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John Rudolf Catalan1
1Biologystudent, Department of Biological Science,
College of Science, Polytechnic University of the Philippines


Countless charges take place outside and inside the body every moment of the day.
Some changes are slow and some are quick. The system of the body that allows one to
sense, analyses, and responds to changes outside and inside of the body is the nervous
system. It’s made up of nerve cells, bindles of nerve fiber called nerves and organs such as
brain and the spinal cord. This system continually receives relays and helps one react to
information from the environment. It also regulates and maintains many parts of the body.

Three kinds of nerve cell provide the pathways for the nervous system. Sensory nerve
cell sent information from receptors to the brain or spinal cord. Receptors may be nerve cells
or special organs. They pick up changes in the environment. The eyes and skin are two parts
of the body that have many receptors. Motor nerve cells sent information from the brain or
spinal cord to other parts or cells of the body. Association nerve cells connect sensory nerve
cell to motor nerve cells. The brain and spinal cord contain many association nerve cells. The
shape of a nerve cell helps it carry out its functions. The many fibers that branched out from
the nerve cells are called dendrites. These fivers pick up information from, the receptors. The
information is carried in the form of an electrical signal to the nerve cell body,. The cell body
contains the nucleus and other cell structures which keep the cell alive. The electrical signals
continuers along the cell body to a single long fiber called axon.

Of special importance is the small gap between the axon of one cell and the dendrite
of another. This small gap is the synapse. What an electrical signal reaches the tip of an
axon. Many changes take place. A chemical at the tip of an axon spills into the synapse. The
chemical receives and carries the electrical signal to the dendrite of the next cell. The relay
process from cell to the next can take place at the sped of one hundred meters per second

All nerve cell and nerves belong to the one of two subsystems of the nervous systems.
Those that make up the brain and spinal cord belong to the central nervous system (CNS).
Those nerve cells and nerves that branch off your brain and spinal cord makes up of
peripheral nervous system (PNS). The peripheral nervous system reaches to al place in the
body. It connects all parts of the body to the central nervous system.

The brain is the largest and most complex part of the CNS. Ninety percent of all the
cells in the body are found in the brain. Looking like an overgrown folded walnut. The brain
takes up nearly all of the space inside the skull. Logic heartbeat, dreams, memory and many
feelings and abilities are controlled by the 10 billion nerve cells found in the brain


In this activity we are able to observe that are the kinds of reflex action that produce
in the nervous system. On the first procedure blindfold your partner then dim the room lights
and keep the blindfold in the place for 3 minutes then remove the blindfold. Immediately
shine the penlight into your partner’s left eye for less than half a second. Observe what
happened to the size of the pupil. Then change place with your partner and repeat steps 1-
5, repeat steps 1-6, except shine the penlight in the right pupil. Observe the reaction

On the second procedure have your partner close his left eye. Then make a sharp
clap with your hands in front of your partner’s face. Observe the changes that take place.
Then change places with your partner and repeat steps 1-3. Repeat steps 1-4 but close the
right eye. Repeat step 1-5 but concentrate on not blinking

On the third procedure sit on a chair and cross your right leg over your left knee. Then
ask your partner to strike your leg gently just under the kneecap to observe what happened
to your right leg. Recross your legs and test your left leg. Then change place with your
partner and repeat steps 1-4



1. What happened to the pupil after removing the blindfold and immediately shine light
onto it
- The pupil become small or constricted when light shines on the eye using flash light

2. Are your observations true for you and your partner?


3. Are the reactions the same with your left and right eyes?



1. What have you observe after making a sharp clap in front of your partner’s face?

2. What have you observe when one has concentrated on not blinking

3. Are your observations true for you and your partner?


1. What happened when you strike your partner right under the knee cap?

2. Are your observation true for you and your partner?

3. Are the reactions the same with the left and right legs?