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sales promotions and P-O-P communications-expenditures on event sponsorship are increasing. Though relatively small compared to the major components of the marketing communications mix-advertising.9 billion-with 65% of this total going to sports events and most of the remainder spent 4 . Corporate sponsorships in India in 2001 were estimated at $3. INTRODUCTION “We GENERATE Quality Business Leads We ENHANCE Your Profile We CREATE New Business Opportunities Everyone Knows Us as EVENTS” Event marketing is growing at a rate of three times that of traditional advertising.1.

broadcast. The Atlanta games in 1996 have a reported $3 billion in the bank as a result of negotiating sponsorship. Olympics and its renowned five rings are “the world’s most effective property” in terms of marketing tools. and public relations. or public relations. and they have achieved a high level of success. sales promotion. The world of event marketing is a fast growing.on sponsoring entertainment tours or festival and fairs. cultural. and one of the most successful marketing strategies. entertainment. unlike other forms of marketing communications. high profile industry worth over $20 billion annually. events reach people when they are receptive to marketing messages and capture people in a relaxed atmosphere. Event marketing is distinct from advertising. and every couple of year’s corporation’s line up to pay as much as $50 million to be the lord of the rings. Event marketing is growing rapidly because it provides companies alternatives to the cluttered mass media. event marketing is a form of brand promotion that ties a brand to a meaningful athletic. Event marketing integrates the corporate sponsorship of an event with a whole range of marketing elements such as advertising. Event promotions have an opportunity to achieve success because. The Olympics sell sponsorship on a local and global basis. Corporations both large and small have grown this industry at a rate of 17 percent per year. sales promotion. and opportunities for reaching narrow lifestyle groups whose consumption behavior can be linked with the local event. and licensee fees. point-of-purchase merchandising. an ability to segment on a local or regional basis. MasterCard invested an estimated $25 million in sponsoring the nine-city World Cup soccer championship in the United States in 1994 and will likely sponsor other big events in many countries as well. Event marketing is a lucrative game of “what’s in a name”. social or other type of high-interest public activity. as consumers purchase tickets and expose themselves to everything. 5 . The Olympics represents the crème de la crème of event marketing and corporate sponsorship. but it generally incorporates elements from all of these promotional tools. Defined. Thousands of companies invest in some form of event sponsorship.

are all forms of marketing.1. Listing in the yellow pages. Marketing Tools The “marketing mix” or marketing tools an organization can use can be classified into four categories:   Product Price 6 . placing information in the local newspaper. All sport and recreation organizations undertake marketing. offering a discount and special offers etc. telephone directory. although they are often unaware that they are actually doing so.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: What is Marketing? Marketing can be defined as a process by which individuals and groups obtain what they want through creating. offering and exchanging products of value with others.

Brochures : Commercial. if the event and promotional campaign is too big. Free To Air. 7 . Posters. Community. Satellite : Newspapers. by an appointed advertising agency. It includes the following:  Give-Away  Radio  Internet  Television  Press : Leaflets.  Place Promotion Tools of Promotion  Advertising  Public Relations  Direct marketing  Word of mouth  Hospitality  Advertising Advertising It is the controlled method of communicating the message. The event manager can manipulate the message. Street Banners. Innovative It can be done by the event manager or. National : Web Sites. Aerial. Magazines  Non-Media Alternatives: Outdoor Advertising. Radio : Cable.

trade publications and association newsletters. 8 . To this end it is important that the event manager maintains control over as much of the public relations as possible. preparing a contact list and club list such as politicians. Specialist magazines and newsletters with their highly targeted audience such as in-flight magazines. competitions. Milestones such as important editorials at critical times can also be established. The critical path is ascertained to ensure continual and growing interest in the event.often called media talent .who can be called on to make suitable comments or actions which promote the event. A thorough knowledge of the media's requirements and beneficial interaction with the media personnel are sensible methods. It communicates a more complex message than advertising. need to be included in the lists. Depending on the size and complexity of the event. PR is different from advertising in that it is not self praise but carries the strength of disinterested credibility. News releases can be staggered over the planning period to generate increased interest in the event.  List ideas for continuous exposure such as interesting media ready stories. stunts. the PR strategy can range from organizing a media launch and handing out a press kit to just sending a out a one page media release to selected media. For an entrepreneurial event it would include:  Data collection: Preparing a media list of suitable targeted media. It is free but the event manager looses control over the result. feeding the chooks. interested people and opinion leaders . Who will make public statements to the press when there is an emergency? The PR campaign is a plan to gain maximum positive publicity for the event. public appearances. Although PR is mostly proactive. These publicity items are then placed into an overall promotion schedule. When these lists are prepared. it is important for an event to have a reactive PR strategy as part of the event risk management. the journalist. the ideas prioritized and the story angles determined. business magazines. speeches.Public Relations Often it is part of the event manager's job to gain maximum exposure for the event. editor or producer is contacted to ascertain the exposure potential of the item. It can be publicity can be positive or negative.

why and where in it.  Use liftable quotes. Television requires special facilities such as access.  Make sure all the spelling is correct – particularly sponsors and main participants. what. It implies 9 . What is the Media Kit?  Press release including the 5 Ws  Press ready photos or video footage  Event program  Sponsor information  Interview possibilities.  Make it clear and concise with the main features at the very beginning of the release. it is the relations that the event manager develops with the media that can create interest in the event. power and transmission links. although it can be used by 'boutique' events that target a specific audience. when.  Have all contact details in it and the date.  Pitch it at the correct level: who will write the story and who will read it.Tips on Writing a News Release  Make sure it is released at the right time for it to be picked up by the media. If the launch takes place in an interesting area.  Identify any media talent associated with the event and give their contact details. times and contact details of any ‘stars’  Press gifts such as complimentary tickets.  Put who. it can be used as an opportunity to take photos and record interviews. The media launch is used by most large festivals. invitations or smart hooks Although PR involves the event's relation to the public.

The special event or festival has to promote itself to the sponsors. can be 10 . Hospitality As part of the promotion tool kit. The Festival has an overall budget of half a million and only spends $6.developing a rapport with the media . guest books. An annual event. Each person who comes to the festival is given the first rights to buy a ticket. Direct Marketing This is delivering the promotional message straight to the interested individual. Word of Mouth Bill Hauritz of the Woodford Festival in Southern Queensland estimates their advertising budget at less than $1000. The ticket sales generate over one million dollars. they have concentrated on the quality of their program and site. The database can be created from previous events through competitions.finding out what they want and how best to supply it. This has built up a loyal following. point of sale information or just by asking the participants if they would like to receive information on other similar events. Their promotion strategy is just word of mouth. If the manager does not have time or the inclination to do this then the event organization should consider hiring a PR company. The tickets are sold out five months before the festival begins. inquiries. The diner for sponsors.000 on their promotion. The effectiveness of direct marketing can be seen in the Port Fairy Festival in southern Victoria. The mail out is the most common traditional method. The basis of direct marketing is the establishment of a data bank and a strategy to best reach those individuals. for example. Networking is possibly the best way to develop this rapport. hospitality can be powerful.

V. the need for narrow-casting of campaigns to the sharply defined target audience. 2. Too many advertisements have led to a cluttering on T. print and other media. It transfers the some of the cost to the customer. 1. Used in conjunction with a other elements of the PR campaign.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH TRADITIONAL MEDIA: The problems associated with traditional media that has been used for satisfying marketing needs discussed in the previous section are listed below: 1. This has given rise to a need for avenues. The advantage is that the site can also capture enquiries and be a point of sale for tickets. inexpensive way to promote the event. of programs have led to fragmentation of the viewer-ship. 11 . of TV channels and the greater no. which provide exclusivity to the sponsor while not sacrificing the benefits of reach and impact. a web site can be used to distribute photos and press releases. Web Sites The latest and increasingly popular method of promoting an event is to create a web site. A tour of the site can be an effective way of promoting the event. The current movement towards virtual reality sites can give the potential attendee a view of the event. The increasing no. such as the program and map. The site can give real information.

advertisers are demanding the beat return from every ad-rupee spent. Event Marketing fits under promotion in the marketing mix. Kotler describes the organization’s marketing mix as controllable variables that are mixed so that the organization gets the response that they are asking for from the target market. 4. Proliferation of various media channels. direct sales.3. 1. and sponsoring. 5. price and promotion play an essential role in Event Marketing. people. sales promotion. place. To successfully use Event Marketing the marketer must understand how Event Marketing fits together with the other parts of the marketing strategy. therefore the requirement for intelligent media buying. Other marketing tools that goes under this section are advertising. public relations.3 RELATION BETWEEN EVENT MARKETING AND THE 5P’S: The five Ps of marketing: product. It takes an imaginative mix of all the communication tools available to extend the impact of the event. 12 . Proliferation of low intensity television viewers who view a little of each channel leads to the need for capturing the full attention of the target audience. Media cost inflation – Due to rising inflation which has been eroding the advertising is a complement. personal sales. Event Marketing is not a substitute for any of the other components. Media planning has become more complex and therefore the need for increase the effectiveness in terms of tangible impact which can be instantly evaluated has risen.

13 . and after the event. Event Marketing If an organization uses Event Marketing. during. An example of this could be how a car producer can have advertisements to inform about a new car launch. and then follow up with direct marketing with a discount coupon.1: Marketing Mix vs. and then use events to get people to test drive the new car. they still need to use the other parts of the promotion mix before. and image building. depending on how it is used.Fig 1. One of the main advantages with Event Marketing compared to the other channels is that the objective can both be direct sales.

Managing Director.The euphoria generated in the fair was not only good for the participants and audience but also for the economy for the region as a whole. defines events as occurrences designed to communicate particular message to target audience. India has roughly 5000 such fairs and festival.1. events as a medium will be catering to all demographic segments of the population. dancing and emotion were a means of expression of the spiritual and cultural tradition of a community. As per the article in Business Today of December 7 – 21. if not the entire world. every year an estimate audience of 3 crore attends the fair in Rajasthan. across Indian subcontinent. Events 14 . Events have proved to be a versatile marketing communications tools since they can easily customized to cater to the communication needs of the industry. The Pushkar Mela has the distinction of being the biggest attended fair anywhere in India. In fact. advertising. various corporate have resorted to events as a strategic alternative. Sureh Pillai. in this new millennium. Philip Kotler. making it the biggest event of its kind. These represent the biggest organized events from ancient times. Therefore. event has now come a long way in terms of classification and specialization that are possible in this field. Originated on religious lines.4 WHAT IS EVENT? An event in its universal and literal form would be any occasion when sometimes happens or sometimes needs to be done to organize the same. be it pharmaceutical. live media integrate the three traditional model of marketing communication. An event can actually act as a focus for specific company and help in giving a guideline to media. Having made a humble beginning. 1993. viz. this Mela. to obtain reach for their communication campaigns. Ancient events such as Indian fairs and festivals with their visually spectacular depiction of epic themes interwoven with singing. financial services or any other. EVENT DEFINED: Marketing guru. penetration here barely crosses 11% and the internet effect is infinitesimally small. To add to the benefits s that an events offers.Rural India comprises of 75000 villages and the T.related decision making such as when to change. sales promotion and public relations. stop or introduce new campaign.V. Traditional games and entertainment have always been part of such events.which literally means fair—have always been a meeting ground for big and small traders.

The population of the target audience that the event is exposed to is called the reach for the event. It is evident from the model that an event is a package so organized as to provide. Director. considers events as an additional media whereby two-way (or active) communication is possible.Management. The live interaction process facilitates communication between the clients and the audience. one of the India’s foremost events agencies define event as something noteworthy which happens according to a set plan involving network of multi media package. This process strengthens the possibilities of mutually beneficial transactions occurring in tune with the desired objectives for the event. Unirapport Events. specially gathered target audience by providing a complete sensual experience and an avenue for two-way interaction. reach and live interaction between the target audience and the client to achieve the desired impact. customized or modified to achieve the clients’ objectives of reaching out and suitably influencing the sharply defined. The following figure is the graphical representation of the above definition. Events Reach Live Interaction Right Communication from the Client With Live Audience Creates Desired Impact 15 . thereby achieving the client objectives and justifying their needs for associating with event A COMPREHENSIVE NEW DEFINITION: An event is a live –multimedia package carried out with preconceived concepts. Deepak Gattani. Events have therefore also been termed as experiential marketing.

however.HIERARCHY OF EVENTS The hierarchy of effects normally follows a gradual pattern: What makes it complicated. The need increases if there are multiple sponsors of the event. are the other competing communication: Therefore it is important to keep a healthy share of voice for the event-specific communication to achieve the desired objectives. or if there is any chance of an ambush marketer breaking-in. AN IDEAL EVENT-ASSOCIATION PROCESS: 16 .

However. If an event with good brandproposition/ target-audience fit is not available. and a measurable communication-objective. The noise-level around cricket on any medium was just deafening.Objectives: This would include clarity on the marketing objective.  Evaluating various media choices: Multiple media options were evaluated along all the parameters given above. especially at a time when the World Cup was around the corner. target audience for the specific communication. the short-term measurable objectives may vary. it may necessitate creation of a new event with elements controlled by the consumer insight. At the 17 . a) Brand awareness b) Creating excitement around the brand c) Association with the cause of the event to find acceptance within the TG d) Trial of the brand The decisions would follow from the current objective of the brand:  Consumer insights: A truly great event idea is one that moves far beyond the questions about what people want and starts looking at what they care about. An increase in off-take is normally the end result of any element of a marketing communication-mix.

 Ghost awareness: The stronger the brand. the best option came to be an event around was 25 per cent higher than the maximum expected number! Besides. and Ajit Wadekar. However. Fortunately. Balwinder Singh. Nari Contractor. sponsorship decay-rate is also normally quite low and therefore a good association takes a lot of time to erode from popular memory. this association was to promote the game and not only to convey the commercial message of the brand. higher is the chance of its being recalled as associated with a certain event. It helps the promoters of the event as it offsets their upfront cost. Karsan Ghavri.  Value-creation: The event led to an association of the brand with some of the most respected names in Indian and world cricket. provided they sustain the sponsorship for a long enough time. while it lets the title sponsor decide the clutter level around the event. However. 18 . It involved cricketers like Dennis Lillee.price-value equilibriumpoint and given brand need.This unique grassroots event was aimed at finding and nurturing potential fast bowlers. targeting the particular consumer insight  Contact innovation: "Race for Pace" . More importantly.  Sell-through rights: It gives the title sponsor a right to sell the rest of the sponsorships of the event. the kind of visibility and appeal this association created for the brand was formidable Some of the key factors to be looked at while associating with an event:  Sustainability: Sponsorships take time and sustained support to build high recall for the association. It would enable the brand to associate itself with a sport that's next to religion in India and with a cause that few have identified their brands with. It is important to note that this was pre-exam period and therefore it was rather difficult to get a large participation. fairly unknown brands can also build good quality awareness. if the association is right. the number of registrations during the event surpassed all the expectations . An event should be associated with on a long-term perspective and not as a one-off fling.

A random survey of marketing and other management magazines including newspapers would reveal the enormous number of brand/product launches that happen every month. Promotional partnership: A marketer's contribution to the event is a factor of the sales the event generates for the brand.  Events help in brand building by: Creating awareness about the launch of new brands/products. keeping a focus on the brand and association objectives and regularly monitoring the delivery of any sponsorship on these parameters would always be important. However. The need to therefore catch the attention of the target audience. To convey this via traditional modes 19 . the number being higher in the summer months. The enormous number of launches also leads to the need to overcome the "oh-yet-anotherproduct" syndrome. literally taking the brand name by its meaning! Such events seldom fail to catch the attention of the target audience. films. Similarly. An especially interesting example that can be cited here is that of the launch of an audio cassette label by the name of Wings. The launch event was organized with select celebrities gracing the occasion on board a hired aircraft.  Performance assurance: It ensures the promoters of the event share the risk with the marketer in terms of success of the event. a compilation of new products launched in just a month can vary between 6 to 21. Hence. innumerable new music albums. etc. there tends to be a clutter of product launches too and these may not necessarily be confusion among the same product category. For example. at the time of launch. becomes all the more important. Some of these developments would make it easier for marketers and media planners to make sponsorship-investment decisions. get released periodically.  Presentation of brand to highlight features of product/ service : Sometimes technological changes or policy changes pave the way for manufacturers or service providers to augment their products/brands.

By the time the product reaches its maturity/decline stage. while at the same time maintaining the customer base is felt. one can also say that events can be designed to assist in changing beliefs about firms/products/services. it becomes possible for the repositioning exercise to be carried out successfully. The rapid pace with which computer specifications change and that too with drastic effects on their prices. it becomes imperative that dealers and retailers take part in exhibitions to educate the customers on the changes that have taken place and how they will benefit more  Helping brands during the different stages of the product life cycle: The massive amount of money that is spent during the introduction stage of products gets drastically reduced over time. the Industrial Machine Tools Exhibition. IMTEX. Special service camps or exhibitions are the perfect events that provide the opportunity for a two-way interaction and error-free communication. is an event used by most machine tool manufacturers to explain and highlight the new and improved features of their products.  Associating the brand personality of clients with the personality 20 . And events offer the best medium for such a focused approach. It helps in generating feelings of brand loyalty in the products' end user by treating them as royally as possible.of communication to the existing and potential customer base may sometimes be futile or ineffective.  Helping in communicating the repositioning of brands/products : By organizing or associating with events targeted at a particular group of target audience. the need for cutting down the budgets associated with the media campaigns. In other words.

so as to benefit from the rub-off effect. chose the sports arena for building its brand identity.Citibank is an elite bank where people do banking with pride. Thus. who cannot by themselves arrange for premium events on a large scale. the $ 4 billion. white goods retailers and others get to do business with the Citibank customers. Reputed for its aggressive marketing thrusts worldwide. small merchandisers like jewelry shops. Foster's chose the game of cricket—in which the Aussies are known as the best team in the world—to identify with. as well as build and maintain a premium image for themselves. etc. Foster's hoped to achieve its goals of brand identity building and positioning itself at the premium end of the market. By becoming the official sponsors of the Australian cricket team on its India tour. participate as clients to associate the personality of their products and brands with the personality of Citibank customers. tickets to watch cricket in Australia or horseracing. other premium brands would like to associate themselves with the same audience as those addressed by Citibank.  Image building: Over and above the brand identity that a company encourages. Hence. events such as the Great Escape conceived by Mahindra & Mahindra. Foster's identifies itself with Australia's climate. with 'Australian ness' as the core of its brand identity. here Citibank acts as the event organizer and such merchandisers.  Creating and maintaining brand identity: According to newspaper reports. Australia-based Foster's Brewing Group's Asian subsidiary in its plan to launch its beer brand Foster's Lager in India. exclusively 21 . They plan to sponsor cultural and local events as well as use promotional schemes along with its trade partners involving giveaways of expensive gifts. Foster's plan for using events for marketing communication goes beyond sports. Therefore. people and culture of youthful exuberance. landscape. Therefore. through an event like The Great Escape—an exhibition-cum-sale event organized exclusively for Citibank credit card holders.

in that it has its own active soccer team and also sponsors the World Squash Championship to establish a world-class image worldwide Sponsoring events such as the Olympic Games helps in establishing the identities of these sponsors as truly global players. The trip also creates a bond between the company. Events such as these help in not only building up a rapport with the customers. According to the Atlanta Olympics organizers. but also help in reducing the cognitive dissonance. To let owners experience the thrill of four-wheel driving. but also the product.  Creating a forum for bringing together key corporate influencers. free service camps for Maruti and Daewoo car owners have also been held. With such a large audience. the Armada. In its seventh edition and being hosted for the second year in succession by Goa.5 billion. the biggest international event in the world is a natural arena for image building. which is very common in purchase of such type of products. and over 2 million people went to Atlanta to see them. decision makers and businessmen The main objective of the 12 city IBM Solutions Forum 98 organized by Tata IBM Ltd. the offbeat drive event organized by Sports craft and cosponsored by Tidewater Oil Company attracted over 250 participants and 85 vehicles for the grueling 90 km drive. The number of people who tuned in to any part of the TV coverage was predicted to reach around 3. 10. Mahindra is very much into sports. And spread over a few months was to bring to the 22 . Similarly.700 athletes from 197 countries competed at the 1996 Summer Games. M&M charts out an offbeat route that emphasizes the difference between normal and four-wheel driving and lets the participants experience the high. One of the event savvy companies.for the owners of their four wheel drive vehicle. are an attempt to build a specific image of not only the corporate. the customer and the product as well as amongst the participants themselves. ✎ Relationship building:  Giving relationship management a proactive feel Sony and Aiwa have offered free service camps for their music systems and other products. one feels when steering and navigating an Armada.

Companies can benefit tremendously from the deeper event marketing touch points that promote nurturing such as proprietary conferences that provide a controlled environment for delivering messages and closing business. The nurturing process will allow the 23 .  Creating a forum for career match making One of the more frequently held career fairs is the Brassring Career Event. held in the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara. While it is important to garner leads. marketing and specifically event marketing professionals cannot lose sight of the fact that the sales cycle only begins at lead generation and that current and prospective customers must also be nurtured even beyond purchase. the event marketing industry has seen great growth in the last five years and has consistently been one of the most effective tools that marketing professionals have at their disposal in terms of making a tangible connection to current and potential customers.doorsteps of key people in the industry the wide range of IBM Technologies and cost effective solutions available for all sizes of business. California by www. Brassring. Not The increasing competitive pressures brought on by globalization are forcing business professionals to find new ways to engage customers. one such event was in August 2000 to facilitate a friendly and face-toface interaction between software professionals looking for career opportunities with recruiters looking to hire the best talent. savvy event marketing professionals are therefore focusing the majority of their efforts and budgetary spend on lead generation tactics such as trade shows. 1.5 EVOLUTION OF EVENT MARKETING: From its origins in event planning.

From the model it is evident that an event is a package so organized has to provide. EVENT S REACH LIVE INTERACTION Right Communication from the client WITH Live Audienc e CREATES Desired Impact Fig: 1. customized or modified to achieve the clients objective of reaching out and suitably influencing the sharply defined. specially gathered target audience by providing a complete sensual experience and an avenue for two-way interaction. reach and live interaction between the target audience and the client to achieve the desired impact.customers to more effectively be funneled into the subsequent stages of the sales cycle thus creating greater opportunities to develop into repeat customers. 24 .2: Events Definition In-Short This is a diagrammatic representation of the above definition. EVENT MARKETING An event is a live multimedia package with a preconceived concept.

understanding what the brand stands for. Effort is taken to ensure that people sit up and take notice of the event. Marketing plays an important role in pricing and negotiation as well as identifying opportunities to define 25 . Sometimes it could be an event like an award ceremony. timing etc. its positioning and values. In that case the product is advertised through banners and media and even door to door canvassing.Event marketing involves canvassing for clients and arranging feedback for the creative concepts during and after the concept initiation so as to arrive at a customized package for the client. In fact. Marketing plays an important role in pricing and negotiations as well as identifying opportunities to define and retain event properties by gathering marketing intelligence with regard to pricing. keeping the brand values and target audience in mind. If there is something very peculiar or special about the event then that main point has to be highlighted. This is the way publicity and promotions work. identifying the target audience and liaison with the creative conceptualizes to create an event for a prefect mesh with the brand’s personality. 1. which is to be shown on television and different companies make a beeline for sponsoring their respective products in the due course of the programme. A product launch for example requires a sales promotion campaign either before or after the launch. ideally event marketing involves simultaneous canvassing and studying the brand prints. keeping the brand values and target audience in mind.  PUBLICITY AND PROMOTION If one knows how to organize an event he should also know how to market it.6 EVENT MARKETING: Event marketing involves canvassing for clients and arranging feedback for the creative concepts during and after the concept initiation so as to arrive at a customized package for the client.

according to Richard R. for clients/sponsors.out the event.and retain event properties by gathering marketing intelligence with regard to pricing. customers/ audience and networking is the next step. timing. etc. the most important part event management is the execution of the event as planned. For instance.  5 C’S OF EVENTS : The activities required marketing and managing events require certain steps to be followed that can be called the five C’s of events. Alford. calculation of cost of production and margins on the event. Event marketing has been defined as a state of focused event strategy managed consistently over a period of time to reinforce aspects of brand character. identifying the target audience and liaison with the creative conceptualizes to create an event for a perfect mesh with the brand’s personality. In fact. Customization of the concept is required.depending on the customers’ needs and marketing objectives. There are further definitions wherein the focus has been more on the reasons why events are being used as a marketing tool. event marketing involves simultaneous canvassing and studying the brand prints. International Vice President and General Manager-India of International Management Group (IMG) event marketing is a rifle shot approach to one’s audience where there is very little wastage.e. it’s positioning and values. ideally. 26 . understanding what the brand stands for. Finally. The first is Conceptualisation of the creative idea/ambience followed by Costing i. Canvassing. This activity is termed as Carrying.


This has given rise to a need for avenues which provide exclusivity to the sponsor while not sacrificing the benefits of reach and impact. print and other media. The matrix shown in the figure positions events and other modes of marketing communication in a two-dimensional matrix. it is clear that:  Traditional ways of most popular modes of marketing communication a denoted in the figure are moving from the growth phase into the maturity stage. Relative position and life cycle stages can be judged on the basis of the characteristics of the industry. Events as a strategic marketing communications tool would gain significant followers and will bite into a much larger portion of the marketing budget. Their effectiveness is lost due to the cut. With regard to the competitive position of events as a medium and the life cycle stage it is in vis-à-vis other marketing communications media. The demand and popularity of the various media help determine the life cycle stage of the media as well as their relative positions vis-à-vis other media.  An event as a medium is in a tentative/ favorable position now and will continue to remain so in the near future and tend towards becoming stronger. ✎ Problems associated with the traditional media The problems associated with traditional media that has been used for satisfying marketing needs discussed in the previous section are listed below:  Too many advertisements have lead to a cluttering on TV. The horizontal axis represents the life cycle stage and the vertical axis represents the relative position of the tools. 28 .throat competition which is leading to undesirable clutter in all kinds of media including internet. The graphical representation clearly indicates the growing importance of events. Event organizing as an industry is still in the nascent or introductory stage when seen in the light of commercialization or corporatization of events as a business proposition.

 The increasing number of TV channels and the greater no. Media planning has become more complex and therefore the need for increased effectiveness in terms of tangible impact which can be instantly evaluated has risen.  An event carried out professionally and cleanly is invariably a memorable experience. i. the option of controlled reach can be exercised and ideal audiences for narrow. Some of these advantages are detailed below:  Events have the ability to bring together sharply defined participants since the capacity for a particular event is usually limited. ✎ Advantages offered by events: As is clear from the preceding section use of events as a marketing communication tool not only takes care of the problems associated with traditional media but also offer certain advantages because of which events are gaining importance over them. of programmes have led to fragmentation of the viewership.  Proliferation of various media channels.. This leads to lowering of the media networking budgets and focused communication with the specially gathered audience.  Proliferation of low intensity television viewers who view a little of each channel leads to the need for capturing the full attention of the target audience  Media cost inflation. Hence.  Since the audience is actively targeted. therefore the requirement for intelligent media buying.casting of information can be gathered. the need for narrow-casting of campaigns to the sharply defined target audience. The audience that has been specially invited invariably is an ideal audience. A specific number of the target audience could be invited or enticed to buy tickets for a show specially created for a particular profile of the target audience.e. due to rise in inflation. which has been eroding the advertising budgets. advertisers are demanding the best return from every adrupee spent. The word of mouth publicity that this generates is an advantage that 29 .

 The advantage in terms of post event publicity that events can offer over and above the paid or bartered media is the benefit associated with the reports of the event in the newspaper and the news on the electronic media. in case the event is not upto the mark or is dogged by controversies.  Live media also enables interactive communication. the same is also reported impartially  The conversion of good events into television software for future use either by the sponsors for their commercials or by the media houses for programming is also a 30 .  The easily customizable nature of events. For the audience it is undoubtedly a thrilling situation.  The involvement of all the senses in experiencing the event is one of the greatest advantages that events can offer.  No other media can boast of the ability to provide such massive collection of feedback instantly as events. Live media scores over conventional advertising in terms of reach. the localization of events is very easy. For such reports there is no extra cost to be borne. events as a live media offer a certain amount of immediacy to the experience. The high recall value of live media communication is also a major factor. This is so because a press ad is basically a flat piece of paper and a commercial is just an audio visual experience. This provides an advantage of a higher brand recall to the client. it is possible to feel and deduce the reactions of the audience to the aim or objective that the event was conceived for. mean that specific trades of the local inhabitants can be incorporated in the big picture to ensure that the event is socially and culturally in tune with the local culture. Events can be designed such that the audience is actively involved in every part of the event and made to feel good. Thus. Thus. Live media communication is a complete sensual experience as compared to a press advertisement or TV/radio commercial.neither by the sponsor nor by the event organizer.of being there while its happening. This is a double edged sword because. then. Being a live media. impact and tangible immediacy of measurement.lingers on a long time after the event has actually been carried out.

Cigarette. it provided Benson and Hedges with an alternative media with an equal.8 KEY ISSUE FOR EVENT MARKETING: The Human Dimension: 31 . a Benson and Hedges product. This product launch held at the Turf Club. film premiers and cricket matches to earn mileage. Thus. for decades. This event other than aiding in the brand launch also provided for the first contact with the actual consumer who got to try the product free of charge. guthka and other tobacco related products are officially banned from being advertised on the Government controlled media and hence are focused to use events with a mass base as a marketing tool. Such software become products by themselves and can be used profitably in the future. unable to advertise through the mass media.Each-Other contest represent the earliest attempts at the corporatization of commercial public events. Examples include the launch of 555 cigarettes. Apart from the above. giving an instant feedback on the quality and the post event brand recall. there are some other important reasons for using events because they provide the solution to deal with the legal restrictions pertaining to marketing communication. 1. Mahalakshmi Race Course grounds. The Mc Dowell’s Derby and Wills Made-for. Mumbai. liquor. liquor and cigarette manufactures. have been sponsoring car rallies. involved a lot of hype and hoopla.unique benefit that events offer. In fact. if not a better capability to create the desired impact. horse races.

where high involvement decisions are taken and more reliable information is needed. especially for highinvolvement purchases. by placing someone who is familiar with and can communicate the company brand and product. interpreting and understanding. the human being is rather complex in her way of learning. By questioning the Mental Models people see matters from a different perspective and openness. Everything the human being experiences will affect the way she interprets situations.A key issue for Event Marketing is having the right human resources communicating the brand values. the consumer is more sensitive and might require more than one-way communication to convert to another brand. if she is put in a situation in which she has to experience a new way of acting and if the experience is interpreted as positive. What makes the 3D advertisement more unique is adding a human dimension. Unless she experiences a situation. which requires new behavior and this behavior is positive. When buying a car. But in order to be able to question the Mental Models we first must realize that there has to be something to gain by questioning them. the consumer is making one of his/her biggest investments. is characterized by her context. Mental Models are deeply ingrained assumptions and generalizations that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. Therefore the manager must 32 . since she. it is most likely that she will repeat the behavior in a similar situation. However. However. The importance of having people working that truly understand the brand was emphasized by almost all the interviewees. interaction serves as a great function. The models keep us in the same pattern of both thinking and acting. but in the future the company “brand” will have to encapsulate and communicate what an organization is and what it stands for. The human dimension of Event Marketing is what creates the uniqueness to the brand in an event. Most managers today only see the brand as the company’s logo and corporate identity program. she will not change her way of acting. The Human Context: To add a human dimension might sound an easy solution in order to communicate the brand identity. In the capital goods industry.

Since we are a part of this network. since they are not teaching the employees. Internal marketing can be defined as selling the firm to its employees. rather they are persuading how great the business idea of the company is. as it is the same with the employees. therefore we agree. we most often only see specific components and are puzzled by that we cannot find good solutions to our greatest 33 . all members and functions in the organization must not only be market orientated in general but also market orientated in combination with the brand values. Several interviewees supported this when mentioning that there has to be a match between the individual values and the company values. and Kotler and Armstrong (1993) view internal marketing as the building of customer orientation among employees by training and motivating both consumer contact and support staff as a team. By learning how different components in a system interact will increase the understanding of how the entire system works. One crucial factor might be the individual’s ability to learn. Since it is the human dimension that adds the value to a customer/prospect in an event. “that internal marketing builds service quality”. It is a common fact that people are different and cannot adjust to all situations. These definitions might be too static. Integrated Organization When working with Event Marketing it is important to have a well-integrated organization. It is as important to win a distinguished and distinctive place in the perception of a company’s actual and perspective customers. and combine the behavior to the specific situation. A company itself is a complex system that is connected by a series of contacts and the components in this system are highly integrated. since the individual must not only understand the added values in the brand identity but also learn to interpret the different situations that might occur during an event. Understanding just one component by itself that is isolated from the others will not be enough. It is the individual’s perception of the current situation together with how he/she translates the added values to fit to that specific situation that will help or not help the company.change the interpretation of the brand.

If your have a technical product. really. fail to provide any guarantee of reaching a targeted audience. you are looking for reach and you are selling a low cost product with wide general appeal.problems. to name three. Charities go out of their way to meet both their own fund-raising needs and the profit requirements of the firms they team up with. sports sponsorship may be the avenue for you. put your sponsorship money into good causes. offer sample products (give-always). understand and influence the entire patterns in an organization. music and arts represents a combined 35 percent of event spending as compared 45 percent for sports-related events. for example. the Red Cross or the environment. The meteoric history of event marketing is based in sports marketing. and the businesses need promotions. and tangible pitch to consumers. Event marketing provides a cost-effective approach to making a more hard-hitting. It is a commercial relationship and the entire better for it. Event marketing also continues to thrive as traditional advertising rate skyrocket and. If your product is an up market one. Charities need funds. 34 . System thinking is a term that contains knowledge and different tools. which show their worth in extra profit. The Children’s Hospital. If. which can help us. In fact. It also gives companies the opportunity to cross-promote (promote with other companies that have related products or services). Match the Event to Your Market Choose the kind of event that appeals to your target market suits your product’s image and fits your marketing objectives. science-type sponsorships would be possibilities and if your main aim is to be seen as a good corporate citizen. artistic events could suit you better. emotional. such as retail outlets. and build strong relationship with various channels of distribution. AIDS research is another one.

For Example. It helps in generating feelings of brand loyalty in the products’ end user by treating them as royally as possible. The need to therefore catch the attention of the target audience at the time of launch becomes very important.1. etc get released periodically. Meticulously planned events for the launch of a product/brand seldom fail to catch the attention of the target audience. The large no. IMTEX. the Industrial Machine Tools Exhibition. Brand Building Creating awareness about the launch of new products/brand Enormous nos. By the time the product reaches its maturity/decline stage. of brand/product are launched every month. is an event used by most machine tool manufactures to explain and highlight the new and improved features of their product. of launches also leads to need to overcome the “ooh-yet-anotherproduct” syndrome. 35 . This tends to create clutter of product launches.9 WHY EVENTS: 1. Special service camps of exhibitions are the perfect events that provide the opportunity for a two way interaction and error free communication. Helping in rejuvenating brands during the different stages of product life cycle The massive amount of money that is spent during the introduction stage of products gets drastically reduced over time. the need for cutting down the budgets associated with the media campaigns. Presentation of brand description to highlight the added features of product/services Sometimes technological changes pave the way for manufactures or service providers to augment their products. And events offer the best medium for such a focused approach. films. To convey this via traditional modes of communication to the existing and potential customer base may sometimes be futile. Similarly innumerable new music albums. while at the same time maintaining the customer base is felt.

Coors Light Silver Bullet Concert Series featuring artists like Bryan Adams and Celin Dion 36 . Marketing Manager for Coors Light (Beer Company) explains that in order to increase awareness and personality of the brand. Rennie Solomito. Associating the brand personality of clients with the personality of target market Citibank is an elite bank where people do banking with pride. as well as build and maintain a premium image for themselves. By becoming the official sponsors of Australian cricket team on its India tour. for example. Hence. other premium brands would like to associate themselves with the same audience so as to benefit from the rub-off effect. Coors Light tries to find the distinguishing “look of the leader” in each market.Helping in communicating the repositioning of brands/products Events help in repositioning exercises to be carried out successfully. Foster’s hoped to achieve its goal of brand identity building and positioning itself at the premium end of the market. Creating and maintaining brand identity Australia-based Foster’s Brewing Group’s Asian subsidiary in its plan to launch its bear brand Foster’s Lager in India choose the game of cricket – in which the Aussies are known as the best team in the world. In other words. small merchandisers get to do business with the Citibank customers. Here Citibank acts as the event organizer and small merchandisers acts as participants so that they can associate the personality of their products with the personality of Citibank customers. Coors Light select events that are fast paced and young minded. An exhibition-cum-sale event organized exclusively for Citibank credit card holders. events can be designed to assist in changing beliefs about firms/products/services.

exclusively for the owners of their four wheelers. Title sponsorship of a major event provides the sponsor immense benefit since the sponsors name is mentioned along with the event like Hero Cup. For example. M&M charts out an off beat route that emphasizes the difference between normal and four wheel driving. Focusing the Target Market Helping in avoidance of clutter Even though some events do get congested with too many advertisements. events still provide and effective means of being spotted. Image Building Over and above the brand identity that a company encourages. the Armada.3: Constructing the Brand Value Chain 3. and lets the participant experience the high. one feels when steering and navigating an Armada. events such as The Great Escape conceived by Mahindra and Mahindra. Femina Miss India. but also the product. are an attempt to build a specific image of not only the corporate.2. to let owners experience the thrill of four wheel driving. Fig 1. brotherhood. 37 . standard of excellence and fun. Coke is associated with Olympics since 1928. Lux Zee Cine Awards. the rationale behind this is similar values and ideologies: International peace.

Enabling interactive mode of communication Events generally provide an opportunity for buyers and sellers to interact. They also provide a foundation for exchange and sharing of knowledge between professionals. Example: Bang!Linux2000, Auto Expo. Unparalleled footwear company NIKE ensures that it sponsors those events which will give it a chance to create an emotional tie with the participants through onsite brand usage and product presentation.

4. Implementation of Marketing Plan
Enabling authentic test marketing Events bring the target audience together, thereby creating opportunity for test marketing of products for authentic feedback. The seller can identify exactly the traits and other characteristics that are desired. For example, marketing events that the Frito-Lay Company used before it launched its WOW! brand of potato chips.

Enabling focused sales and communication to a captive audience In an event the audience is more or less bound to witnessing one particular event. In such a situation it is very favorable for sellers to put forth their presentations without any diversions. Such a situation is very valuable given the ineffectiveness of traditional modes of communication in holding on to the attention of the audience. For example, Burger King wanted to reach a young demographic in the New York area, EMG (Event Marketing Company) helped them to create a 30-concert series at the New York Palladium. Burger King received onsite signage and distribution of bounce back coupons.

Increasing customer traffic in stores


Events can be conceptualized to increase customer traffic. They can be customized to make available, concepts ranging from retail store specific events to mega events like one day international cricket tournament. For example, Nescafe 3-in-1 treasure hunt, cosponsored by McDonald’s is a combined effect in increasing the customer traffic as well as increasing the awareness among the upper class of the existence of new McD’s outlets.

Enabling sales promotion Weekly events conducted by Crossword Bookstore helps in generating more revenue during the weekends as compared to the revenue generated in the weekdays.

Help in relation building and PR activities Practitioners of this marketing function believe that event marketing campaigns have the ability to create long lasting relationships with closely targeted market segments. Relationship building is not restricted to end user customers but also targeted at enhancing new distributors and sales representative relations. For example: Techfest organized by IIT Bombay, is an annual technological festival held by IIT Bombay has helped the sponsors in establishing their relationship with the Institute and ensuring that an image of being interested is created and nurtured. Coke is sponsoring the Olympic since 1928. As coke does business in over 200 countries, the Olympics give the company the opportunity to identify its product with the foremost special event in the world.

Motivating the sales team The need for interaction is not restricted to external customers only and end consumers are not always the focus of live media exercises. This is especially popular amongst pharmaceutical and other FMCG companies. For Example, during the cricket world cup held in England HSBC introduced a unique pattern of motivating the sales force by awarding them runs instead of the traditional points system. This resulted in conversion of almost all of its employees into sales person. 39

Generate immediate sales Most events let firms install and exclusive boot and give the permission to exploit the opportunity to merchandise. Events such as the annual limited period discount sales from Wrangler and Van Heusen are authentic stock clearance and seconds sales aimed at generating immediate sales.

Generating instant publicity An event can be designed to generate instant publicity upon the implementation of marketing strategy. The e-commerce start up, which wanted to sell products such as CDs, Books, Movies and Games over the internet was up against major and strong competition. The result of this publicity stunt started the ball rolling towards getting this company purchased by eBay for more than $300 million.

Enabling market database assimilation, maintenance and updating By keeping track of the reach and its effectiveness as well as interacting with the audience that actually turns up for the event, event sponsors can assimilate and authentic database. The database can be used to track various marketing trends. Events can then help in maintaining and updating the database.

However, there are many other marketing tools that can build brand-awareness and create image and not confuse them with event marketing the most common confusion will be explained here. Authors seem to mix up the concept of Event Marketing and sponsorship, although there is a difference between the two. When using Event Marketing, the organization works with the event as part of the marketing strategy. When sponsoring an event, the organization buys exposure during the event at different levels of the event itself. International Events Group (IEG) defines sponsorship this way: “The relationship 40

When organizations move to EM (1). which explains the relationship between different events. This model shows one way to look at where traditional sponsoring fits in compared to Event Marketing. The association makes the brand synonymous with the sponsored happening. There is a concept called the double lever effect. Usually this is the case when there is a sport competition such as the Olympics or a World Championship. When the control is increased. and thereby the sponsoring has been called association by event. EM (2) and EM (3) the organizations increase their control and also the risk is increased.” By using the commercial right. there is also a larger possibility for organizations to use the event 41 . the sponsor could associate the brand and have an effective selection of the target group to market themselves to. (upper left corner) there is always a business agreement between at least two parties. This kind of sponsoring limits the possibilities for the organization to market their products since they have no control over the happenings at the event. Today sponsorship is one of the world’s fastest growing forms of marketing and together with Event Marketing they begin to play a more dominant role in many companies´ marketing budgets. Fig 1.4: Traditional Marketing vs. Event Marketing When the organization is sponsoring an event. which Event Marketing does not necessarily have.between a sponsor and a property in which the sponsor pays a cash or in-kind fee in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with the property. etc.

and everything has to work during the event. All such events have a specific yield in terms of increased tourism.integrated with the other marketing strategies. There is no possibility to test the event for the target group. which are generally targeted at international markets.5: Control & risk depending on activity As we can see.11 SIZE OF EVENTS: In terms of size events maybe categorized as follows: 1. World Cup Soccer.5 shows how it comes to be a double lever effect: Fig 1. there is a risk in using Event Marketing. 1. Regional Events 42 . The risk associated with the event could be one of the reasons why some organizations choose to use pre-existing events instead of own events. 2. This fig 1. Example: The Olympic Games. Maha Kumbh Mela. Preexisting events are events that are created by someone else for another purpose. Mega Events The largest events are called mega events. Super Bowl. media coverage and economic impact.

Entertainment Arts and Culture Entertainment events are well known for their ability to attract large audience. Most frequently they include product launches. Minor Events Most events fall into this category and it is here that most event managers gain their experience. Example: Chinese New Year Celebrations. award ceremonies. celebrity performances. conventions. states and throughout the nation. exhibitions. Sporting Events Sporting events are held in all towns. 3.12 TYPES OF EVENTS: 1. celebrations. Commercial Marketing and Promotional Event Promotional events tend to have high budgets and high profiles.Regional events are designed to increase the appeal of a specific tourism destination or region. Example: Annual Trade Fair organized in Delhi. Chandipur Beach Festival 1. The aim of promotional events is generally to differentiate the product from its competitors and to ensure that it is memorable. there are many one time events including historical. Major Events These events attract significant local interest and large no of participants as well as generating significant tourism revenue. perfume. musical and dance performances. parties. They attract international sports men & women at the highest levels. movie releases and mahurats etc 3. often for computer hardware and software. alcohol or motor cars. cultural. 4. Annual events fall under this category. cities. This includes musical concerts. Meetings. Example: Delhi Half Marathon. sporting events and many other community and social event fit into this category. In addition to annual events. The audience for a promotional 43 . 2.

divorces and funerals all provide opportunities for families together. The media is usually invited to these events so that both the impact and the risk are high. As their general aim is raising funds. 7. Success is vital. whereas some meetings include only a handful of high profile participants. The effort in the organization required for these events are often underestimated. Wine and food festivals are the most common events falling under this category. 6. It is important for the event manager to keep track of these changing social trends. which are common in most communities. Festivals Various forms of festivals are increasingly popular providing a particular region the opportunity to showcase its product. speeches and even entertainment. anniversaries. Meetings & Exhibitions The meetings & convention industry is highly competitive.activity might be sales staff such as travel agents. are frequently run by enthusiastic local committees. revenue. 5. it is important that rides and other such contracted activities contribute to. Family Weddings. rather than reduce. Funerals are increasingly are becoming big events with non traditional coffins. 44 . who would promote the tour of the clients or potential purchasers. 4. Many conventions attract thousands of people. Fund Raising Fairs. Religious festivals fall into this category as well.

Miscellaneous Some events defy categorization.8. Potatoes. dogs. wild flowers.6: Key Elements of Event Marketing Event Organizers Femina with Fountainhead: Event Support Banyan Tree: Arrangements for classical music performance 45 . teddy bears all provide the focus for an event organized in United States. horses. roses. KEY ELEMENTS OF EVENTS Organizer Event Infrastructure Venue EVENT Target Audience Media Client Fig 1. walnuts.

Shiv Kumar Sharma accompanied by Ustad. models taking part in the competition and other performers during entertainment slots such as well known classical musicians.e. Importance of Infrastructure Indian business events. are underdeveloped as a result of poor infrastructure outside Delhi. Event Venue The two types of venue are as follows:  In-house Venue: Any event that is executed within the premises of the company or institution or in the private homes or proprieties belonging to the client is called an in-house venue. road shows which move around the country’s many secondary markets will also be significant income generators for some business media firms. Pt. particularly large trade fairs.  Core Structure: Annual event of beauty pageant.  Core Talent: Physical looks and proportions. traveling events.Hemant Trevedi with assistance from Noyonika Chatterjee: Choreography and Direction Omung Kumar Bhandula for Opus Planet Construction: Sets Event Infrastructure  Core Concept: Search for new top class modeling talent through a contest and pageant interspersed with entertainment. this will generate a huge opportunity for business media companies. The use of such venue is reserved for the employees of 46 .. If a new facility of international standard can finally be built in Mumbai. Smaller. Shafat Ali Khan and popular music by Sweta Shetty and Stereo Nation. New exhibition and convention centers developed in Chennai and Hyderabad will help spur the industry’s growth.  Core People: Participants i.

47 . Example of Key Elements of Event:  Event L’Oreal Femina Elite Model Look’98  Venue  Shoot location: The Retreat. Most in-house venues do not need to be paid or even if a payment is involved.  External Venue: Any venue over which neither the client nor the professional organizer have any ownership rights is called an external venue. Example: Hotels. Marve  Official Host: Taj Mahal Hotel  Target Audience Youth and Family though with a younger mindset or young at heart. Festivals such as Valentines Day or Holi sea venue playing the clients’ role for the event organizer.  Media  Pre-Event: Magazines and news papers to inform about event and call for entries with entry forms in them.the company or the residents of the campus. etc… Importance of Event Venue Events are venue driven. it may be open for favorable negotiation. The main advantage of in-house venue is the huge saving in the costs incurred in hiring the venue. Venue has a say in the very feasibility of a event concept. Stadium etc. They help in increasing the customer traffic. These are venues open for the general public.

Estelle.  During Event: Live coverage on DD2 for widest coverage. Electronic Medium: TV and FM Radio to inform target audience about event coverage. Global Tele-systems. Catwalk Shoes.  Clients  Main Sponsor: L’Oreal  Gifts Sponsors: Onida. Bosh and Lomb. date & time. Lakme. Sony Music.B Kedia/Anil Kedia Enterprise.  Communication Convenience: Global Tele-systems  Beverages: Coca-Cola 48 . The Orchids.  Interviews and appearance of winner on shows sponsored by L’Oreal on the electronic media. Siemens.  Report on the event in the print media. Trussardi.  Post Event: Re-telecast on Star Plus. Akbarallys Department Store.  Ground Transportation: Adarsh Rent-a-Car – an H.

Five years of research has shown that meetings and events can play a strategic role in driving business value within every organization. both in and out of the world of meetings and events. value proposition and (new) products/ services.2. Corporate executives. Current customers and prospects can benefit from meetings and events as they provide the greatest opportunity to learn about a company’s brand. now see the benefits that face-toface interactions can provide to their bottom line. Companies can derive business value from events to strengthen 49 . CRITICAL REVIEW OF LITERATURE EVENT MARKETING SURVEY 2006 – conducted by Fifth Edition of Global Study Shows Steady March of Events Business at the Dawn of a New Era The secret is out.

The proportion of the overall marketing budget dedicated to event marketing decreased slightly from the prior year. 2. CMOs continue to face mounting pressure to show ever-increasing value and return on their investments. however. none of these indicators should be taken as a sign of a downward trend within the event marketing industry. Three key indicators in Chart 1 show. 3. The importance of event marketing has remained virtually constant from the prior year. it continues to face increasing scrutiny as it slides under the CFO’s budgeting microscope. these are clear signs of an industry that is stabilizing and showing signs of maturation. Additionally. Enter the CMO’s white knight in the quest for the enigmatic and much sought after integrated marketing campaign — the evolution from event marketing to experiential marketing — an integrated campaign model offering the opportunity for an audience to 50 .product or brand awareness. 2. differentiate from the competition. educate or train employees and ultimately increase sales.1 A Watershed Event: While the meeting and events industry may be developing a beachhead within companies’ marketing mixes. The perceived future importance of event marketing has declined less than 3% from 2005. an interesting change from 2005: 1. In fact. While these results at first glance could be considered disappointing.

high level findings from the 2006 global research indicate that overall. high technology. companies face ever-increasing financial pressures to generate additional revenues and improve profit margins. It is not surprising therefore to see that almost one third of the marketing professionals surveyed this year stated that their top marketing concern currently is reaching new customers. Building brand awareness was respondents’ second most frequent concern. 2.“live the brand. perhaps due in part to the high visibility gained in years past. awareness of and interest in experiential marketing has the opportunity to bring the meetings and events industry to new heights. Event marketing professionals must therefore develop either more focused traditional tactics or adopt new approaches such as experiential marketing. Europe and Asia Pacific in industries including automotive. healthcare. event marketing professionals should consider these early signs as an insightful call to action to innovate and create opportunities for even greater ROI. almost 900 individuals in marketing management positions from North America.3 The Role of Event Marketing Remains Important In the Marketing Mix: As the world economy continues its 2006 recovery.” Although it is too soon to measure how transformational the evolution to experiential marketing will be for the meetings and events industry. 2. coming in at a distant 13%. and financial were interviewed via telephone with hopes of bringing clarity to the events component of the marketing mix as it compares to other elements in a marketer’s arsenal. Globalization has created a myriad of new opportunities for companies but has simultaneously brought with it new challenges in terms of newfound competitors vying for the same pool of clients and the inherent need to communicate one cohesive message to the diversifying marketplace. As opposed to potentially being discouraged by these findings.2 THE KEY TAKE AWAY: Event marketing continues to play an important role in the corporate setting but has seen some minor setbacks in growth patterns from prior years in terms of perceived importance and value. Between May and June 2006. 51 .

almost 50% of respondents stated that the future importance of event marketing was either increasing or increasing strongly. Another sign of the evolution of companies’ marketing mix appears in the budget allocations for events.Due to the increased competitive pressures. Much like in 2005. Although the current marketing mix shows in Chart 2 a slight decline as compared to last year. Furthermore.4 EVENT MARKETING CONTINUES TO DELIVER ROI: 52 . It is perhaps because of this need to freshen the marketing mix that we see survey respondents’ state that event marketing was either a lead tactic or vital component of the marketing plan slightly less than half the time (49%) — a slight decrease from last year insofar as it was less of a vital component and taken more under consideration with other mediums. 2. an additional 40% of respondents stated that the future importance would remain constant. local and global must therefore constantly evaluate the mix of marketing tactics to ensure the best possible approach at reaching both current and potential customers. companies large and small. This stability in event marketing’s role is corroborated by the fact that event marketing represents more than 25% of survey respondents’ overall marketing budget. 59% of respondents stated that the majority of their event marketing budget is currently allocated to trade shows while 35% are spent on conferences. This latter figure shows a dramatic drop from the prior year’s figure of 47% and further augments the current shift towards a focus on lead acquisition. which is only slightly less than a one percent reduction from last year’s figure.

the data also shows conflicting information insofar as event marketing remains the marketing element that provides by far the highest returns on investment. in-person. The most common reasons given for event marketing’s high returns on investment come from the fact that it provides the greatest opportunity for direct. face-to-face contact (58%) and that it provides the best opportunity to reach a targeted audience (45%).Although the results of this year’s survey suggest that the current role of event marketing may have slipped slightly in companies’ marketing mix. Chart 3 shows that almost one in four respondents to the 2006 survey believes that event marketing provides the greatest ROI in Marketing. 53 . Survey respondents also attribute event marketing’s high ROI to the fact that it provides one of the only opportunities to reach a large and engaged audience in one venue (28%). Although the figure is almost identical to last year’s estimate (and decreasing over time). it is a statistical bragging right that event marketing has held for the last three straight years. as well as four of the five years of this study (see Chart 4).

Turning to specific types of events. the survey results show that Trade shows (40%) followed by conferences and seminars (21%) are the external events that are believed to provide the greatest ROI due primarily to their ability to attract new customers. but there has also been a slight increase in the marketing budget allocated to measurement — up one tick from last year — to 12%. The survey data shows that not only has the number of companies who measure increased considerably from last year. The most common tools used to calculate these KPI were sales reports (28%). When asked what key performance indicators (KPI) companies were measuring. onsite surveys (26%) and post event surveys (24%). When asked to look at their internal events. respondents cited education/training events (41%) followed by sales or marketing meetings (28%) as the internal events those are deemed to provide the greatest ROI. 2.5 MEASUREMENT IMPACT EVENT MARKETING BUDGET: Seventy-one percent of respondents to this year’s survey (see Chart 5) cite that they do engage in some post-event measurement activities. it is also the highest rate of measurement recorded in the history of this study. Not only is this a significant increase from last year’s 60% mark. 54 . This is a clear sign that event marketing professionals and CMOs continue to need to demonstrate the ROI that comes from producing successful events as greater financial scrutiny comes from corporate finance departments. over one third of respondents (36%) cited number of qualified leads. with overall communication effectiveness and sales increases each receiving 31% of the votes.

Not only have a significant number of companies tried some experience marketing strategies. if not revolutionary step within the world of events. direct. Senior marketing professionals are looking beyond traditional event marketing tactics for an integrated campaign that offers the opportunity for an audience to interact with a company’s product/service and its brand before. As can be seen in Chart 6. Over half of survey respondents (55%) in fact gave this definition to the term “experience marketing. This data is further proof that tangibly demonstrating the value of an event marketing program can significantly increase the chances of getting increased funding. companies who do engage in some form of measurement are three times more likely to see an increase in their budgets than those who do not engage in any measurement. A remarkable 55 . 2. CMOs and event marketing professionals are now looking for a solution that can provide a more complete approach to interacting with customers and prospects. this year’s survey does show one striking benefit of measurement. during and after event(s) through the combination of advertising.” This year’s research also shows that 80% of respondents are currently adding experiencing marketing in some form or another to their marketing mix.6 TRANSITION TO EXPERIENCE MARKETING: As the event marketing industry faces continues to face mounting pressures from the business world to demonstrate value.Although measurement should not be considered a panacea for event marketing’s need to demonstrate value. event marketing professionals find themselves in need to move towards the next evolutionary. but a vast majority also feels as if there are tangible benefits to the updated approach. interactive and traditional event marketing.

was originated in 2002 by The George P.87% have said that they may eventually transition towards experiential marketing. Johnson Company. The second most frequent reason given was that it provides an opportunity to leverage marketing spend across all of a company’s marketing disciplines. About This Study EventView. 56 . while 74% have definitively said they will be moving forward with more experiential marketing within the next twelve months (see Chart 7). Although rooted heavily in event marketing. It is as evolutionary as it is revolutionary in as much as it brings new meaning to the term “integrated marketing campaign. EventView is the number-one published event marketing trends report globally and the longest-running study for the event marketing industry. Marketing and event marketing professionals who can effectively cross this chasm and adapt to this new paradigm have a great opportunity to become leaders within their organizations. Now in its fifth year. experience marketing should be considered a hybrid of many disparate forms of marketing finally coming together looking to cohesively interact with the customer.” Experience marketing provides a unique opportunity to redefine the marketing landscape as well as how companies interact with customers and prospects. The MPI Foundation has co-sponsored this important research since 2003. the annual and first-of-its-kind event marketing trends study for senior marketing executives. The most common reason given by survey respondents for moving towards experience marketing was that it provides a better method to convey the persuasive difference between their brand and the competition’s. providing the insight and guidance corporations and event marketing professionals within this field need to develop strategic marketing programs.

Europe and Asia Pacific in industries including automotive. and financial were interviewed via telephone with hopes of bringing clarity to the events component of the marketing mix as it compares to other elements in a marketer’s arsenal. The results of the 2006 survey have a +/− 3% margin of error. high technology. 57 .Between May and June 2006. almost 900 individuals in marketing management positions from North America. healthcare.

EVENT MANAGEMENT AS A PROMOTIONAL TOOL 3. etc 5. Customization of the event according to brand personality. budgets. Canvassing for sponsors.1 EVENT DESIGNING: 1. Costing involves calculation of the cost of production and safety margins 3.3. Carrying-out involves execution of the event according to the final concept 58 . customers and networking components 4. Conceptualization of the creative idea/ambience 2.

7: Event Designing Concept Example:     Event Event Category Event Organizers : Holi : Fairs & Festivals : A2Z Events Core Concept of Holi 59 .Canvassing Initial Concept Conceptuali -zation Customization Costing Final Concept Carry-Out EVENT Fig 1.

of Audience  Ambience  Costing  Event Type  : RANG BARSE : Mumbai : Parking lot of an amusement park : 1997 : 2 Days : City dwelling families : 1500 : Rural Mela : Rs. It draws its origin from the Hindu Mythological event in which Prahalad emerges unscathed from a fire arranged by his father King Hiranyakashyap and aunt Holika to kill him. 10 lakhs Canvassing Many corporates were approached with the initial concept to sponsor the event. 7 lakhs : Partially sponsor and partially ticketed Initial Concept For Holi 2000 A2Z wanted to repeat the previous year’s event ad verbatim  Costing Costing for Holi 2000 worked out to Rs. 60 .  Background  Title of the Event  Place  Venue  Year  Duration  Target Audience  No. A leading soft drinks company could be persuaded to fully sponsor the event. The leads generated through canvassing for sponsors and negotiation with venue owners gave a strong impetus and indication of success for a particular variation. It’s a symbolic gesture. celebrating good harvest and fertility.It is a celebration to mark the onset of spring and the harvest season.

of participants. The budget was needed to be drastically reduced to Rs. The source is the organization. The direct communication with the customer is one of the main advantages 61 . receiver and the process of encoding and decoding. Final Concept and Carrying Out Constraint of budget and specific requirement of the client changed the initial concept of a two day program to a 3 hour forenoon program titled “HOLI GYRATIONS 2000”. there would be hardly anything else actually happening. The carry out stage involved being exceptionally careful and prepared for eventualities such as hazards of drunken misbehavior of the youth even though liquor was not allowed inside the venue. The program essentially revolved around a color rain dance and color blast for young people with coverage on a popular youth oriented music channel on the television. It was also decided to use the event coverage as software for future use by the channel. 2lakhs per center and the event was to be simultaneously conducted in 5 locations spread across the country.Customization The target audience of the soft drink company was pre-dominantly was fun-seeking youth. Now the event was fully sponsored show for a single sponsor with invitations to a limited no. Those elements include source. The interaction revolved around a popular VJ anchoring the show and except for dancing. and attendees are the receivers. and thereby influence the effect it has on the customer. red and blue. The initial concept needed to be changed from a family oriented event to a youthful event. The carry out stage gets completely taken over by the music channel. 3. the message could be a new car launch. the channel could be the event. The show was fully customized to give pre-dominant importance to the sponsors’ colors viz. channel. message. A problem many marketers have is to make sure that the noise that can disturb the message going from the sender to the receiver does not interfere with the message.2 COMMUNICATION EFFECTS OF EVENT MARKETING: Communication is the process of moving a message that includes different elements.

but by touching the customers’ emotional feelings. customers will not buy just the product. They do this not by “pushing” their products at the customers. how to get the three prior dimensions into action and to inform the customers through all marketing channels.with Event Marketing compared to other marketing channels. but the meaning. Some researchers say that in the future. The Event Marketing is a form of “pull” marketing. Fig 1. the event and 62 . The fourth dimension is the spatial dimension. he/she is informed of the value of the product. In the definition of Event Marketing. The third dimension is the intellectual dimension and it regards the relevance of the event for the customers.8: Communication Process in Event Marketing Event Marketing is marketing communication in four different dimensions. where the organizations try to get closer to the feelings and emotions of the customers. An example of this in the car industry is the test-driving of new cars. The first one is the emotional communication method. When the customer gets a feeling from a product.” This means that the event is eliminated from the noise. it is said that “an event is an activity that gathers the target group in time and room. The second dimension touches the customers by involving them in activities.

Their effectiveness is lost due to cut throat competition which is leading to undesirable clutter in all kinds of media including internet. Event as a strategic 63 .9: Position of Events and traditional modes of communication vis-à-vis the life cycle stage Events Traditional Modes of Communication With Regard to the competitive position of events as a medium and the life cycle stage it is in vis-à-vis other marketing communication media. it is clear that: Traditional ways of marketing communication in the Fig 1. Relative Importance of Events as a Marketing Communication Tool Dominant Relative Position Strong Favorable Tentative Weak Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Life Cycle Stages Fig 1. which in turn give the customers the possibility to create their own value for the product.the character. An event as a medium is in a tentative/favorable position now and will continue to remain so in the near future and tend towards becoming stronger.9 are moving from the growth phase into the maturity stage.

The above ratio is usually found to be greater than 1 in practice. press. Measuring Interaction 64 . since events require massive external publicity. Measuring Reach Reach is of two types – external and actual. 3. The DART & TRP ratings that rate the popularity of programs on air and around which the promotion is slotted.3 EVALUATION OF EVENTS: 1. Ideally. External Reach Actual Reach >1 2. Measurement of external reach should be tempered with the timings of the promotions as effectiveness of recall and action initiated among the target audience is highly dependent on this important variable. This is because the target audience is derived from the target population which is invariably very large. A ratio of the external reach to the actual event reach is a very tangible and useful measurement criteria. radio. It is impractical to assume that all the constituents of the target population can make it to the communication tool would gain significant followers and will bite into a much larger portion of the marketing budget. External Reach Actual Reach =1 The ideal situation in real life is very rare since the external reach gets drastically reduced in terms of reaching out to the target audience and is therefore impractical in most cases. television and other media are needed to ensure that the event is noticed and the benefit of reach is provided to the client. External reach can be measured by using the circulation figures of newspapers and promotion on television and radio.

of interaction points The no. the better for the client. These are as follows:  No. The greater the no. of interaction. of interactions The opportunity for interaction between the client and the audience before.  No. A certain amount of quantifiable data can be of help in measuring interaction for an event from the clients’ point of view. of interaction points the better for the client. of direct and indirect interaction points that have been planned and arranged for an event provide the first important measurement tool. compared to reach. it is much more difficult to access the interaction between the audience and the event and the benefit that accrues to the client. The greater the opportunity for increasing the no. Quantified Objectives 65 .In most event categories. The amount of time that is available for interaction is very important in that the greater the duration of the interaction. Important Points To Consider When Evaluating Event Marketing 1. more are the chances that there are some meaningful and decisive interaction between the client and the audience. during and after the event is also a very tangible measurement criterion.  Quality of interactions One-way or two-way communication during interaction has a profound impact on the quality of interaction that takes place. The quality of interaction is perceived as good when there is an avenue for two-way interaction  Time duration of interaction Every event has a limited time period within which both benefits the other issues such as controversies are effective.

If it is too. Image focuses on how certain groups perceive a product or brand and refers to the way these groups decode the signals transmitted by the product service and communication of the brand. If the goal is challenging. Positioning vs. but at the same time it has to be realistic. The one reason why Event Marketing is not measured also depends on the objectives. image and identity for the products. Evaluation Event Marketing is often used to create brand awareness. result oriented. realistic. but that they are short-time objectives. Whatever the goal is. The most common criteria for a goal to be valid is that it has a time limit. The purpose of identity. the easiest one to evaluate is the one that is expressed and quantified. while the image is how the consumers experience the brand. they can sell more products. Identity Identity is what the organization wants to stand for. Identity. In regards to Event Marketing it could be said that the 66 . measurable. This section shows that depending on the brand-awareness and how the product is positioned. it is more interesting to try to reach it. The Image is on the receiver’s side. Image. Time limit and measurable goals give a possibility to do a qualitative study. on the other hand. Event Marketing can have both a communicative as well as a teaching approach for the customer. clear and that it could be followed. The differences between identity and image are that identity is as mentioned earlier what the franchiser intends to represent. The cornerstone in the evaluation of events lies in the objective of the event.The reason why some people think that it is not possible to evaluate events is that they have used Event Marketing without a specific purpose or objective. while the identity is on the sender’s side. It is important that they are clear so that everyone understands them and that they can easily be followed by developing a strategy for how to reach 2. is challenging. is to specify the brand’s meaning. aim and self-image. simple it is not inspiring to work for. Event Marketing can have different objectives and it is usually not directly to increase direct sales.

” An event can give the customer a clear picture of the corporate identity that the company is striving for. By doing this. This shows that part of the brand advantages lies in the possibility to influence the individual’s identity. Using Event Marketing can also differentiate the product for the customer by making the value of the brand stronger for the customer’s identity. and to myself?” The brand of a product can symbolize a part of the individual customer’s identity. ethics. and to make possible his/her relation to other individuals and in this way strengthen their value community. “who am I in regards to the surroundings. service. social responsibility. The brand is seen as an independent method of competition. The event in Event Marketing can be seen as a value community. there is a possibility to differentiate the brand from other brands. the happening and the message will give the individual a picture of him/herself. Through the event. These key factors could be the communication that the organization has the physical environment. and the product gives the brand the physical proof of that promise. Event Marketing can offer the individual a short-track to belonging by letting the individual attend an event. Usually the image consists of different key factors that the customer receives during different times and in different places. humans have needs that need to be satisfied. engagement in social and local happenings.organization sends away an Identity at the event and the customers receive it as an image of the product or organization. The brand can create a promise for the customer. and a definition is “how the consumers experience the brand. The Value community creates groups. and a sense of belonging with other individuals. where three concepts for group development need to be filled in order to create group belonging. The identity for a customer means. Identity comes from Latin and means “same”. and the behavior of representatives from the organization 67 . In regards to Maslow’s thoughts. products. Image Image is how the customer understands and looks upon the product.

However before using and trying to get media attention to an event it requires a careful analysis of the purpose. This is especially true when the differences between the brands are small. facilitate new employment.0: Image Building The experience at the event may of course result in direct sales. but normally they help to build image and create positive associations around the brand that will lead to more sales later on. Positioning & Branding 68 . benefits and to see if the media is available to deliver the appropriate message.Fig 2. A positive image can lead to not only increased sales. However. Exposure Rate: A way to measure the Image that the event has created could be done by looking at their exposure rate. and facilitate crises. even though the main objective with the event is not to change or build image. There are many different organizations that are working with observing the media and can deliver the exact amount of times a name of a brand or product figured in the media. increase the tolerance of customers. but it can also strengthen the relationships with all interesting parties within and outside the organization. there is always a possibility for the customer to change his/her opinion and image of the organization. Image can create lots of competitive advantages compared to other brands.

The last perspective. to know the customer better. Products are becoming more and more alike. the customer perspective. involves the relationship between the customer and the organization. The value of the brand lies in the mind of the potential buyers. They are: total perspective. The positioning is a two-stage process. it is extremely important to have a specific positioning in the customer’s mind. An event is the physical meeting between customer and organization. product perspective. It is important to create an image and a correct positioning for customers that create differentiation between products. The idea behind positioning is to create brand awareness. The idea behind positioning is to create brand awareness. The positioning distinguishes brands from each other and creates a place on the market and in the consumer’s minds for a particular project. offer a better product that is newer. cheaper. 69 . and not with the business itself. According to Kotler. if the brand is seen as having a personality and symbolizing certain values. and the positioning of the product. This is due to the fact that the brand has an emotional appeal to the consumers. produces trustworthy products at a reasonable price. and thereby reply to their needs faster. and customer perspective. more value for money. Branding is part of the marketing strategy and product differentiation. indicating which category the brand should be placed in and the differences between the brands in this category. and thereby Event Marketing can be used as a tool to build relationships and create differentiation. A trend within Event Marketing is to involve more cultural aspects at events. which ideally leads to long-term brand loyalty. An organization has three main perspectives for differentiation.When a company has decided to use Event Marketing they need to understand how Event Marketing can change the perception of the product in the customers mind. Direct advantage of using Event Marketing is that it creates high brand awareness around the product. with unique selling attributes. due to the fact that if a similar product has the same positioning there is no need for the customer to buy your product. faster. A company needs to diversify its product from competitors´ products. The brand can communicate more directly with the consumer than the product itself can.

The cultural aspects of events are not used extensively today. He further argues that culture and brand strategy go hand in hand. Over time, a relationship between the customer and the product can be developed into brand loyalty. This loyalty is characterized by a positive attitude towards the brand, and over time continued purchase of the same brand. A company seeks high brand loyalty because it creates stability and provides an opportunity to gain high market share and profit. The development of brand loyalty can be seen as a three-step model. The first step is to create an interest for the product in the consumer. When time has past, the consumers will simplify their buying detour through the product and the connection between the brand and the target audience is strengthened. The third step is where brand recognition is created, which is important for creating the long-term brand loyalty.

Events less Complex to Evaluate According to the interviewees, depending on the purpose and objective of the event, some of them are easier to evaluate than others. The interviewed people said that the depending on the relationship between event and the customer, the contact and knowledge of whom exactly attended the event decides weather it is easy or not to evaluate the event. Most brand-awareness events focus on the long-term success of the organization. Events that are easier to evaluate are, according to Orreving, events where you know exactly who was there, and where you can control the environment. If it is a VIP event at a dealership where it is possible to see who was actually there, it is easier to follow up with questionnaires and to see if they actually bought a product.

The Complexity of Evaluating Event Marketing An event is concerned with a message, an interaction and integration. A message creates something valuable for the customer, and gives the customer some kind of experience. The interaction between the organization and the customer will create a relationship. The integration part is concerned with how the Event Marketing is part of the other marketing strategies. Event Marketing are not being evaluated to full extent due to lack-of time, 70

ignorance and due to the fact that it is hard to evaluate it. Some of the interviewed persons agreed with this theory, and believed that ignorance made evaluation complicated. Furthermore, evaluations not conducted due to lack of time. The interviews also discussed that Event Marketing is only one of the possible marketing channels that can be used when marketing a product, and therefore it is hard to evaluate it separately from the other marketing tools. The more complex the marketing strategy, the harder it is to see what influenced the customer to buy the product. Other reasons why it could be hard to evaluate the event is because someone’s experience cannot be valued on a scale, and the interaction as a relation is not measurable. Furthermore, depending on all other marketing aspects it is hard to see why the customer has a specific feeling for a product. Kotler claims that the easiest marketing channel to evaluate is direct marketing. By using direct marketing it is easy to follow up exactly where the customers have seen the coupons, brochures etc. However, none of the interviewed persons mentioned that it would be easier to evaluate direct marketing than Event Marketing. It is as easy to argue against direct marketing as being the perfect measurable evaluation technique as it is to argue that Event Marketing should be trickier to evaluate. This is due to the fact that there is a possibility that the customers could be affected by other parts of the marketing as they are when it looks like it is the direct marketing that has made them buy a product. As long as more than one tool of the marketing mix is used, there is always a possibility that the customers can be affected by them, and thereby there is no 100% accurate evaluation tool. The reason why it might be considered hard to evaluate an event depends on the fact that it is hard to evaluate the intangible aspects of the event. When asking the interviewed people to elaborate on intangible factors, such as the weather affecting the event, most of them were sure that that just the weather was not of importance for the success of the event, and therefore there was no need to try to evaluate it. There are factors that can not be evaluated, and that instead the focus should be on the factors that can be evaluated. This could be interpreted in the following way: since there is no possibility to evaluate the event comparing to the external social happenings, the only way to elaborate on the example weather is to work with the weather and use it. If possible, the external factors 71

should be eliminated, but if that is not possible the event should try to use them and thereby work for the event.


Event Venue Category Event Organizer Client Theme

: Olympic Games 2000 : Sydney, Australia : Competitive – Sports : IOC : General Electric, NBC : Amateur sports competition to promote world peace.

Measurement Criteria: Reach increase for cable mediums MSNBC & CNBC, % increase revenues for client. Reach External Actual : Global (over 197 countries) : Prime time audience (approx. 18.25 million)

Event Evaluation Advertisements sales increase from $ 680 million at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games to $ 900 million for the Sydney Olympic Games 2000. MSNBC’s reach in terms of the subscriber base expected to increase from 59 million to 70 million. CNBC’s reach in terms of the subscriber base expected to increase from 74 million to 80 million.


Such events have a broad based character and high media coverage.3. especially so on cricket in India. The fact that 73 . each category can be designed in such a way as to change the degree of reach and interaction.4 REACH INTERACTION MATRIX: The reach interaction matrix summarizes the generic characteristics of each of the category to enable a bird’s eye view on events. However. REACH High Exhibition Cultural Special Business Low INTERACTION Low High Competitive Charitable Artistic Fig 2.1: Reach Interaction Matrix Amongst the various categories corporate interest have been concentrated on competitive events. This implies high reach and added excitement through live coverage on various popular channels. Post-event benefits trough highlights aid in the event recall over and above the normal benefits that an event can offer.

this can be accomplished by spending at least two or three rupees per rupee invested in the sponsorship.  Pre-Post Show Surveys Often used to measure less tangible variables like brand awareness or perceived competitive positioning. and then sample another batch as they are leaving the exhibit hall toward the end of the event. event logo usage. As a rule.interaction is given short shrift is an anomaly that needs to be corrected. on-site signage. and myriad multilevel cross-promotions. special business events. the sponsorship fee is just a mere ante. Quantitative In the world of trade shows and corporate events. Leveraging your sponsorship includes an integrated marketing program involving product sampling. In other words. Even if you use lead generation forecasts or gross margin from show sales to measure ROI on an event. a survey can help you understand the reasons why the business event performed the way it did. ROI MEASUREMENT TOOLS: 1. then by exhibitions. Prepost surveys are effective in measuring changes in variables such as: 74 . The need to leverage the maximum benefits of the sponsorship is of the highest priority. cultural & charitable events in that order for popularity with event-savvy sponsors. and you must budget to properly exploit the product that you have just purchased. Too many companies spend the big bucks to get into the event marketing business and then never do anything with it.5 RETURN ON INVESTMENT: Solely coming up with the sponsorship fee (cash expenditure paid out to be associated with the event) for a specific event is not nearly enough of a guarantee for tangible business results. pre-post surveys sample a group of attendees on their way into the exhibit hall at the beginning of the trade show. 3. surveys are a frequent choice for evaluating results. Competitive events are closely followed by events for artistic expression.

and requests that they answer some quick questions. you may want to survey the entire attendee population. especially for exhibitors using a sizable booth footprint. is that it allows mid-course correction of any problems uncovered. Depending on your information needs. Brand awareness  Memorability or recall of key messages  Attitude or image change  Message impact  New product consideration  Audience profile  Booth Exit Interviews To measure the immediate effectiveness of the booth and attendee experience there. Exit interviews can explore such areas as:  What prompted you to visit the booth?  Were you treated well by the staff?  Did someone approach you right away?  How useful was the product demo?  As a result of your visit to the booth. how likely are you to add the company to your short list of considered vendors? One of the big advantages of the exit interview. the people who visited your booth.  Post-Event Surveys Contacting a sample of show attendees to ask questions about their experience is another method of evaluating trade show and corporate event results. when done early in the business event. an exit interview can be helpful. or the group that participated in a 75 . An interviewer intercepts visitors on their way out of the booth.

Surveys typically support the following event objectives:  profile  Obtain feedback on your exhibit’s ability to attract and Perform detailed reporting and benchmarking of the attendee communicate with high-potential prospects   Benchmark your performance against the competition Provide clues as to the value of your investment in events compared to other elements in the marketing mix Post-show surveys can be used to explore such issues as:  Audience quality  Audience motivation for attending the trade show  Attendee activity at the trade show  Strengths and weaknesses of your exhibit. Following are a few of the more beneficial qualitative approaches.  Mystery Shopping If you’re looking for an objective means of analyzing your booth’s effectiveness. signage  Competitive comparisons  Which products are most effective to exhibit or demonstrate  Effectiveness of promotions and premiums  Audience attendance/experience at other trade shows 2. design. consider hiring a professional evaluator to “mystery shop” your booth and assess 76 . Qualitative Tools: Qualitative metrics. staff.certain activity at the business event. can be helpful in assessing your performance. while not projectable to the entire population.

and a rich source of data on most elements of interest. noting which were invited in advance by the sales team to visit the booth or attend a business event. speaking. Distribute the list to booth staff and other company representatives at the trade show. Such comments as “Booth was crowded. Provide them with a form to fill out that covers 77 .” “Mostly junior people.6 KEY ACCOUNT OR KEY PROSPECT ANALYSIS: Keeping track of key account attendance can be an important success metric. Assign competitive sleuthing duty to several of your booth staff and other company attendees. especially at trade shows where you expect a relatively high level of current customer attendance.  One Word of Caution Don’t rely too heavily on informal feedback from booth staff and senior management when assessing the value of the trade show. Staff feedback forms can be used for continuous improvement in training. and other marketing tactics during the trade show. Competitive Analysis Assessing the presence of the competition is best approached qualitatively. placement. Subsequent analysis of customer spending correlated to contact points can often then help identify the relative importance of the trade show visit in helping to secure orders from specific customers. Many trade show consultants offer this service.” and “Felt light to me” can do more harm than good. Ask them to check off any who were engaged in conversation. Make a list of key accounts. Check the trade show guide to see who among your competitors is exhibiting. exhibit effectiveness. and make other comments. 3.  Staff Feedback The booth staff is your first line of customer contact.the experience from the point of view of a customer or prospect. or sponsoring events. if possible.

and how much questions of the company:  Who are the target buyers?  What sources of uniqueness or positioning in the market does your product have? 78 . what. staff size.7 HOW BUILD A SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS PROMOTION AND MARKETING PLAN: A good marketing plan summarizes the who. Fig 2. etc.such items as booth size and location. visitor experience.2: Business Event Objectives and Associated Metrics 3. products featured. where. when.

and possible R&D and market research expenditure strategies. it may contain a summary of quarterly promotion and advertising plans. For example. It is the marketing plan that details when expenditures will be made. spending. what level of sales will be achieved. The major elements of a marketing plan:  The situation analysis describes the total marketing environment in which the company competes and the status of company products and distribution channels. competitive market segments the company will compete in.  The marketing strategy section provides the company's marketing strategy statement. Where will you implement your marketing spending plans?  When will marketing spending plans occur?  How much sales. marketing spending strategy with advertising and promotion. price strategy versus the competition. The sales and marketing plan outlines each specific marketing event or action plan to increase sales. 79 . timing. the reasons why it is unique or compelling to buyers. summarizing the key target buyer description.  The goals and objectives section outlines major company goals and the marketing and financial objectives. and share or shipment goals for each program. with spending.  The opportunity and issue analysis analyses the major external opportunities and threats to the company and the internal strengths and weaknesses of the company. the unique positioning of the company and its products compared to the competition. and profits will you achieve? The financial projections contained in your business plan are based on the assumptions contained in your marketing plan. along with a discussion of key issues facing the company. and how and when advertising and promotional expenditures will be made.

80 . radio and TV shows. and share or shipment goals for each program.  Keep your eyes open for "specialized" newsletters. but don't promise what you can not deliver. on a topic related to your product or service at appropriate fora. or other publications which might welcome an article written by you.  Get on the Internet and connect to the world with your own home page. newspapers. tell what your product or services can do. Remember marketing is the face you show to public.  Take out an ad in a publication of a local group. Some of the ways to market your product or service are  Write letters (on issues and news items that have SOME relation to your business) to the editors of local papers. timing. bookmarks or pens) that are useful and give details of your business. it may contain a summary of quarterly promotion and advertising plans. highlighting uniqueness and quality of the product.  Send news releases about your products and your business to local papers. For example.  Offer to make presentations. Marketing is becoming an ever important tool in the present competitive scenario. with spending.  Have give-aways (e.g. Check the content and layout before releasing an advertisement or distributing pamphlet.The sales and marketing plan outlines each specific marketing event or action plan to increase sales.

etc Fig 2. Retrenchment.8 STRAGEGIC ALTERNATIVES: STRAGEGIC ANALYSES ALTERNATIVES ARISING FROM ENVIRONMENTAL INTERNAL STRENGTHS OPPORTUNITIES Maintenance Strategy Utilizing company’s strengths to take maximum advantage of opportunity WEAKNESSES Developmental Strategy Maximize Opportunities by minimizing weaknesses EXTERNAL THREATS Pre-Emptive Strategy Maximizing strengths and their usage to overcome threats Survival Strategy Minimizing both weaknesses and threats by considering options such as: Joint Ventures.3: SWOT Based Strategy Matrix Maintenance Strategy 81 .3. Liquidation.

Developmental Strategy To gin advantage of potential opportunities while not having sufficient strengths calls for gaining a winning edge by using tactical retreats where irrelevant yet not giving up. Selecting which one to tackle requires careful study since some points of strength could get eroded if used unnecessarily. This is the perfect position to be in. Pre-emptive Strategy This strategy is usually used by entrenched market leaders on new entrants on their turf. Beyond this. the maintenance strategy provides reasons to carry out activities that maximize available advantages. This is a very powerful and aggressive strategy as it requires foresight to fully understand the threats looming on the horizon.Arising from a situation of strength and favorable opportunities. The event company here can well afford to be aggressive knowing very well that it has the relevant strengths to back its claim on the opportunity. Analogy here could be from the game of test cricket where a side that knows victory is impossible also knows that it can ward off a defeat by trying for a draw. It requires passive and defensive strategy. Potential threats are nipped in the bird by exercising the full power of the company’s strength. every activity gets focused on maintaining the winning edge and the lead over competitors. This can be called a developmental strategy where one tries to make the most of the opportunity by not giving in to weakness. This strategy gives license to take decisions like leasing one’s soul to the devil if only with an 82 . which attacks relevant opportunities in such a way as to cover up on inherent weakness. Survival Strategy This strategy is used to ensure that the company is alive for a battle on another day when it will have the requisite strengths to grab its share of opportunities in the market.

it allows one to make drastic decisions in the face of harsh environment. EVENT CONCEPTS USE EXISTING COMPETE CREATE NEW Sustenance Strategy Manage critical success factors more effectively Rebuttal Strategy Respond to new initiatives by competition with a similar move COMPETITION AVOID HEAD-ON CONFLICT Venture Strategy Accomplishment Strategy Relative superiority Exploit competitor’s weakness Maximize user benefits by using path breaking.intent to retrieve it later.4: Concept vs. which can lead to more detailed and in-depth strategic alternatives. trend setting initiatives to take a lead vis-à-vis competition by being first in the market. Competition Matrix 83 . In plain words. Fig 2. STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES ARISING FROM COMPETITIVE ALANYSIS Further to the strategy from the environmental analysis a mapping of event concepts can be used as a variable component along with decisions on facing competition.

The disadvantage lies in the fact that the first mover advantage is lost. Rebuttal Strategy If the competition forces new concepts first than the rebuttal strategy should be used. This may even involve a 84 . essentially says that stick to the winning concepts and exploit the fact that competition cannot offer a similar quality concept and thereby wants to avoid a head-on conflict by itself.Sustenance Strategy This is a strategy to be used when faced with no options but to take on the adversary with the existing arsenal of event concepts that may be out dated or still current but nearing the end of its life cycle. Venture Strategy This strategy envisages making use of the first mover advantage by creating new concepts ahead of competition thereby creating niche markets. This strategy. Successful concepts need to be brushed up and revamped to meet customer expectations in the face of competitive offerings. In this. therefore. Accomplishment Strategy This strategy is viable when an existing concept is doing better than any of the competitors’ equivalent offering. the event company can launch its own new concepts of a similar vein and regain its dominant position by aggressively promoting the same as a better alternative. It becomes essential that the event company manage its resources and advantages in terms of CSFs that have been identified with greater efficacy. The danger here is that competition may use any of the other strategic alternatives available to a challenger to combat the situation. This way the education of the market about the new concept is left to the new competition and an advantage gained is that market reaction to certain new concepts is fore known.

By maximizing user benefits and creating path breaking trend setting concepts the event company positions itself to take a lead vis-à-vis competition by being first in the market. This is a double-edge strategy in that failure is as devastating as the benefits of a successful of market segmentation. STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES ARISING FROM DEFINED OBJECTIVES EVENT CONCEPTS EXISTING NEW EXISTING RETAIN CLIENTS INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF CLIENTS CLIENTS NEW INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF CONCEPTS MARKET DEVELOPMENT Fig 2.5: Client/Concept Fit Matrix The above matrix provides options that event organizers have an offer in terms of concepts and their market. The basic strategic alternatives here revolve around whether 85 .

a strategy of increasing business from increasing clients can be discerned. in the fact that. the concept of strategic perspective to growth through and along with clients is a major decision to be taken by an event agency having major growth plans. Similarly by offering an existing event to a new client.the objective is to retain customers or market development. a strategy of increasing productivity of the event concept can be followed. Therefore. events as a business proposition for corporatization is relatively nascent in nature. These objectives further lead to the strategic options of achieving them either to customization or new concept development. 86 . This model deals with the strategic options available by playing off objectives relating to market development against growth in competition. PREP MODEL This framework has its roots. By offering new concepts to a existing customers.

6: PREP Matrix The above matrix provides the choices before the event company when it comes to a trade off between clients and competition in terms of assigning priorities in decision making.CLIENTS EXISTING NEW EXISTING Enrichment Strategy Predatorial Strategy COMPETITION NEW Retaliatory Strategy Proactive Strategy Fig 2. This is essentially an offensive through focused strategy wherein clients of other event companies are targeted. Predatorily Market Development Strategy If the development of new clients from existing competitors is the need of the situation then the event company would be adopting this strategy. Enrichment Strategy 87 .

This strategy involves taking action aimed at retaining its existing clientele and potential client base. Retaliatory Strategy This is basically a defense mechanism wherein the event company tries to defend it self from predatorily strategies of essentially new entrants. Every event category has its own special environmental and competitive structures. It is used where the need to maintain an improve the quality of service becomes predominant.In a market situation where the event company is forced to compete fiercely for retaining its market this strategy is followed. 3. Pro-active Strategy The event company here can explore new client bases and stretch the limit of its concepts across untried event categories.9 RISKS VERSUS RETURN MATRIX: 88 .

.Time Pre-Planned Type of Finance for Funds & Revenue Partially Fully Sponsored Sponsored & Ticketed Ad-hoe Low Risk Assured Returns (can charge extra since chances of failure are high) High Risk Assured Returns to cover costs but lower chances of profit Very High Risk Very less time to ensure reach Chances of failure & loss are high Zero Risk Assured Returns Medium Risk Assured Returns to cover costs + chances of loss are low High Risk Chances of high profits with equal chances of losses Fully Ticketed Fig 2.7. Each decision carries with it an element of risk. On the basis of finance. those that are taken up on the spur of the moment.10 APPLICABILITY: 89 .e. Events based on time can be divided into pre-planned i. events can be fully sponsored.. fully ticketed or partially ticketed and sponsored.e. the gradations of which can vary from zero risk to very high risk as shown in the Fig 2. 3. events carried out after thorough planning with enough time for taking conscious decisions and ad-hoc events i.7: Risk vs. Return Matrix The above matrix considers two of the most important risk factors as well as the degree to which it can affect the events company – Planning Lead Time and Type of Finance.

the cost for gathering information about the specific target group must match the possibility to actually reach the right segment. which normal marketing media do not have. Depending on how Event Marketing is used both differentiation and focus can be achieved. meaning that no single target group is invited. for companies using focus as a basic strategy. 3. spreading several messages in many different magazines. The employees working during the event “read” the situation and adjust his/her behavior. The events are pre-communicated. For companies using differentiation as a competitive advantage. On the other hand. depending on which place the company selects for the event. the companies have a possibility to control who will attend. Of course. There are two major differences when using events. Further the event itself might also communicate an added value to other people. different types of consumers will be reached. When using general events. or the event just happens. the company can still gain on the situation since they have a chance to adjust the added value to specific customers during the event. On the other hand mean that Event Marketing can also be used when focusing on specific target groups. the result might not cover investment.Differentiation and Focus in Event Marketing Event Marketing has several advantages with multiple purposes. a company needs to decide which message they want to communicate as well as with whom they want to communicate. although they might not be interested in the specific event. whoever is there has an opportunity to be a part of the event.11 ADVANTAGES OFFERED BY EVENTS: 90 . For example. when advertising in a magazine.

The word-of-mouth publicity that this generates is an advantage that lingers on a long time after the event is actually been carried out. This leads to lowering of the media networking budgets and focused communication with the specially gathered audience. Thus. A specific no. impact and tangible immediacy of measurement. This is so because of press ad is basically a flat piece of paper and a commercial is just an audiovisual experience. Live media communication is a complete sensual experience as compared to a press advertisement or TV/Radio commercial. 5. 3. it is undoubtedly a thrilling situation. Events can be designed such that the audience is actively involved in every part of the event and made to feel good. 2. Live media also enables interactive communication. This provides an advantage of higher brand recall to the client. The high recall value of live media communication is also a major factor. the option of control reach can be exercised and ideal audience for narrow-casting of information can be gathered. 4. of the target audience could be invited of enticed to buy tickets for a show especially created for a particular profile of the target audience.As is clear from the preceding section. Since the audience is actively targeted. Live media scores over conventional advertising in terms of reach. Some of the advantages are detailed below: 1. Events have the ability to bring together sharply defined participants since the capacity for a particular event is usually limited. use of events as a marketing communication tool not only take care of the problems associated with traditional media but also offer certain advantages because of which events are gaining importance over them. An event carried out professionally and cleanly is invariably a memorable experience. events as a live media offer a certain amount of immediacy to the experience – of being there while it‘s happening. The audience that has been specially invited invariably is an ideal audience. 91 . The involvement of all the senses in experiencing the event is one of the greatest advantages that events can offer. For the audience.

The conversion of good events into television software for future use either by the sponsors for their commercials or by media house for programming is also a unique benefit that events offer. it is possible to feel and deduce the reactions of the audience to the aim or objective that the event was conceived for. Such software become products by themselves and can be used profitability in the future. This is a double edged sword because. then the same is also reported impartially. in case the event is not up to the mark or is dogged y controversies.6. mean that specific traits of the local inhabitants can be incorporated in the big picture to ensure that the event is socially and culturally in tune with the local culture. 92 . Easily customizable nature of events. 7. the localization of events is very easy. The advantage in terms of post-event publicity that events can offer over and above the paid or bartered media is the benefit associated with reports of the event in the newspaper and news on the electronic media. No other media can boast of the ability to provide such massive collection of feed back instantly as events. Thus. For such reports there is no extra cost to be borne – neither by the sponsor nor by the event organizer. 9. Being a live media. 8.

BRAND BUILDING THROUGH EVENTS 4. Events can now be positioned not as a subsidiary effort to advertising but as an equally important independent marketing communication tool. number of sports events: 12.000 per event. high visibility experience for the consumer. Traditional ways of marketing communication such as advertising and sales promotion are losing their effectiveness day by day because of the exponentially increasing clutter in all types of media. number of general events: 44. The growth rate forecast for the same being 50 to 100% per annum. and so on. A cursory glance through a daily newspaper revealed astounding statistics. sales promotion and direct marketing – to create a singular. An event can enhance and link other elements of a promotional mix – advertising.1. Total number of events on that particular day: 136. the number of entertainment and community events subsidized by enthusiastic advertisers has increased.1INTRODUCTION: Over the last few years. number of entertainment related events: 56. The result is reduced reach and impact. events are proving to be the best media for enhancing the effectiveness of advertising and sales promotions since events take marketing phrase Customer is the King/Queen literally and endeavor to actually treat the customers to experience hitherto reserved for the royalty. we get a daily turnover of Rs. They apparently recognize this as a new media form possessing the unique ability to breakthrough the clutter of thousands of commercial messages that bombard customers daily. They can also act as a logical and impactful end to an advertising campaign as and when there is a need to shift to a new campaign involving a different promotional mix.500 crores in the year 2000-2001.6 crores!!! Now it would be easier for 93 .4. The coming age of the events industry can be seen from the fact that a rough conservative estimate involved in events is Rs. public relations.13. 00. Taking a conservatively low value of Rs. Events enhance the effectiveness of the Traditional modes of communication as they can be more focused on a particular target market. In the new millennium.

Brands differ from other assets such as patents. by either corporations or other institutions. At the same time.000 take place in India every day. or a combination of them. Creating a brand loyal market is the main aim of any marketer. entertainments. The American Marketing Association {AMA} defines a brand as. “a name. event marketing has rapidly become a significant element within the marketing mix. or design. Thus a brand identifies the seller or maker. given the fact that most events get done in.20 crores spent per day! College festivals form another major area and such college festivals are invariably totally in control of the youngsters in the 17 to 21 years age group. Intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers to differentiate them from those of competitors”. term. 94 . 4. Maintain. brand & trade objectives. Generally speaking sponsored events fall into five major categories: sports. Assuming that 1000 weddings and other family ceremonies at an average expenditure of Rs.3WHAT IS A BRAND? Perhaps the most distinctive skill of professional marketers is their ability to create.2 BRAND BUILDING THROUGH EVENTS: Branding is a major issue in product strategy. Clearly. protect & enhance brands. Branding is the art & cornerstone of marketing. It also provides a framework for an integrated marketing plan that can support a number of corporate. especially for advertising & promotion.500 crores is the estimated chunk of the market that is available for professional event organizers to exploit. sign. fairs & festivals the arts &cause-related. symbol. 00. In fact. we would get a whopping figure of Rs. developing a branded product requires a great deal of long-term investment. It’s strategic enable marketers to communicate with consumers in a personal & relevant manner to fully “experience” their brands. copyrights that have expiration dates. some more ad hoc calculations would reveal that family events especially marriages also involve enormous money.the size of the events industry. The number crunching done here was just to explain the enormity of the industry and the opportunities therein. 4.2.

✎ Example: Thus marketers of dove soap can talk about its attribute of one. at the next level are the brand’s benefits. prestige. Nike (performance) & Lexus (quality). Second. If the brand evokes a strong set of beliefs & values. competitors can easily copy attributes. the buyer more interested in benefits. Third.” Marketers must decide at which level(s) to anchor the brand’s identity. hallmark (caring). First. Some successful brand positioning examples are Volvo (safety).4BRAND ESSENCE AND ATTRIBUTES: There must be some link or fit with the property's offering and the sponsor's offering. quality and expensiveness would be present in an event 95 . They should share similar attributes. a brand resides in the minds of consumers. high prestige Complementary Values must exist between sponsor's product(s) and property. An example is. or its value. A brand can be better positioned by associating its name with a desirable benefit. expensive. well built. Scott Davis suggests visualizing a brand pyramid in constructing the events of a brand. such as high quality. the current attributes may become less desirable. Thus Mercedes stands for high technology. and at the top are the brand’s beliefs & values.quarter cleansing cream. being more attractive. 4. performance & success. the company must be careful not to stray from this. The attribute is the least desirable level. HarleyDavidson(adventure). Ultimately. Mercedes must project these qualities in its brand strategy.According to Kevin Keller “what distinguishes a brand from its unbranded commodity counterparts is the consumer’s perceptions & feelings about the product’s attributes & how they perform. At the lowest level are the brand attributes. or its benefit of softer skin.

4. marketer must think that he is offering a contract to customer regarding how the brand will perform. colors. Then there are brands that enjoy or high degree of brand preference. 4.5 BRAND BUILDING IDENTITIES: Building brand identity requires additional decisions on brand‘s name. benefits & services consistently to the buyers.  The company can charge on higher price than its competitors because the brand has higher perceived quality. some defense against price competitive. 4. Beyond this are brands with a high degree of brand acceptability. colors. Then there are brands for which buyers have a fairly high degree of brand awareness. a brand is much more than a name. A brand is essentially a marketer’s promise to deliver a specific set of features.7 MANAGING BRAND EQUITY: 96 . logo. logo. and tagline of symbol.associated with Mercedes or BMW.  The company can more easily launch extensions because the brand name carries high creditability.  The brand offers the company. Finally. At the same time. These. tagline & symbol. ✎ High brand equity provides a number of competitive advantages :  The company will have more trade leverage in bargaining with distributors & retailers because customers expect them to carry the brand. You would not expect to find both supporting an event associated with Kmart. The brand contract must honest. At one extreme there are brands that are not known by most buyers.6 BRAND EQUITY: Brands vary in the amount of power & value they have in the market place. there are brands that command or high degree of brand loyalty.

 Clubs & consumer communities: Brands can form the center of a customer community. These tasks require continuous research & development investment.  Sponsorship: Brands are frequently promoted in sponsored events such as world famous bicycle & car races. 4. 97 . In fact many more are simply not watching TV. such as Harley-Davidson motorcycle owners or Bradford plate collectors. dramas.8 BRAND BUILDING TOOLS: A common misconception is that brands are basically built by advertising. Now. Among the most important are:-  Public relations & press releases: Brands can gain a lot of attention from well- placed newspapers & magazine stories. They are busy on their computers or engaged in recreational activities. etc. It is true that TV stations & people watched the comedies. skillful advertising & excellent trade & consumer service.A brand needs to be carefully managed so that its equity does not depreciate. & ads with almost equal interest. viewers may be watching one of the dozens of TV stations & many are zapping or ignoring the commercials. & positive associations. Marketers are therefore turning to other tools for attracting attention to their brands. perceived quality & functionality. This requires maintaining or improving brand awareness.

receiving invoices. word of mouth. Customers come to know a brand through a range of contacts & touch points: personal observation & use. etched its identity in the public parks to promote healthful lifestyles. knowledge & interest  Event marketing: Many automobile companies make an event out of introducing their new car models. 4.9 BRAND ASSET MANAGEMENT: Although print and broadcast advertising have played a large role in building strong brands. meeting company personnel. Companies must balance their communication expenditures among the main communication media these include the following seven communications vehicles: advertising. live events & so on. 98 . the bottled water company. event marketing & employee training. Any of these experiences can be positive or negative. telephone experience. trade and sales promotion. Factory visits: Hershey’s & Cadbury’s. have built theme parks at their factories & they invite visitors to spend a day. other forces are now playing an increasing role.  Social cause marketing: Brands can achieve a following by donating money to charitable causes. consumer promotions. Companies are increasingly moving their brand building budgets to public relations. direct marketing. public relations. two candy companies.  Trade shows: trade show creates a great opportunity to built brand awareness. direct marketing. Ben & jerry‘s ice cream turns over 7% of its profits to charity. event marketing & internal employee communications. seeing a web page.  Public facilities: Perrier.

event marketing involves simultaneous canvassing and studying the brands prints. ideally.) in an environment where consumers are more open and receptive. keeping the brand values and target audience in mind. personal contact with consumers. it can generate sales and increase traffic.10 BRAND BUILDING A PART OF EVENT MANAGEMENT: Event marketing’s popularity is a relatively recent phenomenon. allow for niche marketing because the marketer can manage demographics. Event marketing is an important part of any integrated communications plan because it extends the impact of other elements (advertising promotion. Associate a company(brand. time and location. which evolved to reach an increasingly cynical consumer activity. Event marketing involves canvassing for clients and arranging feedback for the creative concepts during and after the concept initiation so as to arrive at a customized package for the client.4. Events offered marketers close. extend the value of advertising campaigns by creating a dynamic. When event marketing is done properly. interactive environment that makes key messages more relevant and personal. psychographics. Events literally bring products to participants in an innovative and personally involving manner. associate companies with customer lifestyles. etc. identifying the target audience and liaison with the creative conceptualizes to create an event for a perfect mesh with the brand’s personality. create opportunities to build personal relationships with customers that many eventually positively affect sales. Like traditional advertising and promotions. create an imprint. timing. etc. lifestyles and attitudes. extend impact through advertising media coverage and outreach to people attracted to the event because of personal interests. its positing and values. Events overwhelmed by media clutter and promotional activity. events can be selected to fit demographic requirements. In fact. position a company to be in touch with people’s interests and responsive to their preferences. Marketing plays an important role in pricing and negotiation as well as identifying opportunities to define and retain event properties by gathering marketing intelligence with regard to pricing. Even alter brand personality trades through association with the qualities of the event. Events offer the opportunity to connect with consumers one-on-one. not just an impression. understanding what the brand stands for. product) with the qualities of the event itself while simultaneously projecting the company’s personality. values and style. 99 .

locations and/or acknowledged industry leaders. thus effectively tying a brand building exercise with increasing customer traffic in its retail outlets as well as a sales promotion campaign. it sponsored drawing competitions at premier city schools. reinforces the brand image of the product or service in the interest of the consumer through an event association using celebrities. The audience had the opportunity to watch Asha Bhonsle live in concert. This is so because events help in addressing the diverse marketing needs of a company. the customization of events totally serves the communication agenda of acompany. But as the importance of events as a marketing tool builds up. 100 .For example. Though sponsoring of a big event like a rock show. The concert was an elaborate tour of 10 cities. Coke obtained the opportunity to present the event and use tickets for the show as giveaways. a division of UTV. in addition to advertising in the expected magazines and TV options. Events therefore offer innumerable opportunities for the sponsors to extract every possible mileage available in the marketing lexicon. when Camlin was interested in introducing active school students to its new product line of Artoons sketch pens. soft drinks manufacturer Coca-Cola India acted as the title sponsor of part of the Asha Bhonsle Live Concert Tour organized by UNIRAPPORT Events. it will eat into a larger portion of the marketing budget pie visà-vis other currently popular modes of marketing communication such as television advertising and Internet banner ads. It offered product giveaways and demonstrated the product’s features and benefits through a huge float and effectively. sales promotions and public relations. Events vie for a very small share of the marketing budget pie as of now. In 1998. Communication through live media integrates the functions of advertising. It will thus become a part and parcel of the integrated campaign. an Olympic Games or a cricket tournament invariably means sharing the limelight with other companies and other brands.

Yet a staggering 68% of them had no procedures in place to check the value of their sponsorships. implementation process and effectiveness of event marketing. As a result of which a lot of money is wasted and nothing productive happens. In such cases. sponsorships have too often been handed out on nothing stronger than the managing director’s whim. virtually no thought is given to their likely benefit to the company. 1. 2.5. Many were giving more than $100. 4.000 a year. The event marketing industry in India is highly unorganized. COMPANY VISIT’S INTERVIEWS AND DETAILED DISCUSSIONS With various event managers and corporate helped me identify the problems in the event marketing industry. 3. the Hill & Knowlton sports marketing division conducted a survey of Western Australian companies involved in sponsorship. Corporate are not fully aware of the concept. How many of those companies would spend $100. In the late 1980s.000 on advertising without monitoring every year 101 . movies & road shows) 5. or even how such a benefit could be measured. music. Even when large sums of money are involved. event marketing has become a fad and even small entrepreneurs are blindly following the multinationals such as Coke and Pepsi that have presence all over in the event marketing industry (cricket. No post-event analysis is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of an event. Lately.

7. For every Rs.000 a year without demanding accountability for performance. Only then. T. logo.000 you spend on sponsorship. 100. 8. They can link a company and brand with their customers’ lifestyles and aspirations. product and so on are being featured. But if sponsorship is linked directly to a product. Some forms of sponsorship have long-term networking goals that don’t lend themselves to immediate measurement. There are many. where it’s almost impossible to establish a direct cause-andeffect relationship between sponsorship and sales. boost the effectiveness of the total promotional program. It must tie in closely in theme and message with everything else you are doing. will you get real benefit from your sponsorship investment. Sponsorship today should be made as accountable as any other part of the marketing mix. measurement should be possible through the only criteria that ultimately matter. to ensure that your name. Not all sponsorships are readily measurable. It must be an integral part of your total promotional program. you need to spend at least another Rs.000 on more conventional promotional activities. 9. It means developing reliable ways of measuring its 102 . They can create a difference for the product.stage of the campaign? How many would pay an executive $100. Carefully planned sponsorships can be a cost-efficient way to enhance corporate profile. and press coverage of the event cannot be equated with success-even if a company’s logo appears often and prominently. Commit large amounts of time and marketing expertise to it as well in order to bring about a long-term product association with the event. Sales. Instead. we need to take a close look at the sales results and see if they go up during the sponsorship period. 6. It means monitoring the event constantly.V. and put one in touch with people who can do a great deal for the business. 10. And your sponsorship venture must not happen in isolation from them. It is always and only a complement to it. especially in the non-sporting field. exactly as agreed. 100. Sponsorship itself never is a major communications thrust.

15. They also provide poor services as compared to advertising agencies. Hence there is a need to build a more qualified and professional image of the event-marketing firms to gain corporate trust. Situation analysis and TOMA effect which are done by advertising agencies is not done by event marketing agencies. The longer you stay with your sponsorship. 13. 103 . This results in lesser profits for the event management firms as a cut off percentage of at least 13. It also means being willing to keep it going for several years at least. These advertising agencies may further forward the contract to the event management firms in case they do not have the infrastructure and facilities for event management themselves. and remove this intermediary to achieve higher profits. Hence corporate prefer to give their accounts for event marketing also to their own advertising agencies. 11. It means thinking about extensions-spin-off consumer and trade promotions. Then its value as a sponsorship property will drop. If its name chops and changes from one year to the next.5% is retained by the advertising agency itself. Event marketing firms do not have retained accounts as advertising agencies. 12. if that’s possible. Event marketing firms in India are very unprofessional and lack integrated marketing expertise. staff motivation programs. There is no consistency of operations and quality of events on the part of event management firms.results. its image will become confused and tarnished. for the event too. hospitality functions and so on. the better the results you can expect-and the better. 14.

India December 7 – 10.027 business visitors over 4 days. Mumbai.6. the UAE Trade Exhibition has 104 . CASE STUDY Nehru Centre.500 Square meters at the Nehru Centre. The 3rd UAE Trade Exhibition in India held in Mumbai. Dubai Tourism & Commerce Marketing and JAFZA – Dubai Business Hub. organizations from UAE with over 80 Stands. has once again set the stage for future co – ventures and trade links between India & the UAE. The Expo attracted a record crowd of 5. the Expo featured 45 leading companies & Govt. Organised jointly by Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry. 2005 The Event has once again set the stage for future co-ventures and Trade links between India & UAE. Spread over 2.

Exhibitor Comments • Mr. “We are very pleased with the organisers and the arrangements of the event. distribution set-ups and dealership networks. DTCM and JAFZA. high end Seminars & interactive sessions took place that highlighted the trends. The post event survey has revealed numerous business partnerships. “We are very happy to organise this 3rd UAE in India trade show that has been growing every year.P Trivedi. For the first time. Humaid Alkhatri . C . The initiative of the DCCI. Marketing & Sales Officer. has been a major factor to The Expo provided UAE companies with an effective 105 . etc from UAE. since it is our first experience in India we are quite happy with the quality response to the show and the interest from the local market” • Mr. trade leads & deals.proved to be an ideal platform for a host of business possibilities. Abdul Rehman Falaknaz – President. Food Industry. George T. Universities. Home Builders Real Estate.Sr. International Expo Consults LLC. It also is very fulfilling to know that many UAE companies in the past have benefited through such events by appointing agents and expanding their markets.Finance Manager. Chairman – Indo African Chamber of Commerce & Industry. Consultants. Consumer goods. Property Developers. development in the UAE along with investment opportunities in the entire region. The show featured leading organisations from Banking & Financial Sector. Free Trade Zones. “The response has been of good quality visitors to our stand and we are happy with the overall arrangements of the show” • Mr. SAIF Zone. marketing platform The event was officially inaugurated by Hon’ble Shri Y.

50% 50% .75% 75% .100% Not met 40% Note: The above graph states that approx. 60% of the Exhibitors feel that their objective to participate was met & 25% has expressed their satisfaction in terms of their participation. the support from these government organisations reinforces the commitments to the event this year”.us in making the show a success. FACTS & FIGURES Exhibitor Survey Reason of Exhibiting Generate New Business Enquiries Secure Spot Orders 6% 0% 38% 31% Launch New Products Meet up Existing clients Promote Corporate Image / Product Image 3% 16% 6% Identify Agents / Distributors Others Objective Met 6% 18% 24% 12% Less than 25% 25% . 106 .

Form strategic alliances or close deals with new supply contracts. The show witnessed an impressive attendance from 5.Visitors Survey Importers.Seeks investment opportunities in UAE . Newspaper supplements with leading publications to coincide with the opening of the show.Meet new trading partners . exporters and trade buyers & visitors from across the length and breadth of India appreciated this “trade show”.000 industry professionals. which included: Eye catching advertisements in leading local newspapers. Personalized VIP invitations to leading Governmental and private sector figures.Source new products & technology .027 trade and business visitors who came to: .Meet joint venture partners . Visitors were attracted by a dynamic marketing campaign. 107 . Banners & Hoardings at the major parts of the city. Personalized Tele-calling invitations. including specialist targeted sectors.Secure agency and distributor agreements . web sites and broadcasting agencies. Direct mail to over 25. Public relations involving regional publications.

Purpose of Visit To ev aluate and place orders To identify possible joint v enture 9% 9% 18% Meet existing Suppliers / Manufacturers To acquire new Agencies / Representations 9% 18% 9% To ev aluate new Products and Technologies To ev aluate the show for next year's participation 28% Others Objective Met Less than 25% 0% 17% 8% 25% . 108 .50% 50% .75% 33% 75% .100% 42% Not met Note: Most visitors have given the show a rating of “Good” in terms of quality of the Exhibitors & wished to come back next year as well.

whilst at the same time enhancing their brand image in the market.027 trade and business visitors. 109 . The Press Conference organized on the first day of the show was well attended by the Indian Press and the event was covered in all leading Newspapers and TV Channels. Feedback: According to the visitor survey done. 45 companies showcased their products and services at the event. most visitors have given the show a rating of “Good” in terms of quality of the show and business prospects. Press & Media Coverage: The show received excellent Press and Media coverage both in India as well as the UAE. The companies were keen to optimise this opportunity to tap the potential that the Indian market has to offer. The visitor campaign attracted visitors in terms of quality. The feedback received from the exhibitors proves that their participation at the show was a success. Visitors: The show attracted 5.OBSERVATIONS & ANALYSIS Exhibitors: The exhibition featured well-known and leading names from the UAE belonging to varied industries. Feedback: The exhibiting companies were happy with the response they received at the exhibition.

table.  Follow up – calling up people to know of their decision Implementation: Locations for the road shows were chosen taking into account the SEC of the concerned locality and density.  Setting up the infrastructure – canopy. residential area/ marketplace. and conducting the road show Cold Calling – distribution of leaflets in adjoining areas. ATM. cinema halls etc.Case Study (2) Citi Financial Road Shows Objective : To increase awareness and generate leads Methodology :  Identify a particular location on basis of SEC.  Generating leads (Cold calls and from Canopy enquiries) – noting down name and phone numbers of people visiting the canopy. providing any required explanations and procuring leads. footfalls. 110 . chairs etc.

not adequate.000/.  Canopy should be at least bilingual – SEC segments B and C are more responsive to local lingua franca. – 5 p. 111 . names.m. contact info etc.m. or 5 p.000. Rajender Place (at the main road) Rajender Place (inside the MTNL compound) Bagga Link Petrol Pump DDU Hospital Moti Nagar Kali Bari (opposite Birla Mandir) Recommendations  To encourage people to give correct names and contact information some incentive/ scheme should be formulated e.m. 50. The number of people visiting the stalls was not very high.m.  It was observed that a lot of people deliberately gave wrong phone numbers.00.The road shows were help for a duration of half a day. Nevertheless. – 8 p. the road shows were found to be an effective medium for generating awareness and visibility. either 11 a.g. conducting a lucky draw of  Respondents and contacting the winners through the contact information given by them. The road shows were conducted at:       Observations  A common request by customers – Personal loan limit of Rs.  Only a very small fraction of people who visited the stalls were ultimately converted. want limit to be raised to Rs. 1.

 The team at the road show should be informed of aspects such as the rates of interest and time period of loans quoted by the office. chairs etc.  Telecommunication facility should be provided to solve specific queries the spot. are a must for display and impact. Hence compulsory mention on all Publicity material – canopy. Need to leverage existing awareness of the Citigroup Brand – Creates confidence in the customer.  Tables. if cold calling needs to be done then strength should be three to four. Banners.  Canopy should be supported by – o Mascots o Banners o POP material o Mike system/Music if possible All these also make the job of the team easier. the need for explanations being reduced. solution of which may lead to conversion. 112 . POP material etc.  At all times at least two persons are needed at the canopy.  Road shows should be for a minimum of two days and in summers Should be conducted in the evenings.

113 .and post-event analysis and evaluation to check the success of the event and consumer perception. Conduct a situational analysis for appropriate event selection which synergies with the company objective and brand personality. target audience. 4. RECOMMENDATIONS To improve the condition of the event marketing industry and make it more professional and profitable.7. the following recommendations have been listed: 1. 2. brand image and positioning clearly. Create extensive databases of the target consumers in order to conduct pre. 3. Do not go overboard with your concept or preference for a certain event. Understand the corporate objectives. also to assess the top of mind awareness and brand recall.

• • Brand awareness reinforces the product or service. it is important to protect the integrity of the activity being supported. 8. 6. 114 . and added leverage. a financial partner. and drives sales. • Event marketing also offers companies the flexibility to reach specific geographic and demographic audiences. Those in the first category should be maintained and strengthened. the sponsorship could rebound on the sponsor’s head. Conduct extensive market research to establish which parts of the program are working and which ones are not. If it is cheapened or its identity threatened. also profits. In all sponsorship activities. It is a benefit that allows depth of exposure.5. Those in the second should be relinquished. CONCLUSION • Event marketing allows a company to break through the advertising clutter and target an audience by enhancing or creating an image through an association to a particular event. Property or event. a supplemented advertising budget. as opposed to the breadth of exposure.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BASIC COVERAGE  Event Management  Principles of Marketing  Marketing Management  Marketing is Business Lynn Van Der Wagen & Brenda R. the event marketing industry must redefine itself to recognize the power of the “brand” to forge deep connections. 9. marketing professionals must think beyond traditional methods and bring transparency and measurement to their activities in order to demonstrate the fundamental value of their field. Defining what an organization stands for.• As CMOs continue to face increasing financial pressures. they must continuously provide higher levels of value. mapping out a clear brand strategy. and then formulating event activities that align with overall marketing goals is the next great step in the evolution of the industry. Carlos  Kotler & Armstrong  Philip Kotler  Walter E. • When considering the entire sales cycle. Vieira  The Fundamentals & Practice of Marketing  John Wilmshurst 115 . • The perception of events as a form of media is quickly moving away from standalone activities to integrated forms of communication. To answer this challenge. both in pure financial terms and overall measurement of ROI. These forms of communication synchronize with overall marketing goals through new applications of techniques rooted in traditional event marketing that project the brand more powerfully. as well as also adapt events to contribute to branding in more sophisticated ways.

eventmarketer. the concept has taken off very well with the Indian consumers who are evolving   www.1Annexure: KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL EVENT MARKETING While marketing an event.branders. But.exhibitionsindia.indiatradepromotion.wikipedia. Event marketing has been a concept that has only recently been pioneered in India. 116 . though  www. there are a few key tactics and methods that can be employed to ensure that the event gains the maximum response and also that event is managed in the minimum cost possible.WEBSITES    http://oaksevents.htm PERIODICALS  Business & Economy  4Ps Business & Marketing  Business World NEWSPAPERS  Times of India  Economic Times   www.marketersadvantage.wizcraftworld.htm?k=Network%20Marketing  http://en. ANNEXURE

And make sure you don't give something away for free just for the heck of it. Event Marketing Hint 1: If the event is meant to market a certain product. since your booth will be tucked away hidden from all eyes. It is important to get the message across to the target audience and therefore enough research about the profile of the attendees is important to be able to communicate effectively to them about the product. Other value-added benefits that can be expected from the show organizer include: being included in participant email distributions promoting the event. as well as the location of your booth.Some of the tactics and methods are listed below. Make sure you find out if they allow access to the attendee mailing list so you can implement a pre-mailing process in order to promote your one-day trade show special. Event Marketing Hint 5: The location chosen for the event is perhaps the most important aspect. then it is necessary to ensure that the purchase decision-maker attends the event. Event Marketing Hint 2: It is also important to evaluate the value-added benefits that the venue or the trade show organizer makes available to your business. Following them can ensure a cost effective implementation of the event marketing. Event Marketing Hint 4: The giveaways at the event should be relevant to the business being promoted through the event. as well as an advertisement in the event show guide. Make sure you don't purchase a cheap booth at a popular exhibition because there are strong chances that no one will be visiting you. Event Marketing Hint 3: Before the event is undertaken. Make sure you get participant contact information before the event as well as after. the cost effectiveness of promoting the product through the event should be questioned by asking yourself event qualifying questions around the “who" instead of the “how many”. It is important that least 50-60% of the people attending the event are targets of the product to be promoted. The most ideal locations in any exhibition areas are found at the 117 .

Will it have PR possibilities that reach beyond the immediate audience into your target market? 11. Will it give you tangible benefits. Are you prepared to commit yourself to it for a considerable period of time? 13. 8. Will your sponsorship raise your image in their eyes? 6. Will it be a natural extension to your main advertising and promotional activities? 12. Does the activity or event have a link with your product? 3. such as naming rights. Will it create good ‘rubbing shoulders’ opportunities for you? 8. Is the public perception of it a positive one? 4.entryway to the event and near the pathway to the food stations and restrooms. shared in or enjoyed by your target market? 5. Can you measure its results? 9. program advertising. Are you clear on your sponsorship objectives? 2. onsite displays or merchandise? 10. 1. Is the activity or event free of close identification with a previous sponsor? 7.2 Annexure: SPONSORSHIP CHECKLIST A sponsorship checklist has been devised for the benefit of all those who are in the business of event marketing or related to it. Will your key personnel commit themselves to it enthusiastically? 118 . attended. Is it watched. Are you prepared to put a great deal of effort as well as money into it? 14.

119 .

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