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Vocabulary Vocabulary as one of the language aspects which should be learn.
Learning vocabulary is important because we are able to speak, write, and listen nicely we have to know vocabulary first. A person said to ‘know ‘ a word if they can recognize its meaning when they see it. It means that in learning vocabulary we have to know the meaning of it and also understand and can use it in sentence context. 2.1.1 Definition of Vocabulary According to Red John (2000: 16) vocabulary is knowledge involves knowing the meanings of words and therefore the purpose of a vocabulary test in to find out whether the learners can match each word with a synonym, a dictionary – tape definition, or an equivalent word in their own language. Vocabulary can be defined as a list words, usually in alphabetical order and with explanations of their meanings, less complete than a dictionary (Paul P 1978: 1229). Meanwhile, a word has three aspects; their form, their meaning, and their distribution. Therefore, in language teaching, a teacher must consider the three aspects. A teacher must consider the meaning of the language as the student will not automatically understand the meaning of the language without being taught though they have mastered the structure of the language. The meaning also can be grasped through the context, form, and association.
Oxford Lerner Pocket Dictionary (1991: 461) explained the definition of vocabulary as follows: 1. 2. 3. Total number of words in language Words known a person List of words with their learning According to Hornby (in Dwi Cahyowati, 2008: 13) stated that vocabulary meant (rage of) word known to or used by a person in trade, profession, etc. total number of words, which (with rules for containing them) make up language. He also said that vocabulary is a list of words used in a book, etc. 2.1.2 Types of Vocabulary According to Fachrurazy (1993: 14) states that vocabulary devided into two types, they are: 1. Function words which consist of articles, preposition, conjunction, and pronoun. The characteristic of function word are fixed in form and limited in number. 2. Content words which consist of noun, verb, adjective and adverb. The content word can be in the form of simple words, compound words, idiom / proverb and special expression. The characteristic of content words are that the numbers are unlimited and the forms are changeable. To clarify further the idea of the vocabulary of a second language, Lado (194: 17) stated that there are three distinguished level for the students.
Lado (in Susanti. Finocchiaro (1974: 73) goes on saying that “at the beginning level are should concentrate on the function of words and the more frequently used vocabulary item which are need to give practice in the basic structure and sound of language. We talk about importance of choosing . 3. Long and Richard (1987: 307) recommended that “student who want to read anything of substance in English those need to acquire as large a vocabulary as possible.3 The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary is the most important in language learning especially in learning English as foreign language (EFL). Vocabulary to operate the pattern and illustrate the pronunciation of the language. especially for speaking.1. Therefore teaching activities should be emphasized on the students’ vocabulary in order to get successful result.” Students who want to study and read anything in English should mastery English vocabulary as much as possible. 2006: 12) state that “All estimate that in vocabulary is needed for production foreign language. 2. then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh. Artistic expression deals in part with selective the used basic communication is unknown. An ability to manipulate grammatical does not have any potential for expressing meaning unless words are used. Vocabulary for communication in areas of wide currency.11 1. Esthete and technical vocabularies must not be confused with the first two stages have been mastered. 2. Harmer (1991: 153) started that: “If language structure make up the skeleton of language.
In learning vocabulary automatically we have to know the meaning of words itself and can use it in sentences. The mastery of vocabulary of language will be added. .1. his next task into master its vocabulary that he needs. because the student need to know how much vocabulary to communicate with their friends or other persons. Wilkins (1972: 130) states that vocabulary learning is learning to discriminate progressing the meaning of words in the target language from the meanings of their nearest ‘equivalent’ in the mother tongue. It is also learning to make the most appropriate lexical choices for particular linguistic and situational context. it is even possible that were vocabulary is used correctly it can conceal out in accuracy. Nobody ever learns all the words in any language.4 Vocabulary Mastery Vocabulary mastery is receiving process of foreign words that happened intentionally or unintentionally. We know and use the words that suit our particular purposes and we continue to learn new words as long as we live. Collier. In real life however. because of our communication in everyday.12 your words carefully unless of course we are in language classroom. From explanation above. The structural accuracy seem to dominate focus. we conclude that vocabulary is more important than structure.Macmillan (1991: 189) stated that once a student has mastered the fundamental grammatical patterns of a language. So vocabulary is an important thing to learning English language where the mastery of vocabulary will support the successfulness of the student English learning. 2.
It is clear enough that everybody who learns a language as a foreign language is hoped to know and master the vocabulary to improve the language skills. we must master the language they belong to especially to know enough vocabulary of those language. one cannot communicate to effectively or express idea. 2. By using many instrument of teaching vocabulary. Vocabulary becomes a major problem in learning English. In teaching vocabulary. Without vocabulary. . It means that she integrates vocabulary with reading. If we want to communicate with others in certain language. Yang Zhihong on Leny (2006: 10) say that words are the basic unit of language from supports it. the student are interest to understand their language program that focused in reading and communication activities. It is caused by the difference of student abilities. This integration will lead to integrative lesson plan. Teaching Vocabulary The basic of teaching vocabulary is using new words and new meaning. generally the teachers teach new words taken from reading text.2 Teaching and Learning Vocabulary a. teachers of elementary school emphasizes on this matter earlier. He also states that having a limited vocabulary is also a barrier.13 The students’ mastery between one student and another is not the same. So the students’ mastery is capabilities of students to receive new information from the subject of study.
Lado (1964: 121) stated that there are three steps in teaching vocabulary. Syllabus will be similar to the list form different set of beginner.14 Harmer (1991: 154) stated that part problem in teaching vocabulary lies in the fact that is there is a consensus about what grammatical structures should be thought at what levels the same is hardly true of vocabulary. but there is no guarantee that the list of the beginners. The teacher can use some aids or tools to give the definition to the students. They also need to use the vocabulary with appropriate for the condition. the teacher should pronounce it again. It will help the students remember the words longer and identity it more really when they pronounce it. The teacher should give opportunity to the students to pronounce the words in reading or listening. The teacher should let the students to hear the pronunciation of the words several times. From explanation above clear that student need to select vocabulary that they learn. of course that syllabus include word list. The third step is grasping the meaning. such as realia. . The second step is pronouncing the words. pictures. because repetition is important for the student to know the correct pronunciation. it will be useless for the student in learning target language. The first step is hearing the words. and etc. When they mispronounce the word. The teacher should not use the direct translation to give meaning of the words to students. It is because the teacher and the students use the first language all the time. It is true.
Present the word clearly written in a paper or write it on the blackboard. Pronounce the world for the child. let the students pronounce it and give its meaning. learners must be master in vocabulary. According to Emerald (1981: 149) there are some steps in teaching and developing vocabulary to students: 1. 4. 3. 7. Have the students identify the word. Have the students read the sentence aloud. Have the students make a sentence using the word. b. 5. Learning Vocabulary In learning. underlined the word and give its meaning. Have the students look at the sentence and read it aloud Present the word in isolation again. Have the child pronounce the word. 6. 2. To improve students’ vocabulary. c. making sure that he or she looks at the words as it is pronounced. Read the sentence to the students.15 b. a gain making sure that the child looks at the word when it is pronounced. According to Watts (1994) suggest that the average child enters . teacher taught the vocabulary in the classroom. Measurement of vocabulary knowledge is difficult and it is only approximately. Explain the meaning of the word and present the word in written sentence context : a.
Discriminating between the different meanings of words.16 elementary school with a recognition vocabulary of 2. Berry estimates that for spoken English the average person speaking on a telephone makes use of a vocabulary of only some 2.000 words for non-academic adult to over 150. they experience low development in expanding the vocabularies.000 words. Recognizing feature of dictionary layout.000 for a professional scientist. Meanwhile. it can also be used productively. It gives the information of the meaning of words alphabetically.000 words. 2.000 words. Its usefulness depends on learners being able to access the information they contain both speedily and accurately. that at age 7 this has reached some 7. 2. such as use of alphabetical order. grammar and pronunciation information. There are some key skills in using dictionary effectively: 1. both for generating text and as resources for vocabulary acquisition. so at age 14. College students are estimated to understand some 60. According to Mackey (1965: 173) the vocabulary of adults has been variously estimated at between 10. the child should be able to recognize 14. It can be used as a last resort when guessing from context’s strategies fail.000 words.000 words. But. hard words. So.1 Tool for Developing Vocabulary Dictionary is one of tool for developing vocabulary.000 to 100. etc. . they have limited words or vocabulary that they now or understand of the language. for Indonesian learners who learn English as one of foreign language that is taught in school. definition.2.
Therefore. tasks should be short. in order to check its meaning in the dictionary. The experience and environment at school and how language is taught and practiced play a vital role in language acquisition (http://peni. Inferring the spelling of an unfamiliar word from is only having heard it. 4.ac. varied. and they have opportunity to experience and experiment for themselves. Blehler (1971: 112) states that the physical character of fifth grade students Elementary school are grow and their motor coordination become quite good. antonyms and other information to narrow the choice of best words for the meaning intended. 2.2. Using synonyms. They can do easily many things that were impossible at the earlier level. motivating and interesting and should offer “concrete perceptual support”. As a result.uns. Vale and Feunteun (1998: 2) add that children have many special characteristics in learning.2 Teaching Vocabulary at The Elementary School Student in Elementary School especially in the fifth grade are changed and have big development. Cross-checking (when using the bilingual dictionary) that the translation equivalent that is offered is the best choice for the meaning that is required. craft.staff.17 3. 5. therefore. the manipulation of small objects is easy and enjoyable for most children.id/2008/10/07/teaching-media-invocabulary-mastery-part-1). They learn best when they are involved and their works are valued. arts. Children’s attention span is limited. . and music activities are popular in this grade. They as young learners have specific learning needs.
Definition It is a group of sentences. the student may feel dislike or feel bored because it’s difficult task when the teacher directed repeat it by his or her ability. They consist of definition. To avoid this case. teacher may combine many teaching technique in vocabulary teaching especially for children. and realia. The student enjoys saying the word because they have never heard it before. it just a nice condition for the little time. Definition in target language maybe used effectively if they are expressed in terms they are better known or more easily guessed that the word that is defined. the words fly as kind of insect. picture. 3. They have small body and they can cause the people get colic. 2. which has two wings. However. For instance. . And then. which explain the meaning on the word clearly. dramatization. Pictures Pictures of many kinds have been successfully used to show the meaning of words and utterances. The important role in this case is teacher as a manager of the game. 1. Actions and dramatization can be ambitions and enjoy game for children in learning. Dramatization Many actions can be acted or demonstrated.18 In the learning teacher may give direction to student in order to say each word after the teacher say it.
2. Simulation. It engages students by placing them directly into the conflict of the real situation. It is important in order to the learning process will not out from basic purpose of learning the and still integrated with the English Elementary School Curriculum. By creating learning situations that interest and immerse students we weaken the constraints of the classroom and encourage the development on communicative language use. Realia Real object or models of real object are effective in showing meaning. a role that is the inevitable result of the evolution of the role of the teacher in education.3 Thematic Simulation Method There some classroom techniques which can be implemented by the teacher in teaching. picture.3. The use of simulated activities in education is widely becoming recognized as an important tool in schools. . Simulations put the teacher into a new role. Competence Standard and Basic Competence in English Elementary School Curriculum. dramatization. role-play. 2. and games play similar roles in language teaching. realia. Thematic Simulation is the simulation that will be integrated with themes or sub-themes in the syllabus. Beside they also create interest. It comes alive as students interact with one another.1 Simulation Method Simulation is one activity that can contribute to a successful and highly enjoyable experience. Alen (1983: 24) stated that Realia is better than any pictures when they are possible to be brought in the classroom. definition.19 4.
scribd.melta. (http://www. The national games council was established in 1961 in USA and in 1970. drama and games play similar roles in language teaching. challenging and lively. 1979 : 120) ( http://www. According to Jones (1982: 2) simulation are gaining increasing popularity because they are ‘ideally suited to language practice’.2 Definition and Premises S. The advantage of the technique has been known all over the world by educationist. role-play. Generally. They are seen as ways of bridging the gap between the classroom and the real world (Holden. Jones provides a comprehensive explanation of this phenomenon and has given an example of a simulation activity long enough to last 3 hours.3. Chauhan defined gaming and simulation: “as a gestalt communication mode. It is the evident of the importance of simulation.com/doc/11316445/SimulatedTeaching) The simulation technique has been applied successfully in the last decade in education. a future’s language which combine a game-specific language and appropriate communicant on technologies with the multilogue interaction pattern. These activities also introduce a variety of ways to make the whole language learning process more interesting.html). the International “simulation and games Association” was formed in Germany.S.” (Chauhan. 1983: 39). .org.my/ET/1993/main8.20 Simulation. In his book ‘Simulation in Language Teaching’. 2. simulations have been used as a technique in education for a long time but it has only recently been applied to language teaching.
a simulation has three characteristics: 1.melta. Jones in Teoh Mei Lin (1993. Jones (1982: 5) further declares that the language used in simulation tends to have two dominant characteristics. Although there may be different views expressed. authoritative. the function of the participant. the language is held together by a mutual need arising out of the simulation. which includes social skills and social remarks suited to that role.org. For example. the language structure is cohesive because verbal interaction between the participants revolves around a central issue. First.html/) define simulation as a 'reality of function in a simulated and structured environment'. for the given topic. 2. A structured environment where the participants have all the facts and information provided for them. http://www. Essentially.my/ET/1993/main8. A reality of function which means the participants in a simulation must step inside the role they have accepted and act accordingly. The second dominant characteristic is that the language is functional. Another positive point about simulation that the participant who is given the information is able to 'assimilate the information or material available to . and the motivation to communicate. if a participant is given the role of the Chairman of a Board of Directors. clear and diplomatic. the language he/she would use is formal. either of opposition or support. 3. Each participant plays a part in the interaction during the simulation and the part demands appropriate language behavior.21 First of all. A simulated environment where there is no contact with the real world.
2.22 him in order that he may reach the goal set for him' (Tansey. while for the subject class. some language skills are being put to practice. It helps them build the skills necessary for critical thinking and leadership.3 Mechanism and Steps in Simulation Simulation play with a useful real-life language use can make the students learn a develop ideas about the world. The teacher should do a reflection to the learning activity which has done. 2. The implementation of simulated teaching in the classroom can employ several steps which was recommended by Ned Flanders (Chauhan. 1979: 122) take from (http://www. information is added.4 Role of Simulation In Language Teaching . 1969: 20). It is how they learn to solve problems and to feel good about their ability to learn.3. In so doing he is absorbing not only language but also knowledge of a particular subject. The teacher should assign all students to participate 2. The teacher should manage the whole process of the student’s performance 6. The teacher should prepare the simulated teaching material 3. This serves a dual purpose: for the language class.3.scribd. The teacher should evaluate the student’s performance and give some comment for the students performance 5.com/doc/11316445/Simulated-Teaching): 1. The teacher should determine the sequence of the group performance 4.
or a rehearsed event..my/ET/1993/main8.. Some learners are shy and are not able to perform well whereas simulation only requires them to work within their teams or groups and make collective decisions (Adams. The more challenging the simulation. simulation takes place in a stress-free situation end once in control of the task.html. accessed on 06 Feb 2010) explained the roles of simulation in language teaching are: 1.org. simulations are especially useful for oral courses. not programmed language. Teoh Mei Lin in The English Teacher Vol XXII October 1993 (take from http://www. the more motivated learners become. 2.23 Having explained the concept of simulation. It allows everyone to participate and even when mistakes are made.” Moreover. However. in spoken or written form. It gives opportunity for meaningful practice of language learnt. where learners learn . According to Jones (1980: 9) state that : “A basic reason for simulation is that mistakes are both inevitable and desirable. it is necessary now to look at how simulations can enhance language learning and teaching. It is experiential language. 1973). learners are motivated to complete the simulation. Simulation and language are interrelated because most simulations involve interaction. The learners need not feel uncomfortable as some would in the case of drama where the learners may have to act in front of a class. either verbal or non-verbal.melta. It motivates learners Simulation activities give learners a chance to be involved in language use. the teacher does not interfere.
as cited in Jones (1980: 60) reiterates that simulations: “. Taylor and Walford (1972: 35) assert that: “The interconnection and interdependence of ideas help to generate a richer group dialogue. 4. and secondly. It has been noted that simulations can be a popular tool for language teaching activities.” In holding dialogues among themselves. Jones.” 3. Well-planned simulations that are relevant to the learners will certainly encourage learners to want to complete the tasks and as Jones (1982: 14) points out. This makes the language learning process more exciting as teachers move away from just using textbooks or written materials for language practice..ensure that communication is purposeful (in contrast to the inescapable artificiality of so many traditional exercises and drills). It injects a feeling of realism and relevance into the classroom. learners may even 'become oblivious to anything that is not directly relevant to the simulation experience' once they get 'into' the task.. (Gibbs. 1982). they require an integrative use of language in which communicating one's meaning takes proper precedence over the mere elements of language learning (grammar and pronunciation). . learners inevitably learn to use language communicatively. The accuser observes and scores the students based on a marking scheme. 1974. It can be used as an assessment technique.24 to voice their opinions and listen to one another. Oral examinations can make use of simulations where students are given different roles to play in groups of fours or fives and left to interact on their own.
Thematic units are designed to encourage . (Jones. multiple opportunities for talking. Thematic learning is study have meaning for student. science and the arts. The better the learners are. says that thematic teaching is a method of organizing teaching around themes or topics making it possible to integrate instruction across areas such as reading. 2. Through research. reading.efm/english_education_k12/26979/).suite101. history. it also takes a certain amount of the learners' ingenuity to generate their ideas to complete the simulation. This provides ample opportunities for creativity on the learners' part. 1980). Timothy Shanahan in Bridget Slayden (1999: 1) (http://www. Although simulation tasks begin with information given to learners. writing. as well as individual differences and needs. It Encourages Creativity. description. math. writing and creating are presented. Thematic instruction is also designed to accommodate a variety of individual development levels.com/article. analysis. a child’s thinking continues to be simulated. and sets the stage for creative problem solving.3. the faster they may arrive at a solution to the problem presented. comparison. Thematic learning is more emphasizing to applying of learning concept at the same time to do something. Through thematic learning.25 5.5 Thematic Unit Thematic learning is a pedagogical model based on the selection of a theme or topic of study. and synthesis.
1996). Topik pembicaraannya berkisar pada hal-hal yang ada dalam konteks situasi. Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar Bahasa inggris tingkat SD/MI. engage students in activities in which they must think critically. when teachers plan lessons they should focus on the five Cs of Communication. for example.” According to the standards. Connections with other disciplines. Increasingly. 2007 mentioned: “Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris di SD/MI dimaksudkan untuk mengembangkan kemampuan berbahasa yang digunakan untuk menyertai tndakan atau language accompany action.26 students to delve deep into topics developing both awareness and understanding of existing connections ideas. Bahasa Inggris digunakan untuk interaksi dan bersifat “here and now”. A unit on the solar system. These curriculums reinforce or extend the content of the regular classroom curriculum to give coherence to the language lessons. Foreign language instruction for children can be enriched when teachers use thematic units that focus on content-area information. foreign language educators are integrating the five Cs of the standards into "contentrelated" or "theme-based" curriculum. Culture. Comparisons with students' native languages and cultures. and use of the foreign language in Communities outside the classroom. might include vocabulary that . and provide opportunities for students to use the target language in meaningful contexts and in new and complex ways. The national standards for foreign language teaching and learning support this approach to language instruction (National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project.
htm.3. and how will teachers assess students' performance? 3. The framework highlights a set of questions to guide curriculum planning: 1. Who are the students in terms of learner characteristics. accessed in 15 January 2010 ) developed the Framework for Curriculum Development for FLES programs. gestures. and experiential background? 2. which students are also learning about in English. Pesola in Haas ( 2000 : http://ericae. and others. subject content. learning style.1 Planning Thematic Unit In beginning communicative language classes. and actions all help students understand the new vocabulary and structures. How will the classroom setting affect the planned activities? . sounds. and culture.27 describes the attributes of the planets. such as developmental level.5. their peers.net/edo/ed444380. Visuals and manipulative. which begins with a thematic center and creates a dynamic relationship among the factors that teachers must take into account: language in use. Students need opportunities to be active participants in tasks that require them to negotiate meaning and practice language in communication with their teacher. the teacher's role includes introducing vocabulary and phrases and providing comprehensible language input for the students. What are the planned activities. 2.
What language functions. 3. Motivational Advantages Games are engaging and motivating approach to students. Removal of Student-Teacher Polarization Students actually engage in the learning process rather than passive receiver of knowledge. What knowledge about subject content and culture will the students gain? 2.28 4. Jones (1982: 3) sums up the simulation technique as 'one expression of the philosophy that students should be active participants in the learning process'.com/doc/11316445/Simulated-Teaching): 1. The reason of using Thematic Simulation method because there are many advantages in using simulations in the language classroom (take from http://www. 2. What materials do teachers need to support the activities? 5. Simulation is one of the many methods available for exploitation. Children usually learn and retain more knowledge using role-play. Simulation as a Universal Behavioral Mode . vocabulary. It gets them involved and holds their attention longer.4 Significance Thematic Simulation Method in Vocabulary Mastery It has been mentioned before in the discussion above that language teaching can be an interesting process when teachers make the effort to explore a variety of approaches. and grammatical structures will students practice through the activities? 6.scribd.
Decision – Making It is similar to the real life experience: the problems that student will be found in the real life can be simulated. the students try to solve the problem and make decision from among alternatives to achieve a particular object. Such a connection will help to make students to have better understanding to see the world in different perspective. Dynamic Framework . 6. 7. So. An Interdisciplinary View Simulation provides a valuable link between activities within the classroom and life outside school.29 Children learn the most from play when they have skilled teachers who are well-trained in understanding how play contributes to learning. Gains Related to Relevance and Learning Games provide a save artificial environment within which learners with low self esteem learners may feel more inclined to explore. 4. investigate and express themselves. 8. 5. Role Awareness Many games enable players to embody different characters thus helping to breed attitudes of tolerance and understanding.
which help them develop long term motivation to master an additional language. . It prepares students to be able to face the complexity in real word. 9. Simulated teaching is an innovative approach because students engage in genuine communication in playing their roles. absorbing interaction which tends to make students forget they are learning a new language.30 Games can be used to teach content that it is very difficult to teach in the classroom. the simulated “real life” problems help students develop their critical thinking and problem solving skills. Active involvement stems from participation in worthwhile. Simulation offers different technique from the others it can deliver all kind of issues which cannot be limited by time perspectives. In addition to encouraging genuine communication. 10. and a positive attitude. Bridging the Gap to Reality Simulation help teacher to connect the teaching material to the student’s real world and encourage the students to make a relation between the knowledge that they have already had with the application in their life as a member of society. Students have the opportunity to try out new behaviors in save environment. Gestalt Communication The power of simulations is to transpose the normal classroom into an authentic setting where language skills can be evaluated under more realistic conditions. active involvement.
. by using Thematic Simulation method the writer believes that it can increase students’ vocabulary mastery. language classes can become more live. both the teacher and learner play active roles in the classroom.31 Based explanations above. Then. more challenging and much more rewarding.
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