetés (kotsetésí-) v. to fetch, get (wa-

a a
kɔrɔ̂b (kɔrɔ́bɛ̀-) pl. kɔrɔ́baikw . n. calf. ter).
kòrrr (kòrrr) ideo. swish swish (sound kotsítésuƙota (kotsítésuƙotí-) v. to en-
of someone moving by). snare, entrap, snare, trap. See also
Koryaŋ (Koryaŋí-) n. a personal name.
kòtsòn (kòtsònì-) v. to be ensnared,
Kɔsɔŋ (Kɔsɔŋɔ́-) n. personal name of an entrapped, snared, trapped. See also
Ik man who was shot by the Turkana sáɡoanón.
for beating up a warrior who was steal-
kotsonuƙota (kotsonuƙotí-) v. to be-
ing from his garden.
come ensnared, entrapped, snared, or
kòsòwa (kòsòù-) n. dried out figs (of any trapped.
of the various fig tree species).
kɔ̀wɛ̀ nòko v. long ago.
kóteré (kóteré) 1 prep. because of, due
kɔ̀wɔ̀n (kɔ̀wɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be ancient, old.
to. 2 subordconn. because, due to the
2 v. to be chronic. 3 v. to be old-
fact that, for the reason that. 3 subor-
fashioned, outmoded. 4 v. to have
dconn. in order that, so that. A noun
been around already a while.
following this word takes the oblique
case. See also ikóteré. koxésúƙota (koxésúƙotí-) v. to scratch
vigorously to the point of bleeding.
kɔ́tɛ́s (kɔ́tɛ́sì-) 1 v. to curse, cuss out. 2
v. to exorcize (e.g. evil spirits). kù (kùà-) n. grass.
kɔ́tɛ́sa súɡùrìkàe v. to exorcize spirits. kua mínɛ́sɨɛ kwaɨtíní n. grass toothpick.
Lit. ‘grass of the picking of teeth’.
kɔ́tɛ́sìàm (kɔ́tɛ́sì-àmà-) pl. kɔ́tɛ́siika .
n. exorcist. kua ni ɲeryaŋí n. iron sheets used for
roofing houses. Lit. ‘grasses of moder-
kotím (kotímá-) pl. kotímíka . n. hole or nity’.
hollow in a tree.
kûba (kúbà-) pl. kúbitín. n. unseen hill-
kotímácùè (kotímá-cùè-) 1 n. water side.
found in a tree hollow. 2 n. black tea.
kúbam (kúbamá-) n. more. Lit. ‘unsee-
kòto (kòtò) 1 coordconn. so, then, there- able’.
fore, thus. 2 coordconn. but.
kʉ́bɛ̀l (kʉ́bɛ̀là-) pl. kʉ́bɛ̀lìka . n. push
a a
kòtòb (kòtòbà-) pl. kotóbaikw . n. fe- hoe.
male greater kudu. Tragelaphus strep-
kʉ́bɛ̀lɛ̀mɔ̀n (kʉ́bɛ̀lɛ̀mɔ̀nì-) v. to be pre-
cipitous, steep (on two sides).
kɔtɔl (kɔtɔlí-) n. African white-backed
kúbòn (kúbònì-) v. to be invisible, out
vulture. Gyps africanus.
of sight, unobserved, unseen.
kɔtɔ́r (kɔtɔ́rá-) n. oribi. Ourebia ourebi. kúbonuƙota (kúbonuƙotí-) v. to disap-
Kotorúbé (Kotorúbéè-) n. name of a hill pear, go out of sight, vanish.
or mountain. kúbùr (kúbùrà-) pl. kúburaikwa . n. big
kɔ́ts (kɔ́tsá-) n. scabies. container (e.g. gourd, jerrycan, tank).
kotsés (kotsésí-) v. to fetch, get (water). kùɓa (kùɓà-) pl. kúɓítín. n. hill.

kʉɓá kùr

kʉɓá (kʉɓáà-) pl. kʉɓáátikwa . n. hus- kʉláɓákàka (kʉláɓá-kàkà-) n. bushbuck

band of my wife’s sister. leaf: shrub species that bushbucks like
kùɓààƙwa (kùɓà-àƙɔ̀-) n. flat hilltop. to eat and whose leaves yield a red dye.
Fuerstia africana.
Kùɓààwa (Kùɓà-àwà-) n. name of a hill.
Lit. ‘hill-place’. kùm (kùmù) ideo. flop! wham! (sound
of hitting the ground hard).
kuɓaɡwarí (kuɓa-ɡwaríì-) n. hilltop.
Kumeta (Kumetí-) n. name of a river.
kúca (kúcé-) pl. kúcítín. n. outcropping,
kumutsánón (kumutsánónì-) v. to be
rocky outcrop. May also be spelled as
joined together. See also ɗɔtsánón.
kwíca .
kunéta (kunétá-) n. tree species whose
kúɗaakón (kúɗaakónì-) v. to be low, yellow fruits are eaten raw, whose oily
short (of many). seeds are fried, mashed, and used as
kuɗás (kuɗásí-) n. lowness, shortness. smearing oil or soap, and whose wood
kuɗítésuƙota (kuɗítésuƙotí-) v. to make is used for fencing. Ximenia americana.
short, shorten. kuɲuka (kuɲukú-) pl. kúɲúkìka . n. pes-
kúɗón (kúɗónì-) v. to be low, short. tle. See also àʝa and iwótsídàkwa .
kuɲukúdzibér (kuɲukú-dzibérí-) pl.
kʉ́f (kʉ́fá-) pl. kʉ́fítín. n. light rain,
kuɲukúdzibéríka . n. traditional axe
sprinkle (just enough to moisten sur-
or hatchet.
kùpa (kùpà-) n. cloud cover, cloudiness.
kukáta (kukátí-) pl. kukátíka . n. half-
grown primate. kùpààƙwa (kùpà-àƙɔ̀-) n. cloudiness,
overcast weather.
kukú (kukú) nurs. up-up! (a nursery
word for riding on mother’s back). kʉpɛ́s (kʉpɛ́sí-) 1 v. to burn, scald. 2
v. to affect, move emotionally.
kùku (kùkù) ideo. on an empty stomach,
kʉpɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (kʉpɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to burn,
without eating.
kùku (kùkù) ideo. thump thump (sound
kupétón (kupétónì-) v. to cloud over/up,
of someone running).
get cloudy.
kukuanón (kukuanónì-) v. to scramble Kùpòn (Kùpònì-) n. January: month of
down. cloudiness. See also Lomuka .
kukuɗetsa (kukuɗetsí-) n. slate-colored kùpòn (kùpònì-) v. to be cloudy, gray
boubou. Laniarius funebris. (of weather), overcast.
kùkùsèn (kùkùsènì-) pl. kukúsénìka . 1 kupukúpón (kupukúpónì-) v. to cloud
n. subterranean hive built by ground over/up, get cloudy.
bees. 2 n. underground hole used for kur (kurí-) pl. kuritín. 1 n. shade. 2
storage. n. shelter. 3 n. assembly, gather-
kʉkʉ́ʉ́k ᶶ (kʉkʉ́ʉ́kʉ̀) ideo. cockle-doodle- ing, meeting (i.e. people sitting in the
doo! (sound of a rooster crowing). shade).
kʉláɓa (kʉlaɓá-) n. bushbuck. Tragela- kùr (kùrì-) pl. kúrítín. n. tree
phus scriptus. species whose bark, leaves, or roots

kùr kutsúbàè

are pounded and soaked in water yield- kúrúɓáìnòìn (kúrúɓáì-nòìnì-) n. new

ing a decoction that is drunk for chest discovered things.
problems; the residue can also be ap- kurukur (kurukurí-) n. black wingless
plied to alleviate back and chest pain. insect that devours clothing.
Vepris glomerata. kùrùkùr (kùrùkùrù) ideo. sound of a
kùr (kùrù) ideo. klop klop (sound of trot- gourd rolling.
ting footsteps). kúrúkúr (kúrúkúrí-) pl. kúrúkúríka . 1
kʉ́rà (kʉ́ràì-) pl. kʉráíka . n. wait- n. shadow. 2 n. apparition, ghost,
a-bit acacia: small tree species whose shade, specter, wraith. 3 n. reflection.
wood is used for building and fencing, 4 n. photo(graph), picture, snapshot. 5
whose sticks are used to thresh grain, n. idol.
and whose roots are crushed, soaked, kurukúrétòn (kurukúrétònì-) v. to
and drunk to ward off evil spirits. Aca- darken with shade or shadows.
cia brevispica.
kúrúkúríka ni ɓɛƙɛ́s n. film, movie, tele-
Kʉráhò (Kʉrá-hòò-) n. name of a hill or vision, video. Lit. ‘shadows that move’.
mountain. Lit. ‘wait-a-bit acacia hut’. See also ɲévíɗyo.
Kʉ́ràìàƙwa (Kʉ́ràì-àƙɔ̀-) n. name of a kurukúrón (kurukúrónì-) v. to avert the
place. Lit. ‘among wait-a-bit acacias’. eyes, avoid eye contact.
kʉ́ràka (kʉ́ràkì-) 1 n. fan-tailed raven. kʉrʉ́kʉ́rɔ́s (kʉrʉ́kʉ́rɔ́sí-) v. to be active,
Corvus rhipidurus. 2 n. pied crow. energetic. See also kwɨɲídɔ̀n.
Corvus albus.
Kúrúlè (Kúrúlèè-) n. personal name of
kurés (kurésí-) v. to beat, defeat, over- a former Ik chief elder.
whelm. See also ɨlɔɛs.
Kùrùmò (Kùrùmòò-) n. name of a place
kurésúƙota (kurésúƙotí-) v. to beat, de- on Mount Morúŋole.
feat, overwhelm.
Kʉsɛ́m (Kʉsɛ́mʉ̀-) n. a personal name.
kurétón (kurétónì-) v. to jar, jolt. The Also pronounced as Kʉsám.
object of this verb takes the dative case.
kʉ̀tɔ̀n (kʉ̀tɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to say. 2 v. to name.
kuritésúƙota así v. to forfeit, give in/up, 3 v. to go___: make a sound or perform
quit. an action that is expressed with one of
kurósúƙota (kurósúƙotí-) v. to become the language’s many ideophones. 4
difficult, overwhelming. v. to intend to do. 5 v. to arrive in.
kúrúɓáa ni cɛmáɛ n. arms, weapons. kʉtɔnʉƙɔta (kʉtɔnʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to pro-
kúrúɓáa ni epwí n. beddings. nounce, say, utter. 2 v. to ‘do’ or ‘go’:
kúrúɓáà nùù kɔ̀wa n. artifacts. Lit. make a sound or perform an action that
‘things that are old’. is expressed with one of the language’s
kúrúɓâda (kúrúɓádì-) 1 n. entities, many ideophones.
items, objects, things. 2 n. goods, be- kʉtsáƙáàwa (kʉtsáƙá-àwà-) pl. kʉ-
longings. tsáƙáawíka . n. urinating spot.
kúrúɓáicíka (kúrúɓá-icíká-) n. belong- kʉtsáƙón (kʉtsáƙónì-) v. to pee, urinate.
ings, commodities, goods, stuff. Lit. kutsúbàè (kutsúbàè-) n. vine species
‘various things’. which is peeled and whose pith is

kʉ́tʉ́ka kwátsón

roasted and eaten; a root decoction is kwanɛda (kwanɛdɛ-) n. tiny stick used
drunk for body pain. as a trigger in a bird snare. Lit. ‘its
kʉ́tʉ́ka (kʉ́tʉ́kʉ̀-) n. first portion of penis’.
edible termites to be eaten. See also kwaníéɗa (kwaní-éɗì-) n. glans penis.
wàxìdòm. Lit. ‘penis-kernel’.
kútúŋ (kútúŋù-) pl. kútúŋìka . n. knee. kwaníékwa (kwaní-ékù-) n. penis hole,
kutúŋétòn (kutúŋétònì-) v. to genuflect, urethral meatus. Lit. ‘penis-eye’.
kneel. kwanítsʼɛ́ (kwaní-tsʼɛ́à-) n. foreskin. Lit.
kutúŋón (kutúŋónì-) v. to be kneeling. ‘penis-skin’.
kútúŋùdàda (kútúŋù-dàdà-) n. small kwaɲɛ́s (kwaɲɛ́sí-) v. to foil, thwart.
red flying ant species that appears at kwaɲɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (kwaɲɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to foil,
evening time. thwart.
kutúta (kutútá-) pl. kutútíka . n. anthill, kwar (kwará-) pl. kwàrìka . n. moun-
termite mound. tain.
Kʉwám (Kʉwámʉ̀-) n. a personal name. kwarádɛ̀ (kwará-dɛ̀à-) pl. kwarɨkadɛíka .
kùx (kùxù) ideo. greasy, oily. n. base or foot of a mountain.
kwàà (kwàà) nurs. pee-pee: a nursery kwaráɡwarí (kwará-ɡwaríì-) n. moun-
word for urine or urinating. taintop, peak, summit.
kwààke n. ago, before, since. May also kwaréékwa (kwaré-ékù-) n. mountain
be spelled as kɔ̀wà kè. saddle. Lit. ‘mountain-eye’.
kwaake náka n. since earlier today. May kwàrìkààm (kwàrìkà-àmà-) pl. kwa-
also be spelled as kɔwa ke náka . rɨkaika . n. mountain dweller.
kwààkè nòko n. long since, since long Kwarikabubúíka (Kwarika-bubúíkà-)
ago. May also be spelled as kɔ̀wà kè n. name of a place. Lit. ‘mountain-
nòko . bellies’.
kwààkè sìn n. since yesterday. May also kwatsa (kwatsí-) 1 n. pee, urine. 2 n. off-
be spelled as kɔ̀wà kè sìn. spring, progeny.
kwaár (kwaárá-) pl. kwaáríka . n. troop kwatsíém (kwatsí-émè-) n. soft flesh be-
of baboons. low the buttock. Lit. ‘urine-meat’.
kwaídòn (kwaídònì-) v. to be chewy, kwátsíkaakón (kwátsíkaakónì-) 1 v. to
tough to chew. See also kaŋádòn. be little, small (of many). 2 v. to be
kwàìn (kwàìnì-) 1 n. edges, sides. 2 young (of many).
n. vulval (genital) labia. kwatsítésuƙota (kwatsítésuƙotí-) v. to
kwalíkwálɔ̀n (kwalíkwálɔ̀nì-) v. to decrease size, make smaller, shrink
quake, quiver, shake, shiver, tremble. down.
See also irikíríkòn. kwatsitésúƙota así v. to humble oneself.
kwan (kwaní-) pl. kwanɨtín. 1 n. penis, kwátsón (kwátsónì-) 1 v. to be little,
phallus. 2 n. stinger. small. 2 v. to be young.

kwátsónuƙota kwírɛ́s

kwátsónuƙota (kwátsónuƙotí-) v. to be- kwɛtíkínɔ n. empty-handed, unre-

come little or small, decrease in size, warded. Lit. ‘with hands (only)’.
shrink down. kwɛtsʼɛ́mɔ́n (kwɛtsʼɛ́mɔ́nì-) 1 v. to get
kwayɔ́ɔ́ka (kwayɔ́-ɔ́kà-) pl. kwaitíníɔ- damaged or shattered (esp. a gourd). 2
kɨtín. n. root of a tooth. Lit. ‘tooth- v. to be divulged, let out, revealed (a
bone’. secret).
kwaywa (kwayó-) pl. kwaitín. 1 kwɛtsʼɛ́s (kwɛtsʼɛ́sí-) 1 v. to damage,
n. tooth. 2 n. edge, fringe, side. shatter. 2 v. to divulge, let out, reveal
kwàⁱ (kwàì) ideo. chewily. (a secret).
kwédekwedánón (kwédekwedánónì-) kwɛ̀x (kwɛ̀xɛ̀) ideo. thinly.
v. to be bony, cadaverous, skeletal. kwɛxɛ́dɔ̀n (kwɛxɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be thin (of
kwɛ́dɔ̀n (kwɛ́dɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to bend side- flat surfaces, like cloth or leather).
ways. 2 v. to go off course, veer. 3 kwídètòn (kwídètònì-) v. to have a pe-
v. to split open (of bean pods). nile erection.
kweeda (kweede-) n. edge, fringe, side. kwídikwidós (kwídikwidósí-) v. to be
Lit. ‘its tooth’. aroused, horny, turned on (sexually).
kweeda ƙwázàe n. hem. kwídòn (kwídònì-) v. to have a penile
kweelémòn (kweelémònì-) 1 v. to pro- erection.
trude, stick out (of ears). 2 v. to be kwílɨlí (kwílɨlíì-) 1 n. ripe desert dates
ashamed, embarrassed, humiliated. . 2 n. local Ik tobacco variety (possibly
kwɛlɛ́ɗa (kwɛlɛ́ɗá-) n. blackish-brown indigenous?).
edible flying ant species. kwɨnɨƙa (kwɨnɨƙí-) n. dassie, hyrax.
kwɛ́rɛɗɛ́ɗɔ́n (kwɛ́rɛɗɛ́ɗɔ́nì-) v. to balk, kwɨnɨƙíkú (kwɨnɨƙí-kúà-) n. hyrax
refuse to comply, resist. grass: tall grass species eaten by
kwɛ̀rɛ̀tɛ (kwɛ̀rɛ̀tɛ̀) ideo. totally finished. hyraxes and used to store tobacco
kwɛrɛ́xɔ́n (kwɛrɛ́xɔ́nì-) v. to be gray- in and to make beehive plugs.
haired, grizzly, hoary. GRAMINEAE sp.
kwɛta (kwɛtá-) pl. kwɛ̀tìka . 1 n. arm. 2 kwìɲ (kwìɲì) ideo. actively, energeti-
n. hand. 3 n. arm-like appendage or cally.
extremity. 4 n. branch. 5 n. sleeve. kwɨɲídɔ̀n (kwɨɲídɔ̀nì-) v. to be active,
kwɛtááƙw (kwɛtá-áƙɔ̀-) n. palm of the energetic. See also kʉrʉ́kʉ́rɔ́s.
hand. Lit. ‘inner hand’. kwíɲíkà (<kwíɲíkɔ̀ɔ̀n) v.
kwɛtákán (kwɛtá-kánà-) n. back of the kwíɲíkɔ̀ɔ̀n (kwíɲíkɔ̀ɔ̀nì-/kwíɲíka-) v. to
hand. Lit. ‘hand-back’. bare the teeth.
kwɛtákɔ́rɔ́ɓáda (kwɛtá-kɔ́rɔ́ɓádì-) pl. kwìr (kwìrì) ideo. slickly, slipperily.
kwɛtákúrúɓâda . n. handmade object. kwírɛ́s (kwírɛ́sì-) v. to anoint, embro-
Lit. ‘hand-thing’. cate, inunct (the victorious, e.g. with
kwɛtámóróka (kwɛtá-mórókú-) n. wrist. soot, marrow, tobacco, or crushed ter-
Lit. ‘hand-throat’. mites). See also tsáŋés.

kwirídòn kwìtsʼⁱ

kwirídòn (kwirídònì-) v. to be slick, slip- kwitsʼídòn (kwitsʼídònì-) v. to be juicy.

pery, slippy (like a raw tendon). kwitsʼíkwítsʼánón (kwitsʼíkwítsʼánónì-)
kwítsíladidí (kwítsíladidíì-) n. Jackson’s v. to be moody, tempermental.
francolin. Francolinus jacksoni. kwìtsʼⁱ (kwìtsʼì) ideo. juicily.

ƙà ƙeɗétón

ƙà (<ƙòòn) v. ƙálítsʼìɔ̀ka (ƙálítsʼì-ɔ̀kà-) pl. ƙálítsʼikɔɔ-
ƙádès (ƙádèsì-) v. to shoot. kɨtín. n. jawbone, mandibular bone.
ƙádesuƙota (ƙádesuƙotí-) v. to shoot. ƙámá kiɗíé v. maybe, perhaps. Lit. ‘it’s
like those (words)’.
ƙádetésá kadɨxáɛ v. to flower, go to
ƙámétòn (ƙámétònì-) v. to become like.
flower (of sorghum). Lit. ‘to emit flow-
ers’. ƙámítetés (ƙámítetésí-) v. to compare,
ƙádiƙádès (ƙádiƙádèsì-) v. to thud,
thump (e.g. a beehive to check its con- ƙámón (ƙámónì-) v. to be like, resemble.
tents). ƙámónà tsʼɛ̀ɛ̀n v. to be like this.
ƙádiƙadiés (ƙádiƙadiesí-) v. to shoot re- ƙámónuƙota (ƙámónuƙotí-) v. to be-
peatedly. come like.
ƙádiƙádòn (ƙádiƙádònì-) v. to beat, pul- ƙánàka (ƙánàà) adv. would have … (ear-
sate, pulse (of blood in veins). See also lier today).
dìkwòn. ƙanés (ƙanésí-) v. to take in hand.
ƙádòn (ƙádònì-) v. to ripen (of tree ƙanésúƙota (ƙanésúƙotí-) 1 v. to remove,
fruit). take away. 2 v. to subtract.
ƙáidetés (ƙáidetésí-) v. to go bring, go ƙanésúƙota ɡwaáe v. to solve a bird
get. problem in the garden by burying a
ƙàƙa (ƙàƙà-) n. hunt, hunting. bird alive as a sacrifice. Lit. ‘to take
away the bird’. See also muɗésá ɡwaáe .
ƙaƙa ŋúnítíno n. hunting with rope
ƙanetés (ƙanetésí-) 1 v. to get, take hold
of. 2 v. to remove, take out. 3 v. to
ƙàƙààm (ƙàƙà-àmà-) pl. ƙaƙaika . desire, wish for (of one’s heart). 4 v. to
n. hunter. apprehend, sense.
ƙaƙates (ƙaƙatesí-) n. to brace or stabi- ƙanitetés (ƙanitetésí-) v. to cause to get.
lize (a trap, e.g. with several sticks). ƙánòko (ƙánòò) adv. would have …
ƙaƙés (ƙaƙésí-) v. to hunt. (long ago).
ƙaƙótsómòn (ƙaƙótsómònì-) v. to be ƙanotós (ƙanotósí-) v. to be chosen,
wide-legged (in stance and stride). elect, special.
ƙaƙúŋ (ƙaƙúŋù-) pl. ƙaƙúŋìka . n. back ƙáraƙár (ƙáraƙárà-) n. green wood-
corner of the lower jawbone, mandibu- hoopoe. Phoeniculus purpureus.
lar angle. ƙásàm (ƙásàmʉ̀) adv. would have …
ƙalíƙálɛ́s (ƙalíƙálɛ́sí-) v. to corral, round (yesterday).
up. See also ikoŋetés. ƙɛ́daikén (ƙɛ́daikén) dem. there.
ƙálítsʼa (ƙálítsʼì-) pl. ƙálítsʼìka . n. jaw, ƙeɗétón (ƙeɗétónì-) v. to be newly preg-
mandible. nant (showing no sign).

ƙɛ̀ƙɛ ƙɔ̀ɗɔ̀n

ƙɛ̀ƙɛ (ƙɛ̀ƙɛ̀) ideo. crunch crunch (sound ƙídzɨnɔ́s (ƙídzɨnɔ́sí-) 1 v. to bite each
of feet on hard ground). other. 2 v. to move in single file.
ƙɛƙɛanón (ƙɛƙɛanónì-) v. to walk mak- ƙídzɨtɛtɛ́s (ƙídzɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to join end-to-
ing a crunching sound. end. Lit. ‘to make bite’.
ƙɛƙɛ́r (ƙɛƙɛ́rá-) n. grasshopper. ƙídzɔ̀n (ƙídzɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to adhere, cling,
ƙɛƙɛram (ƙɛƙɛramá-) n. traditional Ik stick. 2 v. to emerge and begin to fly
food made of honey mixed with edible away (of edible termites).
termites. ƙíɛƙíɛƙíɛ (ƙíɛƙíɛƙíɛ) ideo. cheep cheep!
ƙɛ́ƙɛ́rɛ́s (ƙɛ́ƙɛ́rɛ́sí-) v. to mix (specifically chirp chirp! (sound made by young
honey and edible termites). birds).
ƙeƙérón (ƙeƙérónì-) v. to detour, steer ƙíítínísɔ̀ka (ƙíítíní-sɔ̀kà-) pl. ƙíítínísɔkɨ-
clear, take a wide detour (so as to avoid tín. n. leather tassel. Lit. ‘strap-root’.
something dangerous or unpleasant). ƙìròn (ƙìrònì-) v. to thunder.
See also wɛ́dɔ̀n. ƙironuƙota (ƙironuƙotí-) 1 v. to thunder.
ƙɛ́lɛ́s (ƙɛ́lɛ́sì-) v. to pick out, select (one’s 2 v. to thunder off (like an elephant).
portion or property from others, e.g. ƙìròta (ƙìròtì-) pl. ƙirótíka . n. opposite
goats from a herd). riverbank.
ƙɛ́lɛ́sʉƙɔta así v. to set oneself apart. ƙɨtɛ́s (ƙɨtɛ́sí-) v. to pinch off (e.g. tobacco
ƙɛlɛtɛ́sá así v. to pull oneself away. leaves).
ƙélíetés (ƙélíetesí-) v. to select itera- ƙíwa (ƙíɔ́-) pl. ƙíítín. n. strap made of
tively. leather or any other material.
ƙɛ́rɨƙɛ́rɔ́n (ƙɛ́rɨƙɛ́rɔ́nì-) v. to be astrin- ƙó (<ƙòòn) v.
gent. See also tɛrɛrɛ́ɔ́n. ƙɔ̀ɓa (ƙɔ̀ɓà-) pl. ƙɔ́ɓítín. 1 n. belly button,
ƙídɨƙídɔ̀n (ƙídɨƙídɔ̀nì-) v. to pour, navel. 2 n. pistol grip.
stream, teem (e.g. ants, water, enemies, ƙɔɓa na zikîba n. umbilical hernia. Lit.
vehicles in a convoy, etc.). ‘navel that is long’.
ƙídzatiés (ƙídzatiesí-) 1 v. to bite repeat- ƙɔɓasim (ƙɔɓa-simá-) pl. ƙɔ́ɓítínísimi-
edly. 2 v. to interlace, interlock, mesh. tín. n. umbilical cord.
ƙídzɛ̀s (ƙídzɛ̀sì-) 1 v. to bite, chomp. 2 ƙɔ̀ɓàsìtsʼa (ƙɔ̀ɓà-sìtsʼà-) n. navel hair.
v. to sting. 3 v. to overcrowd, overrun. ƙɔ́ɓʉƙɔ́ɓa (ƙɔ́ɓʉƙɔ́ɓʉ̀-) n. large tree
See also átsʼɛ́s. species (possibly fig) with edible yel-
ƙídzɛsa dáŋáe v. to ‘bite’ or eat whole low fruits.
termites alive. ƙɔ́dɔ̀l (ƙɔ́dɔ̀lɛ̀-) pl. ƙɔ́dɔ̀lìka . 1 n. forearm.
ƙídzɛ̀sìkwàywa (ƙídzɛ̀sì-kwàyò-) pl. ƙí- 2 n. section of stalk above a maize cob.
dzɛsɨkwaitín. n. fang, incisor. Lit. See also ɲepíkísita .
‘biting-tooth’. ƙɔ́dɔxɔ́ (ƙɔ́dɔxɔ́ɔ̀-) pl. ƙɔ́doxɔ́ìka . n. cen-
ƙídzìkà (<ƙídzìkɔ̀ɔ̀n) v. tipede.
ƙídzìkɔ̀ɔ̀n (ƙídzìkɔ̀ɔ̀nì-/ƙídzɨka-) v. to ƙɔɗɨtɛs (ƙɔɗɨtɛsí-) v. to make cry.
clench the teeth (visibly). See also ƙɔ̀ɗɔ̀n (ƙɔ̀ɗɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to cry, wail, weep.
wɨɗɨɗánón. 2 v. to call (of animals and birds). 3

ƙɔ̀ɗɔ̀ta ƙúdetés

v. to bemoan, complain, lament. See ƙooná ɡìdààƙɔ̀kɛ v. to go behind the

also topóɗón. clouds.
ƙɔ̀ɗɔ̀ta (ƙɔ̀ɗɔ̀tà-) pl. ƙɔɗɔ́tíka . n. climb- ƙoona ɡíɡìròke v. to go down.
ing crook: hooked stick used for climb- ƙòònà ʝìr v. to go away forever.
ing trees. ƙoona ʝírìkɛ v. to go back or behind.
ƙɔɛ́s (ƙɔɛsí-) v. to straighten, stretch. See ƙoona ruteto v. to go along the side.
also ƙɔƙatés.
ƙoona wáxìkɛ v. to go ahead or in front.
ƙɔfɔ́ (ƙɔfɔ́ɔ̀-) pl. ƙofóikwa . 1 n. round
ƙòònìàm (ƙòònì-àmà-) pl. ƙooniika .
gourd traditionally cut in half to make
n. goer, traveler.
two bowls. 2 n. bowl made from half
of a round gourd. ƙór (ƙóré-) pl. ƙórítín. n. back of
knee, posterior knee. Not to be con-
ƙɔfɔ́èɗa (ƙɔfɔ́-èɗì-) n. first harvest of
fused with ƙɔ́r.
grain. Lit. ‘gourd-bowl grain’.
ƙɔ́r (ƙɔ́rɛ́-) pl. ƙóríkwa . n. dipper, la-
ƙɔfóìm (ƙɔfó-ìmà-) pl. ƙofóikówíka . dle (made from cutting a small gourd
n. small round gourd. in two). Not to be confused with ƙór.
ƙɔƙatés (ƙɔƙatésí-) 1 v. to straighten, ƙóróèm (ƙóró-èmè-) n. plantaris muscle:
stretch. 2 v. to exercise (the body). See behind the knee.
also ƙɔɛ́s.
ƙɔ́rɔmɔmɔ́n (ƙɔ́rɔmɔmɔ́nì-) v. to be
ƙoƙó (ƙoƙóò-) pl. ƙoƙóikwa . n. big wide- shriveled, withered (like dry leaves or
mouthed gourd. an old corpse).
ƙɔƙɔanón (ƙɔƙɔanónì-) 1 v. to stretch. ƙɔ̀rɔ̀n (ƙɔ̀rɔ̀nì-) v. to strut, swagger. See
2 v. to advertise, flaunt (one’s physical also ɨƙɔ́ɔ́rɛ́sá así.
ƙórór (ƙórórò-) n. African scops-owl.
ƙoƙórómòn (ƙoƙórómònì-) v. to Otus senegalensis.
be gruff, hoarse, husky. See also
ƙɔxɛ́s (ƙɔxɛ́sí-) v. to manually maneu-
ver, or manipulate into the right posi-
ƙɔ̀ƙɔ̀ta (ƙɔ̀ƙɔ̀tà-) n. red-billed hornbill. tion (e.g. a midwife guiding a preborn
Tockus erythrorhynchus. infant).
ƙolom (ƙolomú-) pl. ƙólómìka . ƙúdès (ƙúdèsì-) 1 v. to dump, pour, spill.
n. wooden spoon. 2 v. to pay (poll-tax).
Ƙolomúsábá (Ƙolomú-sábáà-) n. name ƙúdesa ɗíróe así v. to be emitted noctur-
of a river and associated human habita- nally (of semen).
tions in Kenya; now called Oropoi. Lit. ƙúdesa káúe mucéíkàke v. to sprinkle
‘spoon-river’. ashes along paths.
ƙòlòn (ƙòlònì-) v. to bleed from the nose, ƙúdèsìàm (ƙúdèsì-àmà-) pl. ƙúdesiika .
have a nosebleed. n. dump truck, tipper.
ƙɔɔlɔ́mɔ̀nà dɛ̀ìkàɛ v. to be clubfooted, ƙúdesuƙota (ƙúdesuƙotí-) v. to dump or
have talipes. pour out, spill.
ƙòòn (ƙòònì-/ƙa-) v. to go, leave. ƙúdetés (ƙúdetésí-) 1 v. to dump out,
ƙooná dìdìke v. to go up. pour out, spill. 2 v. to miscarry.

ƙúdetésá ɗíróe ƙwár

ƙúdetésá ɗíróe v. to come, ejaculate. Lit. ƙʉtsʼánánès (ƙʉtsʼánánèsì-) 1 n. harm-

‘to spill semen’. fulness, ruinousness. 2 n. sorcery, wiz-
ƙúduƙûda (ƙúduƙúdù-) n. safari ant. Do- ardry. Lit. ‘being wormlike’. See also
rylus spp. badirétínànès.
ƙʉɗɛ́s (ƙʉɗɛ́sí-) v. to suck, suck on. See ƙùtsʼàtsʼa (ƙùtsʼàtsʼì-) pl. ƙutsʼátsʼíka .
also tsʼʉ́ʉ́tɛ́s. n. gland, lymph node, secretor.
ƙʉɗɛtɛ́s (ƙʉɗɛtɛ́sí-) v. to suck out (e.g. ƙutsʼátsʼíka ni tatí n. salivary glands.
bone marrow). ƙútu (ƙútú) ideo. cluck! (the sound a hen
ƙʉ́ɗʉ́nɔ́s (ƙʉ́ɗʉ́nɔ́sí-) v. to suck on each makes).
other (e.g. during foreplay). ƙúzùmòn (ƙúzùmònì-) v. to be bent
ƙʉʝʉ́dɔ̀n (ƙʉʝʉ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to garble. over.
ƙʉ́ƙa (ƙʉ́ƙá-) pl. ƙʉ́ƙítín. n. runt. ƙwáaƙwá (ƙwáaƙwáà-) n. white-bellied
go-away bird. Corythaixoides leuco-
ƙʉ́ƙín (ƙʉ́ƙínì-) n. brood, litter, pack of
runts. Also used disparagingly of hu-
man children. ƙwaáta (ƙwaatá-) n. frog, toad.
ƙʉƙʉmanés (ƙʉƙʉmanésí-) v. to turn ƙwaáta (ƙwaaté-) n. birth, birthing, giv-
one’s back to (e.g. one’s mother-in- ing birth.
law). ƙwaata ɓíɓàe n. laying of eggs.
ƙʉƙʉmánítésuƙota (ƙʉƙʉmánítésuƙotí-) ƙwaatá na áwìkàe n. toad. Lit. ‘frog of
v. to turn back to back. homes’.
ƙʉƙʉmánón (ƙʉƙʉmánónì-) v. to face ƙwaata ná ɡààn n. birthing complica-
back to back. tions, difficult labor (breach, miscar-
ƙʉƙʉmánónuƙota (ƙʉƙʉmánónuƙotí-) riage, etc.). Lit. ‘birth that is bad’.
v. to turn back to back. ƙwaatetés (ƙwaatetésí-) v. to bear, de-
liver, give birth to.
ƙúl (ƙúló-) pl. ƙúlítín. n. log.
ƙwaatetésíàm (ƙwaatetésí-àmà-) pl.
ƙʉlɛ́ (ƙʉlɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. ƙʉlɛ́ìka . n. elbow.
ƙwaatetésíika . n. parent (by birth).
ƙʉlɛ́èm (ƙʉlɛ́-èmè-) n. lower tricep. Lit.
ƙwaatítetés (ƙwaatítetésí-) 1 v. to help
give birth, midwife. 2 v. to produce.
ƙumúƙúmánón (ƙumúƙúmánónì-) 1
ƙwaatítetésíàm (ƙwaatítetésí-àmà-) pl.
v. to be bumpy, pot-holed, rough. 2
ƙwaatítetésíika . n. midwife.
v. to be hilly, rough, uneven.
ƙwaatón (ƙwaatónì-) v. to give birth.
ƙʉtsʼa (ƙʉtsʼá) 1 n. grub, worm. 2 n. bug,
insect. 3 n. germ, microbe, parasite. ƙwàɗe (ƙwàɗè) quant. few.
ƙʉtsʼáám (ƙʉtsʼá-ámà-) pl. ƙʉtsʼáíka . ƙwaɗiƙwáɗón (ƙwaɗiƙwáɗónì-) v. to
n. creep, freak, weirdo (e.g. the mem- be fewer.
bers of tribes who practice sorcery). ƙwàɗòn (ƙwàɗònì-) v. to be few, little.
Lit. ‘worm-person’. ƙwaɗonuƙota (ƙwaɗonuƙotí-) v. to be-
ƙʉtsʼácɛ́mɛ́r (ƙʉtsʼá-cɛ́mɛ́rí-) n. insecti- come fewer, decrease in number.
cide (modern or traditional). Lit. ‘bug- ƙwár (ƙwárá-) pl. ƙwárítín. 1 n. cicatrix,
medicine’. scar. 2 n. bruise, contusion.

ƙwàz ƙwɨxídɔ̀n

ƙwàz (ƙwàzà-) pl. ƙwázìka . n. cloth, ƙwɛsɛ́ (ƙwɛsɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. ƙwéséikwa . 1 n. bro-
clothes, clothing, garment. ken gourd. 2 n. piece of junk, scrap.
ƙwàzàìm (ƙwàzà-ìmà-) pl. ƙwázika- ƙwɨʝɛ́s (ƙwɨʝɛ́sí-) v. to dislocate (a joint),
wika . n. small cloth. luxate.
ƙwɨʝímɔ́n (ƙwɨʝímɔ́nì-) v. to get dislo-
ƙwɛ̀ʝɛ (ƙwɛ̀ʝɛ̀) ideo. bllgh bllgh (sound of cated, luxated.
water boiling in a pot).
ƙwíl (ƙwílí) ideo. clink! (sound of metal
ƙwɛʝɛ́dɔ̀n (ƙwɛʝɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be boiling, on metal).
boil (with a rattling sound). ƙwìx (ƙwìxì) ideo. greenly.
ƙwɛʝíƙwɛ́ʝɔ̀n (ƙwɛʝíƙwɛ́ʝɔ̀nì-) v. to be ƙwɨxídɔ̀n (ƙwɨxídɔ̀nì-) v. to be verdant,
boiling (with a rattling sound). very green. See also xídɔ̀n.

Laatso lɛ̀ɓa

Laatso (Laatsoó-) n. name of a hill or láládziránón (láládziránónì-) v. to be
mountain. ripped, shredded, in shreds.
laɓa (laɓá-) pl. láɓíkwa . n. cache, stash lalatíɓón (lalatíɓónì-) pl. lalatíɓónìka .
(whose location may be forgotten). n. flat stone, stone slab (used to grind
laɓáɲámòn (laɓáɲámònì-) v. to be gap- tobacco, carry rubbish, cover granaries,
ing, wide-mouthed, yawning. See also or cover a rock well to protect it from
lafárámòn. the befouling of baboons).
làlòn (làlònì-) v. to be hideous, ugly. See
làf (làfʉ̀-) pl. láfítín. n. breast (of meat),
also itópénòn.
pec, pectoral muscle.
lalʉ́ʝɔ́n (lalʉ́ʝɔ́nì-) v. to be roomy, spa-
lafárámòn (lafárámònì-) v. to be gap-
cious. See also ɨlɔ́lɔ́mɔ̀n.
ing, wide-mouthed, yawning. See also
laɓáɲámòn. láŋ (láŋá-) pl. láŋítín. n. bogus, counter-
feit, fake, phoney, pseudo-.
láɡalaɡetés (láɡalaɡetésí-) v. to check or
spy on/out. laŋádòn (laŋádònì-) v. to be stifling, sul-
a try, unpleasantly warm.
làʝ (làʝà) ideo. loosely.
laŋírímòn (laŋírímònì-) v. to be broad,
laʝádòn (laʝádònì-) v. to be loosely tied stout (e.g. bodies, buildings).
down, unsecured. See also haʝádòn and
yaŋádòn. laŋírón (laŋírónì-) v. to be broad, stout
(e.g. bodies, buildings).
laʝámétòn (laʝámétònì-) 1 v. to collapse,
crumple, fall down. 2 v. to wilt, wither. làr (làrà-) pl. láríkwa . n. tobacco pipe.
3 v. to dissolve, melt (of fat). See also laradakwa (lara-dakú-) pl. lárákó-
ɲalámétòn. dakwitín. n. pipe-stem (often made
laʝetés (laʝetésí-) 1 v. to lay down/over from Carissa stems).
loosely (e.g. the last layer of grass on látsó (látsóò-) pl. látsóìka . n. drop-off,
a thatched roof). 2 v. to take off (e.g. edge of a cliff or rock, precipice.
beads from one’s neck). látsóìka (látsóìkà-) n. falls, waterfall.
lakámétòn (lakámétònì-) v. to descend, Lit. ‘cliff edges’.
go down (out of sight). leata (leatí-) pl. leatíkwa . 1 n. his/her/its
lakámón (lakámónì-) v. to descend, go brother. 2 n. his/her cousin (father’s
down (out of sight). brother’s son).
lakates (lakatesí-) v. to push into/over leatíím (leatí-ímà-) pl. leatíwíka .
the side. n. his/her niece or nephew (brother’s
lakatiés (lakatiesí-) 1 v. to push into/
over the side repeatedly. 2 v. to leatínánès (leatínánèsì-) n. brother-
down, gulp down, inhale (food). See hood, brotherliness.
also itúlákáɲés. lɛ̀ɓa (lɛ̀ɓà-) n. liquid honey.

lɛɓɛ́ɲɛ́mɔ̀n Lɛ̀rààƙwa

lɛɓɛ́ɲɛ́mɔ̀n (lɛɓɛ́ɲɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be open- lɛkɛ́síàm (lɛkɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. lɛkɛ́síika .

topped, unlidded. n. food retriever (esp. stored food in
lèɓètse (lèɓètsè) num. two. granaries).
leɓetsíón (leɓetsíónì-) v. to be in twos, lɛlɛmánétòn (lɛlɛmánétònì-) v. to ap-
two-by-two. pear, come into view, emerge.
leɓetsítésuƙota (leɓetsítésuƙotí-) v. to lɛlɛmánón (lɛlɛmánónì-) v. to be appear-
make two, put in twos or two-by-two. ing, coming into view, emerging (e.g. a
snake from a hole, or a vehicle over a
lèɓètso num. twice, two times.
leɓétsón (leɓétsónì-) v. to be two.
lɛlɛ́tɔ́n (lɛlɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to appear, come into
lèɓu (lèɓù) ideo. pudgily, puffily. view, emerge. See also pɛlɛ́mɛ́tɔ̀n.
leɓúdòn (leɓúdònì-) v. to be pudgy, lɛ́lɔ́n (lɛ́lɔ́nì-) v. to be fully seen, com-
puffy (like a plump person or swollen pletely visible.
body part). See also dúduránón.
Lemú (Lemúù-) n. a personal name.
lèdèr (lèdèrè) ideo. running naked. lemúánètòn (lemúánètònì-) 1 v. to be
léɗa (léɗá-) n. gecko species? hornless. 2 v. to be bare, naked, nude.
lɛɛmɛ́tɔ̀n (lɛɛmɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to stick out/up lɛŋ (lɛŋá-) n. honey badger, ratel. Mel-
(like a snake from the grass). livora capensis.
leɡé (leɡéè-) 1 n. craziness, insanity, lɛŋɛ́rɛ́mɔ̀n (lɛŋɛ́rɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be circum-
madness, mental illness. 2 n. demon cised.
possession. See also lejé. lɛŋɛ́s (lɛŋɛ́sí-) 1 v. to hunt (for honey).
lejé (lejéè-) 1 n. craziness, insanity, mad- 2 v. to bum, cadge, freeload, mooch,
ness, mental illness. 2 n. demon pos- sponge.
session. Also pronounced as leɡé. lɛŋɛ́síàm (lɛŋɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. lɛŋɛ́síika . 1
lejéàm (lejé-àmà-) pl. lejéika . n. mad n. honey hunter. 2 n. bum, cadger,
person, demon-possessed person. Also freeloader, moocher, sponge.
pronounced as legéàm. leŋúrúmòn (leŋúrúmònì-) v. to be bare,
lejéèda (lejéèdè-) 1 n. craziness, insanity, naked, nude.
madness, mental illness. 2 n. demon léó (léóò-) pl. léóín. 1 n. your brother. 2
possession. n. your cousin (father’s brother’s son).
lejénánès (lejénánèsì-) 1 n. craziness, in- léóím (léó-ímá-) pl. léówíka . n. your
sanity, mental illness. 2 n. demonic niece or nephew (brother’s child).
lɛ̀r (lɛ̀rà-) pl. lɛ́rítín. n. fever tree, or
lejétòda (lejé-tòdà-) n. insane talk. Naivasha thorn: tall acacia with pow-
lɛ́ʝɛ (lɛ́ʝɛ́) ideo. flash!: sound of bursting dery green-white bark, whose wood
in flames. is used to carve stools. Acacia xan-
lɛ́ʝɛ́tɔ́n (lɛ́ʝɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to catch fire, erupt thophloea.
in flames, ignite. lɛ̀r (lɛ̀rɛ̀) ideo. hardly, unbreakably.
lɛkɛ́s (lɛkɛ́sí-) v. to retrieve from storage Lɛ̀rààƙwa (Lɛ̀rà-àƙɔ̀-) n. name of a place.
(e.g. grain from a granary). Lit. ‘among fever trees’.

lɛrɛ́dɔ̀n loɓáya

lɛrɛ́dɔ̀n (lɛrɛ́dɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be hard, un- lìà (lìà) ideo. bright white, milky white,
breakable (e.g. bone, hardwood, rock). pure white.
2 v. to be frozen still, still, stock-still, líídòn (líídònì-) 1 v. to be blunt, dull.
stone-still (e.g. an eagle’s unblinking 2 v. to be quiet, silent. See also
eyes). 3 v. to be blockheaded, bone- duŋúlúmòn and tufádòn.
likiɗes (likiɗesí-) v. to reach and pull
lɛrɛ́kɛ́mɔ̀n (lɛrɛ́kɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be down.
gnarled, knobby (like bones or bulging,
dried out eyes). lɨkíɗímɔ̀n (lɨkíɗímɔ̀nì-) v. to be cuneal,
wedge-shaped (e.g. container, upper
lerúkúmòn (lerúkúmònì-) v. to be body).
medium-sized. See also ɓarɨɓárɔ́n and
ʝɔ̀ƙɔ̀n. liƙés (liƙésí-) v. to lean, tilt (e.g. one’s
head backward).
lèta (lètà-) pl. létítín. n. girl’s loincloth
made of beaded strings. lilétón (lilétónì-) v. to appall, astonish,
shock, horrify. The experiencer of this
létsa (létsá-) n. tiny termite species.
feeling is marked with the dative case.
lɛtsɛ́kɛ́ɛda (lɛtsɛ́kɛ́ɛdɛ-) n. purity of food
lìr (lìrì) ideo. heavily.
(e.g. white-ants with no wings or dirt,
honey with no rubbish, or grain with lìtɔ̀n (lìtɔ̀nì-) v. to be new (of plant
no chaff). growth).
lɛ̀tsʼɛ (lɛ̀tsʼɛ̀) ideo. bendily, whippily. líùù (líùù) ideo. zing! (sound of a bullet
passing close by). The vowels of this
lɛtsʼɛ́dɔ̀n (lɛtsʼɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be bendy,
word are pronounced silently.
whippy (like a limber body, or long hair
whipping back and forth). lìw (lìwì) ideo. smoothly.
leûz (leúzò-) n. charcoal. lɨwídɔ̀n (lɨwídɔ̀nì-) v. to be smooth (e.g.
a book, skin, or wood).
leúzìn (leúzìnì-) n. gunpowder. Lit. ‘its
charcoal’. lobá (lobáà-) pl. lóbaatikwa . n. grand-
lèwèɲ (lèwèɲì-) n. common ostrich.
Struthio camelus. Lɔbɛɛ́l (Lɔbɛɛ́lɛ̀-) n. name of a rocky hill
lèwèɲìdɛ̀ (lèwèɲì-dɛ̀à-) pl. leweɲidɛík . a far south of Ikland where Jie warriors
n. tripod. Lit. ‘ostrich-foot’. used to ambush vehicles.

Leweɲiika (Leweɲi-icé-) n. traditional lóburuʝa (lóburuʝí-) n. mildew, mold.

men’s age-group with the ostrich as its See also ɲóróiroya .
totem (#9 in the historical line). Lit. lɔɓaɓal (lɔɓaɓalí-) n. drying rack (on
‘Ostrich-Folk’. which grass is put below and above the
lɛ̂z (lɛ́zà-) pl. lɛ́zɨtín. n. mistle- grain being dried).
toe, parasitic plant (sometimes used for Lɔɓalɛl (Lɔɓalɛlɛ́-) n. month of weeding.
medicine and witchcraft). loɓáya (loɓáí-) n. unknown kind of sick-
lì (lìì) 1 ideo. bluntly, dully. 2 ideo. qui- ness that causes emaciation (said to
etly, silently. originate in Turkanaland).

lɔɓɛlɛɲ lóɗíkórócɛmɛ́r

lɔɓɛlɛɲ (lɔɓɛlɛɲí-) n. plant disease that Lɔcápa (Lɔcápʉ̀-) n. a personal name.

shrivels grain seed-heads and destroys Lɔcáráƙwata (Lɔcáráƙwatí-) n. name
the seeds. of a hill or mountain and surrounding
lóɓíliwás (lóɓíliwásì-) n. white-tailed area.
mongoose. Ichneumia albicauda. lɔ̀cɛ̀ɡɛ̀r (lɔ̀cɛ̀ɡɛ̀rɛ̀-) pl. lɔcɛ́ɡɛ́rìka .
lɔ́ɓírɨɓír (lɔ́ɓírɨɓírá-) pl. lɔ́ɓírɨɓíríka . n. three-legged stool with a round seat.
n. medulla spinalis, spinal cord. lócén (lócénì-) n. shrub species that, at
lɔɓɨ̂z (lɔɓízì-) pl. lɔɓízìka . n. in- the order of a witchdoctor, may be put
ner rooftop, upper ceiling (where roof on one’s threshold to counteract the
sticks are jammed into a point). curse of dead person; it may also be put
lɔ̀ɓɔ (lɔ̀ɓɔ̀) ideo. thickly. in one’s bathwater to ward off trouble
lɔɓɔ́dɨtɛtɛ́s (lɔɓɔ́dɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to thicken or sprayed on a trap for success. Ascle-
up optimally (e.g. beer, cement, por- piadaceae sp.
ridge). Locíyo (Locíyoó-) n. a personal name.
lɔɓɔ́dɔ̀n (lɔɓɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be optimally Locom (Locomó-) n. name of a hill or
thick (e.g. beer, cement, porridge). mountain.
lòɓòlìà (lòɓòlìà-) n. morning glory: Locóm (Locómò-) n. a personal name.
flowery vine whose leaves are cooked Locómín (Locómínì-) n. a personal
and eaten as a vegetable. Basella alba. name.
loɓóŋiɓóŋ (loɓóŋiɓóŋì-) n. small flow- Lɔcɔ́ríàlɔ̀sìà (Lɔcɔ́ríàlɔ̀sìà-) n. name of a
ering plant species whose bark and/or hill or mountain and associated river.
stems are crushed, cooked, and taken
lòcòrò (lòcòròò-) n. water scorpion.
for stomach ailments. Kleinia sp.
Lɔɓɔsɔɔŋɔ́r (Lɔɓɔsɔɔŋɔ́rì-) n. name of
Locóto (Locótoó-) n. name of a place.
a river and ravine running northeast
from Looɗóì. lɔ̀da (lɔ̀dà-) pl. lɔ́dɨtín. 1 n. animal-tail
loɓôz (loɓózò-) pl. loɓózìka . n. neb, tassel worn by men as an accessory. 2
snout. n. silky hair at the end of animal tails.
Loɓúɓúwo (Loɓúɓúwoó-) n. a personal loɗeɗa (loɗeɗé-) n. vine species with
name. cucumber-like fruits and leaves that
are rubbed on the inner thighs of a
lɔɓʉ́kɛʝɛ́n (lɔɓʉ́kɛʝɛ́nì-) n. stunted birthing mother and tied to the waist of
growth. the newborn to prevent diarrhea. Cu-
lóɓúlukúɲ (lóɓúlukúɲù-) 1 n. rhinocerus cumis figarei.
beetle grub. Oryctes sp. 2 n. HIV-AIDS.
lóɗíkór (lóɗíkóró-) n. scorpion.
See also sílím.
lóɗíkórócɛmɛ́r (lóɗíkóró-cɛmɛ́rí-)
Lɔɓʉráka (Lɔɓʉráká-) n. name of a small
n. scorpion herb: succulent plant
hill where Ik lived in the mid-1900s.
species whose latex is applied to scor-
loɓúrútùta (loɓúrútùtù-) n. bishop bird pion stings and whose reddish stems
(red or yellow). Euplectes sp. may be worn by girls as a kind of wig.
Lɔcám (Lɔcámʉ̀-) n. a personal name. Euphorbia prostrata.

lóɗíwé lɔkabʉ́ás

lóɗíwé (lóɗíwéí-) n. tree species whose Lɔɡyɛ́l (Lɔɡyɛ́lì-) n. a personal name.

bitter leaves are eaten as a vegetable. loiɓóròka (loiɓóròkù-) n. tall grass
Maerua angolensis. species found in the forest which is
Lɔ́ɗɔ́wɔ̀n (Lɔ́ɗɔ́wɔ̀nɔ̀-) n. name of a hill used to rain-proof granaries.
or mountain. Loíkí (Loíkíì-) n. a personal name.
lɔ́ɗʉ́mɛ́l (lɔ́ɗʉ́mɛ́lá-) n. firefly (that
Loipo (Loipoó-) n. November: month of
glows green).
clearing woodland. See also Kawés.
Lɔɗʉ́ŋɛ (Lɔɗʉ́ŋɛɛ́-) n. March: month of
Lɔɨsíká (Lɔɨsíkáà-) n. name of a river.
edible termites. See also Dáŋ.
Lòìtà (Lòìtàà-) n. name of a place in
Lɔɗʉ́r (Lɔɗʉ́rʉ̀-) n. name of a hill or
Tímù and its associated human habita-
mountain and associated river.
loɗúrú (loɗúrúù-) pl. loɗúrúìka . n. gra-
nary, storehouse. Lɔɨtánɨta (Lɔɨtánɨtí-) n. name of a river
and surrounding area in Lɔkɨtɔ́ì where
loɗúrúdɛ̀ (loɗúrú-dɛ̀à-) pl. loɗúrúdɛíka . the Ik used to initiate age-groups.
n. base of a granary.
lɔʝála (lɔʝálaá-) n. jail. See also ɲáʝála.
loɗúrúkɔ̀ka (loɗúrú-kɔ̀kà-) n. granary
reed: shrub whose stems are used to loʝeméya (loʝeméí-) n. shrub whose
make granaries and whose reddish par- milky white sap is put in sores.
asitic plant is worn as a charm or Lóʝérè (Lóʝérèè-) n. a personal name.
ground and blown into the air to ward Also pronounced as Lóʝórè.
off enemies. lɔ́ʝɔʝɔ́ (lɔ́ʝɔʝɔ́ɔ̀-) n. regrown grain (i.e.
loɗúwa (loɗúwaá-) n. jet, jet plane. when millet or sorghum grow back and
Lóɗwàr (Lóɗwàrì-) 1 n. Lodwar town produce again).
in Turkanaland, Kenya. 2 n. name of a lɔʝɔkɔtáwa (lɔʝɔkɔtáʉ̀-) n. philanthopist:
cave with a lot of edible termites. donor, humanitarian, missionary, non-
lofílitsí (lofílitsíì-) n. Sudan gum arabic governmental organization (NGO).
or gum acacia: tree species with nasty From the Ateker (Teso-Turkana) word
hooked thorns that rip skin and cloth- meaning ‘good-hearted’.
ing; hunters often remove clothing be- lɔ̀ʝʉ̀rʉ̀tà (lɔ̀ʝʉ̀rʉ̀tàà-) n. slipknot.
fore trying to penetrate its brush; this
loʝúulú (loʝúulúù-) n. sorghum variety
tree, found down in the Turkana plains
with drooping seed-heads, red seeds; it
is used for fencing and is eaten by live-
is very bitter and used to make leaven.
stock. Acacia senegal. See also ɗeréta .
Lɔkaaƙɨlɨta (Lɔkaaƙɨlɨtí-) n. name of a
lófúka (lófúkù-) n. Verreaux’s eagle-owl.
hill or mountain.
Bubo lacteus.
lɔɡɛ́m (lɔɡɛ́mʉ̀-) n. game warden, game Lòkààpèlòta (Lòkààpèlòtò-) n. name of
ranger, wildlife authorities. From En- the river draining Nàkòrìtààwa .
glish ‘game’ park. lɔkaapín (lɔkaapíní-) pl. lɔkaapíníka .
loɡeréɲo (loɡeréɲoó-) n. green stink n. shoelace, shoe-strap.
bug. Pentatomidae. lɔkabʉ́ás (lɔkabʉ́ásì-) n. crumbly rock.

lɔkáʝʉ́ Lɔkɨtɔ́ya

lɔkáʝʉ́ (lɔkáʝʉ́ʉ̀-) n. water running down rule in northeast Uganda and north-
a flat surface (e.g. over a rock, into a west Kenya.
cave, over a tin roof). Lòkìlè (Lòkìlèè-) n. name of a hill or
lokaliliŋ (lokaliliŋí-) n. lineolate blind mountain and associated river.
snake. Typhlops lineolatus. lokilókón (lokilókónì-) v. to be loose,
Lokapel (Lokapelí-) n. a personal name. wiggly (e.g. a tooth or stump).
lɔkapɛta (lɔkapɛtá-) pl. lɔkápɛ́tìka . 1 lókílóróŋ (lókílóróŋó-) n. queen bee.
n. appendix. 2 n. appendicitis. Also called okílóŋór.
lɔkapʉ́r (lɔkapʉ́rá-) n. steam, vapor. Lokinéne (Lokinéneé-) n. name of a
Lɔkasaŋatɛ́ (Lɔkasaŋatɛ́ɛ̀-) n. name of a ridge in Timu and its associated human
river near Lowákuʝa . habitations.
lɔ̀kàtàta (lɔ̀kàtàtà-) pl. lɔkátátìka . Lɔkíŋɔ́l (Lɔkíŋɔ́lì-) n. an older name for
n. African wild date palm. Phoenix re- Oropoi, Kenya.
clinata. Lokipáka (Lokipákaá-) n. name of a hill
lɔkátɔ́rɔ̀ta (lɔkátɔ́rɔ̀tɔ̀-) n. breakfast beer or mountain and associated river.
drunk early in the morning to warm up lɔkɨram (lɔkɨramá-) n. garden edge (not
the body, e.g. before going to the gar- the same as the boundary between gar-
den to work. dens).
Lɔ̀kàtsa (Lɔ̀kàtsì-) n. a personal name. lɔkíríɗɨɗí (lɔkíríɗɨɗíì-) n. maize variety
lɔkaʉɗa (lɔkaʉɗɛ́-) n. maize weevil. with small cobs and mixed black and
Sitophilus spp. white kernels.
Lokauwa (Lokauwaá-) n. a personal Lókírù (Lókírùù-) n. a personal name.
name. lɔkɨsíná (lɔkɨsínáà-) n. a condition that
lokemú (lokemúù-) pl. lokemúìka . involves a twitching under the skin of
n. mbira, sanza, thumb piano. the left breast/pec, which is believed to
Lokéɲériɓɔ (Lokéɲériɓɔɔ́-) n. a personal be a disease.
name. Lɔkɨtɛlɛ́ɛ́lɔɓa (Lɔkɨtɛlɛ́ɛ́lɔɓá-) n. name of
lɔ́kɛ́rʉ́ (lɔ́kɛ́rʉ́ʉ̀-) n. tree species with a place in the east near Tulútúl.
a distinctive pungent odor and whose lokítoɲí (lokítoɲíì-) n. smooth, black,
berries are eaten by children; its leaves and very hard kind of stone (used as
are pounded, soaked, and the juice a blacksmith’s hammer). Also called
is poured into infected ears. Cassia sàbàɡwàs.
singueana. lòkìtòŋ (lòkìtòŋò-) pl. lokítóŋìka .
loki (lokií-) n. brown parrot. Poicephalus n. doorstep, threshold. See also
meyeri. lòrìòŋòn.
lókíɓoɓó (lókíɓoɓóò-) n. gecko. Lɔkɨtɔ́ya (Lɔkɨtɔ́ì-) n. name of a river and
Lokicókio (Lokicókió-) n. Lokichokio associated human habitations.
town in northwest Kenya. Lɔkɨtɔ́ya (Lɔkɨtɔ́ì-) n. name of a hill, the
Lɔkíʝʉká (Lɔkíʝʉkáà-) n. name of rebel surrounding area, and associated hu-
group who resisted colonial British man habitations.

lɔkɨtʉ́r loƙeƙes

lɔkɨtʉ́r (lɔkɨtʉ́rá-) n. pinworms. lòkòsòs (lòkòsòsì-) pl. lokósósìka .

lokiyo (lokiyoó-) n. eye disease that n. anthill or termite mound with large
closes the eyes and causes tears. holes.
lòko (lòkò) ideo. jiggily, loosely. Lɔ̀kʉ̀ɗà (Lɔ̀kʉ̀ɗàà-) n. personal name
lokoɓél (lokoɓélè-) pl. lokoɓélín. of a Dodoth man from Loyoro who ad-
n. grain thief. ministered the Ik during the reign of
the Baganda king Mutesa I.
lokódòn (lokódònì-) v. to be jiggly,
loose (e.g. a car part or tool-head). lɔkʉ́ɗa (lɔkʉ́ɗá-) pl. lɔkʉ́ɗíka . n. small
garden barn or granary with a door on
lɔkɔ́ɗa (lɔkɔ́ɗá-) pl. lɔkɔ́ɗíka . n. hooked
the side.
lókóɗém (lókóɗémá-) n. thorny vine lókúɗukuɗéta (lókúɗukuɗétí-) n. vine
species used in house-building. Tod- species that is highly poisonous and
dalia asiatica. whose fruits are ground, mixed with
food, and used as rat poison. Capparis
lɔkɔɗɛtɛ́s (lɔkɔɗɛtɛ́sí-) v. to pull down tomentosa.
(with a hooked stick).
Lɔkʉlɨta (Lɔkʉlɨtí-) n. Year of Lɔkʉlɨt, a
lɔkɔɗíkɔ́ɗɔ́n (lɔkɔɗíkɔ́ɗɔ́nì-) v. to have
good year following Lotííra.
a crooked neck.
lɔkɔ́ɗɔ́n (lɔkɔ́ɗɔ́nì-) v. to be hooked, lokum (lokumú-) pl. lokúmíka . n. large,
hook-shaped. See also sokóɗómòn. tall tree species whose yellow fruits are
eaten raw and which vultures like to
lòkòɗòŋìrò (lòkòɗòŋìròò-) n. gluttony, nest in. Mimusops kummel.
gobbling (food to the deprivation of
others). Lɔkʉ́ma (Lɔkʉ́maí-) n. name of a river.
lòkòɗòŋìròàm (lòkòɗòŋìrò-àmà-) pl. lo- Lɔ́kʉ́rʉ́ka (Lɔ́kʉ́rʉ́kʉ́-) n. name of a
kiɗoŋiroika . n. glutton, gobbler, gour- place where ravens used to come to
mand. See also loƙeƙes. bathe in a rock pool.
lokoɗoŋironánés (lokoɗoŋironánésí-) lɔkʉtʉ́r (lɔkʉtʉ́rá-) pl. lɔkʉtʉ́ríka .
n. gluttonousness, rapaciousness. n. gourd with a funnel-like stem.
lokoita (lokoití-) pl. lokóítìka . n. big Lɔkʉwám (Lɔkʉwámʉ̀-) n. a personal
white waist bead. name.
lókóka (lókókò-) n. solider ant or ter- Lɔkwakaramɔ́ya (Lɔkwakaramɔ́ì-)
mite. n. name of a mountainside, the sur-
Lɔkɔl (Lɔkɔlí-) n. a personal name. rounding area, and associated human
Lɔ́kɔ̀l (Lɔ́kɔ̀lì-) n. name of a place. habitations.
lokóoɗo (lokóoɗoó-) pl. lokóòɗòìka . Lokwaŋ (Lokwaŋá-) n. February:
n. large leather sack. month of planting. See also Ɓètsʼòn.
lɔkɔ́r (lɔkɔ́rí-) pl. lɔkɔ́ríka . n. crotch, Lokwaŋ (Lokwaŋá-) n. a personal name.
groin. loƙeƙes (loƙeƙesí-) pl. loƙéƙésìka .
Lòkòrìkìpì (Lòkòrìkìpìì-) n. name of a n. glutton, gobbler, gourmand. See also
place near Loyóro. lòkòɗòŋìròàm.

loƙírota Lómìl

loƙírota (loƙírotí-) n. robin-chat (white- lòlòta (lòlòtà-) n. giant Gambian rat.

browed and others?). Cossypha sp. Cricetomys gambianus.
loƙól (loƙólé-) n. eagle. lolotánón (lolotánónì-) v. to be crowded
lóƙólíl (lóƙólílá-) pl. lóƙólílíka . or jammed together.
n. swing. lɔ́lɔwí (lɔ́lɔwíì-) n. tall tree species
lɔ́ƙɔ́ŋ (lɔ́ƙɔ́ŋʉ̀-) pl. lɔ́ƙɔ́ŋìka . n. sacred whose sap is rubbed into wounds as a
tree where ceremonies like itówéés are disinfectant, whose wood is used for
held. Also called ɲɔ́ƙɔ́ŋ. carving wooden containers, and whose
lɔ́ƙɔ́ŋʉ̀dɛ̀ (lɔ́ƙɔ́ŋʉ̀-dɛ̀à-) pl. lɔ́ƙɔ́ŋɨka- trunk is used to support the sacred tree
dɛíka . n. base of the sacred tree. (lɔ́ƙɔ́ŋ). Commiphora campestris.
loƙózòmòn (loƙózòmònì-) v. to be long- Lóloya (Lóloí-) n. name of a river.
necked (of gourd or women who wear Lɔmaaníkɔ (Lɔmaaníkɔɔ́-) n. name of a
neck-beads). river.
loƙú (loƙúù-) pl. loƙúaikwa . n. medium- Lɔmacarɨwárɛta (Lɔmacarɨwárɛtɛ́-)
sized, small-mouthed gourd (used for n. name of a river.
storing water, beer, or grain). Lɔmálɛ́r (Llɔmálɛ́rì-) n. name of a place.
Loƙúm (Loƙúmú-) n. name of a savan- Lomaruka (Lomarukú-) n. April: month
nah area south of Tímù. of mushrooms. See also Lɔmɔ́ya .
lolataɓa (lolataɓá-) n. large, flat floor- Lomataŋaáwa (Lomataŋá-áwà-)
like boulder. n. name of a place where some Ik used
lɔlɛ́ɛʉ́ (lɔlɛ́ɛʉ́ʉ̀-) n. cattle disease that to live.
causes meat to become bitter. Lɔ́mɛ́ʝa (lɔ́mɛ́ʝà-) n. name of a mountain
Lɔlɛ́líà (Lɔlɛ́líà-) n. name of a place. sloping westward off Morúŋole.
Lolém (Lolémù-) n. a personal name. lɔmɛ́ʝɛ́kɛlɛ́ (lɔmɛ́ʝɛ́kɛlɛ́ɛ̀-) n. cockroach,
lolemukán (lolemukání-) pl. lolemu- roach.
káníka . n. tool or weapon without a lóméléwa (lóméléwá-) pl. lóméléwá-
handle. ikwa . n. widow(er). See also ɲepúrósita .
lóliita (lóliití-) n. false accuser or wit- loménio (loménió-) n. swallow, swift.
ness. See also kɛ́rínɔ́síàm. Lɔmɛ́r (Lɔmɛ́rà-) n. a personal name.
lolítsa (lolítsí-) n. dense forest, jungle. Loméríɗoka (Loméríɗokó-) n. name of
Lolítsíàƙwa (Lolítsí-àƙɔ̀-) n. name of a a hill or mountain.
densely forested place. Lit. ‘in the jun- lomerúka (lomerúká-) n. sweet-
gle’. smelling plant species growing under-
lɔlɔanón (lɔlɔanónì-) v. to be discontent, ground, invisible until guinea-fowl un-
dissatisfied. cover it; a decoction from its red roots
Lɔlɔɓáya (Lɔlɔɓáí-) n. October. See also is drunk as a medicine.
Terés. Lɔmíʝa (Lɔmíʝí-) n. name of a mountain
lolómónuƙota (lolómónuƙotí-) 1 v. to and surrounding area that was home to
shrivel up (e.g. seeds in the ground). 2 a fairy who told on wrongdoers.
v. to decay, dry out (e.g. bones, hair). Lómìl (Lómìlà-) n. name of a river.

Lɔ́mɨl Lòŋòlè

Lɔ́mɨl (Llɔ́mɨlí-) n. name of a hill or lomuƙe (lomuƙeí-) n. courgette, edible

mountain. gourd, squash, zucchini. Lagenaria sp.
lòmìl (lòmìlà-) n. new honeycomb de- Lɔmʉ́ɲɛ́n (Lɔmʉ́ɲɛ́nì-) n. a personal
posits. name.
lɔ́mɨlí (lɔ́mɨlíì-) n. scincid, skink. Lómúrìà (Lómúrìà-) n. a personal name.
Mabuya margaritifer. Lomutsú (Lomutsúù-) n. a personal
lɔ́mílɨmíl (lɔ́mílɨmílá-) n. glandular name.
swelling. Loɲá (Loɲáà-) n. a personal name.
lɔ́mɔ́ɗaáta (lɔ́mɔ́ɗaátí-) n. short grass Lɔɲákwa (Lɔɲákʉ́-) n. name of a moun-
species with small hooks that catch tain pass.
clothing and itch and which is tied
Loɲáŋálem (Loɲáŋálemú-) n. a personal
to sorghum stalks to discourage birds
from landing. Triumfetta annua.
Lɔ̀ɲàŋàsʉ̀wà (Lɔ̀ɲàŋàsʉ̀wàà-) n. a per-
Lomoɗokoɡéc (Lomoɗokoɡecí-) n. July:
sonal name.
month of gourd harvest. See also
Ilíŋéètsʼa . Lɔŋása (Lɔŋásaí-) n. name of a river.
Lomoɗóɲ (Lomoɗóɲó-) n. name of a loŋazuta (loŋazutú-) n. mixture of seeds
mountain and associated human habi- from the bride and bridegroom’s fam-
tations. ilies that is ceremonially planted as a
symbol of the admixed fertility of bod-
lómoloró (lómoloróò-) n. sharp stick
ies and lands.
forming the pinnacle of a traditional
hut. lòŋìr (lòŋìrò-) n. short tree species
found growing in thick groves and
Lomoŋin (Lomoŋiní-) n. a personal
whose sweet black fruits are eaten.
Meyna tetraphylla.
lomóŋin (lomóŋiní-) pl. lomóŋiníka . lɔŋɨzɛta (lɔŋɨzɛtɛ́-) n. black cleg, biting
n. large gunny sack. See also ɲáwaawá. fly (associated with warthogs).
Lɔmɔ́ya (Lɔmɔ́ì-) n. a personal name. lɔ́ŋízɨŋîz (lɔ́ŋízɨŋízá-) 1 n. burrowing
Lɔmɔ́ya (Lɔmɔ́í-) n. April: month of ground beetle (that can ring trees). 2
mushrooms. See also Lomaruka . n. cut that developes spontaneously
lɔmɔ́ya (lɔmɔ́ì-) n. plant whose parts are under the toes, which the Ik treat with
rubbed on the open wounds of cattle to earwax.
ward off flies and biting insects. Datura lɔŋɔanón (lɔŋɔanónì-) v. to be confused,
stramonium. disorderly, jumbled, topsy-turvy.
lɔmɔ́ya (lɔmɔ́ì-) n. poisonous mushroom lɔŋɔanónuƙota (lɔŋɔanónuƙotí-) 1 v. to
species with a conical top. become confused, disorderly, or jum-
lomucir (lomucirí-) pl. lomúcírika . bled up. 2 v. to go into pandemonium,
n. type of bolt-action rifle. panic.
Lomuka (Lomukú-) n. January: month Loŋóle (Loŋóleé-) n. a personal name.
of grass burning. See also Kùpòn. Lòŋòlè (Lòŋòlèè-) n. a personal name.

loŋóléhò Lopúsór

loŋóléhò (loŋólé-hòò-) pl. loŋóléhoíka . Lopeleméri (Lopelemérií-) n. a personal

n. hip joint socket. name.
Loŋólépalɔ́r (Loŋólépalɔ́rɔ́-) n. a per- Lɔpɛlɨpɛl (Lɔpɛlɨpɛlí-) n. name of a place
sonal name. far southwest of Ikland.
Loŋólì (Loŋólìì-) n. a personal name. lopem (lopemú-) pl. lopémíka . 1 n. flat
loŋórómòn (loŋórómònì-) v. to be dom- area. 2 n. plateau, tableland. 3 n. level,
ical, hemispherical (like a round hut). storey.
lɔŋɔ́ta (lɔŋɔ́tá-) n. enemies, foes. lopemúím (lopemú-ímà-) pl. lopémíka-
wika . n. stair, step.
lɔŋɔ́tánànès (lɔŋɔ́tánànèsì-) n. enmity,
hostility. lopéren (lopérení-) n. ghost, ghoul,
a phantom, wraith (associated with
loŋɔ́tásìtsʼ (loŋɔ́tá-sìtsʼà-) n. sacrifice
for warding off enemies.
Lɔpɛ́ta (Lɔpɛ́tí-) n. name of a hill or
lɔŋɔ́tɔ́m (lɔŋɔ́tɔ́mà-) pl. lɔŋɔ́ta . n. enemy,
Lɔ́ŋʉ́sʉl (Lɔ́ŋʉ́sʉlʉ́-) n. name of a hill or lópeya (lópeí-) pl. lópèìka . n. pancreas.
mountain. Lopéyóka (Lopéyóko-) n. a personal
Loocíkwa (Loocíkwaá-) n. name of a name.
hill. Lopíar (Lopíarí-) n. Year of Lopíar
Lɔɔɗíŋ (Lɔɔɗíŋì-) n. name of a moun- (1980), a year that brought disease and
tain in Didingaland, South Sudan. Also famine on the Ik, leading to the death
called Lotukéì. and displacement of many.
Lòòɗòs (Lòòɗòsì-) n. name of a hill or Lopíè (Lopíè-) n. a personal name.
mountain. lɔ́pírɨpír (lɔ́pírɨpírá-) n. wood-boring in-
Looɗóy (Looɗóì-) n. name of a hill in sect (identified by the piles of sawdust
Timu, the surrounding area, and asso- it leaves below).
ciated human habitations. lɔpɨtá (lɔpɨtáí-) pl. lɔpɨtáíka . 1 n. drying
lɔɔmʉ́yá (lɔɔmʉ́yáà-) n. blue-eared star- rack. 2 n. platform, podium. 3 n. altar.
ling (greater or lesser). Lamprotornis. lɔpɨtáá na ƙófóikóe n. dish-drying rack.
lɔɔrán (lɔɔrání-) n. glow of a fire at Lopokóka (Lopokókò-) n. name of a
night. mountain to the east of Timu. Also
lóórì (lóórìì-) pl. lóórììka . n. lorry, truck. called Soƙoɡwáás.
See also ɲolórì. Loporukɔlɔ́ŋ (Loporukɔlɔ́ŋì-) n. name
lɔɔrʉ́k (lɔɔrʉ́kʉ́-) n. whydah (Eastern of a place.
paradise or pin-tailed). Vidua sp. lɔpɔ́tsa (lɔpɔ́tsá-) n. clear fluid found in
Lɔɔsɔ́m (Lɔɔsɔ́mɔ̀-) n. name of a river. an elephant’s stomach.
lɔ́pɛ́ɗɛpɛ́ɗa (lɔ́pɛ́ɗɛpɛ́ɗɛ́-) n. bat. lɔ́pʉ́l (lɔ́pʉ́lì-) pl. lɔ́pʉ́lìka . n. small ob-
Lopéɗó (Lopéɗóò-) n. name of a moun- long edible gourd. Lagenaria sp.
tainous area south of Ikland. Lopúsór (Lopúsórì-) n. a personal name.

Lopúwà Lotííra

Lopúwà (Lopúwàà-) n. name of a moun- lɔsaláta (lɔsalátí-) n. plant species

tain where there is a large well. whose root decoction is blown into the
Lópúwà (Lópúwàà) n. a personal name. anus with a pipe to treat diarrhea. Gom-
phocarpus fruticosus.
lɔ̀r (lɔ̀rɔ̀) ideo. bulbously, bulgingly.
Lɔ̀sɛ̀rà (Lɔ̀sɛ̀ràà-) n. name of a hill.
Lɔrɛŋ (Lɔrɛŋɛ́-) n. name of a flat place
in Turkanaland, Kenya. Losíke (Losíkeé-) n. a personal name.
Loriɓóɓó (Loriɓóɓóò-) n. name of an Lósíl (Lósílì-) n. name of a hill or moun-
area at bottom of a ridge along the Ik tain.
escarpment. lósínáka (lósínáká-) n. smut fungus (on
lɔríɗa (lɔríɗá-) n. urinary tract infection maize or sorghum).
(possibly sexually transmitted, mani- Losíroíáwa (Losíroí-áwà-) n. name of an
fested in painful urination). Ik home that was burned down long
lɔ̀rìƙìlà (lɔ̀rìƙìlàà-) n. genet. Genetta tig- ago by a boy named Losíroi. Lit.
rina. ‘Losíroi’s place’.
loríónómor (loríónómorí-) n. long-leaf Losíroya (Losíroí-) n. a personal name.
tobacco (now found growing in the Lòsòlìà (Lòsòlìà-) n. name of a moun-
wild). See also pɛ́lɛ́ɗɛ̀ka . tain northwest of Ikland that the Ik
used to hunt and gather on. Also called
lòrìòŋòn (lòrìòŋònì-) n. doorstep,
Mt. Zulia.
threshold. See also lòkìtòŋ.
Losor (Losoró-) n. name of a place.
loríta (lorítá-) n. shrub species growing
at the base of boulders; its small black lósùàɲ (lósùàɲà-) pl. losúáɲìka .
roots are dug up and crushed during n. sharpening stone, whetstone.
termite harvest to ensure a good har- Lósʉ́ɓán (Lósʉ́ɓáná-) n. August. See
vest; roots may also be ground, dried, also Ɗiwamúce and Iɗátáŋɛ́r.
and applied to sores as a disinfectant, losúka (losúkù-) n. candidiasis, monilia-
or drunk as a remedy for underarm and sis: fungal infection of the mouth and
back pain. throat.
lɔrɔ́dɔ̀n (lɔrɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be bulbous, lòtàbùsèn (lòtàbùsènì-) pl. lotábù-
bulging. See also bulúƙúmòn. sènìka . n. dust devil, whirlwind.
lorokon (lorokoní-) pl. lorókónìka . lotáɗá (lotáɗáà-) n. bandit, robber.
n. adze. lotáɗánànès (lotáɗánànèsì-) n. ban-
Lorokonídàkwa (Lorokoní-dàkù-) ditry, robbery.
n. constellation of seven-stars resem- lɔ̀tàfàr (lɔ̀tàfàrà-) n. grass species whose
bling an adze handle. Lit. ‘adze-wood’. seeds are ground and eaten; children
lorokoníɡwà (lorokoní-ɡwàà-) n. bird also use it in play-fighting. Gramineae
species. Lit. ‘adze-bird’. sp.
Lorukuɗe (Lorukuɗeé-) n. personal Loteteleíta (Loteteleítì-) n. name of a
name of a Jie shopkeeper. river near Ròŋòta . Also called Sɔ́ɡɛsabá.
lorwaneta (lorwanetaá-) pl. lorwáné- Lotííra (Lotííraá-) n. Year of Lotííra that
tàìka . n. Maasai blanket. brought famine to the Ik.

lɔ́tílɨtíl lóúpè

lɔ́tílɨtíl (lɔ́tílɨtílì-) n. grass species whose lótórobéta (lótórobétí-) n. vine with

long, sharp seeds stick to clothing and long edible seed-pods. Zehneria scabra.
prick the skin; Ik children pretend they Lotséto (Lotsétoó-) n. month of bad
are spears. honey.
Lotim (Lotimá-) n. name of a small lɔtsɔ́ɡɔ̀m (lɔtsɔ́ɡɔ̀mà-) n. millet-like
mountain, the surrounding area, and grass that is an inedible weed.
associated human habitations. lòtsòr (lòtsòrò-) n. firefinch (red-billed
lotímálèmòn (lotímálèmònì-) v. to be and others?). Lagonosticta senegala.
emaciated, gaunt, skeletal. Lòtsòròɓò (Lòtsòrò-ɓòò-) n. name of a
Lotíɲam (Lotíɲamá-) n. name of a place hill or mountain and associated river.
between Kámíón and Lɔkwakaramɔ́ì Lit. ‘firefinch-escarpment’.
and its villages. lótsótsa (lótsótsò-) n. biting fly, cowfly.
Lotirém (Lotirémò-) n. name of a verti- Lotsul (Lotsulú-) n. a personal name.
cle ridge running up to Gàlàtsa , where lótsúm (lótsúmù-) pl. lótsúmìka .
the Ik used to live in the mid-1900s. n. thatched storehouse.
lotiwúóta (lotiwúótò-) n. bird species lotsʼilotsʼa (lotsʼilotsʼí-) pl. lotsʼílótsʼìka .
(possibly an oriole). n. animal-hoof rattle.
Lotíyá (Lotíyáà-) n. name of a hill or Lɔ̀tʉ̀ɗɔ̀ (Lɔ̀tʉ̀ɗɔ̀ɔ̀-) n. a personal name.
lotúɗuzé (lotúɗuzéè-) n. nickname for a
lɔ́tɔ́ɓa (lɔ́tɔ́ɓà-) n. tobacco. hyrax.
lɔ́tɔ́ɓa ná zè n. cannabis, marijuana. Lit. Lotuka (Lotukú-) n. a personal name.
‘tobacco that is big’. Lotukéya (Lotukéì-) n. a personal name.
lɔ́tɔ́ɓààm (lɔ́tɔ́ɓà-àmà-) pl. lɔ́tɔ́ɓaika . 1 lótúrum (lótúrumú-) n. olive pigeon.
n. tobacco user. 2 n. Didinga person. Columba arquatrix.
lɔ́tɔ́ɓabɔrɔƙɔ́ƙa (lɔ́tɔ́ɓa-bɔrɔƙɔ́ƙɔ̀-) pl. lɔ́- Lotyaka (Lotyakí-) n. September. See
tɔ́ɓabɔrɔƙɔ́kíka . n. tobacco cone. also Nakariɓa .
lɔ́tɔ́ɓàɡwàs (lɔ́tɔ́ɓà-ɡwàsà-) pl. lɔ́- Lotyaŋ (Lotyaŋí-) n. a personal name.
tɔ́ɓaɡwasíka . 1 n. tobacco grinding loúka (loukú-) 1 n. carnivore, predator.
stone. 2 n. young monkeys. 2 n. greedyguts.
lɔ́tɔ́ɓàɲɛ̀ƙa (lɔ́tɔ́ɓà-ɲɛ̀ƙɛ̀-) n. hunger for Loukómor (Loukómorú-) n. name of a
tobacco, urge for nicotine. mountain in Turkanaland, Kenya.
lɔ́tɔ́ɓàsèda (lɔ́tɔ́ɓà-sèdà-) pl. lɔ́tɔ́ɓa- loukúétsʼa (loukú-étsʼì-) n. cadaver,
sedíka . n. tobacco garden. corpse. Lit. ‘predator-shit’.
lɔtɔ́ƙa (lɔtɔ́ƙɔ́-) pl. lɔtɔ́ƙíka . n. garden Loúnoya (Loúnoí-) n. World Vision:
rain shelter. NGO that administered relief food dis-
Lɔtɔ́ƙíkààwa (Lɔtɔ́ƙíkà-àwà-) n. name of tributions to the Ik in the 2010s.
a place. Lit. ‘garden shelters place’. loúpal (loúpalí-) n. cobra. Naja sp.
Lɔtɔlɛ́r (Lɔtɔlɛ́rɛ̀-) n. name of a place and lóúpè (lóúpèè-) n. shrub species whose
associated human habitations. bitter roots are chewed or pounded,

Lourien lyamádòn

soaked in water, and drunk for stom- lùʝu (lùʝù) ideo. flabbily, flaccidly.
achaches. Pachycarpus schweinfurthii. luʝúdòn (luʝúdònì-) v. to be flabby, flac-
Lourien (Louriení-) n. a personal name. cid.
Loúsúnà (Loúsúnàà-) n. name of a lʉʝʉlʉ́ʝɛ́s (lʉʝʉlʉ́ʝɛ́sí-) v. to fill com-
place. pletely.
lɔʉtsʉ́r (lɔʉtsʉ́rá-) n. freshly pounded
lʉʝʉlʉ́ʝɔ́n (lʉʝʉlʉ́ʝɔ́nì-) v. to be com-
tobacco, still green.
pletely full.
Lowákuʝa (Lowákuʝí-) n. name of a
mountain southwest of Ikland. Lúkà (Lúkàà-) 1 n. Luke. 2 n. Luke:
book in the New Testament.
lɔwɨɗa (lɔwɨɗí-) pl. lɔwíɗíka . n. small-
animal trap (e.g. for hyraxes and squir- luka (luká-) n. tree squirrel.
rels). lúkúɗukuɗánón (lúkúɗukuɗánónì-) 1
lɔwɨɲ (lɔwɨɲí-) n. stingless bee, sweat v. to slither. 2 v. to meander, weave,
bee. Hypotrigona sp. wind, zigzag. See also ɨkɔɗíkɔ́ɗɔ̀n and
lɔ́wírɨwír (lɔ́wírɨwírí-) n. optical illu- iƙulúƙúlòn.
sion of having seen something distant lukutiés (lukutiesí-) v. to down, gulp
moving quickly. down, inhale (food). See also lakatiés.
Loyaŋoroka (Loyaŋorokó-) n. a per- luƙáámitésúƙota (luƙáámitésúƙotí-)
sonal name. v. to make inadequate, insufficient, or
loyeté (loyetéè-) n. ground barbet lacking.
(d’Arnaud’s or red-and-yellow). Tra- luƙáámòn (luƙáámònì-) v. to be inade-
chyphonus sp. quate, insufficient, lacking.
Loyóro (Loyóroó-) n. name of a place
luƙés (luƙésí-) v. to down, swallow.
far southeast of Ikland.
lozikineta (lozikinetí-) n. rope stretched lúl (lúlà-) n. heavens, firmament, sky.
horizontally to support neck snares. lùm (lùmù) ideo. malleably, pliably,
See also lozikita . softly.
lozikita (lozikití-) n. rope stretched hor- lumúdòn (lumúdònì-) v. to be malleable,
izontally to support neck snares. See pliable, soft.
also lozikineta .
lúulú (lúulúù-) 1 n. kindling, tinder,
luɗés (luɗésí-) v. to dent, depress, in- touchwood. 2 n. lizard species that
dent. See also rábaɗamitésúƙota . lives in Kenya.
luɗúmón (luɗúmónì-) v. to be dented,
lwàŋ (lwàŋà) ideo. out of sight.
depressed, indented.
lúɡùm (lúɡùmà-) 1 n. solidified meal lyàm (lyàmà) ideo. powderily.
mush (posho). 2 n. tough maize ker- lyamádòn (lyamádònì-) v. to be pow-
nels (past maturation). dery. See also ɲapíɗímòn.

mà Máríkò

mà (<mòòn) v. mamá (mamá) nurs. yum-yum! (a nurs-
mà (<meés) v. ery word for food or eating). See also
máa (máa) adv. not: do not, did not,
has/have not. Mamʉkíria (Mamʉkíriá-) n. personal
name of a woman from Kamion.
Maarʉka (Maarʉkʉ́-) n. a personal
name. màŋ (màŋà) ideo. thickly.
maɗámón (maɗámónì-) v. to fall back, maŋádòn (maŋádònì-) v. to be unde-
remain behind. See also isíɗéètòn. sirably thick (e.g. an axe, shoes, etc.).
Compare with maŋídòn.
máɗíŋ (máɗíŋì-) pl. máɗíŋìka . 1
maŋídòn (maŋídònì-) v. to be thick (of
n. spleen. 2 n. organ, organization.
flat objects like honeycomb).
maimoos (maimoosí-) v. to be chroni-
Máóika (Máó-icé-) n. traditional men’s
cally ill.
age-group with the lion as its totem
maimoosíám (maimoosí-ámà) pl. mai- (second oldest, #2, in the historical
moosííka . n. chronically ill person. line). Lit. ‘Lion-Folk’.
maímós (maímósí-) 1 v. to give each maráŋ interj. fine! good! okay! Lit. ‘It’s
other. 2 v. to face each other. good!’.
máìrɔ̀ (máìrɔ̀ɔ̀-) pl. máìrɔ̀ìka . n. mile. maráŋaakón (maráŋaakónì-) v. to be
máìrɔ̀ɛ̀da (máìrɔ̀ɛ̀dɛ̀-) n. distance, good (of many).
mileage. maráŋás (maráŋásì-) n. goodness.
maitetés (maitetésí-) v. to care for, màràŋɡwà (màràŋɡwàà-) n. red bean
nurse (the sick). variety (called K20). From the Swahili
makúl (makúlí-) pl. makúlíka . n. round word maharagwe ‘beans’.
grass beehive cover (that goes over the maráŋíke v. nicely, well.
two ends of a beehive). maraŋités (maraŋitesí-) v. to ameliorate,
maƙésúƙota (maƙésúƙotí-) v. to give enhance, improve, make good.
away/out. maraŋítésuƙota (maraŋítésuƙotí-) 1
maƙésúƙota así v. to give oneself away. v. to ameliorate, enhance, improve,
málákʉ́r (málákʉ́rá-) n. vine species make good. 2 v. to cure, heal.
with edible seed-pods. Vigna sp. Pos- maráŋón (maráŋónì-) 1 v. to be good. 2
sibly the same vine as ànɛ̀. v. to be kind.
màlòr (màlòrì-) 1 n. sisal species with maráŋónìàm (maráŋónì-àmà-) pl. ma-
sharp tips and fibers that are used for ráŋóniika . n. good, kind person.
tying; the Turkana thatch with it. San- maráŋónuƙota (maráŋónuƙotí-) 1 v. to
sevieria robusta. 2 n. sisal rope. 3 become good, improve. 2 v. to get bet-
n. corn, maize. ter, heal.
màlòrìèɗa (màlòrì-èɗì-) n. corn, maize . Máríkò (Máríkòò-) 1 n. Mark. 2
Lit. ‘sisal-grain’. n. Mark: New Testament book.

marɨŋ mɛkɛmɛkán

marɨŋ (marɨŋí-) n. wooden fence (inner mayaakón (mayaakónì-) v. to be ill or

or outer). sick (of many people).
marɨŋídɛ̀ (marɨŋí-dɛ̀à-) n. base or foot mayaakóniicéhò (mayaakóni-icé-hòò-)
of a fence. Lit. ‘fence-foot’. pl. mayaakóniicéhoíka . n. hospital
marɨŋímóríɗa (marɨŋí-móríɗó-) n. vari- ward.
ety of red, white, or pink beans planted mayaakóniika (mayaakóni-icé-) n. pa-
near the wooden fences built around tients.
homesteads. máyákù (máyá-kùà-) n. kob grass:
marʉ́kʉ́cɛmɛ́r (marʉ́kʉ́-cɛmɛ́rí-) species of grass the reddish color of a
n. shrub species that grows down the Ugandan kob, used widely by the Ik for
escarpment and whose root decoction thatching. GRAMINEAE sp.
is drunk for body pain. màywa (màyò-) pl. mayoicíka . n. dis-
másálúka (másálúká-) n. paste made of ease, illness, malady, sickness.
ground, undried edible termites. mázɨmázɔ̀n (mázɨmázɔ̀nì-) v. to be
masánétòn (masánétònì-) v. to de- tangy, tart (like liquid at the onset of
cay, go off, rot, spoil. See also fermentation or some tree bark concoc-
ɗutúɗútánónuƙota and mʉsánétòn. tions).
masánón (masánónì-) v. to be off, rot- mbáyà (mbáyà) adv. a lot, very much. A
ten, spoiled. slang expression based on the Swahili
matáŋ (matáŋí-) pl. matáŋìka . n. temple word mbaya ‘bad’.
(zygomatic) area. médemedánón (médemedánónì-) v. to
mataŋɛs (mataŋɛsí-) v. to chew, masti- be cracked, fissured (floor, soil, walls,
cate (esp. tobacco). Also pronounced etc.). See also takátákánón.
as ɨmátáŋɛ́s. mɛ́ɛ̀ɛ̀ (mɛ́ɛ̀ɛ̀) ideo. baa! (bleating sound
matáŋíɡwarí (matáŋí-ɡwaríì-) n. upper of goats and sheep).
frontal bone, upper temple (zygomatic) meés (meesí-/ma-) v. to give.
area. meesíám (meesí-ámà-) pl. meesííka .
matáŋíɔ̀ka (matáŋí-ɔ̀kà-) n. temple n. giver.
(sphenoid) bone. meetam (meetamá-) n. gift.
matáŋɨtɛtɛ́s (matáŋɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to give meetés (meetésí-) v. to give.
(chewing tobacco). Lit. ‘to make
meetésíicíka (meetésí-icíká-) n. gifts, of-
ferings, tribute.
Matéò (Matéòò-) 1 n. Matthew. 2 meetón (meetónì-) v. to fall sick, get
n. Matthew: New Testament book.
Matsú (Matsúù-) n. a personal name.
mɛkɛlɛ́lɔ́n (mɛkɛlɛ́lɔ́nì-) v. to be un-
máwa (máó-) n. lion. Panthera leo. breakable, unchewable (e.g. bone or
máxìŋ (máxìŋì-) n. epicardium, epicar- metal).
dial (heart) fat. mɛkɛmɛkán (mɛkɛmɛkání-) n. Tem-
máyá (máyáà-) n. kob. Kobus kob minck’s ground pangolin. Manis tem-
(thomasi). mincki.

meleke míʝés

meleke (melekeí-) n. tree species whose mɛsa ƙwaaté n. beer drunk as part of the
young roots are eaten raw and whose traditional Ik birth ceremony.
fruit is liked by children and birds; its mɛsɛcue (mɛsɛ-cué-) n. watery beer
bark is chewed as medicine for cough- leftover from a ceremony or work-day.
ing, and its wood is used to carve stools Lit. ‘beer-water’.
and wooden containers. Lannea schim-
mɛ̀sɛ̀dòm (mɛ̀sɛ̀-dòmà-) pl. mɛsɛdo-
peri. See also ekoɗita .
mitín. n. beer pot.
mèlèta (mèlètì-) n. grass species resem-
mɛ̀sɛ̀ɲɛ̀ƙa (mɛ̀sɛ̀-ɲɛ̀ƙɛ̀-) n. craving for al-
bling millet, and whose seeds are dried,
cohol, hunger for beer.
ground, and used to make meal mush.
méta (métá-) n. shrub species used for
Meletisabá (Meleti-sabáà-) n. name of a firewood and eaten by livestock; it of-
river. Lit. ‘mèlèt-river’. ten provides shade for tobacco gardens;
mɛn (mɛná-) 1 n. issues, matters. 2 elders use its branches to ceremonially
n. problems, troubles. whip hunters before their departure on
mɛnáám (mɛná-ámà-) pl. mɛnáíka . a hunt. Cadaba farinosa. See also súr.
n. outlaw, rebel, troublemaker. mɛtsɛ́s (mɛtsɛ́sí-) v. to fence with poles
mɛnáícíka (mɛná-ícíká-) n. stuff, things. and sticks.
mɛnéékwa (mɛné-ékù-) pl. mɛn. mɛ̀ʉ̀r (mɛ̀ʉ̀rà-) n. fork-tailed drongo. Di-
n. point, topic, word. Lit. ‘matters-eye’. crurus adsimilis. See also bɛ̀ʉ̀r.
See also tódèèkwa . méya (méyá-) pl. méítín. n. bundle,
mɛnɛ́tɔ́n (mɛnɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to send in a mes- package, packet (of mira or tobacco
sage (e.g. by phoning or shouting). wrapped in grass or leaves).
mɛnɔnʉƙɔta (mɛnɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to send mɨdɨƙa (mɨdɨƙí-) n. parrot-billed spar-
out a message (by phoning or shout- row. Passer gongonensis.
ing). mídzatés (mídzatésí-) 1 v. to smell, sniff.
mɛ́rɛ́ɗɛɗɛ́ (mɛ́rɛ́ɗɛɗɛ́ɛ̀-) n. short plant 2 v. to smell in order to kill.
species whose roots are decocted and mídzatetés (mídzatetésí-) v. to catch
applied to hurting or diseased eyes. scent of, smell.
Vernonia cinerascens. mídzitésúƙota (mídzitésúƙotí-) v. to
mɛrɨmɛ́ránètòn (mɛrɨmɛ́ránètònì-) v. to make smelly.
have multiple varied patterns. mídzòn (mídzònì-) v. to smell (good or
mérímeritsíò (mérímeritsíò) in- bad), stink.
terj. ready, set, go! (an expression mídzona ɗɛtsɨɗɛ́tsíkɛ v. to reek, smell
issuing a challenge or initiating a com- fetid, stink.
petition of some sort). mídzònà ɗùku v. to reek, smell rotten,
merixánón (merixánónì-) v. to be dot- stink.
ted or spotted (like a leopard). míɡiriɡíránón (míɡiriɡíránónì-) v. to be
mɛ̀s (mɛ̀sɛ̀-) n. beer, brewski. dusky, twilit (at dawn or dusk).
mɛsa édì n. beer drunk at a newborn’s míʝés (míʝésì-) v. to decline, reject,
naming ceremony. scorn, turn down.

mɨʝílímɔ̀n misimísón

mɨʝílímɔ̀n (mɨʝílímɔ̀nì-) v. to be slitted mínínɔ́sá na áwìkàe v. love between

(like squinted eyes). community members, neighbors. Lit.
miƙídòn (miƙídònì-) v. to be legion, ‘love of villages’.
very numerous (e.g. trees or people). mínínɔ́sá na ɨɓám v. feigned love.
mìƙⁱ (mìƙì) ideo. numerously. mínínɔ́síàm (mínínɔ́sí-àmà-) pl. mínínɔ́-
mìl (mìlì) ideo. glitterily, sparkely. síika . n. lover.
mìl (mìlɔ̀) ideo. sleekly. mɨníta (mɨnítá-) n. African civet. Civet-
milékwa (milékú-) pl. milékwíka . tictis civetta.
n. shrub species whose brown fruits mìɲɔ̀n (mìɲɔ̀nì-) v. to be deaf, mute.
are eaten raw. Canthium sp. mɨɲɔna íkèdè v. to be dumb, slow or
mɨlíár (mɨlíárì-) n. grass species which ‘thick’ mentally. Lit. ‘deafness of the
is used to tie up a piece of broken head’.
pot to calm strong winds or is put at míɔ̀ka (míɔ̀kɔ̀-) n. mamba (black or
the threshold of a sick person’s door, green).
and when crossed, leads to healing. mɨríɗímɔ̀n (mɨríɗímɔ̀nì-) v. to be tiny
Gramineae sp. (of an opening, like a pin hole).
mɨlídɔ̀n (mɨlídɔ̀nì-) v. to be glittery,
mɨrɨmírɔ́n (mɨrɨmírɔ́nì-) v. to trickle.
mɨsá (mɨsáí-) n. shrub species whose
milílón (milílónì-) v. to be gelatinous,
berries are eaten raw or crushed to fla-
jelly-like (egg yolk, okra).
vor porridge; berries are also chewed
mɨlɔ́dɔ̀n (mɨlɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be sleek, as a treatment for tongue blisters;
streamlined (like a snake). wood is used for fencing, and the
mínɛ́s (mínɛ́sì-) 1 v. to affix, fix on (a tool leaves are used to filter dirty water.
on a handle). 2 v. to pick (the teeth). Rhus natalensis.
mínɛ́s (mínɛ́sì-) 1 v. to adore, cherish, mɨsáícùè (mɨsáí-cùè-) n. wine made
love. 2 v. to cure, heal. from the fermenting juice of the mɨsá
mínɛ́sìàm (mínɛ́sì-àmà-) pl. mínɛ́siika . shrub, obtained by soaking seeds,
n. admirer, devotee, lover. squeezing out the juice, and letting it
mínɛ́sìàwa (mínɛ́sì-àwà-) pl. mínɛ́sɨa- sit in the sun.
wíka . n. fixture of a metal tool to its mɨsáíètsʼa (mɨsáí-ètsʼì-) n. feces contain-
handle. ing mɨsá seeds that cause the fecal mat-
mínɛ́sìèda (mínɛ́sì-èdì-) pl. mínɛ́sɨeditín. ter to disperse loosely.
n. term of endearment. Lit. ‘love- mísì (mísì) subordconn. if, whether.
name’. mísɨ … mísɨ … coordconn. either … or ….
mɨníkímɔ̀n (mɨníkímɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be mɨsíás (mɨsíásì-) n. shrub species. Gni-
gummy, sticky. 2 v. to be stingy. dia subcordata.
mɨnímínatés (mɨnímínatésí-) v. to feel, misimísón (misimísónì-) v. to be seen
finger, play with. See also ɨmɨnímínɛ́s. dimly or faintly (e.g. because of a great
mínínɔ́s (mínínɔ́sí-) v. to love each distance, like the Turkana plains below
other. Ikland).

mɨtɨmítɔ́n momota

mɨtɨmítɔ́n (mɨtɨmítɔ́nì-) v. to be sweet- moɡánétòn (moɡánétònì-) v. to become

and-sour. See also taasámòn. dense or thick (of brush).
mɨtírímɔ̀n (mɨtírímɔ̀nì-) v. to be shriv- moɡánón (moɡánónì-) v. to be dense,
eled, withered. thick (of brush).
mɨtɨtɛs (mɨtɨtɛsí-) v. to make be (some- mɔkɛ́s (mɔkɛ́sí-) v. to cover, enclose
one or something). (a termite hole with a dome of sticks,
mìtɔ̀n (mìtɔ̀nì-) v. to be (someone or grass, and soil, leaving one opening out
something). which the ants can be collected).
mɨtɔna ɗíɛ́ áɗònì v. to be the third. mókol (mókoló-) pl. mókòlìka . n. hard-
wood tree species whose wood is used
mɨtɔna ɗíɛ́ ʝìrì v. to be the last. in building and fencing and whose bark
mɨtɔna ɗíɛ́ leɓétsónì v. to be the second. decoction is drunk as a treatment for
mɨtɔna ɗíɛ́ tûba v. to be the next. abdominal pains; pipes and beehives
mɨtɔna ɗíɛ́ wàxì v. to be the first. are carved from its branches and trunk.
Ozoroa insignis (reticulata).
mɨtɔna eas v. to be the truth.
mɔƙɨmɔ́ƙɔ́n (mɔƙɨmɔ́ƙɔ́nì-) v. to cloud
mɨtɔna sírìàs v. to be serious. up, form rainclouds.
mɨtɔnʉƙɔta (mɨtɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to become mɔƙɔr (mɔƙɔrɔ́-) pl. moƙóríkwa . n. well
(someone or something). deeply embedded in a large rock. Com-
mítsʼa (mítsʼá-) pl. mítsʼítín. n. testicle, pare with sáta .
testis. Mɔƙɔ́ríka (Mɔƙɔ́ríkà-) n. name of a river.
míʒìʒ (míʒìʒɔ̀-) pl. míʒìʒìka . n. vine Lit. ‘rock wells’.
species used as for building granaries, mɔƙɔrɔ́ám (mɔƙɔrɔ́-ámà-) pl. mɔƙɔró-
strapping beehives to trees, and lower- íka . n. Bokora person. Lit. ‘rock-pool
ing men or honey from high places; its person’.
seeds are ground, soaked, and then the mɔƙɔrɔ́cúé (mɔƙɔrɔ́-cúè-) n. water from
infusion acts as a treatment for head- a well deep inside a rock.
lice. Hippocratea africana.
Mɔƙɔrɔ́ɡwàs (Mɔƙɔrɔ́-ɡwàsà-) n. name
mɔ́ɗa (mɔ́ɗɛ́-) n. ground bee. of a hill or mountain. Lit. ‘well-rock’.
Moɗiŋ (Moɗiŋí-) n. a personal name. mɔ́mɛ́tɔ̀n (mɔ́mɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to hesitate,
Moɗó (Moɗóò-) n. a personal name. pause, stop, take a break. See also
mɔɗɔ́ɗa (mɔɗɔ́ɗɔ́-) 1 n. bagworm. Psy- mɔ́mɛ́tɔ̀n.
chididae. 2 n. cocoon. 3 n. sleep, momó (momóò-) pl. momóín. 1 n. un-
slumber. cle (mother’s brother). 2 n. nephew
mɔɗɔ́ɗɔ́èkwa (mɔɗɔ́ɗɔ́-èkù-) 1 n. co- (sister’s son).
coon opening. 2 n. threshold con- momócèka (momó-cèkì-) n. aunt
sciousness: state of being half-asleep (mother’s brother’s wife).
or half-awake. Lit. ‘cocoon-eye’. momóìm (momó-ìmà-) pl. momówika .
môɡa (móɡà-) n. dense thicket, thick n. cousin (mother’s brother’s child).
brush (often found in riverbeds where momota (momotí-) pl. momotíkwa .
it avoids being burned). n. his/her uncle (mother’s brother).

momotícéka mɔsɔnʉƙɔta

momotícéka (momotí-cékì-) n. his/her moronuƙota (moronuƙotí-) v. to flee,

aunt (mother’s brother’s wife). run away.
momotíím (momotí-ímà-) pl. momotí- Morúaɲáo (Morúaɲáoó-) n. name of a
wíka . n. his/her cousin (mother’s hill or mountain.
brother’s child). Moruaŋákiné (Moruaŋákinéì-) n. name
mɔ́ɲɛ́s (mɔ́ɲɛ́sì-) v. to gossip about, talk of a hillside and associated human
about. habitations.
mɔɲɨmɔɲɔs (mɔɲɨmɔɲɔsí-) v. to be gab- Morúaŋápɨɔn (Morúaŋápɨɔnɔ́-) n. name
by, gossipy. of a hill or mountain.
mòò (mòò) adv. not: and then … do(es) Moruaŋípi (Moruaŋípií-) n. name of a
not. mountain in Toposaland, South Sudan.
mòòn (mòònì-/ma-) v. to be ill, sick. Morúaŋítà (Morúaŋítàà-) n. name of a
hill or mountain.
moona ɡúróe v. to be heartsick (from
anger, guilt, sadness, etc.). Morúápólón (Morúápólóní-) n. name of
a mountain in Turkanaland, Kenya.
moós (moosí-) v. to be given.
Morúárɛ́ŋán (Morúárɛ́ŋánì-) n. name of
morétón (morétónì-) 1 v. to germinate, a hill or mountain.
grow, sprout. 2 v. to come in (of teeth).
Morúatapa (Morúatapá-) n. name of
3 v. to break out (of skin problems).
a hilltop in Kamion where the British
Morícoro (Morícoroó-) n. name of an used to come for picnics and on which
area where the road from Kàlàpàtà the Ik now live.
slopes upward at the border of Ikland.
Morúédikaya (Morúédikaí-) n. name of
mòrìɗa (mòrìɗò-) n. bean(s). a hill or mountain.
mórímós (mórímósí-) v. to respect each Morúéris (Morúérisá-) n. name of a hill
other. or mountain.
Móróɗa (Móróɗò-) n. name of a de- Morukoyan (Morukoyaní-) n. name of
serted village. a hill.
moróka (morókú-) pl. morókíka . 1 Morúlem (Morúlemú-) n. name of a hill
n. throat. 2 n. voice. 3 n. shaft. 4 or mountain.
n. stalk. Morúɲaŋ (Morúɲaŋá-) n. name of a hill
moróká na kwátsa 1 n. esophagus, gul- with yellowish grass.
let. 2 n. soft voice. Lit. ‘throat that is Morúŋole (Morúŋoleé-) n. name of a
small’. tall mountain in the west of Ikland.
moróká ná zè 1 n. trachea, windpipe. 2 mɔsímɔ́sɔ̀n (mɔsímɔ́sɔ̀nì-) v. to be
n. loud voice. Lit. ‘throat that is big’. lightly parched, partially dry.
morókêda (morókédè-) n. gun barrel. mɔ̀sɔ̀n (mɔ̀sɔ̀nì-) v. to be dried out,
Lit. ‘its throat’. parched, withered.
mòròn (mòrònì-) 1 v. to fear. 2 v. to mɔsɔnʉƙɔta (mɔsɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to dry out,
respect, revere, venerate. parch, wither up.

moxés mukú

moxés (moxésí-) v. to peel or pick off buried as a way to prevent enemies or

(e.g. a scab). sickness).
mɔ̀z (mɔ̀zà-) n. shrub species whose muɗésá ɡwaáe v. to bury a bird alive
reddish-brown fruits are eaten and (as a sacrifice in order to prevent them
whose branches are made into from consuming the crops). See also
weapons. Grewia villosa. ƙanésúƙota ɡwaáe .
mozokoɗa (mozokoɗí-) n. softwood tree muɗésá ɦyekesíé wicé v. to bury the life
species whose wood is used for fencing of one’s children (a metaphor for mak-
and whose branches are used as fight- ing a pronouncement over one’s chil-
ing sticks. Ormocarpum trichocarpum. dren, for example when a father is near-
ing his death).
muce (muceé-) pl. mucéíka . 1 n. path,
road, trail, way. 2 n. method, way (of muɗésá loɡeréɲoé v. to bury a stink-bug
doing). 3 n. fortune, lot, luck. (as a sacrfice to prevent them from eat-
ing up all the grain in one’s garden).
mucea na ɓárɨɓár n. average luck, de-
muɗésíàm (muɗésí-àmà-) pl. muɗé-
cent forture.
síika . n. gravedigger. See also
mucea na ináƙúós n. awful luck, terrible tʉnʉkɛsíám.
fortune. múɗuɗú (múɗuɗúù-) n. white-browed
mucea ná ʝɔ̀l n. bad luck, ill fortune. Lit. coucal (possibly Senegal as well). Cen-
‘way that is bland’. tropus superciliosus.
mucea na títìàn n. good fortune or luck. Múɗùɡùrìtòda (Múɗùɡùrì-tòdà-)
Lit. ‘way that is hot’. n. Arabic language.
mucéáka (mucé-ákà-) pl. mucéíkaakɨtín. múɗúkánón (múɗúkánónì-) 1 v. to be
n. middle of a path. Lit. ‘path-mouth’. blind, unsighted. 2 v. to have poor
See also mucéékwa . eyesight. 3 v. to close the eyes.
mucédɛ̀ (mucé-dɛ̀à-) pl. mucéíkadɛíka . múɗúkánónìtòda (múɗúkánónì-tòdà-)
n. trailhead. Lit. ‘path-foot’. n. careless speech, reckless talk. Lit.
mucéékwa (mucé-ékù-) pl. mucéíkeek-
muʝálámòn (muʝálámònì-) 1 v. to be
witín. n. middle of a path. Lit. ‘path-
bland, flavorless, tasteless, vapid. 2
eye’. See also mucéáka .
v. to be lukewarm, tepid.
mʉɗáŋámɔ̀n (mʉɗáŋámɔ̀nì-) v. to be un- mʉ̀kà (mʉ̀kà) 1 adv. really, totally. 2
pierced (of ears, lips). adv. forever. 3 adv. never. See also
múɗèr (múɗèrì-) 1 n. dwarf mongoose. ʝîkɨ .
Helogale parvula. 2 ideo. very black. mukéta (mukétí-) pl. mukétíka . n. my-
muɗés (muɗésí-) v. to bury, inhume, lohyoid muscle: thin muscle that con-
inter, lay to rest. See also búdès and nects to the inner front of the jawbone
tʉnʉkɛs. and pulls it down.
muɗésá cɛmɛ́ríkàɛ v. to bury medicine múkò n. en route, on the way.
(a metaphor for items like a butter flask, mukú (mukúà-) pl. mukúaicíka .
chicken, or shard of broken pottery, n. night, nighttime.

mukú mʉtsʼʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta

mukú n. at night, by night, during the mùɲ (mùɲù) 1 quant. all, entire, whole.
night. 2 quant. any, whatsoever.
mukúádàŋ (mukúá-dàŋà-) n. noctural mùɲùmùɲ (mùɲùmùɲù) quant. all, en-
edible termite species. tire, whole.
mukúáɡwà (mukúá-ɡwàà-) n. noctur- mʉránón (mʉránónì-) v. to be sour (of
nal bird (in general). malt grains).
mukúásísíka (mukúá-sísíká-) n. mid- mʉrɛ́s (mʉrɛ́sí-) v. to mash, soak (i.e.
night. grist for beer-brewing).
Mukulita (Mukulití-) n. name of a river. mʉrɔn (mʉrɔní-) 1 n. grass species that
grows like a vine and whose leaves are
mʉkʉtam (mʉkʉtamá-) n. fist. Lit.
chewed and applied to wounds to stop
‘clenchable’. See also ɨlʉlʉŋam.
pain; it is prescribed as a charm to ward
mʉkʉtɛs (mʉkʉtɛsí-) v. to clasp, clench. of diseases and spirits; tobacco is often
mʉkʉtɛtɛ́s (mʉkʉtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to clasp, planted where it grows. Cynodon dacty-
clench up. lon. 2 n. grassy tobacco garden.
mʉ́ƙás (mʉ́ƙásì-) n. small honeybee múrotsíò (múrotsíò-) n. shrub species
species that nests in trees. used for making house poles. Maytenus
Mùƙè (Mùƙèì-) n. name of a hill or
mountain. muruta (murutá-) n. watershed: ridge
separating adjacent river systems.
muƙíánètòn (muƙíánètònì-) v. to be
brown. murutéékwa (muruté-ékù-) n. center-
point of a watershed.
mʉƙʉ́rʉ́mɔ̀n (mʉƙʉ́rʉ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to
be hunched, stooped. See also mʉ̀s (mʉ̀sà-) pl. mʉ́sítín. n. candelabra
rʉ́ɡʉ̀ɗʉ̀mɔ̀n. tree: cactus-like tree whose sap is used
as a glue to fix tools and whose ashes
mʉ́lʉƙʉ́ƙɔ́n (mʉ́lʉƙʉ́ƙɔ́nì-) v. to salivate are used as fertilizer for pumpkin and
(when gagging or vomiting). tobacco fields. Euphorbia candelabrum.
mulúráŋòn (mulúráŋònì-) v. to lurch, mʉsánétòn (mʉsánétònì-) v. to de-
sink (of one’s heart when hearing or cay, decompose, go off, rot. See also
suspecting bad news). ɗutúɗútánónuƙota and masánétòn.
mumúánón (mumúánónì-) v. to be my- mususánón (mususánónì-) v. to be
opic, shortsighted. groggy, hungover.
múmùta (múmùtà-) n. evergreen moss- mútètsa (mútètsì-) n. Egyptian mon-
like plant species used as livestock fod- goose. Herpestes ichneumon. Also
der and whose bark is pounded, soaked called ‘gray mongoose’ or ‘ichneu-
and drunk as stomach medicine. Se- mon’.
laginella phillipsiana. mʉtsʼʉtɛs (mʉtsʼʉtɛsí-) v. to close, shut.
mʉ́mʉ́tɛ̀tɔ̀n (mʉ́mʉ́tɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to putrefy. See also kɔkɛ́s.
mʉ́mʉ́tɔ̀n (mʉ́mʉ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to be putrid, mʉtsʼʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔta (mʉtsʼʉ́tɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to
rank (e.g. body odor, rotting meat). close or shut up. See also kɔkɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta .

mutsʼutiesúƙota Mʉtʉ́nan

mutsʼutiesúƙota (mutsʼutiesúƙotí-) v. to needle/pin with a wooden handle (used

keep closing or shutting up (e.g. ter- for mending gourds and leather skins).
mite holes where one doesn’t want 2 n. firing pin.
them exiting). Mʉtʉ́nan (Mʉtʉ́naní-) n. name of a
mʉtʉ (mʉtʉʉ́-) pl. mʉtʉ́íka . 1 n. thick river.

na Nàɗù

na (na=) subordconn. if, when (hypothet- nábèè (nábèè) subordconn. if … had (yes-
ically). The main verb in the clause that terday). The main verb in the clause
follows this particle takes the sequen- that follows this word takes the sequen-
tial aspect. Note also that for some Ik tial aspect.
speakers, this particle has a ‘floating’ nabêz (nabézà-) n. allergic skin reaction,
high tone after it, making the first sylla- skin allergy.
ble of the next word have a high tone.
nabɨɗɨta (nabɨɗɨtí-) pl. nábìɗìtìka . n. ad-
na (=na) 1 dem. this. 2 rel. that/which joining area, quarter, section.
nábɔnʉƙɔta (nábɔnʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to be
nà (<nɛɛ́s) v.
done, completed, finished. 2 v. to
na tsóíta kɔní n. one day. be enough, plenty, sufficient. See also
náà (náà) subordconn. when …(earlier ŋábɔnʉƙɔta .
today). The main verb in the clause that naɓálámorú (naɓálámorúù-) n. mouse
follows this word takes the dummy species.
naɓó (naɓó) 1 adv. again. 2 coord-
náà (náà) subordconn. when. The main conn. furthermore, moreover.
verb that follows this word takes the si-
multaneous aspect. Nacákʉ́nɛ̀ta (Nacákʉ́nɛ̀tì-) n. name of a
place southwest of Ikland where a girl
náa táà 1 subordconn. when. 2 subord-
threw herself to her death to avoid mar-
conn. lest, otherwise.
rying a man she did not want.
náabʉ́s (náabʉ́sì-) n. four-toed hedge-
Nacapíò (Nacapíò-) n. a personal name.
hog. Erinaceus albiventris.
nàdɛ̀kwɛ̀l (nàdɛ̀kwɛ̀là-) n. edible melon
nááƙwa (nááƙɔ̀-) n. even, including.
(desert vine) species whose soft leaves
Náápoŋo (Náápoŋoó-) n. name of a hill- are also eaten; its seeds are dried, fried,
side, the surrounding area, and associ- ground, and mixed with vegetables to
ated human habitations. be eaten. Citrullus sp.
naarákɨlɛ (naarákɨlɛɛ́-) n. large tree nádzàƙa (nádzàƙà-) n. my friend.
species whose reddish berries are eaten
but whose bark is poisonous; wood naɗa na pro. this one.
is used for house-building or making naɗɛ́pa (naɗɛ́pɛ̀-) pl. naɗɛ́pìka . n. flea(s).
tool-handles. Siphonaptera. See also ŋíkaɗɛpíɗɛ́pa .
naaseɲaŋ (naaseɲaŋá-) n. worker bee. nàɗìàka (nàɗìàkà-) pl. naɗíákìka . 1
náàtì (náàtì) coordconn. and then. n. patch of styled, colored hair on the
nábàdà (nábàdì-) n. colossus, giant, back of men’s heads. 2 n. men’s nylon
monster of a, whale of a. This word skullcap in which feathers are stuck.
refers to an entity close by. Naɗóóɲ (Naɗóóɲò-) n. a nickname for
nábàtse (nábèè) adv. must have … (ear- a one-eyed person.
lier today). Nàɗù (Nàɗùù-) n. a personal name.

náɡanâɡa nakús

náɡanâɡa (náɡanáɡà-) n. Nile monitor nakaɨna tso n. in two years, two years
lizard. Varanus niloticus. from now, year after next.
Naɡomocóm (Naɡomocómò-) n. name Nakalalé (Nakalaléè-) n. name of a hill
of a hill or mountain. or mountain.
naídòn (naídònì-) v. to be viscous (like Nakalelé (Nakaleléè-) n. name of a
honey or oil). place.
Naiɗíɗa (Naiɗíɗì-) n. name of a hill in Nakamemeota (Nakamemeotó-)
Timu. n. name of a natural well.
naíké dem. here. Nakariɓa (Nakariɓá-) n. September:
naɨƙɔta (<nɛɛsʉ́ƙɔta ) v. month of chaff. See also Lotyaka .
náìlòn (náìlònì-) n. nylon. nakariɓa (nakariɓá-) n. chaffs, husks
(from millet, rice, sorghum).
naínɛ́ɛtɛ́s (naínɛ́ɛtɛ́sí-) v. to accustom,
acquaint, familiarize, habituate. nakatʉmán (nakatʉmání-) n. maize va-
riety with white kernels that matures
náínɛnɛ́ (náínɛnɛ́ɛ-) n. large fig tree quickly and has short stems and short
species whose dark fruits are eaten cobs. See also katʉmán.
raw. Ficus sp.
Nakíŋa (Nakíŋaá-) n. a personal name.
náínɔ́s (náínɔ́sí-) v. to be mutually ac-
Nakíríkɛ̀ta (Nakíríkɛ̀tɛ̀-) n. name of a
quainted, used to each other.
hill or mountain.
Náìtà (Náìtàà-) n. name of a rocky hill.
nakíríkɛ̀ta (nakíríkɛ̀tì-) pl. nakíríkɛtíka .
naítá (naítá) 1 subordconn. how, like, the n. barbeque spot, roasting ground
way (something is or is done). 2 subor- (where men cook and eat some of the
dconn. seeing as how, since. meat taken during a successful hunt).
náíta na dem. here. nakɨrɔ́r (nakɨrɔ́rí-) pl. nakɨrɔ́ríka .
naɨtakípʉ́rata (naɨtakípʉ́ratá-) n. cara- n. sheath. See also ɲaɓʉ́rɛ́ta .
cal. Caracal caracal. Nákírù (Nákírùù-) n. a personal name.
Náɨtáya (Náɨtáì-) n. name of a hill or nakítsòɗa (nakítsòɗì-) n. hedging in or
mountain. surrounding of animals during a hunt.
naítɛ́sʉƙɔta (naítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to accus- Nakoɗíle (Nakoɗíleé-) n. name of a
tom, acquaint, familiarize, habituate. river.
náka (=náà) 1 dem. that (earlier today). nakɔlɨtáka (nakɔlɨtákà-) n. sand snake.
2 rel. that/which (earlier today). 3 Psammophis sp.
adv. earlier today. Nakɔŋ (Nakɔŋʉ́-) n. a personal name.
Nakaɓinín (Nakaɓiníní-) n. month of Nàkòrìtààwa (Nàkòrìtà-àwà-) n. name
honey. of a hill and surrounding area in Timu.
Nakaɗapaláíta (Nakaɗapaláítì-) Nakɔrɔɗɔ́ (Nakɔrɔɗɔ́ɔ̀-) n. name of a
n. name of a hill or mountain. mountain pass in Toposaland, South
nakaɨn n. this year. See also kaɨnɔ na. Sudan.
nakaɨna far n. in three years, three years nakús (nakúsó-) pl. nakúsíka . n. animal
from now. bed. See also ɗípɔ̀.

nakúta námúí

nakúta (nakútá-) pl. nakútíka . nàƙwɨ (nàƙwì) ideo. looking very good,
n. wooden spade used for planting and very dressed up.
weeding. naƙwídɛtɛ́s (naƙwídɛtɛ́sí-) v. to adorn,
Nàkwàŋà (Nàkwàŋàà-) n. name of a beautify, decorate, dress up.
river. naƙwídɔ̀n (naƙwídɔ̀nì-) v. to be decked
Nakyéɲ (Nakyéɲì-) n. a personal name. out, dressed up, looking great.
naƙaf (naƙafʉ́-) pl. náƙáfìka . 1 naƙwín (naƙwíní-) pl. naƙwíníka .
n. tongue. 2 n. language. 3 n. ar- n. forked stick used to hold up hunting
rowhead. nets.
náƙáfɛ̀da (náƙáfɛ̀dɛ̀-) n. point. Lit. ‘its naƙwɨtɛs (naƙwɨtɛsí-) v. to breastfeed,
tongue-tip’. give suck to, suckle.
naƙánàka (naƙánàà) 1 subordconn. if … nàlèmùdzòɗà (nàlèmùdzòɗàà-) n. com-
would . 2 subordconn. if … would mon rock-thrush. Monticola saxatilis.
have (earlier today). The main verb in
nalíɨlí (nalíɨlíì-) n. sorghum variety with
the clause the follows this conjunction
round seed-heads, whitish-yellowish
takes the sequential aspect.
seeds, and curved stalks.
naƙánòko (naƙánòò) subordconn. if …
nalóʝón (nalóʝónì-) v. to ill-fitting,
would have (a while ago). The main
verb in the clause the follows this con-
junction takes the sequential aspect. nalɔŋɨzata (nalɔŋɨzatá-) n. desert.
naƙásàm (naƙásàmʉ̀) subordconn. if … Nàmàƙàr (Nàmàƙàrà-) n. June. See also
would have (yesterday). The main verb Yɛlíyɛ́l.
in the clause following this word takes nàmɛ̀ɗɔ̀ (nàmɛ̀ɗɔ̀ɔ̀-) pl. namɛ́ɗɔ́ìka .
the sequential aspect. n. occipital bone (back of skull).
naƙílɨƙíl (naƙílɨƙílì-) pl. naƙílíƙílíka . namɛ́ɗɔ́ɛ̀da (namɛ́ɗɔ́ɛ̀dɛ̀-) n. back side
n. chopper, helicopter, whirlybird. (e.g. of an axehead or human head).
náƙírà (náƙíràà-) n. aardwolf. Proteles Lit. ‘its occipital bone’.
cristatus. Namerí (Nameríì-) n. name of a river
naƙólíta (naƙólítì-) pl. naƙólítìka . n. log flanked with spotted rocks.
or wooden bar used to block a gate or Namétúròn (Namétúrònì-) n. name of a
trap entrance. river in Turkanaland, Kenya.
naƙʉ́lɛ́ (naƙʉ́lɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. naƙʉ́lɛ́ìka . n. divi- Namórú (Namórúù-) n. name of a river.
sion, partition, room, section. Also called Gwasikasabá.
nàƙwa (nàƙwà) ideo. bendily, flexibly. Namɔ́ya (Namɔ́ì-) n. a personal name.
naƙwádòn (naƙwádònì-) v. to be bendy, namʉ́ɗɨta (namʉ́ɗɨtí-) n. large fig tree
flexible. See also naúdòn and nɔƙɔ́dɔ̀n. species whose small yellow berries are
naƙwɛ́s (naƙwɛ́sí-) v. to breastfeed, eaten raw. Ficus ingens.
suckle. námúí (námúíì-) pl. námúatikwa . 1
naƙwɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (naƙwɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to n. sibling-in-law (husband’s sibling). 2
breastfeed, suckle. n. sister-in-law (brother’s wife).

nanáà nasɛmɛ́

nanáà (nanáà) subordconn. when … had naperorwá (naperorwáà-) pl. naperor-

(earlier today). The main verb in the wáìka . n. oblong purple or yellow
clause that follows this word takes the pumpkin variety.
dummy pronoun. napɛtɛ́s (napɛtɛ́sí-) v. to bring alongside
nanáá (nanáá) subordconn. if … had (ear- or beside. See also ɨnapɛtɛ́s.
lier today). The main verb in the clause Napitiro (Napitiroó-) n. name of a hill
that follows this word takes the sequen- or mountain and associated river.
tial aspect.
Nápíyò (Nápíyòò-) n. a personal name.
nanɨŋɨnɨŋ (nanɨŋɨnɨŋí-) pl. naníŋí-
napóɗè (napóɗèè-) n. bird species.
nìŋìka . n. modern axe or axehead
(with a hole for the handle). See also Napoliso (Napolisoó-) n. a personal
naŋɨnɨŋɨn. name.
nánòko (nánòò) adv. must have … (long nápɔ́n (nápɔ́nì-) v. to come alongside or
ago). beside.
nànòò (nànòò) 1 subordconn. when … Nàpɔ̀rɛ̀ààm (Nàpɔ̀rɛ̀à-àmà-) pl. Na-
had (a while ago). 2 subordconn. if … pɔrɛaika . n. Napore person.
had (a while ago). Napóroto (Napórotoó-) n. name of a hill
Naŋetéɓ (Naŋetéɓè-) n. a personal or mountain.
name. narɛ́wa (narɛ́ʉ̀-) n. dwarf adder species
naŋɨnɨŋɨn (naŋɨnɨŋɨní-) pl. naŋíní- that lives in northwest Kenya. Bitis sp.
ŋìnìka . n. modern axe or axehead Naróta (Narótò-) n. a personal name.
(with a hole for the handle). See also narúéta (narúétì-) pl. narúétíka . n. com-
nanɨŋɨnɨŋ. munity, neighborhood.
Naŋóléɓoka (Naŋóléɓokó-) n. name of narúétìàm (narúétì-àmà-) pl. narúétiika .
a boulder and associated river. n. neighbor.
Náŋólì (Náŋólìì-) n. a personal name. narúétinós (narúétinósí-) v. to be neigh-
nàŋʉ̀ràmɓɔ̀ (nàŋʉ̀ràmɓɔ̀ɔ̀-) n. chin-spot bors, neighbor each other.
batis. Batis molitor. See also iwótsíɡwà. Narúkyeɲ (Narúkyeɲí-) n. name of a
Naɔyakíŋɔ́l (Naɔyakíŋɔ́lì-) n. name of a hill or mountain and surrounding area.
place. narwá (narúà-) pl. narúáika . n. long
nápáka na adv. now, presently. A spear shaft (with ɲɛ́ɓílɨ as its head).
phrase borrowed from Ateker (Teso- násàm (násàmʉ̀) adv. must have … (yes-
Turkana) languages. terday).
nàpèì (nàpèì) 1 prep. from. 2 subor- nàsàmʉ̀ (nàsàmʉ̀) subordconn. when …
dconn. from the time when, since. A had (yesterday). The main verb that fol-
noun following this word takes the ab- lows this word takes the dummy pro-
lative case. See also ɲàpèì. noun.
napéríta (napérítì-) pl. napérítíka . nasɛmɛ́ (nasɛmɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. nasɛ́mɛ́ìka . n. ob-
n. bivouac, bushcamp, camp. long gourd with a handle sown onto it.

nasoroɲ názɛ̀ƙwà

nasoroɲ (nasoroɲí-) pl. nasóróɲìka . nàtsìkwa (nàtsìkò-) pl. natsíkwíka .

n. intestine. n. ring or wreath of twisted reeds.
Nasurukéɲ (Nasurukéɲì-) n. name of a Natsuƙúl (Natsuƙúlù-) n. name of a sea-
hill or mountain. sonal stream west of Lokinéne.
natɛ́ɓa (natɛ́ɓà-) n. sorghum variety natúɗusé (natúɗuséè-) n. woodland
with yellow seeds. crombec (northern or red-faced). Sylvi-
nateɓú (nateɓúù-) pl. nateɓúìka . etta sp.
n. worker termite that cares for the natúka (natúkù-) n. group discussion.
queen. Natʉrʉkan (Natʉrʉkaní-) n. name of a
natélétsìò (natélétsìò-) n. earwig. river.
Dermaptera. naturutur (naturuturú-) pl. natúrútùr-
natélewá (natélewáà-) n. rat species. ìka . n. cracked gourd.
natɨɓa (natɨɓá-) pl. natíɓíka . n. braided nàu (nàù) ideo. bendily, flexibly.
twine (used in snaring). naúdòn (naúdònì-) v. to be bendy, flexi-
natɨŋá (natɨŋáà-) n. spotted hyena. Cro- ble.
cuta crocuta. See also atɔŋ. náʉ́mɔ (náʉ́mɔɔ́-) n. lappet-faced vul-
Natípem (Natípemú-) n. name of a hill ture. Torgos tracheliotus.
or mountain and surrounding area. Naʉrata (Naʉratá-) n. name of a moun-
Natɔkɔ́ɔ́ŋɔr (Natɔkɔ́ɔ́ŋɔrí-) n. name of a tain connected to Morúŋole.
river. Nàwà (Nàwàà-) n. a personal name.
nàtɔ̀lɔ̀kà (nàtɔ̀lɔ̀kàà-) pl. a
natɔ́lɔ́kìk . Nawáɗowa (Nawáɗoú-) n. name of a
n. rainbow. hill and associated human habitations.
Nátɔmɛ́ (Nátɔmɛ́ì-) n. a personal name. Nawólóʝam (Nawólóʝamú-) n. Year of
Nawólóʝam, when many cattle died of
Natɔ́rɔ́kɔkítɔ́ (Natɔ́rɔ́kɔkítɔ́ɔ̀-) n. name
of a place.
náxána na dem. this direction, this way.
Natsapúó (Natsapúó-) n. a personal
name. nayá (naí-) n. here.
nàtsɛ̀r (nàtsɛ̀rà-) n. striped ground rat. Nayaón (Nayaóní-) n. a personal name.

natsɛ́s (natsɛ́sí-) v. to cook out (bit- Nayapan (Nayapaní-) n. name of a place

terness or poison by boiling, pouring in Dodoth country where the British
the water, and reboiling one or more cleared land to reduce the problem of
times). tsetse flies in mid-1900s.
nayé dem. here.
Natsíámu (Natsíámù-) n. a personal
name. Also pronounced as Nacém. nayé kɔ̀nà dem. right here.
Natsíátà (Natsíátàà-) n. name of a hill nayé na dem. here.
or mountain. nayé ne dem. just there, there.
natsíɓɨlí (natsíɓɨlíì-) n. female bushbuck. názɛ̀ƙwà (názɛ̀ƙwà) 1 n. while. 2
Tragelaphus scriptus. n. now, soon. When used in the sense

nàⁱ nesíbunós

of ‘while’, this word is followed by néda ne dem. just there, there.

a verb with the dummy pronoun at- nɛ́ɛ́ (nɛ́ɛ́) subordconn. when. The main
tached to it. verb that follows this word takes the si-
nàⁱ (nàì) ideo. viscously. multaneous aspect.
ńdà (ńdà) 1 coordconn. and. 2 prep. with. nɛ́ɛ́ (nɛ́ɛ́) 1 prep. from. 2 prep. through.
In a series of nouns linked by this word, A noun following this word takes the
every noun after the first takes the genitive case.
oblique case. nɛɛ́s (nɛɛsí-/na-) v. to abide, bear, deal
ńda nébèè kɔ̀n n. eleven. with, endure, tolerate.
ndaicé (ndaicé-) n. um, uh, whatca-ma- nɛɛsʉ́ƙɔta (nɛɛsʉ́ƙɔtí-/naɨƙɔt-) v. to
callit. abide, bear, deal with, endure, tolerate.
ndaíke pro. where? néíta ne dem. just there, there.
ndayo n. by what path? which way? nɛpɛ́ƙáàm (nɛpɛ́ƙá-àmà-) pl. nɛpɛ́ƙáika .
ndayúko n. it is where?
1 n. arguer, argumentative person. 2
n. atheist, unbeliever.
ndéé 1 n. from where? 2 interj. what-
nɛpɛƙanitetés (nɛpɛƙanitetésí-) v. to
ever! (an expression of disagreement).
challenge, contradict.
ǹdò pl. ndoín. pro. who?
nɛpɛƙánón (nɛpɛƙánónì-) v. to argue,
ndóó 1 prep. what about …? 2 subord- debate, disagree, protest.
conn. what about (when) …? When nɛ̀rɛ̀ (nɛ̀rɛ̀) ideo. teeteringly.
acting as a preposition, this word is
followed by a noun in the nominative nɛrɛ́dɔ̀n (nɛrɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be teetering,
case. tottering.
nɛ́rɨnɛ́rɔ́n (nɛ́rɨnɛ́rɔ́nì-) 1 v. to quiver,
ndóó ɦyè n. maybe, perhaps, who
shudder. 2 v. to lurch, stagger.
nés (nésé) adv. oh, I see; oh, you mean.
ndóó mìtìɛ̀ v. what if (it is …).
nɛsɛƙánón (nɛsɛƙánónì-) v. to be
ne (=ne) dem. that (just there).
healthy, hygienic.
ne (ne) interj. here! here you go! (an
nesés (nesésí-) v. to hear. See also
expression of giving).
nêba (nébù-) pl. nébitín. 1 n. body. 2 nesíbes (nesíbesí-) 1 v. to hear. 2 v. to
n. self. listen. 3 v. to comprehend, understand.
nébàdà (nébàdì-) n. colossus, giant, 4 v. to heed, obey. See also nesés.
monster of a, whale of a. Referring to nesíbesíám (nesíbesí-ámà-) pl. nesíbe-
an entity a slight distance away. sííka . n. listener.
nébèda (nébèdè-) pl. nébìn. n. himself, nesíbiés (nesíbiesí-) v. to obey habitu-
herself, itself: the very person/thing. ally.
nébùnànès (nébùnànèsì-) n. bodiliness, nesíbos (nesíbosí-) v. to be understood.
nesíbunós (nesíbunósí-) 1 v. to under-
nébùsìtsʼa (nébù-sìtsʼà-) n. body hair. stand each other. 2 v. to be under-
nédà (nédì-) dem. there (near). stood.

ni nótsò

ni (=ni) 1 dem. these. 2 rel. that/which nɔƙɔ́dɔ̀n (nɔƙɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be bendy, flex-

(plural). ible. See also lɛtsʼɛ́dɔ̀n and naƙwádòn.
níám (níámà-) n. every person. nòò (nòò) subordconn. when … (long
níbàdà (níbàdì-) n. overabundance, ago). The main verb in the clause that
plentitude (here). follows this word takes the dummy
niɗa ni pro. these ones.
nɔ́ɔ́ (nɔ́ɔ́) dem. here, in this direction.
nìkwɨ (nìkwì) ideo. resistantly, toughly. If this word is followed by a noun, the
nɨkwídɔ̀n (nɨkwídɔ̀nì-) v. to be resistant, noun takes the genitive case.
tough, unyielding. nɔ́ɔ́ kíʝo 1 n. below, down. 2 n. south.
níkⁱ (=níì) 1 dem. those (earlier). 2 nɔ́ɔ́ kwarɔ 1 n. above, up. 2 n. north.
rel. that/which (earlier; plural).
nɔ́ɔ́ na dem. in this direction, over here.
nìƙwɨ (nìƙwì) ideo. sweetly.
nóódwáá (nóódoú-) n. today.
nɨƙwídɔ̀n (nɨƙwídɔ̀nì-) v. to be slightly
sweet (like porridge with a little sugar). nɔɔ́s (nɔɔsá-) 1 n. cleverness, intel-
ligence, knowledge, shrewdness, wis-
nɨƙwíníƙɔ̀n (nɨƙwíníƙɔ̀nì-) v. to whip dom. 2 n. craftiness, cunning, guile.
back and forth. 3 n. erudition, literacy.
nɨnɛtɛ́s (nɨnɛtɛ́sí-) v. to confirm, corrob- nɔɔsáàm (nɔɔsá-àmà-) pl. nɔɔsáika .
orate. n. clever, intelligent, or wise person.
nìr (nìrì) ideo. doughily, gooily. nɔɔsánétòn (nɔɔsánétònì-) v. to gain ex-
nɨrídɔ̀n (nɨrídɔ̀nì-) v. to be doughy, perience, grow wiser, learn.
gooey. nɔɔsanitetés (nɔɔsanitetésí-) v. to in-
nìtsìnìtsa (nìtsìnìtsì-) pl. nɨtsínítsìka . struct, teach, train. See also ɨtátámɛ́s.
n. fatty nape of neck, fat scruff. nɔɔsánón (nɔɔsánónì-) 1 v. to be clever,
niyá ni dem. these areas or places. intelligent, knowledgeable, shrewd,
Nòf (Nòfò-) n. name of a river and large wise. 2 v. to be crafty, cunning, guile-
ravine separating Kamion from Timu ful, sly. 3 v. to be erudite, literate.
to the south. nɔ̀s (nɔ̀sà-) n. noise, racket, shouting.
nòìn (nòìnì-) n. discovery, find. nɔ̀sààm (nɔ̀sà-àmà-) pl. nɔsaika . n. loud
nɔkɛɨn n. two years ago, year before last. person, shouter, yeller.
See also kaɨnɔ nótso. nɔsátón (nɔsátónì-) v. to make a racket,
nɔkɛɨna ke n. three years ago. shout, yell.

nɔkɛɨna kenóó ke n. four years ago. nótsò (=nótsòò/nɔ́tsɔ̀ɔ̀) 1 dem. that (a

while ago). 2 rel. that/which (a while
nòko (=nòò/nɔ̀ɔ̀) 1 dem. that (long ago). ago). 3 adv. a while ago.
2 rel. that/which (long ago). 3
adv. long ago. nótsò (nótsò) subordconn. when (a while
ago). The main verb in the clause that
nɔƙɨnɔ́ƙɔ́n (nɔƙɨnɔ́ƙɔ́nì-) v. to bend, flex. follows this word takes the dummy
nɔ̀ƙɔ (nɔ̀ƙɔ̀) ideo. bendily, flexibly. pronoun.

nɔ̀tsɔ nuélì

nɔ̀tsɔ (nɔ̀tsɔ̀) ideo. adhesively, stickily. ntsíéákwa (ntsí-éákwà-) n. her hus-

nótso kaɨnɔ sɨn n. last year. band.
nɔtsɔ́dɔ̀n (nɔtsɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be adhesive, ntsíémetá (ntsí-émetáà-) pl. ntsíémetá-
sticky. tikwa . n. his parent-in-law.
nɔtsɔ́mɔ́n (nɔtsɔ́mɔ́nì-) v. to adhere, ntsíím (ntsí-ímà-) pl. ntsíwíka . 1
bond, stick. n. his/her/its child. 2 n. his niece or
nephew (brother’s child).
nótsóò nòko n. day before yesterday.
ntsílóbà (ntsí-lóbàà-) n. his/her grand-
ńta (ńtí-) pro. they/them/their. ‘Their’ child.
and ‘them’ are formed by adding the
appropriate case ending to this pro- ntsínámúí (ntsí-námúíì-) pl. ntsíná-
noun. múatikwa . 1 n. her sibling-in-law
(brother’s sibling). 2 n. his sister-in-
ńtá (ńtá) adv. not: do(es) not, will law (brother’s wife).
not. Used to negate statements in the
ntsínámúíìm (ntsí-námúí-ìmà-) pl. n-
present or future tense.
tsínámúíwika . n. her niece or nephew
ńtá (ńtá) pro. where? (husband’s sibling’s child).
ńtɛ́ɛ́n (ńtɛ́-ɛ́ní-) pro. which (one)? ntsínêba (ntsí-nébù-) n. himself, herself,
ńtí (ńtíà) 1 adv. how? 2 adv. like this!. itself. Lit. ‘his/her/its body’.
3 interj. like that! yeah! (an expression ntsíɲóta (ntsí-ɲótà-) 1 n. his/her for-
of approval). eign friend. 2 n. his/her sibling-in-law
ńtíà ʝà adv. like thatǃ (an expression of (child’s spouse’s parent).
approval). ntsíɲótàìm (ntsí-ɲótà-ìmà-) pl. ntsíɲó-
ńtía ʝɨ̂kɨ adv. like that! (an expression of tawika . n. his/her niece or nephew-in-
approval). law (child’s spouse’s sibling).
ńtíɛ̀n (ńtí-ɛ̀nì-) pro. theirs. ntsúɡwám (nts-úɡwámà-) pl. ntsúɡwá-
ńtíɛ́n (ńtí-ɛ́ní-) pro. which (ones)? matikwa . 1 n. his sibling-in-law (wife’s
sibling). 2 n. his sibling-in-law
ńtínebitín (ńtí-nebitíní-) n. themselves.
(brother’s wife’s sibling). 3 n. his/her
Lit. ‘their bodies’.
brother-in-law (sister’s husband). 4
ńtóodó (ńtóodó) interj. nah, no. See also n. his/her sibling-in-law (sister’s hus-
ńtóondó. band’s sibling).
ńtóódò n. when? ntsúó tsʼɔɔ pro. it’s likely, probably.
ńtóondó (ńtóondó) interj. nah, no. See ntsʼáƙáàwa (ntsʼáƙá-àwà-) pl. ntsʼáƙáa-
also ńtóodó. wíka . n. defecation spot, place to defe-
ntsa (ntsí-) pl. ńta . pro. she/her, cate.
he/him/his, it/its. ‘Him’, ‘his’, and ‘her’ ntsʼáƙón (ntsʼáƙónì-) v. to crap, defecate,
are formed by adding on the appropri- poop, take a shit.
ate case ending. ntsʼáƙóna sèrèìke v. to leave a big mess
ntsɛ́n (nts-ɛ́ní-) pro. his, hers, its. behind, muck things up, spoil every-
ntsícéka (ntsí-cékì-) pl. ntsícíkám. n. his thing. Lit. ‘to crap in the basin’.
wife. nuélì (nuélìì-) n. Christmas service.

nùku nʉʉnʉ́

nùku (=nùkù) 1 dem. those (from a while (#7 in the historical line). Lit. ‘Leopard-
ago). 2 rel. that/which a long time ago Folk’.
(plural). nʉsʉ́dɔ̀n (nʉsʉ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be deep
nʉ́nʉ́tɔ̀n (nʉ́nʉ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to slink asleep, sleeping deeply.
away/off (in a crouched posture). nutsés (nutsésí-) v. to mend with mud.
nʉs (nʉsá-) n. male leopard. Panthera nútsù (=nútsùù) 1 dem. those (a while
pardus. ago). 2 rel. that/which (a while ago,
nʉ̀s (nʉ̀sʉ̀) ideo. sleeping deeply. plural).
Nʉsííka (Nʉsí-ícé-) n. traditional men’s nʉʉnʉ́ (nʉʉnʉ́) nurs. yum-yum! (a nurs-
age-group with the leopard as its totem ery word for breastfeeding!.

ɲáaɲún ɲaɓʉraídàkwa

ɲáaɲún (ɲáaɲúnì-) n. dormouse. ɲáɓáràkìs (ɲáɓáràkìsì-) pl. ɲáɓárakɨsíka .
Graphiurus sp. n. army barrack.
ɲábaŋɡí (ɲábaŋɡíì-) n. bhang, hemp. Ɲáɓarásà (Ɲáɓarásàà-) pl. ɲáɓarásàìka .
ɲábʉlán (ɲábʉlánì-) pl. ɲábʉlánìka . n. Monday. See also Ɲákásíá kɔ̀nìkɛ .
n. vest. Also pronounced as ɲɛ́bʉlán. ɲáɓarasán (ɲáɓarasánì-) pl. ɲáɓarasá-
ɲáɓá (ɲáɓáà-) pl. ɲáɓáìka . n. bar, saloon. nìka . n. first and thickest layer of
thatched grass.
ɲáɓaaráta (ɲáɓaarátí-) pl. ɲáɓaarátíka .
ɲáɓarúta (ɲáɓarútù-) pl. ɲáɓarútìka .
n. wrist knife. See also ɨbɔta .
n. dynamite.
ɲáɓaasá (ɲáɓaasáà-) pl. ɲáɓaasáìka .
ɲáɓáruwa (ɲáɓáruwaá-) pl. ɲáɓá-
n. envelope.
rùwàìka . n. epistle, letter, missive.
ɲaɓááta (ɲaɓáátì-) pl. ɲaɓáátíka . n. for- ɲáɓás (ɲáɓásì-) pl. ɲáɓásìka . 1 n. bus. 2
tune, lot, luck. n. campaign advertisements.
ɲaɓaɓa (ɲaɓaɓaá-) n. crack skin on the ɲáɓata (ɲáɓataá-) 1 n. duck, goose. 2
feet (especially the heels). n. tree whose roots are dug up, crushed,
ɲáɓáɓú (ɲáɓáɓúù-) n. small plant spe- and decocted for stomach ailments and
cies with reddish stems and edible eye problems; its roots are also stuck
leaves. in paths thwart enemies; if left there, it
ɲáɓáf (ɲáɓáfʉ̀-) pl. ɲáɓáfìka . n. basin. prevents rain and causes problems.
Ɲáɓáíɓɔ̀l (Ɲáɓáíɓɔ̀lɔ̀-) pl. ɲáɓáíɓɔlíka . Ɲáɓátsa (Ɲáɓátsì-) n. personal name of a
n. Bible, Christian scripture. rebel leader who wanted to take power
from the colonial British in northeast-
ɲaɓáíta (ɲaɓáítì-) n. predawn.
ern Uganda.
ɲaɓáítɔ n. at dawn, before dawn. ɲáɓol (ɲáɓolí-) pl. ɲáɓòlìka . n. dec-
ɲáɓákɛ̀ta (ɲáɓákɛ̀tɛ̀-) pl. ɲáɓákɛtíka . orative garment consisting of circu-
n. bucket, pail. lar plates of patterned beads covering
ɲaɓáláŋɨta (ɲaɓáláŋɨtí-) n. soda ash, the chest and upper back, connect by
sodium carbonate. See also ɲámakaɗí. straps going over the shoulders; worn
by girls and women only.
ɲáɓáŋka (ɲáɓáŋkì-) pl. ɲáɓáŋkíka .
n. bank. Ɲáɓoliɡúr (Ɲáɓoliɡúró-) n. a personal
ɲáɓáo (ɲáɓáoó-) pl. ɲáɓáòìka . 1 n. board,
plank. 2 n. blackboard, chalkboard. 3 ɲaɓolya (ɲaɓolyaá-) 1 n. game, play,
n. cage trap. sport. 2 n. dancing. See also wááka .
ɲáɓáòìkààm (ɲáɓáòìkà-àmà-) pl. ɲáɓúka (ɲáɓúkù-) pl. ɲáɓúkìka . n. book.
ɲáɓáoikaika . n. carpenter, wood- ɲáɓúka wáánàe n. prayer book.
worker. ɲaɓʉra (ɲaɓʉraí-) n. corn, maize.
ɲáɓaraɓín (ɲáɓaraɓínì-) pl. ɲáɓaraɓí- ɲaɓʉraídàkwa (ɲaɓʉraí-dàkù-) pl. ɲaɓʉ-
nìka . n. binoculars, field glasses. raídakwitín. n. corncob, maize cob.

ɲáɓʉrás ɲákaɓɔɓwááta

ɲáɓʉrás (ɲáɓʉrásì-) pl. ɲáɓʉrásìka . ɲáɡaaɗi (ɲáɡaaɗií-) pl. ɲáɡaaɗíìka .

n. toothbrush. See also sʉ́ƙʉ́tɛ́sídàkwa n. balefire, bonfire.
and tsɨtsín. ɲáɡaɗiɡáɗa (ɲáɡaɗiɡáɗì-) pl.
ɲaɓʉ́rɛ́ta (ɲaɓʉ́rɛ́tì-) pl. ɲaɓʉ́rɛ́tíka . ɲáɡaɗiɡáɗìka . n. wheelbarrow. See
n. sheath. See also nakɨrɔ́r. also ɲaƙaari.
ɲáɓús (ɲáɓúsì-) pl. ɲáɓúsìka . 1 n. para- ɲáɡám (ɲáɡámʉ̀-) n. glue, gum.
sitic plant species with red berries and ɲáɡás (ɲáɡásì-) n. propane gas.
that is used to treat aching knees. 2 ɲájarán (ɲájaránì-) pl. ɲájaránìka .
n. large boil. n. sewing machine.
ɲáɓwa (ɲáɓwaá-) n. scrubland. ɲáʝaará (ɲáʝaaráà-) pl. ɲájaaráìka .
ɲácáɗa (ɲácáɗaá-) pl. ɲácáɗáìka . n. button.
n. men’s white leather anklet/bracelet ɲáʝála (ɲáʝálaá-) pl. ɲáʝálàìka . n. jail.
made from the pelts of rabbits, reed- See also lɔʝála.
buck bellies, etc. ɲáʝore (ɲáʝoreé-) pl. ɲáʝòrèìka . n. crew,
ɲácaƙwaráta (ɲácaƙwarátí-) pl. ɲá- gang, group (organized for dancing,
caƙwarátíka . n. fork. See also ɲɔ́fɔ́ka . fighting, or hunting).
ɲaɗaɗés (ɲaɗaɗésí-) v. to collect rub- ɲáka (ɲáà) 1 adv. just. 2 adv. why …
bish (like uprooted weeds). of course!. 3 adv. in the hell, in the
ɲáɗasɨtá (ɲáɗasɨtáà-) pl. ɲáɗasɨtáɨka .
n. chalkboard eraser, duster. ɲákááɗoŋota (ɲákááɗoŋotí-) pl. ɲá-
kááɗoŋotíka . n. cowbell.
ɲaɗés (ɲaɗésí-) v. to flatten, level.
ɲákáal (ɲákáalɛ́-) pl. ɲákáalíka .
ɲaɗésá ŋƙáƙáe v. to overeat, pig out. Lit. n. camel.
‘to flatten food’. ɲákaasó (ɲákaasóò-) pl. ɲákaasóìka .
ɲaɗésúƙota (ɲaɗésúƙotí-) v. to flatten n. robe.
out, level out, raze. ɲákábàta (ɲákábàtì-) pl. ɲákábatíka .
ɲaɗiés (ɲaɗiesí-) v. to flatten or level re- n. cabinet, cupboard.
peatedly. ɲakáɓɛ́ta (ɲakáɓɛ́tɛ̀-) pl. ɲakáɓɛ́tìka .
ɲáɗís (ɲáɗísì-) pl. ɲáɗísìka . n. cloud. n. spade.
ɲáɗís (ɲáɗísì-) pl. ɲáɗísìka . n. account, ɲákáɓìc (ɲákáɓìcì-) n. cabbage.
narrative, story. ɲákaɓɨlá (ɲákaɓɨláà-) pl. ɲákaɓɨláìka .
ɲáɗʉkán (ɲáɗʉkánì-) pl. ɲáɗʉkánìka .
1 n. ethnic group, people, tribe. 2
n. kind, species, type, variety. See also
n. kiosk, shop, store. See also ɗʉkán.
dìywa .
ɲáɗúle (ɲáɗúleé-) pl. ɲáɗúlèìka . n. type
ɲákaɓír (ɲákaɓírì-) n. sorghum vari-
of gun.
ety with red or white seeds and coarse
ɲáɗúya (ɲáɗúì-) pl. ɲáɗúìka . n. vertical hairs on the seed-heads like those of
cave or cavern, volcano, volcanic vent. bullrush.
ɲáfaín (ɲáfaínì-) pl. ɲáfaínìka . n. fine, ɲákaɓɔɓwááta (ɲákaɓɔɓwáátá-) pl. ɲá-
penalty. kaɓɔɓwáátíka . n. finger ring.

ɲákaɓurúr Ɲákásíá àɗìke

ɲákaɓurúr (ɲákaɓurúrù-) pl. ɲákaɓurú- ɲákamɔ́ŋɔ (ɲákamɔ́ŋɔɔ́-) n. pumpkin-

rùìka . 1 n. large tree species in whose like vine species with white milk-
branches beehives are put. 2 n. large sap and that grows in ravines and
tin can. riverbeds down the escarpment and
ɲákáɗa (ɲákáɗì-) pl. ɲákáɗìka . 1 n. iden- whose fruits and leaves are eaten raw.
tity card. 2 n. playing card. Cynachium sp.
ɲákáɗeŋo (ɲákáɗeŋoó-) pl. ɲákáɗèŋò- Ɲákamʉ (Ɲákamʉʉ́-) n. personal name
ìka . n. women’s loincloth deco- of the Ik Catholic priest of the Sìƙètìà
rated with metal ringlets all around the clan who first brought Christianity to
edges. the Ik.
ɲákamʉ́ka (ɲákamʉ́kaá-) n. vine whose
ɲákáɗìka (ɲákáɗìkà-) n. playing cards.
yellow roots are decocted and drunk or
ɲakaíta (ɲakaítaá-) n. sweet potato. given rectally as a treatment for stom-
ɲakaítákáka (ɲakaítá-kákà-) n. edible ach ailments.
sweet potato leaves. ɲákamʉlára (ɲákamʉláraá-) pl. ɲá-
ɲákakar (ɲákakará-) pl. ɲákàkàrìka . kamʉláràìka . n. red pepper.
n. chapeau, wide-brim hat. ɲákámus (ɲákámusí-) n. pitch darkness
ɲákakurá (ɲákakuráà-) pl. ɲákakuráìka . (i.e. no moon, thick clouds).
n. hoe. Also called ɲɛ́mɛlɛkʉ́. ɲákáńsɔ̀là (ɲákáńsɔ̀làà-) pl. ɲákáńsɔ̀là-
ɲákalááta (ɲákaláátà-) pl. ɲákaláátíka . ìka . n. councillor.
n. pan (for cooking, mining, etc.). ɲákáparata (ɲákáparatá-) pl. ɲákápa-
ɲákalám (ɲákalámʉ̀-) pl. ɲákalámìka . ratíka . n. metal nose-ring and mouth
n. pen. cover.
ɲákápɨrɨta (ɲákápɨrɨtí-) pl. ɲákápɨrɨtíka .
Ɲakalees (Ɲakaleesí-) n. a personal
n. modern metallic whistle.
ɲákarám (ɲákarámʉ̀-) n. holiday, time
ɲákalɛ́nɗà (ɲákalɛ́nɗàà-) pl. ɲákalɛ́nɗà-
off, vacation.
ìka . n. calendar.
ɲakárámɨta (ɲakárámɨtí-) pl. ŋɨkárám.
ɲákálɨrɨkɨta (ɲákálɨrɨkɨtí-) pl. ɲá- n. do-nothing, idler, lazy bum, loafer,
kálìrìkìtìka . n. stick with a metal nut slacker.
affixed on the end.
ɲákárata (ɲákáratí-) n. fig tree whose
ɲakalo (ɲakaloó-) pl. ɲakalóìka . fruits are eaten raw and whose wood
n. alarm, alert. is carved into stools and other items;
ɲákamariɗúka (ɲákamariɗúkù-) pl. ɲá- also a favorite place to put beehives. Fi-
kamariɗúkùìka . n. heavy cotton blan- cus sp.
ket worn as clothing. ɲákaratás (ɲákaratásì-) pl. ɲákara-
ɲákamarɨkán (ɲákamarɨkánì-) pl. ɲá- tásìka . 1 n. paper. 2 n. document.
kamarɨkánìka . n. women’s lightweight ɲákási (ɲákásií-) pl. ɲákásíicíka . n. em-
cotton shawl. ployment, job, task, work.
ɲákamɓí (ɲákamɓíì-) pl. ɲákamɓíìka . Ɲákásíá àɗìke n. Wednesday. Lit.
n. bivouac, camp, encampment. ‘work(day) being three’.

Ɲákásíá kɔ̀nìkɛ ɲaƙóƙóŋ

Ɲákásíá kɔ̀nìkɛ n. Monday. Lit. ‘work- ɲákopiyá (ɲákopiyáà-) pl. ɲákopiyáìka .

(day) being one’. See also Ɲáɓarásà. n. cap, hat.
Ɲákásíá lèɓètsìke n. Tuesday. Lit. Ɲakuʝa (Ɲakuʝí-) pl. ɲakuʝíka . 1 n. god,
‘work(day) being two’. God. The Christian word for ‘God’; see
didiɡwarí for the traditional name of
Ɲákásíá tsʼaɡúsíke n. Thursday. Lit.
the Creator. 2 interj. oh my God! (an
‘work(day) being four’.
expression of strong emotion).
Ɲákásíá tùdìke n. Friday. Lit. ‘work-
ɲakúʝá (ɲakúʝáà-) pl. ɲakúʝáìka .
(day) being five’.
n. spring where water seeps out of
ɲákásìàm (ɲákásì-àmà-) pl. ɲákásiika . sand (e.g. in a riverbed).
n. employee, worker. ɲakuʝíám (ɲakuʝí-ámà-) pl. ɲakuʝííka .
ɲákásìèda (ɲákásìèdè-) n. function, pur- n. devout, godly person.
pose, use. ɲakuʝíhò (ɲakuʝí-hòò-) pl. ɲakuʝíhoíka .
ɲákatékísìmù (ɲákatékísìmùù-) n. cate- n. church, house of worship. Lit. ‘God-
chism. house’.
ɲákátɨríɓa (ɲákátɨríɓaá-) n. tree species ɲakuʝíícíka (ɲakuʝí-ícíká-) 1 n. gods. 2
whose sweet fruits are eaten raw and n. animism.
whose wood is used to make planks for ɲakuʝíícíkáàm (ɲakuʝí-ícíká-àmà-) pl.
doors. ɲakuʝíícíkáika . 1 n. animist. 2 n. or-
ɲákáúńtì (ɲákáúńtìì-) pl. ɲákáúńtììka . acle, prophet, seer.
n. county: governmental administra- ɲakuʝímɛ́n (ɲakuʝí-mɛ́nà-) n. religious
tive unit below district and above sub- matters, theology.
county. The Ik were granted their own ɲakuʝínánès (ɲakuʝínánèsì-) n. divinity,
county in 2015, which meant they also godhood.
received their first Member of Parlia- Ɲakuʝíwáán (Ɲakuʝí-wáánà-) n. Lord’s
ment. Lokwang Hillary was elected the Prayer: Matthew 6:9-13.
first Ik MP in February 2016. This was
a major step toward counteracting po- ɲakwaanʝa (ɲakwaanʝaá-) pl. ɲakwáá-
litical marginalization. nʝàìka . 1 n. ball field, field, soccer pitch.
2 n. airfield, airport, airstrip.
ɲakawa (ɲakaʉ́-) 1 n. bow (weapon). 2
ɲákwác (ɲákwácì-) pl. ɲákwácìka .
n. fiddle, violin.
n. safety pin.
ɲákáwa (ɲákáwaá-) n. coffee. Ɲakwáca (Ɲakwácì-) n. name of a rock
Ɲákáya (Ɲákáì-) n. a personal name. hill.
ɲákɨláƙa (ɲákɨláƙà-) pl. ɲákɨláƙìka . 1 ɲákwálɨkwal (ɲákwálɨkwalí-) pl. ɲák-
n. bra, brassiere. 2 n. traditional wálìkwàlìka . n. abdominal muscle, ab.
leather brassiere worn for dancing. ɲákwáya (ɲákwáyaá-) pl. ɲákwáyàìka .
ɲákitamɓára (ɲákitamɓáraá-) pl. ɲá- n. choir, chorus.
kitamɓáràìka . n. handkerchief. ɲaƙaari (ɲaƙaarií-) pl. ɲaƙáárììka .
ɲákol (ɲákolí-) pl. ɲákòlìka . 1 n. twisted n. wheelbarrow. See also ɲáɡaɗiɡáɗa .
nylon string. 2 n. nylon neck snare. ɲaƙóƙóŋ (ɲaƙóƙóŋù-) n. strength.

ɲaƙwárɛ́ta ɲámakáya

ɲaƙwárɛ́ta (ɲaƙwárɛ́tɛ̀-) pl. ɲaƙwárɛ́- Ɲálámʉɲɛna (Ɲálámʉɲɛnaá-) n. name

tíka . n. rake. of a place with colored soil.
ɲàl (ɲàlì) ideo. squashily, squishily. ɲálámʉɲɛna (ɲálámʉɲɛnaá-) n. colored
ɲálaaʝáíta (ɲálaaʝáítì-) n. tall grass soil (black, red, yellow, etc.).
species used for thatching houses. ɲálán (ɲálánì-) pl. ɲálánìka . n. right
Gramineae sp. hindleg: portion of meat reserved for
elders consisting of the whole right leg
ɲáláɗa (ɲáláɗaá-) pl. ɲáláɗàìka . n. lad-
including the gluteus medius.
Ɲálem (Ɲálemú-) n. a personal name.
ɲálaín (ɲálaínì-) pl. ɲálaínìka . 1 n. line.
2 n. town, trading center. See also táùn. ɲálem (ɲálemú-) pl. ɲálèmìka . n. crest,
crown (e.g. of a rooster).
ɲáláínìkààm (ɲáláínìkà-àmà-) pl. ɲáláí-
nikaika . n. town-dweller, urbanite. ɲáléso (ɲálésoó-) pl. ɲálésòìka . n. light
cloak or shawl.
ɲalakas (ɲalakasí-) n. happiness.
ɲalídòn (ɲalídònì-) v. to be squashy,
ɲalakas (ɲalakasí-) n. vine species that squishy (easily compressible).
is wrapped around other tree species
ɲalíɲalí (ɲalíɲalíì-) n. assortment,
in the sacred tree monument of agricul-
melange, mixture, variety.
tural ceremonies. Securinega virosa.
ɲalʉ́kɛ́ta (ɲalʉ́kɛ́tɛ̀-) pl. ɲalʉ́kɛ́tíka .
ɲalakʉtsa (ɲalakʉtsí-) n. ceremonial n. round coppice or thicket.
beer prepared by a newly married
woman for the elders of her husband’s ɲálukutúʝu (ɲálukutúʝuú-) n. serval. Fe-
clan. lis serval.
ɲálaƙamááìtìɔ̀ka (ɲálaƙamááìtì-ɔ̀kà-) pl. ɲámá (ɲámáà-) n. grass species used for
ɲálaƙamááitiɔkɨtín. n. clavicle, collar- thatching. Gramineae sp.
bone. ɲámaamɓáta (ɲámaamɓátì-) pl. ɲámaa-
mɓátìka . n. metal roofing sheet.
ɲálaƙamáíta (ɲálaƙamáítì-) pl. ɲálaƙa-
máítíka . n. cowl muscle, trapezius. ɲamaɗaŋ (ɲamaɗaŋí-) n. tick.
ɲalamatsar (ɲalamatsarí-) pl. ɲalámá- ɲamaɗaŋíkú (ɲamaɗaŋí-kúà-) n. tick
tsàrìka . n. perineal muscle: be- grass: grass species used to cover ter-
tween the anus and genitalia. See also mite traps. Eragrostis superba.
ɲekiɗoŋita . ɲámakaɗá (ɲámakaɗáà-) pl. ɲá-
ɲalámétòn (ɲalámétònì-) v. to collapse, makaɗáìka . n. AK-47 assault rifle.
crumble, fall down (e.g. plaster from a ɲámakaɗí (ɲámakaɗíì-) n. soda ash,
wall). See also laʝámétòn and taɲálóòn. sodium carbonate. See also ɲaɓáláŋɨta .
ɲalámónuƙota (ɲalámónuƙotí-) v. to ɲamakaʝe (ɲamakaʝeé-) n. sexually-
collapse, crumble, fall down (e.g. plas- transmitted disease (possibly gonor-
ter from a wall). rhea or syphills).
ɲálamorú (ɲálamorúù-) pl. ɲálamo- ɲámakás (ɲámakásì-) pl. ɲámakásìka .
rúìka . 1 n. plant species. 2 n. flute. n. scissors.
3 n. drinking straw. ɲámakáya (ɲámakáì-) n. charcoal.

ɲámákɛ̀ta ɲaŋés

ɲámákɛ̀ta (ɲámákɛ̀tɛ̀-) pl. ɲámákɛtíka . ɲamɨɨlɨa ŋwáxɔ̀nìàmàe n. wheelchair.

n. market. See dzíɡwààwa . Lit. ‘bicycle of a lame person’.
ɲámakuka (ɲámakukú-) pl. ɲámàkù- ɲámɨlɨɔŋɔ́r (ɲámɨlɨɔŋɔ́rì-) n. gecko
kìka . n. two-legged stool. species?
ɲámáƙa (ɲámáƙì-) pl. ɲámáƙìka . n. mug, ɲámisípa (ɲámisípù-) pl. ɲámisípìka .
mugful. n. belt.
ɲámal (ɲámalí-) pl. ɲámàlìka . 1 n. arrow ɲámoɗa (ɲámoɗó-) pl. ɲámòɗìka .
or bullet. 2 n. boy. n. thigh meat.
ɲamáláɨta (ɲamáláɨtí-) pl. ŋɨmálá. ɲámucúŋ́ƙà (ɲámucúŋ́ƙàà-) pl. ɲámucú-
n. prostitute. ŋ́ƙàìka . n. citrus fruit: lemon or orange.
ɲámáli (ɲámálií-) n. possessions, prop- ɲanákɛ́ta (ɲanákɛ́tì-) pl. ɲanákɛ́tíka .
erty, wealth. n. age-group, age-set: traditional
ɲámalíáka (ɲámalí-ákà-) pl. ɲámalɨkaa- grouping of men according to genera-
kɨtín. n. arrow hole, bullet hole. tion and initiation.
ɲámalídàkwa (ɲámalí-dàkù-) pl. ɲá- ɲánam (ɲánamʉ́-) pl. ɲánàmìka . n. lake,
malɨkadakwitín. n. arrow shaft. ocean, sea.
ɲamalil (ɲamalilí-) n. small riverside ɲánamɓá (ɲánamɓáà-) pl. ɲánamɓáìka .
tree with blackish bark and leaves and n. digit, number.
whose stems are used to build gra- ɲáníɓàka (ɲáníɓàkì-) pl. ɲáníɓakíka .
naries. Saba comorensis. n. handbag, purse.
ɲámanikór (ɲámanikórì-) pl. ɲámani- ɲánɨnɔ́ (ɲánɨnɔ́ɔ̀-) pl. ɲánɨnɔ́ìka .
kórìka . n. farmland, large field includ- n. leather whip. Traditionally made
ing many gardens. from twisted buffalo or rhino hide.
ɲámápa (ɲámápʉ̀-) pl. ɲámápìka . ɲanʉ́píta (ɲanʉ́pítì-) n. belief, faith.
n. map. ɲaɲɛnɨʝɛ́n (ɲaɲɛnɨ-ʝɛ́nì-) n. grass species
ɲámára (ɲámáraá-) n. arithmetic, math, with little round seed-pods that is
mathematics. picked from rocky outcroppings and
ɲámaritóíta (ɲámaritóítì-) pl. ɲámari- used to make brooms.
tóítìka . 1 n. gold anklet or bracelet. 2 ɲaŋáánètòn (ɲaŋáánètònì-) 1 v. to be
n. golden earring. yellow. 2 v. to be jaundice.
ɲámasín (ɲámasínì-) pl. ɲámasínìka . 1 ɲaŋálómòn (ɲaŋálómònì-) v. to be
n. machine. 2 n. grinding mill. gappy (in teeth), have a tooth gap.
ɲámáta (ɲámátì-) pl. ɲámátìka . n. mat. ɲaŋalúr (ɲaŋalúrá-) pl. ɲaŋalúríka .
ɲamatiɗa (ɲamatiɗaá-) pl. ɲamátíɗàìka . n. kidney.
n. homemade gun. ɲaŋárʉ́tɛ̀ (ɲaŋárʉ́tɛ̀ɛ̀-) pl. ɲaŋárʉ́tɛ̀ìka .
ɲámátsar (ɲámátsarí-) pl. ɲámátsaríka . n. unripe maize (with small kernels).
n. brand, mark, sign (e.g. cattle brands See also íɡùm and káruɓú.
or clan emblems). Ɲaŋasir (Ɲaŋasirí-) n. a personal name.
ɲamɨɨlɨ (ɲamɨɨlɨí-) pl. ɲamíílììka . n. bi- ɲaŋés (ɲaŋésí-) v. to avenge, get pay-
cycle, bike. back, retaliate, revenge.

ɲaŋésúƙota ɲarama na tílɨwa

ɲaŋésúƙota (ɲaŋésúƙotí-) v. to avenge, ɲápáti (ɲápátií-) pl. ɲápátììka . n. cele-

get payback, retaliate, revenge. bration, party, shindig.
ɲaŋólé (ɲaŋóléè-) pl. ɲaŋóléìka . ɲapatsole (ɲapatsoleé-) pl. ɲapátsólèìka .
n. horse. n. bare patch or spot (e.g. where no
Ɲaŋoroka (Ɲaŋorokú-) n. a personal grass or hair is growing).
name. ɲapáyál (ɲapáyálì-) pl. ɲapáyálìka .
ɲaŋu (ɲaŋuú-) pl. ɲaŋúíka . n. monster, n. hard, bare patch of ground where no
mythical beast. grass grows.
ɲápaalí (ɲápaalíì-) pl. ɲápaalíìka . ɲapéɗór (ɲapéɗórì-) n. ability, capabil-
n. small plastic bag or sack. ity, power.
ɲapaaru (ɲapaaruú-) pl. ɲapáárùìka . ɲàpèì (ɲàpèì) 1 prep. from. 2 subor-
n. catapult, sling, slingshot (made of dconn. from the time when, since. A
a leather patch with string attached to noun following this word takes the ab-
each side). lative case. See also nàpèì.
ɲápaɗɛr (ɲápaɗɛrí-) pl. ɲápàɗɛ̀rìka . ɲapéryɛ́ta (ɲapéryɛ́tì-) pl. ɲapéryɛ́tíka .
n. big, round, inedible gourd used as n. uterus, womb. See also epúáwa .
a basin or bottle. ɲapíɗímòm (ɲapíɗímònì-) v. to be pow-
ɲápaín (ɲápaínì-) pl. ɲápaínìk . n. fine dery soft. See also lyamádòn.
for an illegal marriage. ɲápís (ɲápísì-) pl. ɲápísìka . n. office.
ɲápaɨpáya (ɲápaɨpáì-) pl. ɲápaɨpáìka . ɲápukán (ɲápukání-) pl. ɲápukán-
n. papaya, pawpaw. Carica papaya. íka . n. administration, government,
ɲapala (ɲapalaá-) n. bright red soil. regime.
ɲápalís (ɲápalísì-) pl. ɲápalísìka . 1 ɲápukáníàm (ɲápukání-àmà-) pl. ɲá-
n. cushion, mattress. 2 n. cushion. pukáníika . n. government employee.
ɲápáma (ɲápámaá-) n. cotton. ɲapʉɔ́ta (ɲapʉɔ́tí-) pl. ɲapʉɔ́tíka . n. of-
fering of a slaughtered animal.
ɲápaŋká (ɲápaŋkáà-) pl. ɲápaŋkáìka .
n. machete, panga. ɲáráɓa (ɲáráɓaá-) pl. ɲáráɓàìka . n. eras-
er, rubber.
ɲápaŋƙaláíta (ɲápaŋƙaláítì-) pl. ɲá-
paŋƙaláítìka . n. type of short bolt- ɲáraƙɔ́áƙwa (ɲáraƙɔ́-áƙɔ̀-) n. wild, wild-
action rifle. erness.
ɲápár (ɲápárì-) pl. ɲápárìka . n. flat ɲáraƙwa (ɲáraƙɔ́-) n. wild, wilderness.
cover or lid (made from metal, reeds, or See also ɲɛ́kítɛla.
anything). ɲàràm (ɲàràmà-) pl. ɲèr. 1 n. daugh-
ɲápárìx (ɲápárìxì-) pl. ɲápárixík . a ter, girl, maiden, young woman (un-
n. parish: governmental administrative married). 2 n. girlfriend.
unit below the subcounty and above ɲarama na ɓétsʼa n. virgin. Lit. ‘girl who
the ward. is white’.
ɲápata (ɲápatí-) n. plant species with no ɲarama na tílɨwa n. virgin. Lit. ‘girl
known uses. Thunbergia alata. who is pure’.

ɲàràmàìm ɲásakaraméntù

ɲàràmàìm (ɲàràmà-ìmà-) pl. ɲerawika . ɲásáatɨkaa mɨtátie toomíní ńdà kɛ̀ɗì

n. little girl. kɔ̀n n. five o’clock (5:00). Lit. ‘the
Ɲárámɨram (Ɲárámɨramʉ́-) n. Satur- hours being ten and one’.
day. ɲásáatɨkaa mɨtátie toomíní ńda kiɗi
ɲáraŋɡí (ɲáraŋɡíì-) n. paint, pigment. léɓètse n. six o’clock (6:00). Lit. ‘the
hours being ten and two’.
ɲárará (ɲáraráà-) pl. ɲáraráìka . n. chee-
tah. Acinonyx jubatus. ɲásáatɨkaa tsʼaɡúsátìke n. ten o’clock
(10:00). Lit. ‘the hours being four’.
ɲárásíám (ɲárásí-ámà-) pl. ɲárásíika .
n. miscreant, pervert, reprobate. ɲásáatɨkaa tudátie ńdà kɛ̀ɗì kɔ̀n
n. twelve o’clock (12:00). Lit. ‘the
ɲarátáta (ɲarátátà-) pl. ɲarátátíka .
hours being five and one’.
n. wall of a building.
ɲásáatɨkaa tudátie ńdà kìɗì àɗe n. two
ɲárém (ɲárémò-) n. danger, insecurity,
o’clock (2:00). Lit. ‘the hours being
five and three’.
ɲaréréŋ (ɲaréréŋì-) n. good fortune or ɲásáatɨkaa tudátie ńda kiɗi léɓètse
luck. n. one o’clock (1:00) . Lit. ‘the hours
ɲarʉ́kʉ́m (ɲarʉ́kʉ́mʉ̀-) 1 n. mucus, being five and two’.
phlegm, snot; sputum. 2 n. cold, flu. ɲásáatɨkaa tudátie ńda kiɗi tsʼaɡús
See also ɗɔ̀ƙɔ̀n. n. three o’clock (3:00). Lit. ‘the hours
ɲárʉ́má (ɲárʉ́máà-) pl. ɲárʉ́máìka . being five and four’.
n. injury. ɲásáatɨkaa tudátìke n. eleven o’clock
ɲárʉpɛpɛ́ (ɲárʉpɛpɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. ɲárʉpɛpɛ́ìka . (11:00). Lit. ‘the hours being five’.
n. wooden voice-amplifying horn (3- ɲásáàtɔ̀ kɔ̀n n. at once, at the same time.
4 ft. long, open on each end, mouth- Lit. ‘by one time’.
piece in the middle, crack between two
Ɲásaɓéta (Ɲásaɓétì-) n. Sunday.
halves sealed by a leather wrap).
ɲásaɓéta (ɲásaɓétì-) pl. ɲásaɓétìka .
ɲásaaʝa (ɲásaaʝí-) pl. ɲásààʝìka . n. don- n. week.
key saddle.
ɲásáɓúkáúntì (ɲásáɓúkáúntìì-) pl. ɲá-
ɲásaaní (ɲásaaníì-) pl. ɲásaaníìka . sáɓúkáúntììka . n. subcounty: gov-
n. plate, saucer. ernmental administrative unit below
ɲásáata (ɲásáatí-) pl. ɲásáàtìka . 1 county and above parish.
n. hour. 2 n. time. 3 n. wristwatch. ɲásaɓuní (ɲásaɓuníì-) n. detergent,
ɲásáatíá kɔ̀nìkɛ n. seven o’clock (7:00). soap.
Lit. ‘the hour being one’. ɲásáɓúpárìx (ɲásáɓúpárìxì-) pl. ɲásáɓú-
ɲásáatɨkaa aɗátìke n. nine o’clock (9:00). párixíka . n. subparish: governmental
Lit. ‘the hours being three’. administrative unit below the parish
ɲásáatɨkaa leɓetsátìke n. eight o’clock and above the ward.
(8:00). Lit. ‘the hours being two’. ɲásaɗukú (ɲásaɗukúì-) pl. ɲásaɗu-
ɲásáatɨkaa mɨtátie toomín n. four kúìka . n. box, storage chest.
o’clock (4:00). Lit. ‘the hours being ɲásakaraméntù (ɲásakaraméntùù-)
ten’. n. Catholic sacrament.

ɲasal ɲaʉ́dɔnʉƙɔta

ɲasal (ɲasalí-) n. small plant species ɲátáya (ɲátáì-) pl. ɲátáìka . n. necktie,
with bluish leaves which when ground tie.
and mixed with oil are applied to heads ɲátóè (ɲátóè-) pl. ɲátóìka . n. beaded belt
to counteract lice. Cassia hildebrandtii. worn by females.
ɲásalátà (ɲásalátàà-) n. spinach. ɲatsʉʉma (ɲatsʉʉmaá-) pl. ɲatsʉ́ʉ́-
ɲásánɗɔ̀l (ɲásánɗɔ̀lɔ̀-) pl. ɲásánɗɔlíka . màìka . n. borehole.
n. rubber sandal. ɲatsʉʉmáárí (ɲatsʉʉmá-áríɛ́-) pl. ɲa-
ɲásáníjìn (ɲásáníjìnì-) n. Sunny Gin: a tsʉʉmáárííka . n. borehole pipe. Lit.
Ugandan brand of cheap gin. ‘borehole-intestine’.
ɲásaŋáɲo (ɲásaŋáɲoó-) n. bee species ɲatsʉʉmácúé (ɲatsʉʉmá-cúè-) n. bore-
that builds nests in flat ground. hole water.
ɲásápari (ɲásáparií-) pl. ɲásápàrììka . 1 ɲatsʉʉmádɛ̀ (ɲatsʉʉmá-dɛ̀à-) n. bore-
n. round, time. 2 n. expedition, jour- hole footing. Lit. ‘borehole-foot’.
ney, trip. ɲatsʉʉmáhò (ɲatsʉʉmá-hòò-) pl. ɲa-
ɲásáti (ɲásátií-) pl. ɲásátììka . n. shirt. tsʉ́ʉ́maɨkahoíka . n. borehole housing
ɲasécón (ɲasécónì-) pl. ɲasécónìka . or shaft.
n. error, mistake, sin. See also ɲatsʉʉmákwɛ́ta (ɲatsʉʉmá-kwɛ́tà-) pl.
ɲɔ́mɔkɔsá. ɲatsʉ́ʉ́maɨkakwɛtíka . n. borehole han-
ɲásím (ɲásímù-) pl. ɲásímìka . n. mobile dle. Lit. ‘borehole-arm’.
phone. ɲatsʉʉmánêba (ɲatsʉʉmá-nébù-) pl. ɲa-
ɲásipiryá (ɲásipiryáà-) pl. ɲásipiryáìk . a tsʉ́ʉ́maɨkanébitín. n. borehole casing.
n. metal cooking pan or pot, saucepan. Lit. ‘borehole-body’.
See also ɲésipiryá. ɲátúɗu (ɲátúɗuú-) pl. ɲátúɗùìka . n. big
ɲásírìàm (ɲásírì-àmà-) pl. ɲásíriika . oblong gourd used as a general con-
n. fine dresser, fashionista. tainer.
ɲátaayá (ɲátaayáà-) pl. ɲátaayáìka . ɲatúkíta (ɲatúkítì-) pl. ɲatúkítíka .
n. kerosene lantern. n. heap, mound, pile. See also kìtsa .
ɲatal (ɲatalí-) pl. ɲatálíka . 1 n. custom, ɲatʉ́kɔ́ta (ɲatʉ́kɔ́tɔ̀-) pl. ɲatʉ́kɔ́tíka .
tradition. 2 n. taboo, prohibition. n. assembly, congregation, gathering.
ɲátám (ɲátámʉ̀-) pl. ɲátámìka . n. school ɲátúm (ɲátúmù-) pl. ɲátúmìka . n. spear
term, semester. with long, flat head (18-24 inches long).
ɲátamɨtám (ɲátamɨtámʉ̀-) pl. ɲátamɨ- ɲáturuɡéya (ɲáturuɡéì-) pl. ɲáturuɡé-
támìka . n. candy, sweet. ìka . n. type of large-bore, five-round
ɲátamóómìtà (ɲátamóómìtàà-) pl. ɲá- elephant gun.
tamóómìtàìka . n. thermometer. ɲà ᶶ (ɲàʉ̀) ideo. crystallizedly.
a a ɲaʉ́dɔ̀n (ɲaʉ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be crystallized,
ɲátats (ɲátatsí-) pl. ɲátátsìk . n. spike
trap. effloresced.
ɲátauló (ɲátaulóò-) pl. ɲátaulóìka . ɲaʉ́dɔnʉƙɔta (ɲaʉ́dɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to crys-
n. towel. tallize, effloresce.

ɲáwaawá ɲɛ́ɓɨsár

ɲáwaawá (ɲáwaawáà-) pl. ɲáwaawáìka . wife’s sibling, my brother’s wife’s sib-

n. large gunny sack. See also lomóŋin. ling, my sister’s husband). 2 n. my
ɲáwáɗa (ɲáwáɗì-) pl. ɲáwáɗìka . sister’s husband’s sibling).
n. ward: governmental administrative ɲébenɗéra (ɲébenɗéraá-) pl. ɲébenɗé-
unit above the village and below the ràìka . n. flag.
subparish. ɲébeŋɡí (ɲébeŋɡíì-) pl. ɲébeŋɡíìka .
ɲáwáro (ɲáwároó-) pl. ɲáwáròìka . n. safe, safe-box.
n. cloak, shawl. Called a ‘sheet’ in ɲɛ́bʉlán (ɲɛ́bʉlánì-) pl. ɲɛ́bʉlánìka .
Karamojan English. n. vest. Also pronounced as ɲábʉlán.
ɲáwáróófúr (ɲáwáró-ófúrí-) n. bag ɲɛ́ɓákɛ̀ta (ɲɛ́ɓákɛ̀tɛ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́ɓákɛtíka .
made from the fabric of a cloak. n. bucket, pail. See also ɲáɓákɛ̀ta .
ɲáwáya (ɲáwáyaá-) pl. ɲáwáyàìka . 1 ɲéɓatál (ɲéɓatálì-) pl. ɲéɓatálìka . n. bat-
n. wire. 2 n. wire neck snare. talion.
ɲ́cìcèka (ɲ́cì-cèkì-) n. my wife. ɲéɓéɓuta (ɲéɓéɓutí-) n. Defassa’s water-
ɲ́cìèàkwa (ɲ́cì-èàkwà-) n. my husband. buck. Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa.
ɲ́ciemetá (ɲ́ci-emetáà-) pl. ɲ́ciemetá- ɲɛ́ɓɛ́ka (ɲɛ́ɓɛ́kì-) pl. ɲɛ́ɓɛ́kìka . n. bag.
tíkwa . n. my parent-in-law (of men). ɲɛ́ɓɛ́ɲc (ɲɛ́ɓɛ́ɲcì-) pl. ɲɛ́ɓɛɲcíka .
ɲ́cììm (ɲ́cì-ìmà-) pl. ɲ́ciwika . 1 n. my n. bench.
child. 2 n. my niece of nephew ɲɛɓɛ́s (ɲɛɓɛ́sí-) 1 v. to chew on, rumi-
(brother’s child). nate. 2 v. to contemplate, mull over,
ɲ́cilobá (ɲ́ci-lobáà-) n. my grandchild. ponder, think on.
ɲ́cinamúí (ɲ́ci-namúíì-) pl. ɲ́cinamúá- ɲɛɓɛ́sá tódàe v. to grumble to oneself.
tikwa . 1 n. my sibling-in-law (hus- Lit. ‘to chew on speech’.
band’s sibling). 2 n. my sister-in-law ɲéɓésèn (ɲéɓésènì-) pl. ɲéɓéseníka .
(brother’s wife). n. basin.
ɲ́cinamúíìm (ɲ́ci-namúí-ìmà-) pl. ɲ́cina- ɲéɓeterí (ɲéɓeteríì-) pl. ɲéɓètèrìka .
múíwika . n. my niece or nephew (hus- n. battery.
band’s sibling’s child). ɲéɓéya (ɲéɓéì-) pl. ɲéɓéìka . n. cost, ex-
ɲ́cìnèba (ɲ́cì-nèbù-) n. myself. Lit. ‘my pense, price.
body’. ɲéɓía (ɲéɓíaá-) pl. ɲéɓíàìka . n. bottled
ɲ́cìɲòta (ɲ́cì-ɲòtà-) pl. ɲ́ciɲotikwa . 1 beer.
n. my foreign friend. 2 n. my in-law ɲɛ́ɓɨás (ɲɛ́ɓɨásì-) n. Irish or white
(my child’s spouse’s parent). potato(es), spud.
ɲ́cìɲòtàìm (ɲ́cì-ɲòtà-ìmà-) pl. ɲ́ciɲo- ɲéɓílìòn (ɲéɓílìònì-) pl. ɲéɓílioníka .
tawika . n. my niece or nephew-in-law n. billion.
(child’s spouse’s sibling). ɲéɓiró (ɲéɓiróò-) pl. ɲéɓiróìka . n. stick
ɲ́citaŋá (ɲ́ci-taŋáí-) pl. ɲ́citaŋáíkìn. with a round head. Well-known as a
n. my co-: cohort, colleague, etc. ‘rungu’ in Swahili.
ɲ́cuɡwám (ɲ́c-uɡwámá-) pl. ɲ́cuɡwá- ɲɛ́ɓɨsár (ɲɛ́ɓɨsárì-) n. flavoring, season-
mátikwa . 1 n. my sibling-in-law (my ing (e.g. local Royco brand).

ɲéɓisikóta ɲeɗekéím

ɲéɓisikóta (ɲéɓisikótì-) pl. ɲéɓisikótìka . ɲɛ́caal (ɲɛ́caalí-) n. tree species whose

n. cookie, cracker, sweet biscuit. fruits are eaten raw and whose wood
ɲɛ́ɓítɨ (ɲɛ́ɓítɨí-) pl. ɲɛ́ɓítììka . n. short- is used to carve stools. Cyphostemma
necked, oval spearhead. junceum.
ɲɛɓɔŋ (ɲɛɓɔŋí-) n. egret. ɲɛcááta (ɲɛcáátì-) pl. ɲɛcáátìka . n. men’s
colored handband.
ɲéɓúku (ɲéɓúkuú-) pl. ɲéɓúkùìka .
n. crowd, mob, throng. ɲɛcaɓoya (ɲɛcaɓoí-) n. small plant
ɲéɓukuɓúka (ɲéɓukuɓúkù-) pl. ɲéɓu- species whose leaves are boiled as
kuɓúkìka . n. jerrycan cut in half to be greens and whose small fruits are
an open container. ground and applied to skin cuts.
ɲeɓúkúita (ɲeɓúkúití-) pl. ŋíɓúkúya . ɲécapatí (ɲécapatíì-) pl. ɲécapatíìka .
n. foreigner, outsider. See also ɦyɔ̀àm. n. chapati, fried flatbread (of Indian ori-
ɲéɓulóka (ɲéɓulókì-) pl. ɲéɓulókìka .
n. block, brick. ɲɛ́cápɔ̀l (ɲɛ́cápɔ̀lɔ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́cápɔlíka .
ɲeɓune (ɲeɓuneé-) pl. ɲeɓúnéìka . n. chapel.
n. drinking straw (esp. for beer). ɲécáya (ɲécáì-) n. tea.
ɲéɓur (ɲéɓurí-) pl. ɲéɓùrìka . 1 n. but- ɲɛ́cɨpɨtá (ɲɛ́cɨpɨtáà-) pl. ɲɛ́cɨpɨtáìka .
ter flask made of leather and wood. 2 n. arrow.
n. drum.
ɲɛ́cɔ́ka (ɲɛ́cɔ́kaá-) pl. ɲɛ́cɔ́kàìka .
ɲéɓurankít (ɲéɓurankítì-) pl. ɲéɓuran- n. chalk.
kítìka . n. blanket.
ɲɛ́cʉma (ɲɛ́cʉmaá-) n. black-and-white
ɲeɓuri (ɲeɓurií-) n. Bohor reedbuck. Re- colobus monkey. Colobus guereza
dunca redunca. polykomos.
ɲéɓurocó (ɲéɓurocóò-) pl. ɲéɓurocóìka . ɲɛ̀ɗɛ (ɲɛ̀ɗɛ̀) ideo. chafedly, frayedly.
n. cartridge, shell, shell casing.
ɲɛɗɛ́dɔ̀n (ɲɛɗɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be chafed,
ɲéɓúruɓur (ɲéɓúruɓurí-) pl. ɲéɓúrùɓù-
frayed (e.g. a rope or vine).
rìka . n. floodplain, wide flat valley.
ɲeɓuryaŋ (ɲeɓuryaŋí-) pl. ɲeɓúryáŋìka . ɲeɗeke (ɲeɗekeé-) pl. ɲeɗekéícíka .
n. snuff container, tobacco horn. n. disease, illness, sickness.

ɲéɓusitá (ɲéɓusitáà-) pl. ɲéɓusitáìka . ɲeɗekea bákútsìkàe n. chest disease (e.g.

n. booster or relay tower for cellular pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc.).
networks or radio. ɲeɗekea na ɨtɛnítʉ́ƙɔta ámáka n. lock-
ɲéɓwál (ɲéɓwálì-) pl. ɲéɓwálìka . jaw, tetanus. Lit. ‘disease that straight-
n. riverbed pool of standing water ens a person’.
(found in large rivers). ɲeɗekea sakámáe n. liver disease.
ɲecaaƙo (ɲecaaƙoó-) pl. ɲecááƙòìk . ɲeɗekéím (ɲeɗeké-ímà-) pl. ɲeɗe-
n. scrub brush, washing brush. kéwíka . 1 n. spirit that causes sickness.
ɲécaal (ɲécaalá-) n. tree species whose 2 n. mild disease, illness, or sickness.
wood is carved into spoons and stools. Lit. ‘sickness-child’.

ɲéɗépe ɲéɡurúf

ɲéɗépe (ɲéɗépeé-) pl. ɲéɗépèìka . ɲɛ́ɗʉrípa (ɲɛ́ɗʉrípì-) n. intravenous

n. large can: unit of measurement of drip.
20 liters. ɲéɗúruɗur (ɲéɗúruɗurí-) n. food that is
ɲɛ́ɗɛpɨɗɛ́pa (ɲɛ́ɗɛpɨɗɛ́pɛ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́ɗɛpɨɗɛ́- burnt or stuck on the bottom of a pot.
pìka . n. gunny sack. ɲɛ́ɛkɨmá (ɲɛ́ɛkɨmáà-) n. small plant
ɲɛɗɛ́sɛ̂da (ɲɛɗɛ́sɛ́dɛ̀-) n. trigger. See also species whose leaves are crushed,
ɲétíƙa. mixed with oil, and applied as a per-
ɲɛ́ɗíɨta (ɲɛ́ɗíɨtí-) 1 n. tsetse fly. fumed lotion for men and women; its
Glossinidae. 2 n. talking drum. leaves are also mixed with those of the
ɓólìs tree and burnt green to fumigate
ɲéɗíkìxònàrì (ɲéɗíkìxònàrìì-) n. dictio-
gardens for insect pests.
nary, lexicon.
ɲɛ́ɛ́ƙɨɛ́ƙa (ɲɛ́ɛ́ƙɨɛ́ƙì-) pl. ɲɛ́ɛ́ƙɨɛ́ƙìka .
ɲéɗíni (ɲéɗínií-) pl. ɲéɗínììka . 1 n. faith,
n. small gourd rattle (with small stones
religion. 2 n. religious denomination.
ɲéɗiŋ (ɲéɗiŋí-) pl. ɲéɗìŋìka . n. long dig-
ɲéema (ɲéemaá-) pl. ɲéèmàìka . 1 n. tent.
ging stick.
2 n. tarp, tarpaulin.
ɲéɗíol (ɲéɗíolí-) 1 n. tallow: fat of cattle,
ɲɛ́ɛ́s (ɲɛ́ɛ́sɛ̀-) n. bozo, dude, guy.
goats, or sheep. 2 n. cheese.
ɲɛ́ɛ́sɛ (ɲɛ́ɛ́sɛɛ́-) pl. ɲɛ́ɛ́sɛ̀ìka . n. crag: tall
ɲéɗípor (ɲéɗíporí-) 1 n. tobacco soot
cliff or rock with unscalable sides.
(found in pipes). 2 n. earwax.
ɲɛ́fíl (ɲɛ́fílì-) n. market in Kenya held
ɲéɗísítùrìka (ɲéɗísítùrìkì-) pl. ɲéɗísítù-
during British colonial rule.
rìkìka . n. district: governmental admin-
istrative unit above the county and be- ɲɛ́fɨrɛ́m (ɲɛ́fɨrɛ́mʉ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́fɨrɛ́mìka .
low the region. n. door-frame.
ɲɛ́ɗɨtác (ɲɛ́ɗɨtácì-) pl. ɲɛ́ɗɨtácìka . n. mil- ɲéɡelesíà (ɲéɡelesíàà-) pl. ɲéɡelesíàìka .
itary detachment. n. church.
ɲéɗivíxìòn (ɲéɗivíxìònì-) pl. ɲéɗivíxìò- ɲéɡetsa (ɲéɡetsí-) pl. ɲéɡètsìka . 1
nìka . n. military division. n. spur. 2 n. stiff leg hair (of insects).
3 n. stiff tail-tip of a python.
ɲɛ́ɗɔ́nɨɗɔn (ɲɛ́ɗɔ́nɨɗɔní-) n. polydactyly:
extra fingers or toes. ɲɛ́ɡɨlás (ɲɛ́ɡɨlásì-) pl. ɲɛ́ɡɨlásìka . n. mir-
ror. See also ɲɛ́rʉ́ɛ́ta .
ɲeɗuar (ɲeɗuarí-) n. grass species
which is tied with míʒɨʒ fibers to block ɲɛ́ɡɨrasíà (ɲɛ́ɡɨrasíàà-) n. divine grace
wind and to ward off evil spirits from in Catholicism.
one’s home. Aristida adoensis. ɲéɡiróya (ɲéɡiróì-) n. mountain bam-
ɲeɗúkór (ɲeɗúkórì-) pl. ɲeɗúkórìka . boo. Arundinaria alpinia.
n. claimed spot, owned plot (e.g. a ɲéɡitá (ɲéɡitáà-) pl. ɲéɡitáìka . n. guitar.
home or place of harvesting termites). ɲéɡuniyá (ɲéɡuniyáà-) pl. ɲéɡuniyáìka .
ɲɛɗʉpɛ (ɲɛɗʉpɛɛ́-) n. procession, suc- n. burlap bag, gunny sack.
cession. ɲéɡurúf (ɲéɡurúfù-) pl. ɲéɡurúfìka .
ɲɛ́ɗʉráp (ɲɛ́ɗʉrápʉ̀-) n. checkers. n. club, co-op, group, organization.

ɲéɡuruwé ɲékiɲés

ɲéɡuruwé (ɲéɡuruwéè-) pl. ŋ́ɡuruwóya . ɲékiɓiríta (ɲékiɓirítì-) pl. ɲékiɓirítìka .

n. hog, pig, swine. n. match, matchstick.
ɲéɡutá (ɲéɡutáà-) pl. ɲéɡutáìka . n. al- ɲɛ́kɨɗɛkɨɗɛ́ (ɲɛ́kɨɗɛkɨɗɛ́ɛ̀-) n. sunflower
phabetical letter. See also ɲéɲuɡutá. (plant and seeds). Helianthus sp. See
ɲɛɨtánɨta (ɲɛɨtánɨtí-) pl. ɲɛɨtánìtìka . also ɲɛ́tɔɔkíɗɛ́.
n. fountain, spring. ɲekiɗoŋita (ɲekiɗoŋití-) pl. ɲekíɗó-
ɲéʝá (ɲéʝáà-) pl. ɲéʝáìk . n. jug. ŋìtìka . n. perineal muscle: between the
anus and genitalia. See also ɲalama-
ɲɛʝákáɨta (ɲɛʝákáɨtí-) pl. ŋíʝákáɛ̀. n. sub-
county chief.
ɲékifúl (ɲékifúlù-) pl. ɲékifúlìka .
ɲɛ́ʝákɛ̀ta (ɲɛ́ʝákɛ̀tɛ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́ʝákɛtíka .
n. lock, padlock.
n. jacket.
ɲékíìkò (ɲékíìkòò-) pl. ɲékíìkòìka . n. as-
ɲéʝem (ɲéʝemú-) n. marsh, swamp.
sembly, meeting.
ɲéʝiɡón (ɲéʝiɡónì-) pl. ɲéʝiɡónìka .
ɲékiʝikó (ɲékiʝikóò-) pl. ɲékiʝikóìka .
n. cooking hut, kitchen.
n. metal spoon.
ɲɛ́ʝípa (ɲɛ́ʝípì-) pl. ɲɛ́ʝípìka . n. zipper.
ɲɛ́kílama (ɲɛ́kílamaá-) pl. ɲɛ́kílàmàìka .
ɲɛ́ʝɨrɨkán (ɲɛ́ʝɨrɨkánì-) pl. ɲɛ́ʝɨrɨkánìk . n. sacrificial goat or ox killed by a
n. jerrycan. groom for his new bride. See also
ɲéʝúùs (ɲéʝúùsì-) n. juice. ɲɛkʉma.
ɲékakúŋ́ɡù (ɲékakúŋ́ɡùù-) pl. ɲékakú- ɲɛ́kɨlás (ɲɛ́kɨlásì-) pl. ɲɛ́kɨlásìka . n. class,
ŋ́ɡùìka . n. small plastic barrel or drum. classroom.
ɲékeikéya (ɲékeikéì-) pl. ɲékeikéìka . ɲékilelés (ɲékilelésì-) n. mancala: game
n. sieve, strainer. with many names in different coun-
ɲékel (ɲékelí-) pl. ɲékèlìka . 1 n. artic- tries that involves counting and mov-
ulation, joint. 2 n. plant section or ing objects from hole to hole.
segment (e.g. of grass or sugarcane). ɲekiliriŋ (ɲekiliriŋí-) n. golden jackal.
ɲɛ́kɛ́n (ɲɛ́kɛ́nì-) pl. ɲɛ́kɛ́nìk . n. 4-liter Canis aureus.
metal can (based on USAID vegetable ɲékilitón (ɲékilitónì-) n. plant species
oil cans). with edible leaves.
ɲeker (ɲekerí-) pl. ɲekéríka . n. custom, ɲɛ́kílɔɗa (ɲɛ́kílɔɗaá-) pl. ɲɛ́kílɔ̀ɗàìka .
tradition. n. coiled metal anklet or bracelet.
ɲékerum (ɲékerumú-) n. fig tree species ɲɛkɨmar (ɲɛkɨmarí-) n. census, popula-
whose fruits are eaten raw. Ficus sp. tion.
ɲékés (ɲékésì-) pl. ɲékésìka . n. case, ɲékimyéta (ɲékimyétí-) n. sorghum va-
suit, trial. riety grown by the Turkana.
ɲɛkɛ́sɛ́ta (ɲɛkɛ́sɛ́tɛ̀-) pl. ɲɛkɛ́sɛ́tíka . ɲekiner (ɲekinerí-) pl. ɲekínérika .
n. comb. n. body part, meat or portion.
ɲɛkɛsʉpan (ɲɛkɛsʉpaní-) n. rebel, sub- ɲékiɲés (ɲékiɲésí-) n. hairstyle in which
verter, underminer. sides are short and the top is longer.

ɲɛkɨpanɗɛ ɲekúrúm

ɲɛkɨpanɗɛ (ɲɛkɨpanɗɛɛ́-) pl. ɲɛkí- ɲékiteitéya (ɲékiteitéì-) pl. ɲékiteitéìka .

pánɗɛ̀ìka . n. Kenyan identification n. dress, gown.
card. ɲɛ́kítɛla (ɲɛ́kítɛlaá-) pl. ɲɛ́kítɛ̀làìka .
ɲɛ́kɨpɛtɛ́ta (ɲɛ́kɨpɛtɛ́tì-) pl. ɲɛ́kɨpɛtɛ́tìka . n. wilderness. See also ɲáraƙwa .
n. lower back. ɲékitiyó (ɲékitiyóò-) pl. ɲékitiyóìka .
ɲékipeyés (ɲékipeyésì-) 1 n. initia- n. shovel, spade.
tion into a higher age-group (done by
ɲɛ́kítɔ́wɔ́ (ɲɛ́kítɔ́wɔ́ɔ̀-) n. exhaustion, ex-
killing a goat for the next age-group).
treme fatigue.
2 n. religious confirmation.
ɲɛkɨtsʉl (ɲɛkɨtsʉlí-) pl. ɲɛkítsʉ́lìka .
ɲɛkípɔ́r (ɲɛkípɔ́rɔ̀-) pl. ɲɛkípɔ́ríka .
n. fine for unlawful impregnation (in-
n. seasonal marsh or swamp. See also
cestuous or out of wedlock).
ɲɛkíwɔ́rìta (ɲɛkíwɔ́rìtì-) pl. ɲɛkíwɔ́-
ɲɛkípyɛ́ (ɲɛkípyɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. ɲɛkípyɛ́ìka /ŋí-
rɨtíka . n. holy ground, sacred place.
pyɛn. n. demon, earth spirit, evil spirit.
See also ŋípyɛn. ɲékiyóìka (ɲékiyóìkà-) n. eyeglasses,
glasses, spectacles.
ɲɛ́kɨráɓa (ɲɛ́kɨráɓʉ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́kɨráɓìka .
n. beer brewed for sale. ɲékiyóika ni fetí n. shades, sunglasses.
a ɲɛ́kɔ́kɔ́tɛ́ (ɲɛ́kɔ́kɔ́tɛ́ɛ̀-) n. aggregate rock.
ɲɛ́kɨsakát (ɲɛ́kɨsakátɛ́-) pl. ɲɛ́kɨsa-
kátíka . n. grass shelter (used as a ɲékuduŋƙúru (ɲékuduŋƙúruú-) pl. ɲé-
shower or toilet). kuduŋƙúrùìka . n. onion.
ɲɛ́kɨsɛsɛ́ (ɲɛ́kɨsɛsɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́kɨsɛsɛ́ìka . Ɲékuɗuɗa (Ɲékuɗuɗú-) n. nickname of
n. nylon sack used for wringing beer the late Luka of Looɗói.
from beer mash.
ɲékúkuse (ɲékúkuseé-) n. soft rock.
ɲɛ́kɨsí (ɲɛ́kɨsíì-) n. large hardwood tree
species in which beehives are placed ɲékukwá (ɲékukwáà-) n. conversation,
and whose wood is used to carve discussion.
stools. ɲékulukúl (ɲékulukúlù-) n. turkey.
ɲekísíɓìta (ɲekísíɓìtì-) pl. ɲekísíɓìtìka . ɲɛkʉlʉmɛ (ɲɛkʉlʉmɛɛ́-) pl. ɲɛkʉ́lʉ́mɛ̀-
n. evidence, exhibit. ìka . n. wooden jug or pitcher.
ɲɛkɨsɨl (ɲɛkɨsɨlí-) n. lawful order, peace, ɲɛkʉma (ɲɛkʉmaá-) pl. ɲɛkʉ́máìka .
security, stability. See also ŋíkísila. n. sacrificial goat or ox killed by a
ɲɛ́kɨsɨrán (ɲɛ́kɨsɨránì-) n. maliciousness, groom for his new bride. See also
spitefulness. ɲɛ́kílama.
ɲɛ́kɨsɨránìàm (ɲɛ́kɨsɨránì-àmà-) pl. ɲɛ́- ɲékúŋuta (ɲékúŋutú-) pl. ŋikúŋúí.
kɨsɨrániika . n. malicious or spiteful per- n. parish chief.
son. ɲɛ́kʉ́rara (ɲɛ́kʉ́raraá-) n. mange.
ɲekísórìta (ɲekísórìtì-) n. poison, toxin, ɲekúrúm (ɲekúrúmù-) pl. ɲekúrúmíka .
venom. 1 n. gourd used as a milk flask by the
ɲɛ́kítaɗa (ɲɛ́kítaɗaá-) pl. ɲɛ́kítàɗàìka . Turkana. 2 n. pair of panties, under-
n. bed, cot. clothes, underwear.

ɲékútàm ɲéméle

ɲékútàm (ɲékútàmà-) pl. ɲékútàmìka . ɲɛ́lɛl (ɲɛ́lɛlí-) pl. ɲɛ́lɛ̀lìka . n. cadaver,

n. small gourd used as a flask to hold corpse.
butter or oil. Ɲéléle (Ɲéléleé-) n. a personal name.
ɲékwaŋa (ɲékwaŋaá-) n. large shrub ɲɛlɛ́lyá (ɲɛlɛ́lyáà-) pl. ɲɛlɛ́lyáìka . n. nat-
or tree species with whitish bark and ural well, spring.
whose wood is used to carve stools. Pit-
tosporum viridiflorum. ɲɛ́lɛmá (ɲɛ́lɛmáà-) n. style of dance in
which two or three dancers (male or fe-
ɲɛkwɨ (ɲɛkwɨɛ́-) n. huge scrotal male) stand together with arms around
swelling (probably filiariasis). May each other’s waists.
also be spelled as ɲɛkʉya .
ɲelépíta (ɲelépítì-) pl. ɲelépítíka .
ɲɛ́kwɨɲcá (ɲɛ́kwɨɲcáà-) n. orange- n. milking gourd.
flavored drink.
ɲelerum (ɲelerumú-) n. argument, dis-
ɲɛ̀ƙa (ɲɛ̀ƙɛ̀-) n. hunger, hungriness. putation, quarreling.
ɲɛƙánón (ɲɛƙánónì-) v. to be famished, Ɲɛlɛtsa (Ɲɛlɛtsaá-) n. a personal name.
ɲɛlɨl (ɲɛlɨlí-) n. anger, annoyance, fury,
ɲɛƙɨl (ɲɛƙɨlí-) pl. ɲɛ́ƙílìka . n. necktie rage. See also ɡaánàs.
with a pouch for keeping money.
ɲɛ́límɨlɨm (ɲɛ́límɨlɨmí-) n. drizzle, driz-
ɲɛ́ƙínɔ n. with hunger, while hungry. zling rain.
ɲɛ́ƙɨrɨƙír (ɲɛ́ƙɨrɨƙírì-) pl. ɲɛ́ƙɨrɨƙírìka . ɲɛ́lɨmɨrá (ɲɛ́lɨmɨráà-) pl. ɲɛ́lɨmɨráìka .
n. handsaw, saw. n. gun sight.
ɲeƙulu (ɲeƙuluú-) pl. ɲeƙúlúìka . ɲɛlɨráta (ɲɛlɨrátí-) pl. ɲɛ́lɨrátíkwa .
n. small clay pot (for side dishes). n. long-necked spearhead.
ɲéƙúruƙur (ɲéƙúruƙurú-) 1 n. corrup- ɲéliwolíwo (ɲéliwolíwoó-) n. transgen-
tion, subversion. 2 n. conflict, discord, der, transvestite (male or female).
ɲɛ́lɔ́kɨlɔka (ɲɛ́lɔ́kɨlɔkí-) n. creeper, vine.
ɲéƙúrumota (ɲéƙúrumotí-) pl. ɲéƙú-
rùmòtìka . n. gully or trench formed by ɲélúɗo (ɲélúɗoó-) n. Ludo game.
running water. See also urúr. ɲélúru (ɲélúruú-) n. quail.
ɲéleɓuléɓu (ɲéleɓuléɓuú-) 1 n. tree ɲɛmaɨlɔŋ (ɲɛmaɨlɔŋɔ́-) n. small fruited
species whose berries are eaten raw teclea: hardwood tree growing near
and whose wood is used as poles for rivers and whose wood is used for
building; a decoction of its bark is building houses. Teclea nobilis. See also
drunk to induce vomiting. Ochna sp. 2 kɛ́láya .
n. blistered burn. ɲémékweɲ (ɲémékweɲí-) pl. ɲé-
ɲɛ́lɛ́ʝɨlɛʝa (ɲɛ́lɛ́ʝɨlɛʝí-) n. odd jobs, tempo- mékwèɲìka . n. omasum: third stomach
rary work. of ruminants.
ɲéleƙeré (ɲéleƙeréì-) pl. ɲéleƙeréìka . ɲéméle (ɲéméleé-) pl. ɲémélèìka .
n. horizontal ring of reeds in a series n. metal jewelry woven into women’s
that supports thatching. hair.

ɲɛ́mɛlɛkʉ́ ɲɛ́ɲam

ɲɛ́mɛlɛkʉ́ (ɲɛ́mɛlɛkʉ́ʉ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́mɛlɛkʉ́ìka . ɲémúkùɲ (ɲémúkùɲì-) n. small biting

n. hoe. black ant species.
ɲɛ́mɛlɛkʉ́à nà ɦyɔ̀ɔ̀ɛ n. ox plow. Ɲémuƙa (Ɲémuƙé-) n. a personal name.
ɲɛ́mɛlɛkʉ́dàkwa (ɲɛ́mɛlɛkʉ́-dàkù-) pl. ɲémúƙeta (ɲémúƙetí-) n. topi. Damalis-
ɲɛ́mɛlɛkʉ́ɨkadakwitín. n. hoe handle. cus lunatus (tiang?).
ɲɛmɛraya (ɲɛmɛraí-) n. sorghum vari- ɲɛmʉna (ɲɛmʉnaá-) pl. ɲɛmʉ́náìka .
ety with tall, red seed-heads and sweet n. delicacy, specialty, treat.
ɲɛ́mʉnʉkʉ́ (ɲɛ́mʉnʉkʉ́ʉ̀-) n. body
ɲéméza (ɲémézaá-) pl. ɲémézàìka . n. ta- numbness.
ɲémurúŋ́ɡù (ɲémurúŋ́ɡùù-) n. khat,
ɲéméza na íƙìràɛ n. desk, writing desk.
mira. Catha edulis.
ɲémézaɡwarí (ɲéméza-ɡwaríì-) n. table-
ɲémurúŋ́ɡùàm (ɲémurúŋ́ɡù-àmà-) pl.
ɲémurúŋ́ɡuika . 1 n. khat-chewer. 2
ɲɛ́míɗɨmɨɗa (ɲɛ́míɗɨmɨɗí-) n. ear infec- n. Didinga person.
Ɲémusaláɓà (Ɲémusaláɓàà-) n. South-
ɲɛ́mɨɛ́ḿɓɛ̀ (ɲɛ́mɨɛ́ḿɓɛ̀ɛ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́mɨɛ́- ern Cross constellation.
ḿɓɛ̀ìka . n. mango (tree and fruit).
Mangifera indica. ɲémusaláɓà (ɲémusaláɓàà-) pl. ɲé-
musaláɓàìka . n. cross.
ɲémiikó (ɲémiikóò-) pl. ɲémiikóika .
n. wooden spatula. Also called cɛbɛn. ɲémúsukita (ɲémúsukití-) pl. ŋímúsúk-
wí. n. white person: American, Euro-
ɲémíli (ɲémílií-) n. salt.
pean, or any Caucasian. See also ɓètsʼ-
ɲémílìòn (ɲémílìònì-) pl. ɲémílioníka . ònìàm.
n. million.
ɲɛ́mʉsʉmɛ́n (ɲɛ́mʉsʉmɛ́nì-) pl. ɲɛ́-
ɲɛ́mɨríńɗà (ɲɛ́mɨríńɗàà-) pl. ɲɛ́mɨríń- mʉsʉmɛ́níka . n. hacksaw.
ɗàìka . n. skirt.
ɲénéne (ɲénéneé-) pl. ɲénéneika . 1
ɲémisípa (ɲémisípù-) pl. ɲémisípìka .
n. bundle or sheaf of harvested crops.
n. belt.
2 n. bunch of bees (e.g. a swarm
ɲémíso (ɲémísoó-) pl. ɲémísòìka . clumped up in a tree).
n. conclusion, end, ending.
ɲénétìwàka (ɲénétìwàkà-) pl. ɲénéti-
ɲémíta (ɲémítaá-) pl. ɲémítàìka . n. me- wakíka . n. cellular network.
ter. See also ɔkɔ́tsa .
ɲɛ́nɨs (ɲɛ́nɨsí-) n. fine attire, regalia.
ɲémítìŋ (ɲémítìŋì-) pl. ɲémítiŋíka . n. as-
sembly, meeting. ɲɛ́nʉkʉnʉ́kʉ (ɲɛ́nʉkʉnʉ́kʉʉ́-) n. mole.
ɲémíxòn (ɲémíxònì-) pl. ɲémíxoníka . ɲɛ́nʉ́s (ɲɛ́nʉ́sì-) pl. ɲɛ́nʉ́sìka . n. half.
n. mission, station. ɲɛ́ɲaaɲá (ɲɛ́ɲaaɲáà-) pl. ɲɛ́ɲaaɲáìka .
ɲémúɗetsa (ɲémúɗetsí-) n. carbon n. tomato (plant and fruit). Lycopersi-
black, crock, soot. See also ɲémúɗuɗu. con esculentum.
ɲémúɗuɗu (ɲémúɗuɗuú-) n. carbon ɲɛ́ɲam (ɲɛ́ɲamá-) n. cancellous bone,
black, crock, soot. See also ɲémúɗetsa . spongy bone. Lit. ‘nibblable’.

ɲɛɲɛrɛs ɲɛ́písítɔ̀l

ɲɛɲɛrɛs (ɲɛɲɛrɛsí-) v. to heave, heft, ɲɛpɛlɛrɛŋ (ɲɛpɛlɛrɛŋí-) pl. ɲɛpɛ́lɛ́rɛ̀ŋìka .

shove (e.g. a heavy object along the n. piece of scrap metal used as a frying
ground). See also toremes. pan.
ɲɛ́ɲɛ́s (ɲɛ́ɲɛ́sì-) v. to nibble, pick (e.g. ɲɛ́pɛ́lʉ (ɲɛ́pɛ́lʉʉ́-) pl. ɲɛ́pɛ́lʉ̀ìka . n. fur-
meat from a bone). row, line.
ɲɛ́ɲɛwán (ɲɛ́ɲɛwánì-) n. succulent ɲɛ́pɛn (ɲɛ́pɛní-) pl. ɲɛ́pɛ̀nìka . n. long-
plant species with sweet, yellow, edi- barreled gun with a vented muzzle.
ble fruits. ɲɛ́pɛ́nɛka (ɲɛ́pɛ́nɛkɛ́-) pl. ɲɛ́pɛ́nɛkíka .
ɲɛ́ɲɨɲí (ɲɛ́ɲɨɲíì-) n. gold dust. n. beard, goatee. See also tɛ̀mʉ̀r.
ɲɛ́ɲɔnɗɔ́ (ɲɛ́ɲɔnɗɔ́ɔ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́ɲɔnɗɔ́ìka . ɲéperéta (ɲéperétì-) pl. ɲéperétìka .
n. hammer. n. march, parade.
ɲéɲuɡutá (ɲéɲuɡutáà-) pl. ɲéɲuɡutáìka . ɲɛ́pɛtá (ɲɛ́pɛtáà-) pl. ɲɛ́pɛtáìka . n. hinge.
n. alphabetical letter. See also ɲéɡutá.
ɲépetorón (ɲépetorónì-) n. gasoline,
ɲéŋeɗo (ɲéŋeɗoó-) n. vine species petrol.
whose root decoction is drunk as
ɲɛ́píɗɨpɨɗa (ɲɛ́píɗɨpɨɗí-) n. conflict, dis-
a treatment for coughing, especially
cord, strife.
coughing up blood.
ɲɛ́pɨɨrá (ɲɛ́pɨɨráà-) pl. ɲɛ́pɨɨráìka . 1
ɲɛ́ŋɛ́s (ɲɛ́ŋɛ́sì-) v. to spear all the way
n. ball, football, soccer. 2 n. rubber
Y-handled slingshot.
ɲéŋéso (ɲéŋésoó-) n. tree whose root
ɲépilipíli (ɲépilipílií-) n. pepper.
decoction is drunk by women to stop
postnatal bleeding and whose seeds are ɲɛ́pínísìl (ɲɛ́pínísìlì-) pl. ɲɛ́pínísɨlíka .
used as beads in girls’ necklaces; its n. pencil.
roots and leaves are crushed, mixed, ɲépípa (ɲépípaá-) pl. ɲépípàìka . n. large
and flung on crops to make them better barrel or drum.
than the neighbors’. Rhynchosia hirta. ɲépípa (ɲépípaá-) 1 n. tree species
ɲéómò (ɲéómòò-) n. laundry detergent whose roots are tied as charms on
or soap. From the detergent brand gates/doors to make any enemies for-
called OMO; see also hómò. get their evil intentions. 2 n. diver-
ɲéótèl (ɲéótèlì-) pl. ɲéótelíka . n. café, sionary tactic (e.g. against enemies, in
eatery, restaurant. the form of persuasion or a sacrifice).
ɲɛ́páìl (ɲɛ́páìlì-) n. file paper, thin card- ɲépírìà (ɲépírìàà-) n. hippo, hippopota-
board. mus, river horse. Hippopotamus am-
ɲépalatún (ɲépalatúnì-) pl. ɲépala- phibius.
túnìka . n. platoon. ɲepísíkita (ɲepísíkití-) pl. ɲepísíkìtìka . 1
ɲépéɗe (ɲépéɗeé-) pl. ɲépéɗèìka . n. forearm. 2 n. foreleg. See also ƙɔ́dɔ̀l.
n. small aluminum disc worn with ɲépísikitíém (ɲépísikití-émè-) n. muscle
beads over women’s chests. (meat) of the forearm or foreleg.
ɲépeelí (ɲépeelíì-) n. metal bucket or ɲɛ́písítɔ̀l (ɲɛ́písítɔ̀lɔ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́písítɔlíka .
pail. n. handgun, pistol, sidearm.

ɲépiskóópì ɲéripipí

ɲépiskóópì (ɲépiskóópìì-) pl. ɲépiskóó- berries for dying their hair. Lit. ‘girls-
pììka . n. bishop. dzôɡ’.
ɲɛpɨtɛ (ɲɛpɨtɛɛ́-) pl. ɲɛpɨteicíka . 1 n. be- ɲèràkù (ɲèrà-kùà-) n. girls’ grass: grass
havior, habit, manner. 2 n. method, species which resembles sorghum dur-
procedure, way. ing rainy season and which girls wear
ɲɛpɨtɛa ámáe n. personal attribute, per- on their heads as decoration; said to be
sonality trait. harmful to the eyes. Gramineae sp.
ɲɛ́pítsa (ɲɛ́pítsaá-) pl. ɲɛ́pítsàìka . Ɲerasabá (Ɲera-sabáà-) n. name of a
n. photo(graph), picture, snapshot. river. Lit. ‘girls-river’.
Ɲèràtàɓa (Ɲèrà-tàɓà-) n. name of a
ɲɛ́pɔrɛ́sìtà (ɲɛ́pɔrɛ́sìtàà-) 1 n. eucaly-
mountainside where a huge boulder
tus tree species. Eucalyptus sp. 2
once broke apart and crushed some Ik
n. planted forest (typically of eucalyp-
girls. Lit. ‘girls-rock’.
ɲératíl (ɲératílì-) pl. ɲératílìka . n. scale
ɲépóros (ɲépórosí-) pl. ɲépóròsìka .
for weighing.
n. big scar, keloid scar.
Ɲerawika (Ɲera-wicé-) n. constellation
ɲɛ́pɔ́sìta (ɲɛ́pɔ́sìtì-) pl. ɲɛ́pɔ́sɨtíka . n. po- of five stars resembling a group of little
lice post. girls.
ɲɛ́prɔ́ʝɛ̀kìta (ɲɛ́prɔ́ʝɛ̀kìtì-) pl. ɲɛ́prɔ́ʝɛ- ɲerawika (ɲera-wicé-) n. little girls.
kɨtíka . n. work project (especially of
ɲéréɗi (ɲéréɗií-) pl. ɲéréɗììka . n. radio,
ɲépulé (ɲépuléè-) n. groundnut(s),
ɲɛrɛ́ta (ɲɛrɛ́tí-) pl. ɲerétíkwa . n. drain-
peanut(s). See also taráɗá.
age area, river basin, watershed.
Ɲɛpʉlɔ (Ɲɛpʉlɔɔ́-) n. a personal name.
ɲériɓá (ɲériɓáà-) pl. ɲériɓáìka .
ɲɛ́pʉnʉka (ɲɛ́pʉnʉkʉ́-) pl. ɲɛ́pʉ̀nʉ̀kìka . n. cordonsearch military operation.
n. rumen: first stomach of ruminants. ɲéríɓiriɓa (ɲéríɓiriɓí-) pl. ɲéríɓiriɓíka .
ɲépúɲa (ɲépúɲaá-) pl. ɲépúɲàìka . n. fu- n. mirage.
nerary goat killed to appease the spirit ɲéríkirika (ɲéríkirikí-) pl. ɲéríkirikíka .
of the dead. See also kɔ̀pa . n. earthquake, quake, seism.
ɲépúɲáám (ɲépúɲá-ámà-) pl. ɲé- ɲɛ́rɨkɨríka (ɲɛ́rɨkɨríkì-) n. shrub whose
púɲáíka . n. one who acquires and kills red berries are eaten by people and
a funerary goat. snakes. Hoslundia opposita.
ɲepúrósita (ɲepúrósití-) pl. ɲepúró- ɲérímama (ɲérímamaá-) n. rubbish or
sitíka . n. widow(er). See also lóméléwa . trash carried by a flashflood.
ɲèr (ɲèrà-) n. daughters, girls, maidens, ɲériŋƙís (ɲériŋƙísì-) pl. ɲériŋƙísìka .
young unmarried women. n. line.
ɲèrààƙwa (ɲèrà-àƙɔ̀-) n. company of ɲéríósita (ɲéríósití-) pl. ɲéríósitíka .
girls. Lit. ‘among girls’. n. chief, king.
Ɲèràdzòɡa (Ɲèrà-dzòɡà-) n. name of a ɲéripipí (ɲéripipíì-) pl. ɲéripipíìka .
hillside where girls used to pick dzôɡ n. brick furnace, kiln.

ɲerípírìpa ɲésitó

ɲerípírìpa (ɲerípírìpì-) pl. ɲerípíripíka . ɲɛ́sɛ́ànìs (ɲɛ́sɛ́ànìsì-) n. science.

n. crowd, multitude, throng. ɲɛ́sɛɛɓɔ́ (ɲɛ́sɛɛɓɔ́ɔ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́sɛɛɓɔ́ìka . 1
ɲéripóta (ɲéripótì-) pl. ɲéripótìka . n. crook, hooked staff. 2 n. penile shaft.
n. message, news, report. 3 n. gearshift, gearstick.
ɲéritá (ɲéritáà-) pl. ɲéritáìka . n. house ɲésékíxìòn (ɲésékíxìònì-) pl. ɲésékíxio-
trap used to catch larger animals. níka . n. military section.
ɲéríwi (ɲéríwií-) pl. ɲéríwììka . n. outer ɲɛ́sɛ́ƙɔ (ɲɛ́sɛ́ƙɔɔ́-) n. disobedience, insub-
barrier or fence made of branches and ordination.
thorns. ɲɛ́sɛ́ƙɔ́ám (ɲɛ́sɛ́ƙɔ́-ámà-) pl. ɲɛ́sɛ́ƙóíka .
ɲɛ́rɔɓɨrɔ́ɓa (ɲɛ́rɔɓɨrɔ́ɓʉ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́rɔɓɨ- n. disobedient person.
rɔ́ɓìka . n. plastic bottle. ɲésémìnà (ɲésémìnàà-) pl. ɲésémìnàìka .
ɲɛ́rʉ́ɛ́ta (ɲɛ́rʉ́ɛ́tɛ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́rʉ́ɛ́tìka . n. mir- n. colloquium, seminar.
ror. See also ɲɛ́ɡɨlás. ɲɛsɛpɛɗɛ (ɲɛsɛpɛɗɛɛ́-) pl. ɲɛsɛ́pɛ́ɗɛ̀ìka .
ɲerukuɗe (ɲerukuɗeé-) pl. ɲerúkúɗè- n. cartridge, shell, shell casing.
ìka . n. highway, road. ɲésiɓalitútu (ɲésiɓalitútuú-) n. fool’s
ɲɛ́rʉ́matsa (ɲɛ́rʉ́matsí-) pl. ɲɛ́rʉ́màtsìka . gold, pyrite: small, smooth, gold-
n. rear speartip. colored stones. Iron disulfide.
ɲerupe (ɲerupeé-) pl. ɲerúpéìka . n. lin- ɲésíìta (ɲésíití-) n. ground bee species
gering, intermittent rains between wet that builds nests in anthills.
and dry seasons. ɲɛ́sɨláx (ɲɛ́sɨláxì-) pl. ɲɛ́sɨláxìka .
n. slasher. Also called ɲásɨláx.
ɲɛ́rʉpɛpɛ́ (ɲɛ́rʉpɛpɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. ɲɛ́rʉpɛpɛ́ìka .
1 n. musical horn traditionally made ɲɛ́sɨlɨɓá (ɲɛ́sɨlɨɓáà-) pl. ɲɛ́sɨlɨɓáìka .
from an animal horn (often oryx). 2 n. aluminum knitting needle.
n. trumpet. ɲɛ́sílɨsɨl (ɲɛ́sílɨsɨlí-) n. rhomboid muscle.
ɲérwám (ɲérwámù-) pl. ɲérwámìka . ɲésímìta (ɲésímìtì-) n. cement.
n. traditional style grass hut. Similar ɲésimón (ɲésimónì-) pl. ɲésimónìka .
to the Icéhò. n. coin.
ɲeryaŋ (ɲeryaŋí-) 1 n. administration, ɲɛ́sɨnɗán (ɲɛ́sɨnɗánì-) pl. ɲɛ́sɨnɗánìka .
government, regime. 2 n. modernity, n. needle.
modern society. ɲɛsɨŋƙɨrɨ (ɲɛsɨŋƙɨrɨí-) pl. ɲɛsíŋƙírììka .
ɲeryaŋíɓór (ɲeryaŋí-ɓórè-) pl. ɲe- n. cooker, stove.
ryaŋíɓórítín. n. army barrack. Lit. ɲésipíɗa (ɲésipíɗì-) n. speed, velocity.
‘government-corral’. ɲésipiriyá (ɲésipiriyáà-) pl. ɲésipi-
ɲeryaŋíhò (ɲeryaŋí-hòò-) pl. ɲeryaŋí- ríyáìka . n. metal cooking pan or pot,
hoíka . n. modern building. saucepan. See also ɲásipiryá.
ɲeryaŋínánès (ɲeryaŋínánèsì-) n. work- ɲésiriwáli (ɲésiriwálií-) pl. ɲésiri-
ing for the government. wálììka . n. pair of short pants, shorts,
ɲeryaŋíŋóka (ɲeryaŋí-ŋókì-) n. alsatian, or trunks.
German shepherd. Lit. ‘modernity- ɲésitó (ɲésitóò-) pl. ɲésitóìka . n. out-
dog’. building, shed, storeroom, store.

ɲésóto ɲɛtsɨríɔ́ka

ɲésóto (ɲésótoó-) pl. ɲésótòìka . ɲétépes (ɲétépesí-) pl. ɲétépèsìka .

n. pointed granary cover. Also called n. combination of a lip plug and a chin
ɲósóto. cover made of woven wires.
ɲésukukú (ɲésukukúù-) pl. ɲésuku- ɲɛ́tɛrɛƙɛ́ƙɛ (ɲɛ́tɛrɛƙɛ́ƙɛɛ́-) n. meningitis.
kúìka . n. national holiday. See also tɛ́rɛƙɛ́ƙɛ.
ɲésukúl (ɲésukúlù-) pl. ɲésukúlùìka . ɲɛ́tɛrɛƙɨta (ɲɛ́tɛrɛƙɨtaá-) pl. ɲɛ́-
n. college, institute, school. tɛ̀rɛ̀ƙìtàìka . n. tractor.
ɲɛ́tɛrɛƙɨtaa na kwɛtáɛ n. digger, excava-
ɲesuƙuru (ɲesuƙuruú-) n. small plant
tor, power shovel. Lit. ‘tractor of an
species with painful thorns that grows
along the ground and is said to be eaten
by all types of livestock. Tribulus cis- ɲɛ́tɛrɛƙɨtaa na kwɛ́tìkàɛ n. hand tiller,
toides. hand tractor. Lit. ‘tractor of arms’.
ɲɛ́tɛ́sìta (ɲɛ́tɛ́sìtì-) pl. ɲɛ́tɛ́sìtìka . n. exam,
ɲɛsʉpa (ɲɛsʉpá-) n. influence, sway.
examination, test.
ɲésurúr (ɲésurúrù-) pl. ɲésurúrìka . ɲétíƙa (ɲétíƙaá-) pl. ɲétíƙàìka . n. trigger.
n. pick, pickaxe. See also ɲɛɗɛ́sɛ̂da .
ɲɛ́sʉ́tɛ̀ (ɲɛ́sʉ́tɛ̀ɛ̀-) n. leafy plant species ɲétíli (ɲétílií-) n. antelope whose horns
whose roots are eaten raw or roasted. whistle in the wind (possibly the Ugan-
Hypoxis obtusa. dan or South Sudan kob).
Ɲétayoŋ (Ɲétayoŋó-) n. a personal ɲɛ́tílɨtɨl (ɲɛ́tílɨtɨlí-) pl. ɲɛ́tílìtìlìka . n. ear-
name. ring.
ɲeteeɗe (ɲeteeɗeé-) pl. ɲetééɗèìka . 1 ɲétím (ɲétímù-) pl. ɲétímìka . n. team.
n. spring for holding decorative feath- ɲetíɲáŋ (ɲetíɲáŋà-) n. Nile crocodile.
ers on the head. 2 n. front sight of a Crocodylus niloticus.
weapon. ɲétípa (ɲétípaá-) pl. ɲétípàìka . n. dump
ɲɛ́tɛɛr (ɲɛ́tɛɛrí-) pl. ɲɛ́tɛ̀ɛ̀rìka . n. area, truck, tipper.
locality, region, zone. ɲétiriƙá (ɲétiriƙáà-) pl. ɲétiriƙáìka .
ɲétéƙe (ɲétéƙeé-) pl. ɲétéƙèìka . n. metal n. woven doorway curtain for tradi-
leg trap. tional grass huts. Made from míʒìʒ.
ɲɛ́tɛ́lɨtɛl (ɲɛ́tɛ́lɨtɛlí-) 1 n. lappet, wattle. ɲetitsa (ɲetitsí-) n. duty, job, task, work.
2 n. earlobe scar. ɲɛ́tɔɔkíɗɛ́ (ɲɛ́tɔɔkíɗɛ́ɛ̀-) n. sunflower
(plant and seeds). Helianthus sp. See
ɲɛ́tɛmá (ɲɛ́tɛmáà-) n. leisure, leisure
also ɲɛ́kɨɗɛkɨɗé.
time, leisurely walk.
ɲétorós (ɲétorósì-) pl. ɲétorósìka .
ɲétémetsa (ɲétémetsí-) pl. ɲétémètsìka . n. pair of pants or trousers. Also called
n. vertical granary reed. ɲótorós.
ɲétenɗé (ɲétenɗéè-) n. palm tree ɲɛtsɨr (ɲɛtsɨrí-) n. sacral muscle: muscle
species. attached to the sacrum.
ɲétenús (ɲétenúsí-) pl. ɲeténúsìka . ɲɛtsɨríɔ́ka (ɲɛtsɨrí-ɔ́kà-) n. sacrum: tri-
n. large intestine. angular bone above the tailbone.

ɲétsúpa ɲéyúnìfòm

ɲétsúpa (ɲétsúpaá-) pl. ɲétsúpàìka . are ground, cooked, and drunk for
n. glass bottle. stomachache. Indigofera arrecta.
ɲétsúur (ɲétsúurí-) pl. ɲétsúùrìka . ɲɛ́ʉrʉmɛmɛ́ (ɲɛ́ʉrʉmɛmɛ́ɛ̀-) n. plant
n. hole in a riverbed hollowed out by species whose roots are pounded or
churning water. chewed to treat stomach ailments.
ɲétúle (ɲétúleé-) pl. ɲétúlèìka . n. tradi- Conyza sp.
tional wooden whistle. ɲéúsi (ɲéúsií-) pl. ɲéúsììka . n. thread.
ɲétúlerú (ɲétúlerúu-) n. plant species ɲéutsúr (ɲéutsúrù-) pl. ɲéutsúrìka .
whose nectar children like to suck out. n. levy, tax.
Leonotis sp. ɲéútsuríám (ɲéútsurí-ámà-) pl. ɲéú-
ɲɛtʉnɛ (ɲɛtʉnɛɛ́-) n. chickenpox, vari- tsurííka . n. tax collector.
cella. See also puurú. ɲévíɗyo (ɲévíɗyoó-) pl. ɲévíɗyòìka .
ɲɛ́tʉráwɛ̀l (ɲɛ́tʉráwɛ̀lì-) pl. ɲɛ́tʉrá- n. film, movie, television, video.
wɛ̀lìka . n. trowel. ɲévíɗyòhò (ɲévíɗyò-hòò-) pl. ɲévíɗyo-
ɲɛtʉrɛ́ɛ́là (ɲɛtʉrɛ́ɛ́làà-) pl. ɲɛtʉrɛ́ɛ́làìka . hoíka . n. cinema, movie theater.
n. trailer. ɲéviiní (ɲéviiníì-) 1 n. wine. 2 n. grapes.
ɲéturuƙúƙu (ɲéturuƙúƙuú-) pl. ɲé- ɲéviinísèda (ɲéviiní-sèdà-) pl. ɲévii-
turuƙúƙùìka . n. chicken backbone. nísedíka . n. vinery, vineyard.
ɲetutu (ɲetutuú-) n. striped hyena. ɲɛ́wakɔ́l (ɲɛ́wakɔ́lì-) pl. ɲɛ́wakɔ́lìka .
Hyaena hyaena. n. headband heavily beaded with small
beads in decorative colored patterns.
ɲéúɗe (ɲéúɗeé-) n. plant whose carrot-
like roots are eaten raw. ɲewale (ɲewaleé-) pl. ɲewáléìka .
n. adornment, decoration (e.g. putting
ɲéuɗuúɗu (ɲéuɗuúɗuú-) n. grass spe- on an ostrich feather).
cies similar to bullrush.
ɲewataʝá (ɲewataʝáà-) pl. ɲewataʝáìka .
ɲéúʝi (ɲéúʝií-) n. gruel, porridge. See n. pitcher, pitcherful.
also ŋáítɔ̀.
ɲéwiinó (ɲéwiinóò-) n. ink.
ɲéúlam (ɲéúlamá-) n. plant species with
ɲɛ́wíɲɨwɨɲ (ɲɛ́wíɲɨwɨɲí-) n. sweet fer-
no reported uses. Helichrysum odoratis-
menting wort (mixture of malt and
ɲɛ́ʉrɛrɛ́ (ɲɛ́ʉrɛrɛ́ɛ̀-) n. sweet-smelling, ɲewuruŋoroka (ɲewuruŋorokó-)
yellow-flowered weed species whose n. striped polecat, zorilla. Ictonyx stria-
leaves resemble marijuana. tus.
ɲèùrìà (ɲèùrìà-) n. duel or sparring held ɲéyoroeté (ɲéyoroetée-) n. medium-
for friendly competition or to settle dis- sized tree species found in Timu
putes in the community. Forest whose branches are used to
ɲeuríétòn (ɲeuríétònì-) v. to duel, spar. make wooden flutes and hunting horns.
ɲɛʉrʉlatsa (ɲɛʉrʉlatsí-) n. small plant Crataeva adansonii.
species whose leaves are ground up ɲéyúnìfòm (ɲéyúnìfòmò-) pl. ɲéyúnifo-
and used as a perfume and whose roots míka . n. outfit, uniform.

ɲezeí ɲɔ́kɔɗɔɔŋɔ́r

ɲezeí (ɲezeíì-) pl. ɲézeíìka . n. inkpad, ɲɔ́ɓɔɔ́ (ɲɔ́ɓɔɔ́ɔ̀-) n. lentils.

stamp pad. ɲóɓóota (ɲóɓóotí-) pl. ɲóɓóòtìka . 1
ɲícwéɲé (ɲícwéɲéè-) n. sugar bush: n. garden camp where people stay dur-
hardwoood tree species whose wood is ing harvest. 2 n. abandoned home-
used for building but which nails can- stead.
not pierce. Protea gaguedi. ɲoɗôda (ɲoɗódè-) n. aardvark, antbear,
ɲíkwaamwíyá (ɲíkwaamwíyáà-) n. bird anteater. Orycteropus afer.
ɲɔɗɔ́kɛ́ta (ɲɔɗɔ́kɛ́tɛ̀-) pl. ɲɔɗɔ́kɛ́tìka .
ɲimánétòn (ɲimánétònì-) v. to en- n. ridge running vertically. See also
counter, meet, run into. Also pro- fátár.
nounced as ŋimánétòn.
ɲoɗokole (ɲoɗokoleé-) pl. ɲoɗókólèìka .
ɲimanites (ɲimanitesí-) v. to join, mend, 1 n. uvula. 2 n. plant species.
ɲɔɗɔ́la (ɲɔɗɔ́laá-) pl. ɲɔɗɔ́làìka . n. buck,
ɲimanitésíàwa (ɲimanitésí-àwà-) pl. ɲi- dollar.
manitésíawíka . n. edge, joint.
ɲóɗomé (ɲóɗoméè-) n. tree species
ɲimánón (ɲimánónì-) v. to encounter,
whose gummy yellow fruits are eaten
raw and found mostly in Turkana coun-
ɲimíɲímàtòn (ɲimíɲímàtònì-) v. to try; its leaves are used for polishing
cause sharp abdominal pain. The expe- stools, and its wood is used for house
riencer of the pain is marked grammat- poles and carving sticks and hoe han-
ically with the dative case. dles. Cordia sinensis.
ɲimirés (ɲimirésí-) v. to wipe off with a ɲóɗòmòŋòlè (ɲóɗòmòŋòlèè-) n. sweet
hand or finger (e.g. food from a plate, yellow maize variety that matures
sweat from one’s forehead). quickly.
ɲipídòn (ɲipídònì-) v. to be soft (e.g. fur,
ɲɔɗɔrɔcá (ɲɔɗɔrɔcáà-) pl. ɲɔɗɔrɔcáìka .
grass, mattress).
n. bridge.
ɲìpⁱ (ɲìpì) ideo. softly.
ɲóɗós (ɲóɗósì-) n. colostrum, foremilk.
ɲjɛ́n (ɲj-ɛ́ní-) pro. mine.
ɲɔ́fɔ́ka (ɲɔ́fɔ́kɔ̀-) pl. ɲɔ́fɔ́kìka . n. fork.
ɲjín (ɲjíní-) pro. we/our/us (inclusive of See also ɲácaƙwaráta .
addressee). This pronoun includes the
addressee. Contrast with ŋɡwa . ɲófóm (ɲófómù-) pl. ɲófómìka .
n. bench. See also ɲɛ́ɓɛ́ɲc.
ɲjíníɛ̀n (ɲjíní-ɛ̀nì-) pro. ours (including
the addressee). ɲófuŋƙúwo (ɲófuŋƙúwoó-) pl. ɲó-
fuŋƙúwòìka . n. key.
ɲjínínebitín (ɲjíní-nebitíní-) n. our-
selves (including the addressee). Lit. ɲóɡóva (ɲóɡóvaá-) n. guava (tree and
‘our bodies’. fruit). Psidium guajava.
ɲɔ́ɓɔ́ka (ɲɔ́ɓɔ́kaá-) n. broth, gravy. ɲɔkɔ́ɗɛ́ta (ɲɔkɔ́ɗɛ́tì-) pl. ɲɔkɔ́ɗɛ́tìka .
ɲóɓókota (ɲóɓókotó-) pl. ɲóɓókòtìka . n. handle, handgrip.
n. bowl-shaped cap made of human ɲɔ́kɔɗɔɔŋɔ́r (ɲɔ́kɔɗɔɔŋɔ́rì-) n. bird spe-
hair. cies.

ɲokoɗopeya ɲolókér

ɲokoɗopeya (ɲokoɗopeí-) n. grass ɲókós (ɲókósì-) pl. ɲókósìka . n. class,

species that grows as a weed and has course, training, workshop.
many roots. Gramineae sp. ɲókóta (ɲókótì-) pl. ɲókótìka . n. court,
Ɲókoɗós (Ɲókoɗósí-) n. a personal courthouse, tribunal.
name. ɲókóti (ɲókótií-) pl. ɲókótììka . n. coat.
ɲókóìn (ɲókóìnì-) pl. ɲókóìnìka . n. coin. ɲókotita (ɲókotití-) n. tree species
ɲókokor (ɲókokorí-) pl. ɲókòkòrìka . 1 whose fruits are eaten by children and
n. stick ring rolled as a target for spear- whose wood is carved into stools and
ing practice. 2 n. steering wheel. See wooden containers. Pseudocedrela sp.
also ɲɔkɔlɔɓɛr. ɲɔ́kʉɗɔmʉ́tʉ̀ (ɲɔ́kʉɗɔmʉ́tʉ̀ʉ̀-) n. skunk-
ɲɔ́kɔkɔr (ɲɔ́kɔkɔrɔ́-) n. chicken, poultry. like animal that catches its prey with
Gallus gallus. an anorectal protrusion.
ɲɔ́kɔkɔrɔ́hò (ɲɔ́kɔkɔrɔ́-hòò-) pl. ɲɔ́kɔkɔ- ɲóƙoloƙoléta (ɲóƙoloƙolétí-) n. tree
rɔ́hoíka . n. chicken coop, henhouse. whose large yellow fruits are eaten raw
and from whose wood three-legged
ɲɔ́kɔkɔróím (ɲɔ́kɔkɔró-ímà-) pl. ɲɔ́kɔkɔ-
stools are carved.
rɔ́wíka . n. biddy, chick.
ɲɔ́ƙɔ́ŋ (ɲɔ́ƙɔ́ŋʉ̀-) pl. ɲɔ́ƙɔ́ŋìka . n. sacred
ɲókólíƙèta (ɲókólíƙètì-) n. dentifrice,
tree where ceremonies like itówéés are
held. Also called lɔ́ƙɔ́ŋ.
ɲokólípa (ɲokólípì-) n. barren, child- ɲól (ɲólí-) n. Gunther’s dik-dik. Mado-
less, infertile, or sterile animal or per- qua guentheri.
son. See also òsòròs.
ɲólídɛrɛ́ƙa (ɲólí-dɛrɛ́ƙì-) n. small black
ɲɔkɔlɔɓɛr (ɲɔkɔlɔɓɛrɛ́-) pl. ɲɔkɔ́lɔ́ɓɛ̀rìka . and yellow wasp. Lit. ‘dik-dik wasp’.
n. stick ring rolled as a target for spear-
ɲólíkàf (ɲólí-kàfʉ̀-) n. dik-dik thorn-
ing practice. See also ɲókokor.
bush: nettle-like plant species whose
ɲókompyútà (ɲókompyútàà-) pl. ɲó- thorns cause itching and which is
kompyútàìka . n. computer. eaten by livestock. Barleria acan-
ɲɔkɔ́ɲɛ́ta (ɲɔkɔ́ɲɛ́tì-) pl. ɲɔkɔ́ɲɛ́tìka . thoides.
n. pair of forceps, pliers, or tongs. ɲólíkɨnám (ɲólí-kɨnámá-) n. cone-
ɲɔkɔɔna (ɲɔkɔɔnaá-) pl. ɲɔkɔ́ɔ́nàìka . shaped ‘dik-dik’ mushroom.
n. corner. ɲoloɗiŋ (ɲoloɗiŋí-) n. discrimination,
ɲɔ́kɔ́pɛ̀ (ɲɔ́kɔ́pɛɛ́-) pl. ɲɔ́kɔ́pɛ̀ìka . marginalization, segregation.
n. gorge, ravine. See also fòtsa . ɲolóɗo (ɲolóɗoó-) pl. ɲolóɗòìka . n. hor-
ɲókópo (ɲókópoó-) 1 n. cup. 2 n. clip, izontal ring-beam of flexible sticks that
magazine (of a gun). support a hut roof.
ɲókorimíta (ɲókorimítì-) pl. ɲókori- ɲólóita (ɲólóití-) pl. ɲólóìtìka . n. anchor,
mítìka . n. garden boundary (often ground (like a log or rock).
made of grass and other rubbish piled ɲólóʝa (ɲólóʝì-) pl. ɲólóʝìka . n. hostel,
into rows). hotel, inn, lodge, motel.
ɲókorota (ɲókorotó-) n. dance involving ɲolókér (ɲolókérè-) pl. ɲolókérìka .
clapping and singing. n. level, line.

ɲɔlɔlɔta ɲorópúò

ɲɔlɔlɔta (ɲɔlɔlɔtí-) n. okra (plant and ɲɔŋɔ́rɔ́mɔ̀n (ɲɔŋɔ́rɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be dirty,

fruit). Hibiscus esculentus. soiled, unclean (from dirt or food). See
ɲolórì (ɲolórìì-) pl. ɲolórììka . n. lorry, also ŋɔrɔ́ɲɔ́mòn.
truck. See also lóórì. ɲɔ́ŋɔtsán (ɲɔ́ŋɔtsání-) n. bedlam, pande-
ɲomokoʝo (ɲomokoʝoó-) n. leftovers, re- monium, panic.
mainder. See also óɡoɗesam. ɲɔ́pɔ́c (ɲɔ́pɔ́cì-) pl. ɲɔ́pɔ́cìka . n. billfold,
ɲɔ́mɔkɔsá (ɲɔ́mɔkɔsáà-) n. error, fault, wallet.
mistake. See also ɲasécón. ɲɔpɔɗɛ (ɲɔpɔɗɛɛ́-) n. flesh left on a
ɲɔ́mɔkɔsáàm (ɲɔ́mɔkɔsá-àmà-) pl. ɲɔ́- freshly skinned hide. Compare with
mɔkɔsáika . n. criminal, offender, xáƙwa .
wrongdoer. ɲɔ́pɔɗɔkʉ́ (ɲɔ́pɔɗɔkʉ́ʉ̀-) n. biting fly,
ɲómoŋɡó (ɲómoŋɡóò-) n. cassava, man- cleg. Haematopota sp.
ioc (plant and roots). Manihot sp. ɲɔ́pɔkɔca (ɲɔ́pɔkɔcaá-) n. false testi-
ɲɔmɔránón (ɲɔmɔránónì-) v. to be im- mony, perjury.
pudent, insolent. ɲopol (ɲopolí-) n. best and/or first por-
ɲomórótòta (ɲomórótòtò-) n. African tion of beer or meat.
rock python. Python sebae. ɲɔpɔl (ɲɔpɔlí-) n. external oblique: mus-
ɲómóta (ɲómótaá-) pl. ɲómótàìka . cle from the upper thigh to the lower
n. howitzer, mortar. ribs.
ɲómotoká (ɲómotokáà-) pl. ɲómoto- ɲɔpɔ́táya (ɲɔpɔ́táì-) pl. ŋɨpɔ́táya . n. slave.
káìka . n. automobile, car, vehicle. See also ŋɨpɔ́táìàm.
ɲómotokátáƙáya (ɲómotoká-táƙáí-) pl. ɲópoté (ɲópotéè-) n. grain regrown the
ɲómotokátáƙáíka . n. shoe made of tire second time.
Ɲɔrɔbata (Ɲɔrɔbatí-) n. name of a river.
ɲómotokéèkwa (ɲómotoké-èkù-) pl. ɲó-
Ɲɔrɔbata (Ɲɔrɔbatí-) n. Ɲorobat: one of
motokéekwitín. n. headlight. Lit.
the Ik’s twelve clans.
Ɲɔrɔbatíám (Ɲɔrɔbatí-ámà-) pl. Ɲɔrɔba-
ɲómototó (ɲómototóò-) n. banana, plan-
tííka . n. Ɲorobat clan member.
tain (plant and fruit). Musa sp.
ɲónomokére (ɲónomokéreé-) n. shrub Ɲɔ́rɔ́cɔm (Ɲɔ́rɔ́cɔmɔ́-) n. a personal
species whose roots are crushed, name.
soaked in water, and drunk as a rem- ɲóróiroya (ɲóróiroí-) n. mildew, mold.
edy for headaches. Withania somnifera. See also lóburuʝa .
See also ikitínícɛmɛ́r. ɲɔrɔƙɔ (ɲɔrɔƙɔɔ́-) pl. ɲɔrɔ́ƙɔ́ìka . n. fam-
ɲónóta (ɲónótì-) pl. ɲónótìka . n. mone- ine, starvation.
tary bill or note. ɲɔrɔn (ɲɔrɔní-) n. drought.
Ɲoŋoleɓóka (Ɲoŋoleɓókó-) n. a per- ɲorópúò (ɲorópúò-) n. ritual organs
sonal name. from the tongue downward (desig-
ɲɔ́ŋɔmɓɛ́ (ɲɔ́ŋɔmɓɛ́ɛ̀-) pl. ɲɔ́ŋɔmɓɛ́ìka . nated for the elders; not including the
n. razorblade. liver, stomach, or intestines).

ɲorótónita ɲʉmɛ́s

ɲorótónita (ɲorótónití-) pl. ɲorótó- ɲotánónuƙota (ɲotánónuƙotí-) v. to

nìtìka . n. upper arm. make friends (with non-Ik).
ɲorótónitíém (ɲorótónití-émè-) n. bicep ɲótíkónánès (ɲótíkónánèsì-) n. friend-
and/or tricep. liness, friendship (with non-Ik foreign-
ɲorótónitíɔ́ka (ɲorótónití-ɔ́kà-) pl. ɲo- ers).
rótónitikɔɔkɨtín. n. humerus: bone of ɲɔto ni interj. these guys, I tell you! (an
the upper arm. expression of any positive or negative
ɲɔ́sɔ́ɗa (ɲɔ́sɔ́ɗaá-) pl. ɲɔ́sɔ́ɗàìka . n. car- opinion about men or multiple objects).
bonated drink, pop, soda. Lit. ‘these men’.
ɲɔsɔkatá (ɲɔsɔkatáà-) pl. ɲɔsɔkatáìka . ɲotóbòr (ɲotóbòrì-) pl. ɲotóbòrìka .
n. cigarette. n. seasonal marsh or swamp. See also
ɲósóƙis (ɲósóƙisí-) pl. ɲósóƙisíka . ɲɛkípɔ́r.
n. sock. ɲɔ́tɔɗɔpá (ɲɔ́tɔɗɔpáà-) pl. ɲɔ́tɔɗɔpáìka .
ɲosoƙoloké (ɲosoƙolokéè-) pl. ɲosoƙo- n. small oil lamp.
lokéìka . n. shorts, pair of trunks. ɲotókósita (ɲotókósití-) pl. ɲotókó-
ɲɔ́sɔ́la (ɲɔ́sɔ́laá-) pl. ɲɔ́sɔ́làìka . n. solar sìtìka . n. tall column of hair colored
panel. with red clay.
ɲósomá (ɲósomáà-) n. education, ɲotolim (ɲotolimí-) pl. ɲotólímìka .
schooling, studies. n. large metal crowbar or pry bar (used
to break and move rocks).
ɲósomáám (ɲósomá-ámà-) pl. ɲó-
somáíka . n. pupil, student. ɲótooɗó (ɲótooɗóò-) pl. ɲótooɗóìka .
n. crook, curve-necked cane (preferred
ɲósomáicíka (ɲósomá-icíká-) n. read-
by Turkana women).
ɲɔ́sɔ́ɔ́ƙata (ɲɔ́sɔ́ɔ́ƙatá-) pl. ɲɔ́sɔ́ɔ́ƙàtìka . ɲótorós (ɲótorósì-) pl. ɲótorósìka .
n. large pitfall trap for big game. n. pair of pants or trousers. Also called
ɲósóto (ɲósótoó-) pl. ɲósótòìka .
n. pointed granary cover. Also called ɲótótsa (ɲótótsì-) pl. ɲótótsìka . 1
ɲésóto. n. flashlight, torch. 2 n. lip herpes.
ɲósukarí (ɲósukaríì-) n. sugar. ɲɔ́tsɔ́ɓɛ (ɲɔ́tsɔ́ɓɛɛ́-) pl. ɲɔ́tsɔ́ɓɛ̀ìka . n. cap
made of giraffe-tail hairs.
ɲɔ́sʉmár (ɲɔ́sʉmárì-) pl. ɲɔ́sʉmárìka .
n. nail. ɲɔ́tsɔ́ɓɨtsɔɓa (ɲɔ́tsɔ́ɓɨtsɔɓí-) n. hodge-
podge, melange, mishmash.
ɲòta (ɲòtà-) pl. ɲótíkwa . 1 n. foreign
friend (out-group). 2 n. in-law (distant ɲótsorón (ɲótsorónì- ) pl. ɲótsorónìka .
or removed). n. latrine, outhouse, toilet. See also etsʼ-
ɲɔta (ɲɔtɔ́-) 1 n. men. 2 n. husbands.
ɲóvakáɗò (ɲóvakáɗòò-) n. avocado
ɲotánánès (ɲotánánèsì-) 1 n. friendli-
(tree and fruit). Persea americana.
ness, friendship (with non-Ik). 2 n. to
be related indirectly by marriage (e.g. ɲówoɗí (ɲówoɗíì-) n. seed butter, tahini
to the parents of a child’s or sibling’s (miture of peanut and sesame pastes).
spouse). ɲʉmɛ́s (ɲʉmɛ́sí-) v. to want, wish for.

ɲʉmɛtɛ́s ɲʉɲɛtɛ́s

ɲʉmɛtɛ́s (ɲʉmɛtɛ́sí-) v. to choose, de- ɲʉ́ɲɛ́sʉƙɔta (ɲʉ́ɲɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to gather up

cide on, settle on. See also tɔsɛɛtɛ́s and and remove (e.g. grain, rubbish, soil).
ɲʉ́ɲɛ́s (ɲʉ́ɲɛ́sì-) v. to gather and move ɲʉɲɛtɛ́s (ɲʉɲɛtɛ́sí-) v. to gather up and
(e.g. grain, rubbish, soil). move (e.g. grain, rubbish, soil).

ŋabér ŋamɨŋámɔ́n

ŋabér (ŋabérí-) pl. ŋábèrìka . n. rib. ŋáɓʉʉrá (ŋáɓʉʉráà-) pl. ŋáɓʉʉráìka .
ŋabérá ƙwàzàɛ n. side part of clothing. n. modern leather shoe.
Lit. ‘rib of clothing’. ŋaɗɛ́tá (ŋaɗɛ́táì-) pl. ŋaɗɛ́táìka . n. san-
ŋábèrèda (ŋábèrèdè-) pl. ŋabéríkìn. dal, slipper.
n. flank, side part. Lit. ‘its rib’. ŋáítɔ̀ (ŋáítɔ̀ɔ̀-) n. gruel, porridge. See
ŋábèrìkàdɛ̀ (ŋábèrìkà-dɛ̀à-) pl. ŋáberi- also ɲéúʝi.
kadɛíka . n. costovertebral joint: where ŋakɨɓʉka (ŋakɨɓʉkʉ́-) n. yogurt.
ribs join the backbone. Ŋákiswahílìtòda (Ŋákiswahílì-tòdà-)
ŋábèrìkèèm (ŋábèrìkè-èmè-) n. rib n. Swahili language.
meat. ŋáƙɨran (ŋáƙɨraní-) n. designs, emblems,
ŋabéríɔ̀ka (ŋabérí-ɔ̀kà-) pl. ŋáberikɔɔ- etchings (e.g. on gourds according to Ik
kɨtín. n. costal bone, rib bone. clan).
ŋabéro n. beside, obliquely, sideways. ŋálàka (ŋálàkà) ideo. for nothing, in
Lit. ‘by rib’. vain.
ŋábès (ŋábèsì-) v. to dress, put on, wear. ŋalɛ́pán (ŋalɛ́pánà-) n. fresh milk.
ŋábɛsʉƙɔta (ŋábɛsʉƙɔtí-) v. to complete, ŋalólómòn (ŋalólómònì-) v. to be tooth-
finish. less.
ŋabita (ŋabití-) n. beads, beadwork. ŋálómóyá (ŋálómóyáà-) n. small plant
ŋábitetés (ŋábitetésí-) v. to dress up, get whose roots are eaten (baboons also
dressed. like them) and whose leaves are sour
like tamarind. Oenanthe palustris.
ŋabɔ́bɔ̀ (ŋabɔ́bɔ̀ɔ̀-) n. danceground.
ŋalúɓa (ŋalúɓá-) 1 n. soft fruit of the
ŋabɔ́bòìm (ŋabɔ́bò-ìmà-) pl. ŋabɔ́- tsʼɔƙɔm tree. 2 n. toothless gums.
bowika . n. bastard, illegitimate child,
love child. Lit. ‘danceground-child’. ŋàm (ŋàmà) ideo. abruptly, suddenly.
ŋábɔnʉƙɔta (ŋábɔnʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to be ŋám (ŋámá-) n. sorghum.
completed, done, finished. 2 v. to ŋámá na buɗám n. sorghum variety
be enough, plenty, sufficient. See also with black seeds.
nábɔnʉƙɔta . ŋámá nà ɓètsʼa n. sorghum variety with
ŋaɓɨŋáɓɔ́n (ŋaɓɨŋáɓɔ́nì-) v. to burn (of white seeds.
the eyes when something foreign en- ŋámá nà ɗìwa n. sorghum variety with
ters them). red seeds.
ŋàɓɔ̀n (ŋàɓɔ̀nì-) v. to burn (of eyes when ŋamarʉwáya (ŋamarʉwáì-) n. millet
something foreign enters them). beer. See also rébèmɛ̀s.
ŋáɓɔ́ɔla (ŋáɓɔ́ɔlaá-) pl. ŋáɓɔ́ɔ̀làìka . ŋamíá (ŋamíáì-) n. hundred (100). No
n. cent, penny. plural form.
ŋáɓutús (ŋáɓutúsù-) pl. ŋáɓutúsìka . ŋamɨŋámɔ́n (ŋamɨŋámɔ́nì-) v. to rush
n. boot. into things (eating, talking, etc.).

ŋámírɔ̀ ŋɛlɛ́s

ŋámírɔ̀ (ŋámírɔ̀ɔ̀-) n. beer grist: moist Ŋasɛpa (Ŋasɛpɛ́-) n. name of a hill or

fermented flour used to make beer. mountain.
ŋamɔ́lɔ́l (ŋamɔ́lɔ́lɔ̀-) n. leather strips ŋasíƙáárìàm (ŋasíƙáárì-àmà-) pl. ŋa-
worn by a killer from the animal he síƙáár. n. guard.
slew as an atoning sacrifice for taking ŋásír (ŋásírì-) n. decoration.
the life of a human being.
ŋátámɛta (ŋátámɛtaá-) n. mind,
ŋamur (ŋamurí-) n. common duiker. thoughts.
Cephalophus grimmia.
ŋatɛ́tɔ́n (ŋatɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to run this way.
ŋàn (ŋànà-) pro. each one.
ŋatíón (ŋatíónì-) v. to run multiply.
ŋáɲámòn (ŋáɲámònì-) v. to open.
ŋátíónis (ŋátíónisí-) n. difficulty.
ŋáɲɛ́s (ŋáɲɛ́sì-) v. to open.
ŋatítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ŋatítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to send off
ŋáɲɛ́sìàwa (ŋáɲɛ́sì-àwà-) pl. ŋáɲɛ́sɨa- running.
wíka . n. gun safety lever.
ŋàtɔ̀n (ŋàtɔ̀nì-) v. to run (a certain direc-
ŋáɲɛ́sʉƙɔta (ŋáɲɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to open up. tion).
2 v. to uncover. ŋatɔnʉƙɔta (ŋatɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to run off/
ŋaɲɛtɛ́s (ŋaɲɛtɛ́sí-) v. to open up. away, take off running.
ŋáɲɔ́s (ŋáɲɔ́sì-) 1 v. to be open. 2 v. to ŋátɔɔsa (ŋátɔɔsaá-) n. biltong, dried
be public. meat, jerky.
ŋapokóya (ŋapokóì-) n. white leather ŋátuɓe (ŋátuɓeé-) n. edible gourd
leggings (from knee to ankle). leaves.
ŋápʉpa (ŋápʉpʉ́-) n. beer grist: dry fer- ŋátur (ŋáturú-) n. blossom, flower.
mented flour used to make beer. ŋawíl (ŋawílá-) n. chaff dust.
ŋàr (ŋàrʉ̀) ideo. gravelly, rockily. ŋawɨlɛs (ŋawɨlɛsí-) v. to chance, come
ŋaráɓámòn (ŋaráɓámònì-) v. to be across, happen upon. See also ɨtsɔŋɛtɛ́s.
rough (e.g. landscape, sandpaper, or ŋawíɔ́n (ŋawíɔ́nì-) v. to be ajar, open
any surface). (e.g. a door, jerrycan, or window). See
ŋaríám (ŋaríámʉ̀-) n. ironstone. also bɔrɔ́ɔ́n.
ŋárɔpɨyá (ŋárɔpɨyáì-) n. money. See ŋaxɛ́tɔ́n (ŋaxɛ́tɔ́nì-) 1 v. to be frightened,
also kaûdza . startled. 2 v. to cringe, flinch.
ŋárɔpɨyéékwa (ŋárɔpɨyé-ékù-) n. coin. ŋaxɨtɛtɛ́s (ŋaxɨtɛtɛ́sí-) v. to frighten,
Lit. ‘money-eye’. startle.
ŋarʉ́dɔ̀n (ŋarʉ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be gravelly, ŋaxɔ̂ba (ŋaxɔ́bʉ̀-) pl. ŋaxɔ́bìka . n. pla-
rocky. See also rakákámòn. centa.
ŋarúxánòn (ŋarúxánònì-) v. to be coiled ŋazul (ŋazulú-) n. grume: coagulated
loosely (like feces or a snake). blood.
ŋásɛntáìèkwa (ŋásɛntáì-èkù-) n. cent, ŋɛlɛ́mɛ́tɔ̀n (ŋɛlɛ́mɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to chip off
shilling. Lit. ‘shillings-eye’. (e.g. the edge of a pot).
ŋásɛntáya (ŋásɛntáì-) n. cents, shillings. ŋɛlɛ́s (ŋɛlɛ́sí-) v. to chip. See also tɛŋɛlɛs.

ŋɛ́r ŋíkaɗɛpíɗɛ́pa

ŋɛ́r (ŋɛ́rá-) pl. ŋéríkwa . n. five-pronged ŋíɗʉkan (ŋíɗʉkaná-) n. African fan

mingling stick. Often made from the palm or Borassus palm: palm species
rukûdz tree. with a deep taproot and whose fruits
ŋɡóɛ́n (ŋɡó-ɛ́ní-) pro. ours (excluding are eaten; its branches are used as
the addresse). sleeping mats and for house building.
ŋɡóím (ŋɡó-ímà-) pl. ŋɡóímín. 1 n. sib- Ŋíeɓuráiika (Ŋíeɓurái-icé-) n. Hebrews:
ling. 2 n. my cousin (father’s brother’s book in the New Testament.
child). Ŋíepesóíka (Ŋíepesó-ícé-) n. Ephesians:
book in the New Testament.
ŋɡónébitín (ŋɡó-nébitíní-) n. ourselves
(excluding the addressee). Lit. ‘our ŋífunɗíàm (ŋífunɗí-àmà-) pl. ŋífunɗí-
bodies’. ika . n. builder, mechanic, handyman of
any kind.
ŋɡúf (ŋɡúfù-) n. power, strength. See
also ŋɨxás. Ŋíɡalatíaika (Ŋíɡalatía-icé-) n. Gala-
tians: book in the New Testament.
ŋɡwa (ŋɡó-) pro. we/our/us (exclusive
of addressee). This pronoun excludes Ŋíɡɨríkìàm (Ŋíɡɨríkì-àmà-) pl. Ŋíɡɨríka .
the addressee. Contrast with ɲjín. n. Greek person.
Ŋíɡɨríkìtòda (Ŋíɡɨríkì-tòdà-) n. Greek
ŋíɓalɛl (ŋíɓalɛlɛ́-) n. brown edible mush-
room species.
ŋííɗɛ́s (ŋííɗɛ́sí-) v. to clean, rub, wipe.
ŋíɓarɛn (ŋíɓarɛní-) n. flocks, herds, live-
stock. ŋííɗɛ́sìƙwàz (ŋííɗɛ́sì-ƙwàzà-) pl. ŋííɗɛ́-
sɨƙwazíka . n. baby wipe, wipe (cloth
Ŋíɓɔ́kɔráám (Ŋíɓɔ́kɔrá-ámà-) pl. Ŋíɓɔ́- for cleaning a soiled baby).
kɔra. n. Bokora person.
ŋííɗɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (ŋííɗɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) 1 v. to clean,
Ŋíɓɔ́ŋɔrɔna (Ŋíɓɔ́ŋɔrɔnaá-) n. Ŋiɓoŋo- rub, or wipe off. 2 v. to call off, cancel.
rona: one of the Ik’s twelve clans.
ŋííɗɛtɛ́s (ŋííɗɛtɛ́sí-) v. to clean up, wipe
Ŋíɓɔ́ŋɔrɔnáám (Ŋíɓɔ́ŋɔrɔná-ámà-) pl. up.
Ŋíɓɔ́ŋɔrɔnáíka . n. Ŋiɓoŋorona clan
Ŋííɗɨŋáám (Ŋííɗɨŋá-ámà-) pl. Ŋííɗɨŋa.
n. Didinga person.
ŋiɓóóìàm (ŋiɓóóì-àmà-) pl. ŋiɓóóiika . Ŋííɗɨŋátôda (Ŋííɗɨŋá-tódà-) n. Didinga
n. loader. language.
ŋíɓúkúìàm (ŋíɓúkúì-àmà-) pl. ŋíɓú- ŋííɗítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ŋííɗítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to can-
kúya . n. foreigner, outsider. cel.
ŋíɗɛrɛpáìàm (ŋíɗɛrɛpáì-àmà-) pl. ŋíɗɛ- ŋiites (ŋiitesí-) v. to grease, lubricate
rɛpáì. n. driver, operator. (with lotion or oil).
Ŋíɗóŋiro (Ŋíɗóŋiroó-) n. Dhaasanac ŋiitésúƙota (ŋiitésúƙotí-) v. to grease up,
people. lubricate (with lotion or oil).
Ŋíɗɔ́tsa (Ŋíɗɔ́tsaá-) n. Ŋiɗotsa: one of ŋíjokopí (ŋíjokopíà-) n. topographag-
the Ik’s twelve clans. nosia: navigational disorientation.
Ŋíɗɔ́tsáám (Ŋíɗɔ́tsá-ámà-) pl. Ŋíɗɔ́- ŋíkaɗɛpíɗɛ́pa (ŋíkaɗɛpíɗɛ́pʉ̀-) n. fleas.
tsáíka . n. Ŋiɗotsa clan member. See also naɗɛ́pa .

ŋíkaɗiiɗí ŋímɔ́kɔkáám

ŋíkaɗiiɗí (ŋíkaɗiiɗíì-) n. red-cheeked ŋiléétsìàm (ŋiléétsì-àmà-) pl. ŋiléé-

cordon-bleu. Uraeginthus bengalus. tsiika . n. disgraceful, shameful person.
ŋíkafírìàm (ŋíkafírì-àmà-) pl. ŋíkafír. ŋiléétsìnànès (ŋiléétsìnànèsì-) n. dis-
n. heathen, pagan. gracefulness, shamefulness.
ŋíkalʉtʉ́rɔ (ŋíkalʉtʉ́rɔɔ́-) n. small un- ŋɨlíŋílánón (ŋɨlíŋílánónì-) 1 v. to break
ripe pumpkin. See also ɗɔ̀l. into pieces. 2 v. to break off in groups.
Ŋíkátapʉ́ám (Ŋíkátapʉ́-ámà-) pl. Ŋí- ŋímaalímùàm (ŋímaalímù-àmà-) pl. ŋí-
kátapa . n. Napore person. See also maalím. n. instructor, teacher, trainer.
Tɔbɔŋɔ́ám. See also ɨtátámɛ́síàm.
ŋíkatikisítààm (ŋíkatikisítà-àmà-) pl. ŋímáarɔya (ŋímáarɔí-) n. small plant
ŋíkatikisítà. n. catechist. whose roots are dug up and eaten raw.
Ŋíkátsolíám (Ŋíkátsolí-ámà-) pl. Ŋí- Stathmostelma peduncalatum.
kátsol. n. Acholi person. ŋímaláíkàn (ŋímaláíkànì-) n. angel.
Ŋíkátsolítôda (Ŋíkátsolí-tódà-) n. Acho-
ŋímamɓʉ́sìàm (ŋímamɓʉ́sì-àmà-) pl. ŋí-
li language.
mamɓʉ́s. n. prisoner.
Ŋíkiristóìàm (Ŋíkiristóì-àmà-) pl. Ŋí-
ŋimánétòn (ŋimánétònì-) v. to en-
kiristóì. n. Christian.
counter, meet. Also pronounced as
ŋíkiristóìnànès (ŋíkiristóìnànèsì-) ɲimánétòn.
n. Christianity, Christlikeness.
Ŋímaraɓúìàm (Ŋímaraɓúì-àmà-) pl. Ŋí-
ŋíkísila (ŋíkísilaá-) n. lawful order,
maraɓúya . n. Arab.
peace, security, stability. See also
ɲɛkɨsɨl. Ŋímarɨɔkɔ́ta (Ŋímarɨɔkɔ́tɔ̀-) n. Ateker
name for the traditional Ik men’s age-
Ŋíkolosáika (Ŋíkolosá-icé-) n. Colos-
group known for struggling for blood
sians: book in the New Testament.
(the oldest, #1). The Ik name is Ŋuesííka
Ŋíkoríntoika (Ŋíkorínto-icé-) n. Corin- Sèàe .
thians: books in the New Testament.
Ŋímeniŋíám (Ŋímeniŋí-ámà-) pl. Ŋí-
Ŋíkósowa (Ŋíkósowaá-) n. Ateker meniŋ. n. Mening person.
name for the traditional Ik men’s age-
group with the buffalo as its totem (#10 Ŋímeniŋítôda (Ŋímeniŋí-tódà-)
in the historical line). n. Mening language.
ŋìl (ŋìlà-) pl. ŋílítín. n. gastric mill, giz- Ŋímérimoŋ (Ŋímérimoŋá-) n. Ateker
zard, ventriculus. name for the traditional Ik men’s age-
group with the ostrich as its totem (#9
ŋiléɓúìàm (ŋiléɓúì-àmà-) pl. ŋiléɓúya .
in the historical line).
n. servant indentured to pay off a tax
debt. Ŋímiiɗíàm (Ŋímiiɗí-àmà-) pl. Ŋímiiɗí.
ŋiléɓúìnànès (ŋiléɓúìnànèsì-) 1 n. in- n. Indian.
dentureship (to pay off tax debt). 2 ŋímɔ́kɔka (ŋímɔ́kɔkaá-) n. young men.
n. enslavement, slavery. See also See also karatsʉ́na.
ŋɨpɔ́táìnànès. ŋímɔ́kɔkáám (ŋímɔ́kɔkáámà-) n. male
ŋiléétsa (ŋiléétsì-) n. disgrace, shame. youth, young man.

Ŋímorokóléìàm Ŋísʉmálìàm

Ŋímorokóléìàm (Ŋímorokóléì-àmà-) pl. Ŋíóyatom (Ŋŋíóyatomé-) n. Nyanga-

Ŋímorokólé. n. Charismatic or Pente- tom people.
costal Christian. Based on a Luganda ŋípáƙásíàm (ŋípáƙásí-àmà-) pl. ŋípáƙá-
word meaning ‘Are you born again?’ sí. n. servant, slave.
Ŋímúɡanɗáéàm (Ŋímúɡanɗáé-àmà-) ŋɨpɔ́táìàm (ŋɨpɔ́táì-àmà-) pl. ŋɨpɔ́táya .
pl. Ŋímúɡanɗáe . n. Muganda. n. slave. See also ɲɔpɔ́táya .
Ŋímúɡanɗáétòda (Ŋímúɡanɗáé-tòdà-) ŋɨpɔ́táìnànès (ŋɨpɔ́táìnànèsì-) n. en-
n. Luganda . slavement, slavery. See also ŋiléɓúìnà-
ŋímúí (ŋímúíì-) n. twins. nès.
Ŋímusukúìtòda (Ŋímusukúì-tòdà-) ŋípyà (ŋípyà) n. new thing, novelty.
n. English or any European language. ŋípyɛn (ŋípyɛní-) n. demon, earth spirit,
See also Ɓetsʼoniicétôda . evil spirit. See also ɲɛkípyɛ́.
ŋímutsurúsìàm (ŋímutsurúsì-àmà-) pl. ŋírés (ŋírésì-) v. to rake. See also
ŋímutsurús. n. hawker, peddler, ɨƙwɛrɛs.
trader. ŋɨríɓímɔ̀n (ŋɨríɓímɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be stubby
ŋímutsurúsìnànès (ŋímutsurúsìnànèsì-) (e.g. of maize kernels or teeth). 2 v. to
n. being a hawker, peddler, or trader. be stubby-toothed, have stubby teeth.
ŋíɲampáràyàm (ŋíɲampárày-àmà-) pl. Ŋiriko (Ŋirikoó-) n. a personal name.
ŋíɲampáraya . n. guard of the local Ŋírɔmánɔ́niika (Ŋírɔmánɔ́ni-icé-) n. Ro-
council official who used to assist in mans: New Testament book.
the collection of taxes. ŋirotsánón (ŋirotsánónì-) v. to be tan,
Ŋíɲaŋíyáàm (Ŋíɲaŋíyá-àmà-) pl. Ŋíɲa- tawny.
ŋíya . n. Nyangʼia person. ŋirúkóìnànès (ŋirúkóìnànèsì-) n. ban-
Ŋíɲaŋíyátòda (Ŋíɲaŋíyá-tòdà-) n. Nya- ditry, brigandry.
ngʼia language. Ŋísaakɔ́lìàm (Ŋísaakɔ́lì-àmà-) pl. Ŋísaa-
Ŋíɲaŋkóléɦyɔ́ (Ŋíɲaŋkólé-ɦyɔ́ɔ̀-) n. An- kɔ́l. n. Nyangatom person. Also called
kole cow. Ŋísɔɔkɔ́lìàm.
Ŋɨɲɛ́ɲɛ́ya (Ŋɨɲɛ́ɲɛ́ì-) n. Sudanese rebels ŋísɨl (ŋísɨlí-) 1 n. fiber, silk (of hair or
that used to live on mountains Lomil any other substance). 2 n. nerve.
and Zulia in the late 20th century. Ŋísɨlám (Ŋísɨlámʉ-) n. Islam.
Ŋíŋátuɲo (Ŋíŋátuɲoó-) n. Ateker name Ŋisíráya (Ŋisíráì-) n. Ateker name for
for the traditional Ik men’s age-group the traditional Ik men’s age-group with
with the lion as its totem (#2 in the his- the leopard as its totem (#7 in the his-
torical line). The Ik name is Máóika . torical line). The Ik name is Nʉsííka .
Ŋíŋóleɲaŋ (Ŋíŋóleɲaŋá-) n. Ateker ŋísɔ́rɔka (ŋísɔ́rɔkɔ́-) n. teenage boys,
name for the traditional Ik men’s age- young men. See also pànɛ̀ɛ̀s.
group with the gazelle as its totem (#11 ŋísɔ́rɔkɔ́ám (ŋísɔ́rɔkɔ́-ámà-) pl. ŋísɔ́rɔka .
in the historical line). n. teenage boy, young men.
ŋìòn (ŋìònì-) v. to be slick (e.g of skin, Ŋísʉmálìàm (Ŋísʉmálì-àmà-) pl. Ŋí-
from oil or sweat). sʉmál. n. Somali person.

Ŋísʉmálìtòda ŋkéétòn

Ŋísʉmálìtòda (Ŋísʉmálì-tòdà-) n. So- the zebra as its totem (#4 in the histor-
mali language. ical line). The Ik name is Zɨnáíka .
Ŋítéɓuríám (Ŋítéɓurí-ámà-) pl. Ŋítéɓur. ŋítʉ́mìka (ŋítʉ́mìkà-) n. bedbugs,
n. Labworian, Thur person. chinces.
Ŋítéɓurítôda (Ŋítéɓurí-tódà-) n. Ethur ŋítúrumúám (ŋítúrumú-ámà-) pl. ŋí-
language (of Abim). túrum. n. betrayer, slanderer, sower
of dissension.
Ŋítépes (Ŋítépesí-) n. Soo/Tepeth peo-
ple. Ŋíwápɛtɔ (Ŋíwápɛtɔɔ́-) n. Ateker name
for the traditional Ik men’s age-group
Ŋítépesítôda (Ŋítépesí-tódà-) n. Soo/Tepeth with the eland as its totem (#6 in the
language. historical line).
Ŋítesalóníkaika (Ŋítesalóníka-icé-) ŋɨxás (ŋɨxásí-) n. power, strength. See
n. Thessalonians: books in the New also ŋɡúf.
ŋɨxítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ŋɨxítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to
Ŋítésóàm (Ŋítésó-àmà-) pl. Ŋítésó. harden, make hard. 2 v. to fortify,
n. Teso person. strengthen, toughen.
Ŋítésótôda (Ŋítésó-tódà-) n. Ateso lan- ŋìxɔ̀n (ŋìxɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be hard. 2 v. to be
guage. powerful, strong. 3 v. to be expensive.
ŋítɛ́sʉrɔ (ŋítɛ́sʉrɔɔ́-) n. plant species ŋɨxɔna ikáe v. hardheadedness.
that resembles a banana but is inedible; ŋɨxɔnʉƙɔta (ŋɨxɔnʉƙɔtí-) 1 v. to be-
its small black seeds are used as beads. come harder, harden. 2 v. to become
Ŋítíɨra (Ŋítíɨraá-) n. Ateker name for stronger, strengthen.
the traditional Ik men’s age-group with Ŋíyuɗáíàm (Ŋíyuɗáí-àmà-) pl. Ŋíyu-
the Umbrella Thorn tree as its totem (#3 ɗáya . n. Hebrew, Jew.
in the historical line). Ŋíyuɗáítòda (Ŋíyuɗáí-tòdà-) n. Hebrew
Ŋɨtɔ́mɛ́ (Ŋɨtɔ́mɛ́ì-) n. Ateker name for language.
the traditional Ik men’s age-group with ŋízɛ̀s (ŋízɛ̀sì-) v. to alert, signal (e.g. by
the elephant as its totem (#5 in the his- coughing or clearing one’s throat).
torical line). The Ik name is Oŋoriika . ŋízìmà (<ŋízìmɔ̀ɔ̀n) v.
ŋítsaɗénìàm (ŋítsaɗénìàmà-) pl. ŋí- ŋízìmɔ̀ɔ̀n (ŋízìmɔ̀ɔ̀nì-/ŋízɨma-) v. to be
tsaɗéniika . n. witness. See also ite- grouchy, grumpy. See also ɡaƙúrúmòn.
ŋká (<ŋkóón) v.
ŋítsan (ŋítsaní-) n. hardship, problems, ŋkaɗɛɛɗɛ́ya (ŋkaɗɛɛɗɛ́ì-) 1 n. sparks. 2
troubles. n. gold flecks.
ŋítsen (ŋítsení-) n. curses. ŋkaíón (ŋkaíónì-) v. to get up (several
ŋitsʼe (ŋitsʼeí-) n. small white mushroom times or of several people).
that is dried and then boiled in soup ŋkáítetés (ŋkáítetésí-) v. to get up, raise,
where it tastes like meat. stand up.
Ŋítúkoya (Ŋítúkoí-) n. Ateker name for ŋkéétòn (ŋkéétònì-) v. to get up, rise,
the traditional Ik men’s age-group with stand up.

ŋkérépa ŋókíètsʼa

ŋkérépa (ŋkérépè-) 1 n. craziness, mad- ŋƙáƙítetés (ŋƙáƙítetésí-) v. to feed, give

ness, mental illness. 2 n. demon pos- food to. See also bɔnɛ́s and ŋƙɨtɛtɛ́s.
session. See also lejé. ŋƙam (ŋƙamá-) n. eatable, edible, vict-
ŋkɔ́líà (ŋkɔ́líà-) n. fish. ual.
ŋkóón (ŋkóónì-/ŋká-) v. to get up, rise, ŋƙɛ́s (ŋƙɛ́sí-) v. to consume, eat. See also
stand up. ŋƙáƙés.
Ŋkóryó (Ŋkóryóo-) n. Ateker name for ŋƙɨtɛtɛ́s (ŋƙɨtɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to feed, give
the traditional Ik men’s age-group with food to. 2 v. to charge (electrically).
the giraffe as its totem (#8 in the histor- See also bɔnɛ́s and ŋƙáƙítetés.
ical line). The Ik name is Gwaítsʼíika . ŋƙwa (ŋƙwaá-) pl. ŋƙwáatikwa . 1
ŋkʉ́ʝíta (ŋkʉ́ʝítì-) n. chyme: stomach n. traditional healer, witchdoctor. 2
contents. See also eya . n. maize deformity in which the cob
grows protrusions. See also irésíàm.
Ŋkúláka (Ŋkúlákà-) n. Kuliak: a name
given the Ik, Nyangʼi, and So/Tepeth ŋɔ́ (ŋɔ́ɔ̀-) pl. ŋɔ́ín. 1 n. your mother. 2
peoples as a group. n. your aunt (father’s brother’s wife).
ŋkwáŋáya (ŋkwáŋáì-) 1 n. aluminum. 2 ŋɔam (ŋɔamá-) n. grindable.
n. aluminum lip plug. ŋɔ̀ɓɔ (ŋɔ̀ɓɔ̀) ideo. wide-eyedly.
ŋƙáƙa (ŋƙáƙá-) 1 n. food, grub. 2 n. eat- ŋɔɓɔ́dɔ̀n (ŋɔɓɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be wide-eyed
ing, feeding. from fear or guilt.
Ŋƙáƙá Komúnióe n. Holy Communion: ŋɔ̀ɓɔ̀n (ŋɔ̀ɓɔ̀nì-) v. to be wide-eyed from
a Catholic ritual. fear or guilt.
ŋƙáƙá na baratsóe n. breakfast. ŋoɗólómòn (ŋoɗólómònì-) v. to be
e gimpy, hobbling.
ŋƙáƙá na wídzò n. dinner, supper.
ŋɔ́ɛ́s (ŋɔ́ɛ́sì-) 1 v. to grind, mill. 2 v. to
ŋƙáƙáàya (ŋƙáƙá-àì-) pl. ŋƙáƙáaitín. digest.
n. dining area, eating place.
ŋɔɛsíɡwàs (ŋɔɛsí-ɡwàsà-) pl. ŋɔɛsíɡwa-
ŋƙáƙáhò (ŋƙáƙá-hòò-) pl. ŋƙáƙáhoíka . 1 síka . 1 n. grinding stone. 2 n. grinding
n. camp kitchen. 2 n. cafe, restaurant. mill.
ŋƙáƙákwɛ̀ta (ŋƙáƙá-kwɛ̀tà-) n. right ŋɔfɛ́s (ŋɔfɛ́sí-) v. to gobble down or wolf
hand. Lit. ‘eating-hand’. down (food). See also ifáfúkés.
ŋƙáƙáŋabér (ŋƙáƙá-ŋabérí-) n. right- ŋɔítɛ́sʉƙɔta (ŋɔítɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to make
hand rib. Lit. ‘eating-rib’. grind .
ŋƙáƙés (ŋƙáƙésí-) v. to consume, eat. ŋóka (ŋókí-) pl. ŋókítín. 1 n. dog. 2
See also ŋƙɛ́s. n. poor person. 3 n. you dog! (term of
ŋƙáƙésuƙota (ŋƙáƙésuƙotí-) v. to de- disrespect.
vour, eat up. ŋókícikwa (ŋókí-cikó-) pl. ŋókícikwitín.
ŋƙáƙínósíàm (ŋƙáƙínósí-àmà-) pl. n. male dog, sire.
ŋƙáƙínósíika . n. neighbor (with whom ŋókíètsʼa (ŋókí-ètsʼì-) 1 n. doggy-doo,
one eats). dog poop. 2 n. earwax.

ŋókíìm ŋʉmʉ́ŋʉ́mánón

ŋókíìm (ŋókí-ìmà-) pl. ŋókíwika . n. pup- ŋorótsánón (ŋorótsánónì-) v. to be

py, whelp. filthy, nasty, putrid (e.g. of water or
ŋókínànès (ŋókínànèsì-) n. impoverish- wounds).
ment, poverty. ŋɔta (ŋɔtá-) 1 n. cowdung, manure. See
ŋókíŋwa (ŋókí-ŋwaá-) n. bitch: female also ɦyɔ̀ètsʼa . 2 n. millet heads when
dog. they turn brown and curl.
ŋɔtsɛ́s (ŋɔtsɛ́sí-) v. to cling to, grasp,
ŋókítsùtsa (ŋókí-tsùtsà-) n. dogfly:
hold onto.
species of fly associated with dogs.
ŋɔ̀tsɔ̀n (ŋɔ̀tsɔ̀nì-) v. to be fastened or tied
ŋoléánètòn (ŋoléánètònì-) 1 v. to be
very tightly.
white-faced. 2 v. to be bald. 3 v. to be
treeless. Ŋoya (Ŋoyaá) n. a personal name.
ŋɔ́ɲóta (ŋɔ́-ɲótá-) n. your mother-in-law ŋɔ́zɛ̀s (ŋɔ́zɛ̀sì-) v. to glare at, glower at,
(sibling’s spouse’s mother). stare at (using the ‘evil eye’).
ŋɔ́ɔ́s (ŋɔ́ɔ́sì-) 1 v. to be ground, milled. 2 ŋɔ́zɛ̀sìàm (ŋɔ́zɛ̀sì-àmà-) pl. ŋɔ́zɛsiika .
v. to be digested. n. glarer, starer (who bewitches with
the ‘evil eye’).
ŋɔr (ŋɔrɛ́-) pl. ŋɔrɨtín. 1 n. colored clay,
ocher. 2 n. color. ŋóziés (ŋóziesí-) v. to glare or stare at re-
peatedly (thereby using the ‘evil eye’).
ŋɔra na buɗám n. black clay.
ŋɔ́zɨnɔ́s (ŋɔ́zɨnɔ́sí-) v. to glare or stare at
ŋɔra na ɗíwa n. red clay. each other (thereby giving each other
ŋɔrɛ́ám (ŋɔrɛ́-ámà-) pl. ŋɔréíka . n. Tur- the ‘evil eye’).
kana person (who wears a colored clay ŋʉ̀ɓ ᶶ (ŋʉ̀ɓʉ̀) ideo. breakably, brittlely.
headdress). ŋʉɓʉ́dɔ̀n (ŋʉɓʉ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be breakable,
ŋɔrɨtɛtɛ́s (ŋɔrɨtɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to smear brittle (like a dry stick).
with clay (to mitigate impending mis- ŋʉ́ɗʉ́ŋʉ́ɗa (ŋʉ́ɗʉ́ŋʉ́ɗʉ́-) n. pollywog,
forture). 2 v. to paint. tadpole.
ŋɔrɔɓɔɓa (ŋɔrɔɓɔɓɔ́-) pl. ŋɔrɔ́ɓɔ́ɓìka . ŋʉɗʉŋʉ́ɗɔ́n (ŋʉɗʉŋʉ́ɗɔ́nì-) v. to squig-
n. cartilage, gristle. gle, wriggle (like lizard, snake, or tad-
ŋorokánón (ŋorokánónì-) v. to be spot- pole).
ted black-and-white. ŋʉɗʉ́sʉ́mɔ̀n (ŋʉɗʉ́sʉ́mɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be
ŋorókón (ŋorókónì-) v. to be spotted low, short. 2 v. to be limbless.
black-and-white. ŋués (ŋuesí-) v. to struggle for/over.
ŋɔ́rɔ́n (ŋɔ́rɔ́nì-) v. to have done already, ŋuésíàm (ŋuésí-àmà-) pl. ŋuésíika .
earlier. n. robber.
ŋɔrɔ́ɲɔ́mɔ̀n (ŋɔrɔ́ɲɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be dirty, Ŋuésíìkà sèàe n. traditional men’s age-
soiled, unclean (from dirt or food). See group known as the ones who strug-
also ɲɔŋɔ́rɔ́mɔ̀n. gled for blood (oldest, #1).
ŋɔ́rɔ́rɔ̀n (ŋɔ́rɔ́rɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to saw logs, ŋʉmʉ́ŋʉ́mánón (ŋʉmʉ́ŋʉ́mánónì-) v. to
snore. 2 v. to growl. 3 v. to purr. be chunky, crumby.

ŋún ŋwááteda ɡwasáe

ŋún (ŋúnó-) pl. ŋúnítín. n. rope. See ŋurutiesá tódào pl. ŋurutiesíícíká tódào .
also ún. n. consonant. Lit. ‘chopping up of
ŋʉr (ŋʉrá-) n. cane rat. Thryonomys speech’.
swinderianus. ŋurutiesíàm (ŋurutiesí-àmà-) pl. ŋu-
Ŋʉrak (Ŋʉraká-) n. name of a huge rutiesíika . n. judge.
boulder near Mukulita . ŋurutiesíama mɛnáɛ n. councillor, offi-
ŋʉrɛ́s (ŋʉrɛ́sí-) 1 v. to cut. 2 v. to break cial.
(e.g. a rule or law). 3 v. to cross. 4 ŋurutiesíama tódàe n. elder, officer (in
v. to adjudicate, judge. the church or community).
ŋʉrɛ́sá ìtsìkàɛ v. to break the law. ŋurutiesúƙota (ŋurutiesúƙotí-) 1 v. to
ŋʉrɛ́síàm (ŋʉrɛ́sí-àmà-) pl. ŋʉrɛ́síika . chop or cut up in pieces, dice up. 2
n. breaker (e.g. of the law). v. to adjudicate, judge, solve.
ŋʉrɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (ŋʉrɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to cut away/ ŋurutiós (ŋurutiosí-) 1 v. to be chopped,
off. cut, diced, or divided in pieces. 2 v. to
be adjudicated, judged, solved. 3 v. to
ŋʉrɛtɛ́s (ŋʉrɛtɛ́sí-) 1 v. to cut up. 2 v. to
be half-striped.
analyze, interpret, judge.
ŋusés (ŋusésí-) v. to grab, snatch, take
ŋʉrɛtɛsíàm (ŋʉrɛtɛsí-àmà-) pl. ŋʉrɛtɛ-
hold of, wrest. See also taŋates and
síika . n. judge.
ŋʉrɔ́s (ŋʉrɔ́sí-) v. to be broken, cut.
ŋusésúƙota (ŋusésúƙotí-) v. to grab,
ŋurúmétòn (ŋurúmétònì-) 1 v. to be cut snatch, take hold of.
off. 2 v. to cut short, end.
ŋusetésá así v. to hurry this way.
ŋʉrʉ́mɔ́n (ŋʉrʉ́mɔ́nì-) 1 v. to break, get
broken. 2 v. to go broke. ŋʉsʉ́lʉ́mɔ̀n (ŋʉsʉ́lʉ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be low,
short. See also ŋʉɗʉ́sʉ́mɔ̀n.
ŋʉrʉ́mɔ́na ƙwaatéo v. cessation of child-
birth, menopause. Lit. ‘breaking off of Ŋusuman (Ŋusumaná-) n. name of a
childbirth’. mountain with a sharp peak.
ŋʉrʉ́ɲʉ́ɲɛ̀tɔ̀n (ŋʉrʉ́ɲʉ́ɲɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to Ŋúupéám (Ŋúupé-ámá-) pl. ŋúupéíka .
sprout up (of many shoots). n. Pokot or Suk person.
ŋʉrʉ́ŋʉ́ránón (ŋʉrʉ́ŋʉ́ránónì-) v. to be ŋʉ́zʉmánón (ŋʉ́zʉmánónì-) v. to bicker,
all broken or cut up. squabble. See also ɨɲʉ́ɲʉ́rɔ̀n.
ŋʉrʉrʉ́ɲɔ́n (ŋʉrʉrʉ́ɲɔ́nì-) 1 v. to sprout ŋwa (ŋwaá-) pl. ŋwáátíkwa . n. female
up (of many things, like grass). 2 v. to (animal).
regrow (of hair). ŋwááta (ŋwáátì-) pl. ŋwáátìn. 1
ŋʉrʉ́sá (ŋʉrʉ́sáì-) pl. ŋʉrʉ́sáìka . n. hard- n. his/her/its mother. 2 n. his/her aunt
wood tree species with dark wood that (father’s brother’s wife).
burns well. Haplocoelum foliolosum. ŋwááta dáŋáe n. queen of an edible ter-
ŋurutiés (ŋurutiesí-) 1 v. to chop or cut mite colony.
up into pieces, dice. 2 v. to adjudicate, ŋwááteda ɡwasáe n. lower grind-
judge, solve. ing stone (on which the thing being

ŋwáátìnànès ŋ́karakocóya

ground is lain). Lit. ‘mother of the ŋwàxɔ̀n (ŋwàxɔ̀nì-) v. to be crippled,

stone’. disabled, handicapped, lame.
ŋwáátìnànès (ŋwáátìnànèsì-) n. moth- ŋwaxɔna ekwitíní v. to have poor eye-
erhood, motherliness. sight.
ŋwáátìɲòta (ŋwáátì-ɲòtà-) n. his/her ŋwàxɔ̀nìàm (ŋwàxɔ̀nì-àmà-) pl. ŋwaxɔ-
mother-in-law (sibling’s spouse’s niika . n. cripple, disabled, handi-
mother). capped, or lame person.
ŋ́ka (ɲ́cì-) pro. I/me/my.
ŋwan (ŋwaná-) pl. ŋwáníkwa . n. gar-
den cultivated for more than one year. Ŋ́kaleesó (Ŋ́kaleesóò-) n. Ateker name
for the traditional Ik men’s age-group
ŋwaníŋwánɨtɛ́s (ŋwaníŋwánɨtɛ́sí-) v. to with the ostrich as its totem (#9 in
better or improve slightly. the historical line). The Ik name is
ŋwanɨŋwánɔ́n (ŋwanɨŋwánɔ́nì-) v. to Leweɲiika .
be average, mediocre, so-so. ŋ́kaŋóka (ŋ́kaŋókì-) n. acne, pimples.
ŋwaxás (ŋwaxásí-) n. disability, handi- ŋ́karakocóya (ŋ́karakocóì-) n. bottlecap
cap, lameness. game.

ɔ̂ba óés

ɔ̂ba (ɔ́bà-) pl. ɔ́bɨtín. n. cheek (inner and ódàtù n. all day, the whole day.
outer). ódeedóó n. on that day.
ɔ́bɛ̀r (ɔ́bɛ̀rà-) n. plant whose edible ódèèkwa (ódè-èkù-) pl. ódeekwíka .
leaves are cooked and whose seeds are n. ford, river crossing.
eaten raw, fried, or mixed with honey.
òdìòs (òdìòsì-) n. crowd, multitude.
Hibiscus cannbinus.
ɔ́dɔ̀ka (ɔ́dɔ̀kà-) pl. ɔ́dɔkíka . 1 n. gate,
ɔ́bɛ̀ràkàka (ɔ́bɛ̀rà-kàkà-) n. edible leaves
gateway. 2 n. patriclan: clan based
of the ɔ́bɛ̀r plant.
on the father’s lineage. 3 n. chapter.
ɔ́bɛ̀s (ɔ́bɛ̀sì-) 1 v. to dominate, occupy
ódòo n. at daytime, during the day.
(e.g. an area or conversation). 2 v. to
boom, rise (of voices). ódoo bɨrɨr n. midday, noon.
óbìʝa (óbìʝò-) n. black rhinoceros. ódòwa (ódòù-) pl. ódoicíka . n. day.
Diceros bicornis. Also called óbùʝa . ódowa ná zè n. big day, national holi-
óbiʝoetsʼa (óbiʝo-etsʼí-) n. vine species day.
thought to grow where rhinos dropped ódowicíká kì nùù kì n. back then, long
their dung; its bulbous fruits are made ago. Lit. ‘those days then’.
into gourds. Lit. ‘rhino-droppings’. La- ódowicíká nì kòm n. a long time or
genaria sphaerica. while. Lit. ‘days that are many’.
óbìʝòkwàtsa (óbìʝò-kwàtsì-) n. inedible ódowicíká nì ƙwàɗe n. a short time or
gourd that is extremely bitter and with- while. Lit. ‘days that are few’.
out use. Lit. ‘rhino-urine’.
ódowicíkó nì n. nowadays, these days.
óbìʝòɔ̀z (óbìʝò-ɔ̀zà-) n. tree species
ódowicíkó nì kɔ̀nà n. nowadays, these
whose leaves rhinos like to eat and
very days.
whose bitter bark infusion is drunk as
an anthelmintic (anti-worm) drug. Lit. ódowicíkó nùku n. back then, long ago,
‘rhino-bottom’. Albizia anthelmintica. those days.
obólén (obólénì-) pl. óbòlènìka . 1 n. hip. ôdza (ódzà-) pl. ódzitín. n. dry season.
2 n. eastern rains. ódzadidí (ódza-didíì-) n. light rain at the
obólénìɔ̀k (obólénì-ɔ̀kà-) pl. óbole- beginning of dry season.
nikɔɔkɨtín. n. greater trochanter: ódzàkàka (ódzà-kàkà-) n. dry, crackly
lower hipbone. leaves of dry season.
òɓà (òɓà) interj. folks! people! (a term ódzatsóya (ódza-tsóí-) n. dry season.
for addressing a group). Contracted òɗòmòr (òɗòmòrì-) n. male bushbuck.
form of ròɓa ‘folks’. Tragelaphus scriptus.
Océn (Océní-) n. a personal name. óés (óésì-) 1 v. to call, summon. 2 v. to
ôda (ódà-) pl. ódikwa . n. ford, river invite. 3 v. to call (a name), name. May
crossing. also be spelled as wéés.

óésa édie imáe olíɓó

óésa édie imáe v. to name a newborn spears, and walking sticks and are used
child. to build houses and granaries. Grewia
óésés (óésésì-) v. to call repeatedly. tenax. See also alárá.
oetés (oetésí-) v. to call here. óɡoós (óɡoosí-) 1 v. to be left, let. 2 v. to
be excused, exempt.
ɔ̀f (ɔ̀fà-) n. cough.
óìdìkwòn (óì-dìkwònì-) v. to dance and
ɔ̀fàɡwà (ɔ̀fà-ɡwàà-) n. bird species. Lit. sing simultaneously.
óímós (óímósí-) v. to call each other.
ɔfɔ́dɔ̀n (ɔfɔ́dɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be lightweight.
óísiés (óísiesí-) v. to call continously,
2 v. to be easy, manageable. See also keep on calling.
fɔkɔ́dɔ̀n and olódòn.
ɔ́ʝa (ɔ́ʝá-) pl. ɔ́ʝítín. 1 n. sore, wound. 2
ɔ̀fɔ̀n (ɔ̀fɔ̀nì-) v. to cough. n. knot in wood.
ɔfɔrɔƙa (ɔfɔrɔƙɔ́-) pl. ɔfɔ́rɔ́ƙìka . 1 n. dry ɔ́ʝáìm (ɔ́ʝá-ìmà-) pl. ɔ́ʝítíníwíka . n. bleb,
honeycomb. 2 n. eggshell. blister, small sore.
ofur (ofurí-) pl. ofúríka . 1 n. bag, pouch ɔ́ʝátàs (ɔ́ʝá-tàsà-) n. scar.
(often made of leather). 2 n. pocket.
ɔ́ʝítínícɛmɛ́r (ɔ́ʝítíní-cɛmɛ́rí-) n. small
Also called ofir.
plant species with milky sap that is ap-
ofura na ʝírì n. back pocket. plied to wounds in order to dry them
ofura na wáxì n. front pocket. out. Lit. ‘wounds-herb’. Becium sp.
ɔ̀ɡɛ̀r (ɔ̀ɡɛ̀rà-) pl. ɔ́ɡɛraikwa . n. male ɔka (ɔká-) pl. ɔkɨtín. n. bone, osseous
monkey or primate of any kind. tissue.
ɔɡɛraŋwa (ɔɡɛra-ŋwaá-) n. female mon- ɔka ikáe n. cranium, skull. Lit. ‘bone of
key or primate of any kind. the head’.
óɡoɗés (óɡoɗésí-) v. to keep aside, put okílóŋór (okílóŋóró-) n. queen bee.
aside/away, store. Also called lókílóróŋ.
óɡoɗesam (óɡoɗesamá-) n. leftover, re- ókísèn (ókísènì-) pl. ókísènìka . n. auc-
mainder. Lit. ‘keepable’. See also ʝírɛ̂d tion, vendue.
and ɲomokoʝo. ɔkɨtín (ɔkɨtíní-) n. skeleton. Lit. ‘bones’.
óɡoɗésúƙota (óɡoɗésúƙotí-) v. to keep ókò (ókò) adv. apparently, seemingly, it
aside, put or store away (for later). See seems. See also íkwà.
also oƙésúƙota . ɔkɔ́tsa (ɔkɔ́tsí-) pl. ɔkɔ́tsíka . 1 n. step,
óɡoés (óɡoesí-) 1 v. to leave, let. 2 v. to stride. 2 n. meter, yard.
excuse, exempt. 3 v. to concede, re- oƙésúƙota (oƙésúƙotí-) v. to keep aside,
nounce claim over. 4 v. to forgive, par- put or store away (for later). See also
don. May also be spelled as óɡweés. óɡoɗésúƙota .
óɡoesíám (óɡoesí-ámà-) pl. óɡoesííka . óƙírota (óƙírotí-) n. bird species.
n. judge who pardons. ɔlí (ɔlíì-) n. grass whose millet-like seeds
ɔɡɔn (ɔɡɔnɔ́-) n. shrub species whose are ground into flour.
red or yellow berries are eaten raw olíɓó (olíɓóò-) n. freeloading, mooching,
and whose stems are made into arrows, sponging.

òlìòta Ɔrɔ́m

òlìòta (òlìòtà-) n. alpha male baboon. òŋòrìkù (òŋòrì-kùà-) n. elephant grass:

See also tìmùòz. tall grass species used for thatching.
ɔlír (ɔlírì-) pl. ɔlíraikwa . n. bush hyrax. Panicum maximum.
Heterohyrax brucei. òŋòrìkwàtsa (òŋòrì-kwàtsì-) n. ele-
olódòn (olódònì-) 1 v. to be lightweight. phant urine: a plant species with no
2 v. to be eager, enthusiastic. 3 v. to be known uses. Satureja sp.
easy to manage, manageable. See also òŋòrìkwàywa (òŋòrì-kwàyò-) pl. o-
fɔkɔ́dɔ̀n and olódòn. ŋorikwaitín. n. elephant tusk, ivory.
omén (oméní-) pl. oméníka . n. barb, òŋòrìkwɛ̀ta (òŋòrì-kwɛ̀tà-) 1 n. elephant
spike (used in a spike trap). trunk. 2 n. digger, excavator.
ɔmɔ́x (ɔmɔ́xá-) pl. ɔmɔ́xíka . 1 n. peel, oŋoriŋwa (oŋori-ŋwaá-) n. cow ele-
skin. 2 n. crust, scab. phant (female).
on (oní-) pl. onitín. n. abandoned home- Òŋòrìpàkwa (Òŋòrì-pàkò-) n. name of
stead or village, ghost town. a cave at the base of Ŋuraka . Lit.
ɔn (ɔná-) n. odor, smell, stench. ‘elephant-cave’.
ɔnɛda (ɔnɛdɛ-) n. odor, smell, stench (of Oŋorisabá (Oŋori-sabáà-) n. name
a particular person or thing). of a river near Lòsòlìà and Píré.
oníáwa (oní-áwà-) pl. oníáwíka . n. aban- Lit. ‘elephant-river’. Also called
doned homestead or village. Cakalatɔ́m.
oɲaŋ (oɲaŋá-) n. sorghum variety with oŋoritaƙáya (oŋori-taƙáí-) pl. oŋori-
big, yellowish seeds. Also called aɲaŋ. taƙáíka . n. elephant-leather shoe.
oŋerepa (oŋerepé-) n. rufous beaked Oŋórîz (Oŋórízà-) n. name of a river and
snake. Rhamphiophis oxyrhynchus. ravine.
òŋòr (òŋòrì-) n. elephant, tusker. Lox- òrèɡèm (òrèɡèmè-) n. lone male ba-
odonta africana. boon.
Ɔŋɔr (Ɔŋɔrí-) n. a personal name. Oríáé (Oríáé-) n. Arab or Somali.
ɔŋɔ́ránètòn (ɔŋɔ́ránètònì-) v. to be Oríáénítòda (Oríáéní-tòdà-) n. language
brown, gray, gray-brown. of Arab or Somali Muslims.
Òŋòrìàwa (Òŋòrì-àwà-) n. name of Óríɓò (Órí-ɓòò-) n. name of a river and
a place where many elephants were ravine in the east of Ikland, as well
killed. Lit. ‘elephant-place’. as the surrounding area and its human
oŋoridɛrɛ́ƙa (oŋori-dɛrɛ́ƙì-) n. elephant
wasp: large black wasp. Óríɓosabá (Órí-ɓo-sabáà-) n. name of a
river. Lit. ‘Ori’s escarpment-river’.
Oŋoriika (Oŋori-icé-) n. traditional
men’s age-group with the elephant as òrìkìrìka (òrìkìrìkì-) n. large object (esp.
its totem (#5 in the historical line). Lit. a house, rock, or tree).
‘Elephant-Folk’. ɔríyɔ́ (ɔríyɔ́ɔ̀-) n. bird species.
oŋorikɨnám (oŋori-kɨnámá-) n. ele- Ɔrɔ́m (Ɔrɔ́mʉ̀-) n. name of a mountain
phant mushroom: species with a broad, on the border of Karamoja and Acho-
flat top. liland.

oromén ɔ̂z

oromén (oroméní-) n. bateleur. Teratho- otí (otí) interj. whoa! (an expression of
pius ecaudatus. awe or mystery).
orómó (orómóò-) n. green-pigeon otsés (otsésí-) v. to board, climb, get on,
(Bruce’s and maybe African). Treron sp. mount, ride.
ɔrɔr (ɔrɔrɔ́-) pl. oróríkwa . n. large otsésíama haúùⁱ n. hyena rider, hyena-
stream, small river (and associated riding wizard.
ravine). otsésúƙota (otsésúƙotí-) v. to climb on/
òsòròs (òsòròsì-) pl. osórósaikw . a up, get on, mount up.
n. barren, childless, infertile, or sterile òtsìɓìl (òtsìɓìlà-) n. common bulbul. Py-
person. See also ɲokólípa . cnonotus barbatus. Also called tsìɓìl.
osorosánón (osorosánónì-) v. to be bar- òwà (òwàà-) n. yellow desert date(s).
ren, childless, infertile, sterile. See also oyóŋ (oyóŋò-) n. hyena species.
ɔ́zààka (ɔ́zà-àkà-) n. anus.
ɔtáya (ɔtáí-) pl. ɔtáíkwa . n. rainy season.
See also diditsóya . ɔ́zàhò (ɔ́zà-hòò-) pl. ɔ́zɨtíníhoíka . n. anal
otés (otésí-) 1 v. to pour into. 2 v. to in-
ɔ́zàsìtsʼa (ɔ́zà-sìtsʼà-) n. pubic hair. See
fix, insert, put in (e.g. poles for a fence
also didisísítsʼa .
or house). 3 v. to brew. 4 v. to mis-
carry. 5 v. to put on, wear (many beads ɔ́zɛ̀da (ɔ́zɛ̀dɛ̀-) 1 n. back, backside, bot-
like Turkana women). 6 v. to thank tom, rear, rear end. 2 n. cap, primer
someone for helping in the garden by (that ignites gunpowder).
pouring into their containers a portion ɔ́zɛ̀dà mɛ̀sɛ̀ n. bottom layer of beer.
of the grain. See also ɨtʉrɛs. Ɔ́pʉs (Ɔ́pʉsí-) n. name of a huge rocky
otésúƙota (otésúƙotí-) v. to pour into. cliff.
otetés (otetésí-) 1 v. to pour out into. 2 ɔ̂z (ɔ́zà-) pl. ɔ́zɨtín. n. ass, backside, bot-
v. to miscarry. tom, butt, rear.

pààɗòko pɛɗɛ́pɛ́ɗánón

pààɗòko (pààɗòkò) ideo. bang! kaboom! Pakósábà (Pakó-sábàà-) n. name of a
(sound of a gunshot). river. Lit. ‘cave-river’.
pààì (pààì) ideo. very slowly. pakwa (pakó-) pl. pakwitín. n. cave (of-
Paalakán (Paalakánì-) n. name of a ten used for shelter or storage).
mountainside and its human habita- pàkⁱ (pàkì) ideo. bright white, milkily
tion on Morúŋole. white, pure white.
páɗɛ̀r (páɗɛ̀rɛ̀-) pl. páɗɛrín. n. Roman palórómòn (palórómònì-) v. to be bald
Catholic priest. on top.
Páɗɛ̀rɛ̀hò (Páɗɛrɛ-hoó-) n. name of a hill Palú (Palúù-) n. name of a river and
where the Italian priest Apáálolúk used ravine in Timu.
to stop for the night. Lit. ‘priest-hut’. Palúùkùɓa (Palúù-kùɓà-) n. name of a
paɗókómòn (paɗókómònì-) v. to be hill in Timu. Lit. ‘Palu-hill’.
caved in, collapsed (e.g. one’s stom- pànɛ̀ɛ̀s (pànɛ̀ɛ̀sì-) n. teenage boys,
ach). young men. See also ŋísɔ́rɔka .
pàɗwa (pàɗò-) pl. páɗíkwa . n. small pápà (pápàà-) n. pope: head of the Ro-
cave (often used for secret storage). man Catholic church.
pákà (pákà) 1 prep. all the way to, until, papaɗós (papaɗósí-) n. small stash hid-
up to (followed by a noun). 2 subord- den from others (e.g. food).
conn. until (followed by a dependent parɨpárɔ́n (parɨpárɔ́nì-) v. to gleam, glis-
clause). 3 adv. forever, indefinitely. ten. See also piripírón.
As a preposition, this word is followed
pás (pásì-) n. lousy, pathetic, or useless
by a noun in the oblique case.
person or thing. See also tsar.
pakámón (pakámónì-) v. to split in two.
pásìnànès (pásìnànèsì-) n. pathetic-
pakatiés (pakatiesí-) v. to cut or split ness, lousiness, uselessness. See also
multiply (e.g. a tree into planks). tsarínánès.
pakés (pakésí-) v. to bisect, dissect, di- pásìtà (pásìtàà-) pl. pásìtàìka . n. minis-
vide, split in two. See also ɨwáwáɗɛ́s. ter, pastor, rector.
pakóáƙwa (pakó-áƙɔ̀-) n. cave interior. patsólómòn (patsólómònì-) v. to be bare
Pakóám (Pakwá-ámà-) pl. Pakóíka . (of a patch or spot).
n. Turkana person. Lit. ‘cave-person’. páupáwa (páupáù-) n. scout bee that
pakóásáka (pakó-ásáká-) n. cave en- scouts out sources of food and water.
trance. paupáwón (paupáwónì-) 1 v. to be
Pakóícéŋám (Pakó-ícé-ŋámà-) n. Tur- parched, thirsty (e.g. after eating
kana sorghum: variety grown by the honey and then walking in the sun). 2
Turkana that has with white stalks, v. to be afraid, dread, have qualms (e.g.
stems, and seeds. over a bad premonition).
Pakóícétôda (Pakó-ícé-tódà-) n. Turkana pɛɗɛ́pɛ́ɗánón (pɛɗɛ́pɛ́ɗánónì-) v. to be
language. flapping, fluttering.

pɛɗɛpɛ́ɗɔ́n pìrⁱ

pɛɗɛpɛ́ɗɔ́n (pɛɗɛpɛ́ɗɔ́nì-) v. to flutter (of pɨɗídɔ̀n (pɨɗídɔ̀nì-) v. to be sleek, slick.

hearts, wings). See also ɨpɛlípɛ́lɔ̀n.
pɛɛ́ɲɛ́mɔ̀n (pɛɛ́ɲɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to walk in a Píipí (Píipíì-) n. a personal name.
small-buttocked way. pikódòn (pikódònì-) v. to be worn
pɛ̀l (pɛ̀lɛ̀) ideo. slickly, slipperily. smooth (of ground, stones, etc.).
pɛlɛ́dɔ̀n (pɛlɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be precariously pìl (pìlɔ̀) ideo. smoothly.
slick or slippery. pílè (pílè) ideo. all, completely, totally.
pɛ́lɛ́ɗɛ̀ka (pɛ́lɛ́ɗɛ̀kɛ̀-) n. long-leaf to- Pɨlɛmɔ́nɛ̀ (Pɨlɛmɔ́nɛ̀ɛ̀-) n. Philemon:
bacco. See also loríónómor. book in the New Testament.
pɛlɛ́mɛ́tɔ̀n (pɛlɛ́mɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to appear, Pílíkìtsa (Pílíkìtsì-) n. name of a moun-
come into view, emerge. See also tain near Káákʉma in Turkanaland,
lɛlɛ́tɔ́n. Kenya.
pɛlɛ́mɔ́na fetí v. dawn, daybreak, sun- Pilípoika (Pilípo-icé-) n. Philippians:
rise. Lit. ‘appearance of the sun’. book in the New Testament.
pɨlírímɔ̀n (pɨlírímɔ̀nì-) v. to have strabis-
Pelén (Peléní-) n. a personal name.
mal amblyopia: a lazy eye that looks in
pelérémòn (pelérémònì-) v. to be different directions.
squinted, squinty.
pilís (pilísì-) n. game of tag.
penitésìyà (penitésìyàà-) n. Catholic pɨlɔ́dɨtɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (pɨlɔ́dɨtɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to
sacrament of penance. make smooth, smoothen out.
pɛntɛkɔ́stɛ̀ (pɛntɛkɔ́stɛ̀ɛ̀-) n. Pentecost: pɨlɔ́dɔ̀n (pɨlɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be smooth.
seventh Sunday after Easter.
pìɔ̀ (pìɔ̀) ideo. splat! spoot! (sound of
pɛ̀s (pɛ̀sɛ̀) ideo. boom! (sound or effect diarrhea or vomit). The vowels in this
of something explosive). word are pronounced silently.
pɛsɛlam (pɛsɛlamá-) n. chip, small piece. pír (pírí) ideo. glittering white.
pɛ́sɛ́lameda (pɛ́sɛ́lamede-) n. chip, small Píré (Píréè-) n. name of a slope on the
piece (of sth. in particular). north of Morúŋole where some Ik used
pɛsɛlɛs (pɛsɛlɛsí-) v. to break a piece off, to be congregated.
chip, knap. pirídòn (pirídònì-) v. to be gleam-
pɛsɛ́mɛ́tɔ̀n (pɛsɛ́mɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to break, ing, shiny (like a bald head). See also
chip, or crumble off in small pieces. ɓarídɔ̀n.
piripírón (piripírónì-) v. to gleam, glis-
pɛsɛ́pɛ́sánón (pɛsɛ́pɛ́sánónì-) v. to be
ten. See also parɨpárɔ́n.
brittle, crumbly (e.g. biscuits).
pɨrɨs (pɨrɨsɨ) ideo. pop! (sound of coming
Pétèrò (Pétèròò-) 1 n. Peter. 2 n. Peter:
or popping out, as in pus from a wound
short New Testament letters.
or an animal from a thicket).
pìc (pìcì) ideo. very full. pìrrr (pìrrr) ideo. very hot (of the
piɗés (piɗésí-) v. to cut across, go weather).
through, traverse. See also tɔkɛ́ɛ́rɛ́s. pìrⁱ (pìrì) ideo. appearing suddenly, out
pìɗɨ (pìɗì) ideo. sleekly, slickly. of nowhere.

pìs pulutiés

pìs (pìsì) ideo. quish! (sound of flesh be- pɔ̀tɔ (pɔ̀tɔ̀) ideo. slickly, slipperily.
ing punctured). See also tùs. pɔtɔ́dɔ̀n (pɔtɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be slick, slip-
pítⁱ (pítí) ideo. all. pery (e.g. a slimy wet rock).
pìùù (pìùù) ideo. zing! (sound of a bullet pòx (pòxò) ideo. chattily, talkatively.
passing over). The vowels of this word poxés (poxésí-) v. to peel, skin.
are pronounced silently. poxésúƙota (poxésúƙotí-) v. to peel or
pɔ́ɗɛ̀ (pɔ́ɗɛ̀ɛ̀-) n. small Japanese car. skin off.
poɗés (poɗésí-) v. to husk, shuck. poxódòn (poxódònì-) v. to be chatty,
poɗetés (poɗetésí-) v. to husk, shuck. talkative.
pɔ̀ɗɔ (pɔ̀ɗɔ̀) ideo. agilely, nimbly, spryly. pùà (pùà) ideo. chop! (sound of cutting
a tree).
pɔɗɔ́dɔ̀n (pɔɗɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be agile, nim-
ble, spry. pùɗa (pùɗà) ideo. dryly as dust.
pokés (pokésí-) 1 v. to break off. 2 v. to puɗádòn (puɗádònì-) v. to be dry and
stick, wedge (e.g. what mud does to a dusty.
vehicle). See also wakés. Puɗápúɗa (Puɗápúɗà-) n. name of a
poketés (poketésí-) v. to break off. river.
pókíetésá asíɛ́ kédìè kɔ̀n v. to break off pukés (pukésí-) v. to overturn, turn out
in groups. (solid substances).
pòko (pòkò) ideo. breakably, brittlely. pukésúƙota (pukésúƙotí-) v. to overturn
away, turn out away (solid substances).
pokódòn (pokódònì-) v. to be breakable,
puketés (puketésí-) v. to overturn, turn
brittle. See also ɛɔmɔ́dɔ̀n and wɛtsʼɛ́dɔ̀n.
out (solid substances).
pokómón (pokómónì-) v. to break off.
pùku (pùkù) 1 ideo. zlop! (sound of
pólìs (pólìsì-) n. police. something solid being dumped). 2
poŋórómòn (poŋórómònì-) v. to be ideo. whack! (sound of hitting).
stumpy, tubby. pulés (pulésí-) v. to make a hole in, per-
Popá (Popáà-) n. name of a hand-dug forate, pierce, punch, puncture.
well and its run-off on Lotim. Pʉlʉkɔ́l (Pʉlʉkɔ́lì-) n. a personal name.
pɔ̀pɔ̀s (pɔ̀pɔ̀sà-) n. lizard. pulúmétòn (pulúmétònì-) v. to come
pórón (pórónì-) v. to go on, keep going, out, egress, emerge.
proceed. pulúmítésúƙota (pulúmítésúƙotí-) v. to
porór (porórí-) n. nearly ripe crops (e.g. take out.
maize, millet, sorghum). pulúmón (pulúmónì-) v. to exit, go out.
pòròta (pòròtì-) pl. pórótìka . n. hooked pulutetés (pulutetésí-) v. to bring out,
stick used to remove flesh from inside issue, produce (e.g. newborn twins out
a gourd. of the hut).
pɔsɔ́kɔ́mɔ̀n (pɔsɔ́kɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be awk- pulutiés (pulutiesí-) 1 v. to perforate,
ward, clumsy, clunky, cumbersome pierce, or puncture repeatedly. 2 v. to
(due to size). bore, drill. See also ɨpɨrípírɛ́s.

pulutiesíàm pʉ̀ʉ̀t ᶶ

pulutiesíàm (pulutiesí-àmà-) pl. pu- pùs (pùsù) ideo. plop! (sound of food
lutiesíika . 1 n. piercer (e.g. of ears). 2 falling on the ground).
n. driller (e.g. of wood). pʉsɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀n (pʉsɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be chalky
pʉ́n (pʉ́nʉ́) ideo. a lot, really. dry, moisture or water-resistant (e.g.
pʉ̀nʉ̀k ᶶ (pʉ̀nʉ̀kʉ̀) ideo. flat to the dry meat, powders, soil). See also
ground. pʉrákámòn and pʉráŋámòn.
pʉŋʉ́rʉ́mɔ̀n (pʉŋʉ́rʉ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be ro- Pútá (Pútáà-) n. name of a hill or moun-
tund (e.g. a gourd or fat pig). tain.
pʉrákámòn (pʉrákámònì-) v. to pʉtʉ́mɔ́n (pʉtʉ́mɔ́nì-) v. to go or pass
be chalky dry, moisture or water- through to the other side.
resistant (e.g. dry meat, powders, soil).
See also pʉráŋámòn and pʉsɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀n. puurú (puurúù-) n. chickenpox, vari-
pʉráŋámòn (pʉráŋámònì-) v. to cella. See also ɲɛtʉnɛ.
be chalky dry, moisture or water- púùs (púùsì-) n. cat, housecat. Felis
resistant (e.g. dry meat, powders, soil). libyca.
See also pʉrákámòn and pʉsɛ́lɛ́mɔ̀n. puusúmòn (puusúmònì-) v. to be ban-
pʉ̀rɔ̀n (pʉ̀rɔ̀nì-) v. to live through, sur- tam, dwarfish, midget (with poochy
vive. belly and rear end).
púrurú (púrurúù-) n. measles, rubeola. pʉ̀ʉ̀t ᶶ (pʉ̀ʉ̀tʉ̀) ideo. phoot! (sound made
pùrùs (pùrùsù) ideo. schunk! (sound of when a spear pierces an animal’s body
deep stabbing into flesh). and comes out the other side). See also
purutél (purutélè-) n. friar, mendicant. rɛ̀s.

rààrààrà rɛ́bɔ̀n

rààrààrà (rààrààrà) ideo. clap clap! respond. 3 v. to account or answer for.
(sound of applause). 4 v. to profit from.
rábaɗamitésúƙota (rábaɗamitésúƙotí-) rakákámòn (rakákámònì-) v. to be grav-
v. to dent, ding, put a dent/ding in. See elly, rocky. See also ŋarʉ́dɔ̀n.
also luɗés. ràm (ràmʉ̀-) pl. rámíkwa . n. pile of
rábàɗàmòn (rábàɗàmònì-) v. to be dry branches with grass growing up
dented, dinged. among them.
ramɛ́s (ramɛ́sí-) 1 v. to have multiples,
rábaɗamonuƙota (rábaɗamonuƙotí-)
more than one of. 2 v. to marry polyg-
v. to get dented or dinged.
rábʉ̀xɔ̀n (rábʉ̀xɔ̀nì-) v. to crouch, hun-
ramɛtɛ́s (ramɛtɛ́sí) v. to attach, fix, join.
ker (often in order to hide). See also
dɛ́ɡɛ̀mɔ̀n. Raraan (Raraaní-) n. December: month
of falling leaves. See also Ìɓùɓù.
ráɡàn (ráɡànì-) n. wild yam-like plant
raraanón (raraanónì-) 1 v. to fall gently
whose tubers are boiled many times,
(leaves, paper). 2 v. to die off .
crushed, soaked, dried, and ground
into edible flour. rárímetés (rárímetésí-) v. to decrease,
diminish, downgrade.
ráɡòdìkwa (ráɡò-dìkwà-) pl. ráɡodikwi-
rárímòn (rárímònì-) v. to decline, de-
tín. n. ox song: composed and sung in
crease, diminish, drop off.
honor of a man’s totemic ox.
ratatáɲón (ratatáɲónì-) v. to be droopy,
ráɡòèda (ráɡò-èdì-) pl. ráɡoeditín. n. ox saggy.
name: taken in honor of a man’s
ràtòn (ràtònì-) v. to be at ground level.
totemic ox.
rátsɛ́s (rátsɛ́sì-) v. to mend, patch, repair
râɡwa (ráɡò-) pl. ráíkwa . n. ox. (by sewing).
raʝámón (raʝámónì-) v. to go down, re- rátsiés (rátsiesí-) v. to mend, patch, or
cede, reduce. repair repeatedly (by sewing).
raʝánón (raʝánónì-) 1 v. to back up, rêba (rébè-) n. finger millet. Eleusine
move back, retreat. 2 v. to regress, coracana.
revert. 3 v. to go down, recede, reduce rɛ̀ba (rɛ̀bɛ̀-) n. light rain prolonged for
(e.g. swelling or tumors). hours after a heavy rain.
raʝés (raʝésí-) 1 v. to return. 2 v. to rébèmɛ̀s (rébè-mɛ̀sɛ̀-) n. millet beer. See
answer, reply, respond. 3 v. to hold also ŋamarʉwáya .
back/off, resist. 4 v. to set (i.e. a dislo- rébès (rébèsì-) v. to deny, deprive, with-
cated joint). hold from.
raʝésúƙota (raʝésúƙotí-) v. to return: rébìmètòn (rébìmètònì-) v. to be denied,
give, put, send, or take back. deprived, withheld from.
raʝetés (raʝetésí-) 1 v. to return: bring, rɛ́bɔ̀n (rɛ́bɔ̀nì-) v. to be disruptive, inter-
give, or put back. 2 v. to answer, reply, ruptive.

rɛɓɛ́dɔ̀n ríʝa

rɛɓɛ́dɔ̀n (rɛɓɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be tender (e.g. rɛsɛ́dɔ̀n (rɛsɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be rattty, tatty,

an egg or soft vegetable). See also worn out (e.g. old clothes).
reɗɛ́dɔ̀n. rétítésúƙota (rétítésúƙotí-) v. to bend
rɛ̀ɗɛ (rɛ̀ɗɛ̀) ideo. tenderly. over.
rɛɗɛ́dɔ̀n (rɛɗɛ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be tender rétón (rétónì-) 1 v. to be bent or bowed
(e.g. an egg or soft vegetable). See also over. 2 v. to be deformed, distorted in
rɛɓɛ́dɔ̀n. shape.
rɛɗɛɗánón (rɛɗɛɗánónì-) v. to crack, rexúkúmòn (rexúkúmònì-) v. to
crackle, pop (like roasting maize, tree be flabby, pudgy, tubby. See also
on fire, thunder, gunfire, or people talk- ɡerúsúmòn.
ing angrily). See also ɗɛɗɛanón. ri (rié-) n. goat(s).
rɛɗɛ́s (rɛɗɛ́sí-) v. to squash, squish (e.g. ríbiribánón (ríbiribánónì-) 1 v. to be
a louse or tick). See also ɓirés. crooked, jagged. 2 v. to be cross-eyed,
rɛ́ɛ́s (rɛ́ɛ́sì-) v. to coerce, extort, force, strabismic.
pressure. See also tɔrɛɛs. riɓiríɓón (riɓiríɓónì-) v. to glimmer,
rɛɛtɛ́s (rɛɛtɛ́sí-) v. to coerce, extort, shimmer (like a mirage).
force, pressure. rídziridzánón (rídziridzánónì-) v. to be
ragged, tattered.
rɛfɛ́kɛ́ɲɔ̀n (rɛfɛ́kɛ́ɲɔ̀nì-) v. to flump
down, plop down (often indecently ex- rɨɗɛ́s (rɨɗɛ́sí-) 1 v. to pinch, squeeze,
posing oneself). squish, wedge. 2 v. to clamp, clinch
(e.g. in teeth).
réɡiréɡòn (réɡiréɡònì-) v. to talk all at
once (of big crowds). riɗiesíƙwàz (riɗiesí-ƙwàzà-) pl. riɗie-
síƙwazíka . n. cloth tied around the
reídòn (reídònì-) v. to be egocentric,
waist (either to bind the stomach when
hungry or to act as a baby’s diaper).
rɛ́kɛ́s (rɛ́kɛ́sì-) v. to scrape off (e.g. hair riɗímétòn (riɗímétònì-) v. to clamp
from a skin). See also tʉkʉrɛs. shut, constrict, contract, narrow.
rɛƙɛ́ɲɛ́mɔ̀n (rɛƙɛ́ɲɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be scraw- riébàr (rié-bàrɔ̀) pl. riébarɨtín. n. flock
ny, stunted. of goats.
reŋíónuƙota (reŋíónuƙotí-) v. to have riéím (rié-ímà-) pl. riéwíka . n. goat kid.
seizures, seize frequently.
rieŋwa (rie-ŋwaá-) n. doe, nanny: fe-
rèŋòn (rèŋònì-) v. to faint, go uncon- male goat.
scious, pass out, swoon. riéófúr (rié-ófúrí-) pl. riéófúríka .
rɛ̀rrr (rɛ̀rrr) ideo. baa! (bleating sound n. goat-leather bag.
of goats and sheep). ríínós (ríínósí-) 1 v. to go or run after
rɛ̀s (rɛ̀sɛ̀) ideo. phoot! (sound made each other (as in children’s play). 2
when a spear pierces an animal’s body v. to have an affair, pursue each other
and comes out the other side). See also sexually.
pʉ̀ʉ̀t ᶶ. ríʝa (ríʝá-) pl. ríʝíka . n. bush, forest,
rɛ̀s (rɛ̀sɛ̀) ideo. rattily, tattily. scrub, woods.

ríʝáàka rɔ́ɛ́s

ríʝáàka (ríʝá-àkà-) pl. ríʝáakɨtín. n. en- ritídòn (ritídònì-) v. to be delicious,

trance to thick bush or forest. scrumptious.
ríʝíkaaʝíka (ríʝíka-aʝíká-) n. bush coun- rítsɛ́s (rítsɛ́sì-) v. to catch (up with),
try, scrubland, woodland. Lit. ‘within overtake.
the forests’. rítsírɨtsánón (rítsírɨtsánónì-) v. to be
ríʝíkààm (ríʝíkà-àmà-) pl. ríʝíkaika . ceaseless, constant, never-ending (e.g.
n. bandit or vagabond in the bush. one’s supply of grain at home on a
ríʝíkànànès (ríʝíkànànèsì-) n. vaga- good year).
bondage, vagrancy (in the bush). See rìtⁱ (rìtì) ideo. kerplunk! (sound of
also xikwa . falling heavily).
rikíríka (rikíríkì-) pl. rikíríkìka . 1 rìtⁱ (rìtì) ideo. deliciously.
n. granite. 2 n. rocky outcrop. rò (rò) adv. actually, exactly, indeed.
rìkwa (rìkò-) pl. ríkwítín. n. horizontal rɔam (rɔamá-) 1 n. beads strung on a
supporting pole. string. 2 n. kabob, shish kebab, skew-
rìƙòŋ (rìƙòŋò-) pl. ríƙóŋìka . n. big wide- ered meat. Lit. ‘skewerable’.
mouth gourd used for brewing beer róbiróbòn (róbiróbònì-) v. to absorb
and storing water. heat (e.g. from the sun).
rɨmɛ́s (rɨmɛ́sí-) v. to appeal to, find rɔ́bɔ̀ɗɔ̀mɔ̀n (rɔ́bɔ̀ɗɔ̀mɔ̀nì-) v. to be
refuge in, shelter, take shelter in. crusted over, crusty, encrusted (e.g.
rɨmɛ́sá dìdìù v. to take shelter from rain. eyes or ears).
rìmòn (rìmònì-) v. to melt away, shrink ròɓa (ròɓà-) n. folk, people.
back (out of sight). ròɓà (ròɓà) interj. folks! people! (a term
ripa (ripá-) pl. ripitín. 1 n. hole, hollow. for addressing a group).
2 n. grave, tomb. rɔɓa (rɔɓá-) pl. rɔɓɨtín. n. animal collar,
ririanétòn (ririanétònì-) v. to become leash. Not to be confused with ròɓa .
blazing hot, sweltering. roɓa ni ɡúrítínía dayaáka n. humanitar-
ririanón (ririanónì-) v. to be blazing hot, ians, philanthropists. Lit. ‘people with
sweltering. good hearts’.
rirís (rirísá-) pl. rirísíka . n. tree used for roɓazeika (roɓa-zeiká-) n. adults, big
building and fencing. people, leaders.
rìrrr (rìrrr) ideo. hsss! (sound of a roɓazeikánánès (roɓazeikánánèsì-) 1
flame). n. adulthood (of many). 2 n. leader-
risés (risésí-) v. to affront, insult, offend. ship (of many).
rités (ritésí-) v. to move, push (e.g. flour rɔ̀ɓɔ (rɔ̀ɓɔ̀) ideo. gristlely, rubberily.
into a sack, soil into a hole). rɔɓɔ́dɔ̀n (rɔɓɔ́dɔ̀nì-) v. to be cartilagi-
ritésúƙota (ritésúƙotí-) v. to move or nous, gristly, rubbery (when chewed).
push away. rɔɗɛ́s (rɔɗɛ́sí-) v. to perforate or pierce
ritetés (ritetésí-) v. to move or pull out making a popping sound.
(e.g. the small stick holding up a flat rɔ́ɛ́s (rɔ́ɛ́sì-) 1 v. to string, thread (e.g.
stone in a bird-trap). beads on a necklace, or meat on a

Rɔ́ɡɛ̀hò rʉ́bɛ̀s

string of bark for carrying). 2 v. to rɔɲɛ́sá así (rɔɲɛ́sá así) v. to ingratiate,

skewer, spit. sidle up to, try to get close to.
Rɔ́ɡɛ̀hò (Rɔ́ɡɛ̀-hòò-) n. name of a hill or róŋ (róŋó-) n. something wrong in any
mountain. Lit. ‘reedbuck-hut’. way: bad, foolish, incorrect.
rɔ́ɡɛŋwa (rɔ́ɡɛ-ŋwaá-) n. female moun- Ròŋòta (Ròŋòtì-) n. name of a moun-
tain reedbuck. Redunca fulvorufula. tain in Turkanaland, Kenya, that the Ik
used to frequent in search of food. Also
ròɡìròɡa (ròɡìròɡì-) pl. róɡìròɡìka .
called Sòŋòta .
n. tortoise shell (made into a musical
rattle). rɔ́ɔ́s (rɔ́ɔ́sì-) 1 v. to be strung, threaded.
2 v. to be skewered.
roiróón (roiróónì-) v. to be loose, un-
affixed, unfastened (e.g. beads on a ròr (ròrì-) n. tree whose seeds are boiled
string, hoe on a handle). See also and eaten. Acacia sp. OR Boscia salici-
dolódòn. folia.
rɔ̀ʝɔ (rɔ̀ʝɔ̀) 1 ideo. squashily, squelchily, rɔrɛ́s (rɔrɛ́sí-) v. to sieve, sift, sort (e.g.
squishily. 2 ideo. arthritically. grains or rice to find and remove small
stones). See also ɨsalɛs.
rɔʝɔ́dɔ̀n (rɔʝɔ́dɔ̀nì-) 1 v. to be squashy,
róróìɔ̀ka (róróì-ɔ̀kà-) n. upper hipbone,
squelchy, squishy (like boiled pumpkin
or mud). 2 v. to be arthritic. See also
ɓirídòn. rɔ́rɔ́tɔ̀n (rɔ́rɔ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to stoop over (as
when climbing a steep slope).
rɔ́ƙɛ́s (rɔ́ƙɛ́sì-) v. to install, mount, set
up (a beehive). róróya (róróì-) pl. róróìka . n. waist,
rɔ́ƙɔ́ (rɔ́ƙɔ́ɔ̀-) pl. rɔ́ƙɔ́ìka . n. tamarind
tree whose sour fruits are eaten raw rɔtam (rɔtamá-) n. object or person un-
and whose seeds (ɗɛ̂ɡa ) are fried, dried, der surveillance (like a camp of ene-
and ground into flour; its leaves are mies or an animal trap that has been
crushed, infused, and sprayed over gar- set). Lit. ‘surveilable’.
dens as a pesticide. Tamarindus indica. rɔtɛ́ám (rɔtɛ́-ámà-) pl. rɔtéíka . n. scout,
sleuth, spy.
Rɔ́ƙɔ́dɛ̀ (Rɔ́ƙɔ́-dɛ̀à-) n. a sacred place
with a tamarind tree at the foot of rɔ́tɛ́s (rɔ́tɛ́sì-) v. to sleuth on, spy on,
the escarpment where religious cere- surveil.
monies used to be held. Lit. ‘tamarind- rɔwa (rɔwá-) pl. rówíkwa . n. field, flat-
foot’. land, flat meadow.
rɔ́ƙɔ́rɔƙánón (rɔ́ƙɔ́rɔƙánónì-) 1 v. to rɔwáám (rɔwá-ámà-) n. Turkana person.
be constricted, narrow, pressed. 2 Lit. ‘flatlander’.
v. to be gruff, hoarse, husky. See also rɔ̂ɡa (rɔ́ɡɛ̀-) n. mountain reedbuck. Re-
ƙoƙórómòn. dunca fulvorufula.
rɔ́mɔ́n (rɔ́mɔ́nì-) v. to be dense, impene- rúbès (rúbèsì-) v. to aggravate, exacer-
trable, thick (like an unburned thicket). bate, worsen.
rɔɲɛ́s (rɔɲɛ́sí-) v. to compress, force to- rʉ́bɛ̀s (rʉ́bɛ̀sì-) v. to hang by tucking,
gether (two non-fitting parts). tuck up.

rʉ́bɛsʉƙɔta rùs

rʉ́bɛsʉƙɔta (rʉ́bɛsʉƙɔtí-) v. to hang up rʉʝɛtɛ́sá así v. to pull oneself back, re-

by tucking, tuck up. tract oneself (like a snake into a hole).
rʉ́bɛ̀tɔ̀n (rʉ́bɛ̀tɔ̀nì-) v. to germinate, rʉʝɛ́tɔ́n (rʉʝɛ́tɔ́nì-) v. to duck, get down
sprout up. See also ɓúrukúkón and (e.g. to hide from danger).
xúbètòn. rʉ̀ʝɔ̀n (rʉ̀ʝɔ̀nì-) v. to slouch, slump.
rʉ́bɔ̀n (rʉ́bɔ̀nì-) v. to germinate, sprout. rʉʝʉrʉ́ʝánón (rʉʝʉrʉ́ʝánónì-) v. to be
See also ɓúrukúkón and xúbòn. creased, wrinkled. See also turúʝón and
ruɓétón (ruɓétónì-) v. to collapse, fall, zamʉʝánón.
tumble (of buildings, fences, trees). rʉka (rʉkʉ́-) pl. rʉkɨtín. n. hump on an-
rúɓón (rúɓónì-) 1 v. to grunt in pain. 2 imal’s back (e.g. cow or camel).
v. to hoot (of large owls). rukûdza (rukúdzò-) pl. rukúdzìka .
ruɓonuƙot (ruɓonuƙotí-) v. to collapse, n. tree species whose black seeds
fall, tumble (of buildings, fences, trees). are boiled and added to porridge as a
medicine for chest infections, whose
ruɓutetés (ruɓutetésí-) v. to bring down,
bark is decocted and drunk to treat
cut down, fell.
meningitis, whose branching stems are
rúdzès (rúdzèsì-) v. to carry many of used to make mingling sticks, and
(e.g. things stuffed in pockets). whose wicked hooked thorns deliver
ruɗés (ruɗésí-) v. to perforate, punch a painful, poisonous scratches to the
hole in, puncture (e.g. something hard skin. Zanthoxylum chalybeum.
like a gourd or jerrycan). rukurúkón (rukurúkónì-) v. to be edgy,
rués (ruesí-) v. to deracinate, extirpate, jittery, jumpy, nervous.
pull up, uproot. See also ɗués. rúmánitésúƙota (rúmánitésúƙotí-) 1
rʉ́ɛ́s (rʉ́ɛ́sì-) v. to box in, corner, trap. v. to make fall, trip. 2 v. to fail, make
Rúfa (Rúfaa-) n. personal name of an fail.
elder from Kamion. rúmánòn (rúmánònì-) 1 v. to fall, stum-
a a
rúɡèts (rúɡètsì-) pl. rúɡètsìk . n. jut, ble, trip. 2 v. to have an accident or
protrusion, protuberance (e.g. in bone mishap. 3 v. to fail, flunk, lose.
or rock). rúmánònà kàràtsʉ̀ v. to be overthrown,
removed from office. Lit. ‘to fall from
rʉ́ɡʉ̀ɗʉ̀mɔ̀n (rʉ́ɡʉ̀ɗʉ̀mɔ̀nì-) v. to be
the chair’.
hunched or stooped over (like a person
or tree). See also mʉƙʉ́rʉ́mɔ̀n. rumeta (rumetí-) n. downfall, failure,
rúɡuruɡánón (rúɡuruɡánónì-) v. to be
ragged, rough, rugged. rumétón (rumétónì-) v. to retire, retreat
(due to old age).
rʉʝanón (rʉʝanónì-) v. to be creased,
crinkled, wrinkled (like a woman’s rumurúm (rumurúmá-) pl. rumurú-
skin after birth). See also turúʝón and mìka . n. sharp grass stub left after a
zamʉʝánón. fire.
rʉʝɛ́s (rʉʝɛ́sí-) v. to pull back, resile, re- rùròn (rùrònì-) v. to bruise, contuse.
tract. See also dolés. rùs (rùsù) ideo. tenderly.

rusúdòn ruutetés

rusúdòn (rusúdònì-) v. to be tender (like rʉtsɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (rʉtsɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to cram,

young weeds or well-cooked meat). jam, ram, stuff.
See also xɛɓɛ́dɔ̀n. rùtu (rùtù) ideo. splitch! (sound of goug-
rùta (rùtà-) n. pungently sweet fer- ing or stabbing).
mented porridge.
rutúdùm (rutúdùmà-) n. speckled pi-
rʉ́tɛ́s (rʉ́tɛ́sì-) v. to blow one’s nose, ex-
geon. Columba guinea.
rutésúƙota (rutésúƙotí-) v. to knife, rutukuɲ (rutukuɲu) ideo. dying as
thrust a knife into. many, in large numbers.
ruteta (rutetí-) n. hillside, mountainside. ruutésuƙota (ruutésuƙotí-) v. to pull or
ruteto n. along the side of a slope. tear out, uproot.
rʉtsɛ́s (rʉtsɛ́sí-) v. to cram, jam, ram, ruutetés (ruutetésí-) v. to pull out, tear
stuff. See also ɨsɨkɛs. out, uproot. See also ɗuetés.

sa sàsàr

sa (saí-) pro. some more, some other. sáɡwès (sáɡwèsì-) 1 v. to ensnare, en-
Sààŋìròàw (Sààŋìrò-àwà-) n. name of a tangle, snare, trap with a net. 2 v. to
hill or mountain. Lit. ‘Saŋiro’s place’. catch, corral, round up (as with a net).
See also kotsítésuƙota .
sáásò sìn n. yesterday.
sáítòn (sáítònì-) v. to encroach, infil-
sàbà (sàbàà-) pl. sábàìka . n. river. Not trate, invade (e.g. of enemies or a sick-
to be confused with sábà. ness).
sábà (sábàì-) pl. sábàìka . n. intra- sakalʉ́ka (sakalʉ́ká-) n. male kodowa :
abdominal fat, organ fat, visceral fat. unidentified antelope species.
Not to be confused with sàbà.
sakám (sakámá-) pl. sakámíka . n. liver.
Sabaa Damán n. name of a river. Lit.
sakánámòn (sakánámònì-) v. to
‘River Daman’.
be bowl-shaped, concave. See also
sàbààƙwa (sàbà-àƙɔ̀-) n. riverbed, river tsuƙúlúmòn.
bottom. sakátán (sakátánì-) n. thick, dry, un-
sàbàɡwàs (sàbà-ɡwàsà-) pl. sabaɡwa- burned grass (which when it catches
síka . n. black hammerstone obtained fire causes a hot, fast-burning blaze).
from riverbeds. Lit. ‘river-stone’. sakátánòn (sakátánònì-) v. to be dry,
sábʉ̀rʉ̀rɔ̀n (sábʉ̀rʉ̀rɔ̀nì-) v. to stick out thick, and unburned (of grass).
(e.g. the branches of a leafless tree, hair sakɛɨn n. last year, a year ago.
on cold skin, wet fur). Saloloŋ (Saloloŋó-) n. name of a river.
sáɓés (sáɓésì-) v. to kill, murder, slay sáɲamáta (sáɲamátí-) n. crumbly sedi-
(many). Compare with cɛɛ́s. mentary rock.
sáɓésìàm (sáɓésì-àmà-) pl. sáɓésiika . Saŋaɲ (Saŋaɲí-) n. a personal name.
n. killer, murderer, slayer (of more
saŋáŋá (<saŋáŋóòn) v.
than one).
saŋáŋóòn (saŋaŋóónì-/saŋaŋá-) v. to be
sáɓítetés (sáɓítetésí-) v. to cause to kill scaly, scurfy (e.g. the skin of a reptile
(more than one). or plucked bird).
sáɓúmós (sáɓúmósí-) v. to kill each Saŋar (Saŋarí-) n. name of a river
other. with an associated sacred place and its
sáɡoanón (sáɡoanónì-) v. to be entan- swarm of bees .
gled, entrapped, snared, tangled. See sarɨsar (sarɨsarí-) pl. sarísárìka .
also kòtsòn. n. bridge of nose, nasal bridge.
sáɡòsìm (sáɡò-sìmà-) pl. sáɡosimitín. sarísárìka (sarísárìkà-) n. grill of a vehi-
n. net trap, snare. cle.
sâɡwa (sáɡò-) n. net-trapping, snaring, sárón (sárónì-) 1 v. to still be. 2 v. to be
trapping with snares. not yet, not yet be.
sáɡwàràmòn (sáɡwàràmònì-) v. to be sàsàr (sàsàrà-) n. beeswax that is
bare, shadeless. chewed and spit out.

sáta Sɛkɛɗíáwa

sáta (sátá-) pl. sátíkwa . n. shallow pool sêda (sédà-) pl. sédìka . n. garden.
on the surface of a rock. Compare with seekwa (seekó-) n. bouillon, broth, soup.
sɛ́ɛ́s (sɛ́ɛ́sì-) v. to make a funeral sacri-
sátíkócue (sátíkó-cué-) n. water from a
fice of a goat to prevent the deceased’s
pool on the surface of a rock.
ghost from disturbing the relatives (by
saúkúmòn (saúkúmònì-) v. to be fuzzy, stunting their growth and the yield of
hairy, woolly. their crops). See also ipúɲéés.
sawata (sawatɔ́-) pl. sáwátìka . n. shoul- sèɡa (sèɡà-) pl. séɡitín. n. um-
der. brella thorn: long-thorned tree species
sawatɔ́ɔ́ka (sawatɔ́-ɔ́kà-) pl. sáwátɨkɔɔ- whose bark fiber is used in building
kɨtín. n. shoulder bone, scapula. and whose seed-pods are eaten by
sawátsámòn (sawátsámònì-) v. to be goats. Acacia tortilis.
gangly, lanky, spindly (like tall grass or Sèɡààwa (Sèɡà-àwà-) n. name of a place
tall person). and a deserted village. Lit. ‘umbrella
sayó ɲásáàtìkàɛ n. sometimes (in terms thorn place’.
of hours). Seɡaika (Seɡa-icé-) n. traditional men’s
sè (sèà-) n. blood. age-group with the Umbrella Thorn
sèààm (sèà-àmà-) pl. seaika . n. blood- tree as its totem (#3 in the historical
thirsty person, killer, murderer. Lit. line). Lit. ‘Umbrella Thorn Folk’.
‘blood-person’. seɡer (seɡerí-) pl. séɡèrìka . n. soft-
seacɛmɛ́r (sea-cɛmɛrí-) n. blood herb: wood tree whose roots and bark are
vine species whose roots are crushed, pounded, soaked, and drunk for stom-
soaked in water, and a) drunk by ach ailments and whose bark, when re-
a woman having just given birth to moved from the wood, is used by chil-
stop her bleeding or b) sprinkled on dren as a flue, air-gun (for shooting
weapons by a woman who having just figs), or air-pump. Steganotaenia arali-
given birth so her bleeding does not acea.
jeopardize the hunt’s success. Seɡeríkwár (Seɡerí-kwárà-) n. name of
seamucé (sea-mucéè-) pl. seamucéìka . a mountain. Lit. ‘seɡer-mountain’.
n. blood vessel, vein. Lit. ‘blood-path’. Séíkwàr (Séí-kwàrà-) n. name of a
seáto n. empty-handed, unrewarded. mountain. Lit. ‘quartzite-mountain’.
séɓés (séɓésì-) 1 v. to brush, sweep. 2 seínení (seíneníì-) n. tree species whose
v. to sand. 3 v. to grade, level (roads). branches are used for fencing. Stere-
séɓésìàm (séɓésì-àmà-) pl. séɓésiika . 1 ospermum kuntianum.
n. sweeper. 2 n. road grader. Séítíníkokór (Séítíní-kokóró-) n. name
séɓésuƙota (séɓésuƙotí-) v. to brush or of a hill or mountain. Lit. ‘quartzite-
sweep away/off. ridge’.
séɓetés (séɓetésí-) v. to sweep up. Sɛkɛɗíáwa (Sɛkɛɗí-áwà-) n. name of a
seɓuránón (seɓuránónì-) v. to be hill or mountain and associated river.
scarred up. Lit. ‘Sɛkɛɗ’s place’.

sɛkɛmán sikwés

sɛkɛmán (sɛkɛmání-) n. grain that falls sɛsɛanónìàm (sɛsɛanónì-àmà-) pl. sɛsɛa-

to the ground through the drying plat- nóniika . n. gossiper, whisperer.
form. sésèn (sésènì-) n. tree species from
sɛkɛ́s (sɛkɛ́sí-) v. to scratch or scrub off. which bowls and stools are carved. Hy-
sɛkɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (sɛkɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to scratch or menodictyon floribundum.
scrub off. Sɛʉsɛ́wa (Sɛʉsɛ́ʉ̀-) n. nickname of a colo-
Sɛkɛta (Sɛkɛtɛ́-) n. name of a river. nial British road engineer that worked
near Ikland.
sɛkɔnʉƙɔta (sɛkɔnʉƙɔtí-) v. to fade (of
sɛ̀wa (sɛ̀wà-) pl. sɛ́wítín. n. cane, club,
color). See also kitsonuƙota .
sekweres (sekweresí-) v. to scurry up,
séya (séí-) pl. séítín. n. quartzite.
skitter up.
sîba (síbɔ̀-) n. barm, leaven, yeast.
seƙelánón (seƙelánónì-) v. to be dessi-
sɨbánón (sɨbánónì-) v. to be recently
cated, dried out (like old wood).
impregnated, pregnant (still in the first
sɛ̀lɛ̀tɛ (sɛ̀lɛ̀tɛ̀) ideo. schlip! (sound of slip- term when it cannot be seen).
ping). See also ʝʉ́rʉ́t ᶶ.
síbiónuƙota (síbiónuƙotí-) v. to stand
sɛlɛ́tɛ́mɔ̀n (sɛlɛ́tɛ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be slippy, around as a group.
slithery (e.g. a cat, snake, or spear in síbɨtɛ́sʉ́ƙɔta (síbɨtɛ́sʉ́ƙɔtí-) v. to make
the air). stand around.
sɛlɛ́tɛ́tɔ̀n (sɛlɛ́tɛ́tɔ̀nì-) v. to slide or slip síbɔ̀n (síbɔ̀nì-) v. to stand around.
out (like paper from a printer).
sîda (sídà-) n. bee larva.
sémédedánón (sémédedánónì-) v. to be
sídàhò (sídà-hòò-) pl. sídahoíka . n. bee
inclined, sloped.
larva chamber.
semélémòn (semélémònì-) v. to be ellip- sídilé (sídiléè-) n. terrapin, turtle.
tical, oval (e.g. cucumber, egg, or river Pelomedusa subrufa.
sídɔ̀rɔ̀mɔ̀n (sídɔ̀rɔ̀mɔ̀nì-) v. to be slender,
sɛ́mìs (sɛ́mìsì-) n. Anglican, Protestant. slim (e.g. person or tree).
sɛ́rɛ́ƙɛƙánón (sɛ́rɛ́ƙɛƙánónì-) v. to be síɛ́s (síɛ́sì-) v. to smear (with funerary
runty, shrimpy, stunted. goat dung soon after a death).
sɛrɛpɛs (sɛrɛpɛsí-) v. to slip in, slip sìɡìrìɡìr (sìɡìrìɡìrì-) pl. síɡìrìɡìrìka .
through (e.g. when hiding a stick in the n. mane, ridge of hair.
grass). Siitán (Siitánì-) n. devil, Lucifer, Satan.
sɛrɛ́pɛ́sʉƙɔta (sɛrɛ́pɛ́sʉƙɔtí-) v. to slip síkɔ́ɔ́rɛ́s (síkɔ́ɔ́rɛ́sí-) v. to winnow
into/through (e.g. pushing through a by pouring from a container to the
fence). ground.
sèrèya (sèrèì-) pl. seréíka . n. gourd basin sikusába (siku-sábàà-) n. tiger beetle
made from a large gourd cut in half. larva . Cicindelinae.
serínà (serínàà-) n. sorghum variety sikwárámòn (sikwárámònì-) v. to be
with short stalks and purplish seeds. wimpy, wussy. See also kalɛ́ɛ́tsɛránón.
sɛsɛanón (sɛsɛanónì-) v. to whisper. sikwés (sikwésí-) v. to braid, plait.

sikwetés síɔ̀ɔ̀ta

sikwetés (sikwetésí-) 1 v. to braid or be sinewy, wiry (e.g. when malnour-

plait up. 2 v. to afflict, bring calamity ished).
upon. siméékwa (simé-ékù-) pl. simítíníek-
siƙa (siƙá-) n. dew. witín. n. center of a fiber-string snare
Siƙáke n. name of a place. Lit. ‘in the (once it is set). Lit. ‘cord-eye’.
dew’. símíɗiɗí (símíɗiɗíì-) n. mote, particle,
Sìƙètìà (Sìƙètìàà-) n. Siƙetia (I & II): two speck.
of the Ik’s twelve clans. sɨmɨɗímíɗɛ́s (sɨmɨɗímíɗɛ́sí-) v. to rub
Sìƙètìààm (Sìƙètìà-àmà) pl. Siƙetiaika . between fingers (e.g. dust, flour, or
n. Siƙetia clan member. sand).
sɨƙɨsíƙánétòn (sɨƙɨsíƙánétònì-) v. to be- sɨmɨránón (sɨmɨránónì-) v. to be cor-
come grainy, textured (like the ráɡan roded, rusty.
tuber or one’s fingerprints). sɨmírɔ́n (sɨmírɔ́nì-) v. to corrode, rust.
síƙísɨƙánón (síƙísɨƙánónì-) v. to be See also iróróòn.
grainy, textured (like the ráɡan tuber simísímàta (simísímàtì-) n. vine that
or one’s fingerprints). grows as a weed, is tough to cut with
síƙón (síƙónì-) 1 v. to sneeze, sternutate. hoe, and which climbs all over crops,
2 v. to snort, whistle (e.g. the alarm call dragging them down. Neotonia wightii.
of antelopes). sìn (=sìnà) 1 dem. that (yesterday). 2
sìƙwa (sìƙwà-) 1 n. sneeze, sternutation. rel. that/which (yesterday).
2 n. snort, whistle (e.g. the alarm call sìn (=sìnì) 1 dem. those (yesterday, plu-
of antelopes). ral). 2 rel. that/which (yesterday, plu-
sɨlaɓánón (sɨlaɓánónì-) v. to be diluted, ral).
thinned out. sìnà (sìnà) subordconn. when … (yester-
sɨláxìŋ (sɨláxìŋì-) n. cutting or slashing day). The main verb follows this word
of grass. takes the dummy pronoun.
sílím (sílímù-) n. HIV-AIDS. See also sínɛ́s (sínɛ́sì-) v. to cover (a corpse with
lóɓúlukúɲ. leaves and branches).
sɨlɔ́ʝɔ́mɔ̀n (sɨlɔ́ʝɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be bare, sɨŋíl (sɨŋílá-) n. small black ant species
denuded, naked, unadorned. See also that causes pain if it gets in an eye.
tuɗúsúmòn. Also called ɓáritson.
sílɔlɔ́ʝa (sílɔlɔ́ʝá-) n. slender mongoose. siŋírón (siŋírónì-) v. to brood, fume,
Herpestes sanguineus. sulk.
Silóya (Silóì-) n. a personal name. sìŋòn (sìŋònì-) v. to be depressed,
sim (simá-) pl. simitín. n. cord, string, gloomy, sad.
twisted fiber. Síɔ̀ɔ̀ta (Síɔ̀ɔ̀tɔ̀-) n. name of a river. Lit.
simááƙáta (simá-áƙátí-) pl. simááƙátíka . ‘large-leaf albizia’.
n. knot. Lit. ‘cord-nostril’. síɔ̀ɔ̀ta (síɔ̀ɔ̀tɔ̀-) pl. síɔɔtíka . n. large-
simánón (simánónì-) 1 v. to be fibrous, leafed albizia: tree species from whose
stringy (like sisal fiber). 2 v. to wood hoe handles, stools, spoons, and

sír sómomóʝón

mingling sticks are carved. Albizia sɔɓɔ́lɔ́mɔ̀n (sɔɓɔ́lɔ́mɔ̀nì-) v. to be over-

grandibracteata. grown, unkempt (e.g. a garden or
sír (sírì-) n. dropsy, edema. home).
sɔ́ɡɛ̀kàka (sɔ́ɡɛ̀-kàkà-) n. reed whose
sír (sírá-) n. early morning announce-
fruits are cooked as a vegetable. Celosia
ment or message of important informa-
tion delivered by an elder to the whole
village. Sɔ́ɡɛsabá (Sɔ́ɡɛ-sabáà-) n. name of a
river near Ròŋòta . Lit. ‘reed-river’.
síráàm (sírá-àmà-) pl. síráika . n. an- Also called Loteteleíta .
nouncer, herald (often a