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SNiP 41-02-2003. Heat networks.

SYSTEM OF REGULATORY DOCUMENTS IN CONSTRUCTION

CONSTRUCTION NORMS AND PRACTICES
OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

HEAT NETWORKS
SNiP 41-02-2003

STATE COMMITTEE OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON CONSTRUCTION,
HOUSING AND PUBLIC UTILITIES
(GOSSTROY OF RUSSIA)

MOSCOW

2004

PREFACE
1 DEVELOPED by JSC «Ob’yedineniye VNIPIenergoprom», Perm’ State Technical
University, JSC «Teploproelt» with participation of Association of developers and
manufacturers of corrosion protection means for fuel and energy sector, Association of
manufacturers and consumers of pipes with industrial polymeric insulation, JSC «Firma
ORGRES», JSC «Vserossiyskiy teplotekhnicheskiy institut», «SevZapVNIPIenergoprom»,
CJSC «Korporatsiya TVEL», Mosgorekspertiza, JSC «Mosproekt», GUP «Mosinzhproekt»,
CJSC NTP «Truboprovod», CJSC «Roskommunenergo», JSC «Lengazteplostroy», Irkutsk
State Technical University, CJSC «Izolyatsionniy zavod», Tumensk Academy of
Construction and Architecture
PROPOSED by The Department of Technical Regulating, Standardization and
Certification in Construction and ZhKKh of Gosstroy of Russia
2 ADOPTED AND INTRODUCED since September 1, 2003 by Resolution of Gosstroy of
Russia of 24.06.2003, № 110
3 TO REPLACE SNiP 2.04.07-86*

SNiP 41-02-2003. Heat networks.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE................................................................................................................................... 2
1 FIELD OF APPLICATION .................................................................................................... 4
2 REGULATORY REFERENCES ............................................................................................ 4
3 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................ 4
4 CLASSIFICATION ................................................................................................................. 4
5 GENERAL PROVISIONS ...................................................................................................... 5
6 SCHEMATICS OF HEAT SUPPLY AND HEAT NETWORKS.......................................... 6
7 HEAT MEDIA AND THEIR PARAMETERS .................................................................... 12
8 HYDRAULIC MODES......................................................................................................... 13
9 HEAT NETWORKS ROUTE AND LAYING METHODS................................................. 15
10 PIPELINE STRUCTURE ................................................................................................... 18
11 HEAT INSULATION ......................................................................................................... 23
12 CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURES .................................................................................... 25
13 CORROSION PROTECTION OF PIPELINES ................................................................. 27
14 HEAT POINTS ................................................................................................................... 29
15 ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY AND CONTROL SYSTEM ............................................. 32
16 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO THE DESIGN OF HEAT NETWORKS IN
SPECIAL NATURAL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF CONSTRUCTION ................ 35
APPENDIX A .......................................................................................................................... 40
LIST OF REGULATORY DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THE PRESENT
DOCUMENT ........................................................................................................................... 41
APPENDIX B ........................................................................................................................... 41
DISTANCES FROM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURES OF HEAT NETWORKS OR
PIPELNES INSULATION ENVELOPMENT AT DUCTLESS LAYING TO BUILIDNGS,
FACILITIES AND ENGINEERING NETWORKS ................................................................ 41
APPENDIX C ........................................................................................................................... 46
REQUIREMENTS TO LOCATION OF PIPELINESS AT THEIR LAYING IN
CRAWLWAYS, TUNNELS, ABOVE THE GROUND AND IN HEAT POINTS ............... 46

PREFACE
The present construction norms and practices set forth the set of obligatory regulatory
requirements to the design of heat networks, facilities on the heat networks in coordination
with all elements of centralized heat supply systems with regard to their interaction in the
overall technological process of production, distribution, transportation and consumption of
heating power, rational usage of fuel and power resources.
Safety, reliability as well as survivability requirements to heat supply systems are set forth.
During development of the SNiP, regulatory materials of the leading Russian and
international companies are used, the experience of using the current design and operational
norms by the design and operating organizations of Russia during 17 years was taken into
consideration.
In the construction norms and practices, for the first time:
environmental and operational safety, heat supply availability (quality) norms were
introduced; usage of the reliability probability criterion was extended;
principles and requirements or ensuring survivability in off-design (emergency) conditions
were formulated, features of centralized heat supply systems were specificated;
norms of using the reliability probability criteria at designing the heat networks were
introduced;
criteria of heat insulation structures with consideration of fire safety are provided.

SNiP 41-02-2003. Heat networks.

The SNiP was developed with participation of: Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Ya.A.
Kovylyanskiy, A.I. Korotkov, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) G.Kh. Umerkin, A.A.
Sheremetova, L.I. Zhukovskaya, L.V. Makarova, V. I. Zhurina, Candidate of Sciences
(Engineering) B.М. Krasovskiy, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) A.V. Grishkova,
Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) Т.N. Romanova, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering)
B.М. Shoikhet, L. V. STavritskaya, Ph.D. in Engineering A.P. Akol’zin, Candidate of Sciences
(Engineering) I.L. Maizel’, Е.М.Shmyrev, L.P. Kanina, L.D. Sapanov, R.M. Sokolov, Ph.D. in
Engineering Yu.V. Balaban-Irmenin, A.I. Kravtsov, Sh.N. Abaiburov, V.N. Simonov,
Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) V.I. Livchak, A.V. Fisher, Yu.U. Yunusov, N.G.
Shevchenko, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) V.Ya. Magalif, A.A. Khandrikov, L.Ye.
Lubetskiy, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) R.L. Yermakov, V.S. Votintsev, Т.F.
Mironova, Ph.D. in Engineering A.F. Shapoval, V.A. Glukharev, V.P. Bovbel’, L.S.
Vasil’yeva.

SNiP 41-02-2003. Heat networks.

SNiP 41-02-2003
CONSTRUCTION NORMA AND PRACTICES OF RUSSINA FEDERATION
HEAT NETWORKS
THERMAL NETWORKS
Introduction date 2003-09-01
1 FIELD OF APPLICATION
The present norms and practices shall apply to heat networks (with all associated
structures) from the outgoing shutoff valves (exclusive thereof) of the heating source mains or
from the external walls of the heat source to the outgoing shutoff valves (inclusive thereof) of
heat points (connection points) of buildings and facilities conveying hot water with the
temperature up to 200 °C and the pressure up to 2,5 MPa inclusive, water steam with the
temperature up to 440 °C and the pressure up to 6,3 MPa inclusive, water steam condensate.
The heat networks include buildings and facilities of heat networks: pumping stations, heat
points, boxes, chambers, drainage facilities etc.
The present norms cover centralized heat supply systems (further - CHS) with regard to
their interaction in the overall technological process of production, distribution, transportation
and consumption of heating.
The present norms and practices should be complied with during the design of new heat
networks and renovation, modernization and technical upgrading of the existing heat
networks (including facilities on the heat networks).
2 REGULATORY REFERENCES
The list of regulatory documents referred to in the present document is contained in
Appendix A.
3 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
In the present norms, the following terms and definitions are used.
Centralized heat supply system – a system consisting of one or several heat sources, heat
networks (irrespective of diameter, number and length of external heat pipelines) and heat
consumers.
Reliability probability of the system [R] – ability of the system to avoid failures leading
to temperature drops in the heated premises of residential and public buildings to lower than
+12 °C, in industrial buildings – lower than +8 °C, occurring more frequently than the number
of times specified by regulatory norms.
System availability (quality) index [Кг] – probability of serviceable condition of a system
in any moment of time to sustain the design internal temperature in heated premises, except
for the periods of temperature lowering, permitted by regulatory norms.
Survivability of the system [Zh] – ability of the system to retain its serviceability in
emergency (extreme) conditions as well as after long-term (over 54 h) stoppings.
Service life of heat networks – time period in calendar years since the day of putting into
operation, after which expert examination of technical condition of the pipeline should be
performed in order to identify permissibility, parameters and conditions of further operation
of the pipeline of the need for dismantlement thereof.
4 CLASSIFICATION
4.1 Heat networks are subdivided into main, distribution, in-block ones and branches from
the main and distribution heat networks to certain buildings and facilities. Division of heat
networks shall be established by the design or the operating organization.

SNiP 41-02-2003. industrial buildings to 8 °C. art galleries.4 In case of emergencies (failures) at the heat source. the design heat loads shall be determined: a) for the existing buildings of population aggregates and operating industrial enterprises – according to the designs with specification of actual heat loads. b) for industrial enterprises planned for construction – according to aggregate development norms of the main production or designs of similar production enterprises. Average loads for hot water supply of separate buildings shall be permitted to be determined according to SNiP 2.3 Design heat losses in the heat networks should be defined as the total of heat losses via insulated surfaces of the pipelines and the values of average heat medium losses. industrial areas. 5. Third category – the rest of the consumers. and for the existing ones – according to the actual heat loads. During the development of heat supply schematics.5 In case of joint operation of several heat sources in the common heat network of a . °C Parameter name minus 10 minus 20 minus 30 minus 40 minus 50 Permissible heat supply reduction. emergency mode of steam and technological hot water consumption specified by the consumer emergency heating mode of operation of continuously operated ventilation systems specified by the consumer Table 1 Design temperature of outdoor air for design heating to. 4. 5.04. hospitals. to 78 84 87 89 91 N o t e –The table data correspond to the temperature of outdoor air of the coldest five-day period with availability of 0. 5. pre-school institutions for children operating 24 hours/day. supply of heat for hating and ventilation of public utilities and industrial consumers of the second and third categories in the quantities specified in Table 1.01. the following shall be ensured at the outgoing mains thereof: supply of 100 % of the required heat to consumers of the first category (unless other modes are envisaged by the contract). Second category – consumers permitting reduction of temperature in heated premises for the period of emergency elimination but no more than 54 h: residential and public buildings to 12 °C. 5 GENERAL PROVISIONS 5. during the whole of the repair and recovery operations period. mines etc. heat consumers are subdivided into three categories: First category – consumers not permitting any interruptions in the supply of design quantity of heat and reduction of the air temperature in the premises to levels lower than those specified by GOST 30494.1. average daily heat consumption for the heating period for hot water supply (if impossible to shut off).2 With regard to heat supply reliability. c) for residential areas planned for development – according to aggregate parameters of heat loads location density or according to specific heat characteristics of buildings and facilities according to the general district development plans of the population aggregate. groups of industries. districts and other territorial formations as well as separate CHS should be developed within the heat supply schematics. 5.92.1 Solutions for prospective development of heat supply systems of population aggregates. Heat networks. %. For instance. chemical and specialized productions.2 During the design of heat networks. the design heat loads shall be determined according to the data of specific design of new construction. In case of data unavailability. maternity wards. it shall be permitted to be guided by the instructions of 5.

mixed) shall be selected on the basis of the technical and economic comparison of different systems submitted by the design organization. 60 °C. Heat networks. 6. availability (quality) of heat supply and survivability. in the atmosphere. with consideration of the self-cleansing ability of the atmosphere in a particular residential block.2 Functioning of heat networks and CHS in the whole shall not lead to: a) during. crawlways. premises and other facilities. biological and radioactive contamination of the heat medium. discharge of network water in locations not envisaged by the design. including the one with separate networks of hot water supply. the operation. environmental requirements. from apartment heat generators shall be performed by means of technical and economic comparison thereof. 6. roof boiler units. SNiP 41-02-2003.4. with the pressure in the intermediate circuit being kept lower than in the heat network. with consideration of local . in chambers and other places accessible for maintenance. bushes. tunnels and accessible ducts 45 °C. supply of heat medium into the heat supply systems with temperatures exceeding those specified by safety norms. large and small thermal and atomic electric power stations (TEC. trees) in the areas where heat pipelines are laid. repair and operational personnel and the environment. A heat supply schematic adopted for design development shall ensure the following: normative level of heat and power saving. population aggregate etc. Technological units of industrial enterprises where hazardous substances can get into the heat medium from shall be connected to heat networks via a water heater with additional intermediate flow circuit between the unit and the water heater. animal burial sites. in the tunnels. reduction of the air temperature in residential and industrial premises of the consumers of the second and third categories to values lower than the permissible ones (4. mutual redundancy of the heat sources shall be envisaged ensuring the emergency operation mode as per 5.. 6 SCHEMATICS OF HEAT SUPPLY AND HEAT NETWORKS 6. filtration fields and other areas presenting a hazard of chemical. landfills. Consumer hot water supply systems shall be connected to steam networks via steam-water water heaters. channels. at CHS failures. AEPS) or from decentralized heat supply sources (DCH) . installation of sampling points for the control of harmful contaminants should be envisaged.4 Safe operation of heat networks shall be ensured by developing and including into the design measures to rule out the following: direct contact of people with hot water or hot surfaces of pipelines (and equipment) at heat medium temperatures over 75 °C. district (city).5 Temperature at the surface of the heat insulation structure of heat pipelines.autonomous.6 A heat supply system (open. 6. TEPS. At that. shall not be laid across the territories of cemeteries.1 Selection of a schematic option for a heat supply facility: a centralized heat supply system from boiler stations. irrigation fields. irrespective of the laying method and the heat supply system. valves. closed.3 Heat networks. safety of operation. b) steady disruption of natural mode of heating of vegetation cover (herbs. radioactive waste disposal sites. chambers. at aboveground laying.2). impermissible concentration of substances which are toxic and harmful for population. sub-district. 6. 6. normative level of reliability determined by three criteria: reliability probability. fittings and equipment shall not exceed: at laying of heat pipelines in underground floors of buildings.

Schematics of heat networks 6. district boiler stations or industrial enterprises. joint operation of heat sources. mechanical shops – for district divisions (shops) of heat networks with the operational volume of less than 1000 conventional units. 6. The number and location of standby pipeline connections between adjacent heat pipelines should be determined using the reliability probability criterion. as a rule. he following shall be envisaged: emergency repair divisions (ERD) with personnel number and equipment availability ensuring full recovery of heat supply in case of failures at the heat networks within the time periods specified in Table 2. Heat networks.for heat networks forming part of divisions of thermal electric power stations.. 6. 6. integrated repair and maintenance services . to be designed single-piped at the through routing length up to 5 km. hot water supply and for technological purposes. as a rule. Independent heat networks for connection of technological consumers should be envisaged if the quality and parameters of the heat medium differ from those accepted in the heat networks. heat pipeline structures. 6. heat insulation etc. of buildings with 12 storeys and over and other consumers.11 Water heat networks shall. upon substantiation of the heating and ventilation systems. Personnel number and equipment availability of RMD shall be determined with consideration of specific equipment used. The independent scheme envisaging installation of water heaters in the heat points allows for connection.15 Quality of raw water for open and closed heat supply systems shall comply with the . 6.13 Heat networks can be looped or arterial. CHS equipment and the consumer heat receivers. if the independent connection is determined by the hydraulic mode of system operation. with or without redundancy provision. Multi-piped and single-piped heat networks shall be permitted to be used upon technical and economic substantiation.7 Direct water consumption of network water at he consumers in closed heat supply systems shall not be permitted.8 In open heat supply systems. 6.14 Consumer heating and ventilation systems shall be connected to two-piped water heat networks directly following the dependent connection scheme. be designed to be double-piped. be designed to rule out the probability of impermissible concentrations of radionuclides in network water. own repair and maintenance divisions (RMD) – for heat network areas with the operational volume of 1000 conventional units and over. arrangement of shunt pipes between the heat networks of adjacent heating districts. the heat networks shall be made in two (or more) parallel heat pipelines. environmental. pipelines. simultaneously supplying heat to heating. when laid above the ground.10 As part of CHS. SNiP 41-02-2003. economic conditions and the consequences of the solution to be adopted. 6. laying of standby heat pipelines. Heat networks conveying network water in one direction in open heat supply systems shall be permitted. In case of the larger length an din the absence of additional backup feeding of CHS from other heat sources.12 Schematic and configuration of the heat networks shall ensure the heat supply at the level of the specified reliability parameters by means of the following: usage of the most advanced structures and technical solutions.9 With atomic heat sources. open heat supply systems shall. ventilation. connection of a part of hot water consumers via steam- water heat exchangers at the consumer heat points (in a closed system) shall be permitted on temporary basis upon the condition that the quality of network water is ensured (kept) according to the requirements of the current regulatory documents. 6.

requirements of SanPiN 2. with 50 % of the operational volume.16 Design hourly water consumption for determining of water treatment duration and the relevant equipment for additional feeding of the heat supply system should be adopted as follows: in closed heat supply systems .1. 70 m3 per 1 mWt . at the heat source. 6. At that. with the capacity of 3 % of the water volume in the heat supply system. if the data on actual water volume are unavailable.75 % of the actual water volume in the pipelines of the networks and the hot water supply systems of the buildings connected thereto. 6. storage tanks with the volume of no less than 25% of the total design capacity of storage tanks shall be envisaged. 6.2 plus 0. emergency feeding shall additionally be envisaged by chemically untreated and non-deaerated water.21 In closed heat supply systems. upon availability of storage tanks – equal to the design average water consumption for hot water supply with the coefficient of 1. for heat networks sections with the length of more than 5 km from the heat source without heat distribution.for open systems and 30 m3 per 1 mWt of the average load –for separate hot water supply networks. in the absence of storage tanks – according to the maximum water consumption for hot water supply plus (in both cases) 0. shall be permitted to be taken up equal to 65 m3 per 1 mWt of design heat load for closed heat supply systems. for heat networks sections with the length of more than 5 km from the heat source without heat distribution. emergency feeding shall be permitted to be determined for the heating network with the largest volume only. 6. ventilation and hot water supply systems of the buildings connected thereto. usage of heat pipelines in the capacity of storage tanks shall be permitted.22 In CHS with heat pipelines of any length from the heat source to the heat consumption areas. At that. at the heat sources with the power of 100 mWt and over. 6.20 For open heat supply systems as well as in case of separate heat networks intended for hot water supply.4.2. upon availability of thermal deaeration.75 % of the actual water volume in the pipelines of the heat networks and the heating and ventilation systems of buildings connected thereto . irrespective of the heat supply system shall be taken up no less than two. 6. usage of service water shall be permitted. and the water in them – from aeration. and continuous recovery of water in the tanks shall be envisaged. 6. storage tanks with chemically treated and deaerated feeding water shall also be envisaged. emergency feeding shall only be provided from domestic water supply system. For open heat supply systems. the design water consumption should be taken up equal to 0. In case there are several separate heat networks going from the heat source main.5 % of the volume of water in these pipelines.0. .17 For open and closed heat supply systems. with its consumption being taken up equal to 2 % of the volume of water in the pipelines of the heat networks and the heating.1074 and regulation for technical operation of electric power stations and networks of Minenergo of Russia. installation of storage tanks with chemically treated and deaerated feeding water shall be envisaged. Heat networks. Internal surface of the tanks shall be protected against corrosion. For closed heat supply systems. with the design capacity equal to tenfold average hourly water consumption for hot water supply. At that. The number of tanks.75 % of the actual water volume in the pipelines of the heat networks and the heating. at that water recovery in the tanks shall be ensured. in open heat supply systems – equal to the design average water consumption of hot water supply with the coefficient of 1.18 Volume of water in the heat supply systems. the design water consumption should be taken up equal to 0. for separate heat networks of hot water supply. SNiP 41-02-2003. ventilation systems connected thereto and in the hot water supply systems for open heat supply systems.19 Storage tanks of hot water can be located either at the heat source or in the heat consumption areas.5 % of the volume of water in these pipelines.

the distance shall. availability index [Кг]. 6. CHS in the whole RCHS = 0. heat consumer Rпт = 0. and their capacity shall be determined by the volume of heat pipelines between two isolation valves.5 m. repair and replacement priority for heat pipelines which have partially or completely expired their working life. At that.27 Ability of the design and operating heat sources. 6. on the soils of the 1st type of subsidence. through routes) to each consumer of heat point.99 = 0. 6. within the specified time. 6. storage tanks are not installed.23 In case f location of a group of storage tanks at the heat source territory. survivability [Zh]. need for activities aimed at additional heat-saving in the buildings.5 m to rule out unauthorized access to the tanks. Reliability 6. consequently. sufficiency of diameters selected during the design of new or renovation of the existing heat pipelines to provide for heat supply to consumers in case of failure. for: heat source Rит = 0.29 To ensure failure-free operation of heat networks.24 Installation of hot water storage tanks in residential areas shall not be permitted. In the terms of reference for the design. heat networks Rтc = 0. hot water supply system as well as technological demand of enterprises for steam and hot water) should be determined by three parameters (criteria): reliability probability [R]. heat consumers as well as the number of hours of non-design temperature of outdoor air in the . be no less than 1. the client has the right to specify higher values of this parameter.28 The following minimum allowable reliability probability values should be adopted. the following should be determined: the maximum allowable length of heat pipelines sections without redundancy provision (arterial. in addition.2. ventilation. heat networks and CHS in the whole to ensure.26 TO reduce network water losses and.5 of the layer thickness of the subsiding soil. 6. 6.97. heat networks. The distance from hot water storage tanks to the residential blocks boundary shall be no less than 30 m. radial. For facilities of industrial enterprises with he ratio of the average heat load for hot water supply to the maximum heat load for heating lower than 0.97⋅0. In case of location of storage tanks outside the heat source territory. need for replacement of heat network structures and heat pipelines by more reliable ones as well as feasibility of switching to aboveground or tunnel laying.9⋅0. they shall be surrounded with a fence with a height of no less than 2. The mounded territory shall be able to hold the volume of water in the largest tank and be supplied with water drainage into the wastewater collection system. Heat networks. locations of standby pipeline connections between radial heat pipelines. parameters and quality of heat supply system (heating.99. installation of special accumulation tanks in heat networks shall be permitted. the required modes. 6.25 Hot water storage tanks at the consumers shall be envisaged in the systems of hot water supply of industrial enterprises for balancing the scheduled water consumption by the facilities having lumped short-term hot water consumption. SNiP 41-02-2003. they shall be fenced with a common mound with the height of no less than 0. Calculation of the system parameters with consideration of reliability shall be made for each consumer. the heat during scheduled or forced emptying of heat pipelines.9.86.30 Availability of the system for successful performance should be determined by the number of hours spent waiting for readiness of: the heat source.

redundancy provision for heat networks of adjacent districts. h mm Permissible heat supply reduction. In case of underground laying of heat networks in crawlways and ductless laying. except for the pipelines with the diameters over 1200 mm in regions with the design air temperatures for the design of heating systems of lower than minus 40 °C.33 The following redundancy provision methods shall be envisaged: usage of rational heating schemes at the heat sources providing for the specified availability level of power equipment. the following shall be determined (taken into consideration): readiness of CHS for the heating season. organizational and technical activities necessary to ensure successful operation of CHS at the specified level of availability. 6. installation of local backup heat supply sources (stationary or mobile ones).34 Sections with the length up to 5 km laid above the ground shall be permitted to remain without redundancy provision. ability of the heat networks to provide for successful operation of CHS in case of non- design falls of outdoor temperature. installation of the required standby equipment at the heat source. organization of joint operation of several heat sources in the integrated heat transportation system. local heat sources shall be permitted to envisage.97. 6. region. installation of accumulation tanks.35 For consumers of first category. the maximum permitted number of hours of readiness for the heat source. sufficiency of the installed heating capacity of the heat source to provide for successful operation of CHS in case of non-design falls of outdoor temperature. It shall be permitted to provide for redundancy ensuring supply of 100 % of the heat from other heat networks in case of failure. 6.32 For calculation of the availability index. arrangement of standby pumping stations and pipeline connections. outdoor air temperature at which the specified temperature of indoor air is ensured. Redundancy provision for heat supply along the heat networks laid in tunnels and accessible ducts shall be permitted not to be envisaged. minus 10 minus 20 minus 30 minus 40 minus 50 recovery time. Heat networks. 6. to 300 15 32 50 60 59 64 400 18 41 56 65 63 68 500 22 49 63 70 69 73 600 26 52 68 75 73 77 700 29 59 70 76 75 78 800-1000 40 66 75 80 79 82 1200-1400 To 54 71 79 83 82 85 Survivability . Table 2 Pipe diameter of Design temperature of outdoor air for the design of heating to. °C Heat supply system heat networks. the heat supply value (%) to provide for the indoor air temperature in heated premises of no lower than 12 °C during repair and recovery period after a failure shall be adopted according to Table 2. Redundancy 6.31 The minimum allowable index of CHS availability for successful operation Кг is taken up equal to 0. SNiP 41-02-2003. 6.36 For redundancy provision of heat supply systems of industrial enterprises. %.

001 m. at that. if possible.005 MPa.5 km. During the condensate quality control.3 MPa.40 Condensate return from condensate traps along the common network shall be permitted to be used in case the difference in the steam pressure before the condensate traps does not exceed 0.41 Pressure condensate pipelines should be designed according to the maximum hourly condensate flow based upon the conditions of pipelines operation at full cross-section at all condensate return modes and their prevention from emptying during interruptions of condensate supply. the number of pumps supplying condensate to the common network shall not be limited.42 Specific pressure losses due to friction in condensate pipelines after the pumps shall be taken up to be no more than 100 Pa/m at the equivalent roughness of internal surface of condensate pipelines of 0. attics etc. installation of one tank shall be permitted. Collection and return of condensate 6. including: organization of local circulation of network water in the heat networks before and after the CHP. 6. at the consumer heat points shall be taken up to be no less than the maximum 10-minutes condensate flow. Open condensate collection and return systems shall be permitted to be envisaged in case the volume of the condensate to be returned of less than 10 t/h and the distance to the heat source of less than 0. 6. 6. excess pressure in condensate collection tanks shall be no less than 0. Condensate pipelines from condensate traps to condensate collection tanks should be designed with consideration of steam-and-water mix formation. the number of tanks should. with the capacity of 50 % each.38 Designs shall contain activities to provide for survivability of the elements of the heat supply system located at the areas of potential exposure to negative temperatures. provision of the required swamp blocks for heat pipelines laid ductless in case of potential flooding. In case of seasonal operation and operation during less than 3 months per year as well as at the maximum condensate flow of up to 5 t/h. shall be sufficient for the water temperature to remain no lower than 3 °C. If condensate is returned by pumping. . as a rule. be taken up equal to no less than three with the capacity of each timewise providing for carrying out the condensate analysis for all parameters required but no shorter than the volume of the maximum 30-minutes condensate flow. 6. Pressure in the condensate pipeline network at all modes shall be taken up to be excess one. SNiP 41-02-2003. Heat networks. temporary usage of mobile heat sources. discharge of network water from the consumer heat usage system.39 Systems providing condensate collection and return to the heat source should be designed closed. warmup and filling of heat networks and consumer heat usage systems during and upon completion of repair and recovery works. durability checkup of the elements of heat networks for sufficiency of the strength margin of the equipment and compensating devices. The number of tanks during the year-round operation should be taken up to be no less than two. in entrance corridors. 6. during the whole of the repair and recovery period after a failure. Parallel operation of pumps and condensate traps removing condensate from steam consumers into the common condensate network shall not be permitted.43 Capacity of condensate collection tanks installed in the heat networks. distribution heat networks.37 The minimum heat supply along the heat pipelines located in unheated premises and outside. 6. stairwells. through and main heat pipelines.

6. In case of the presence of the hot water supply load in closed heat supply systems. 7 HEAT MEDIA AND THEIR PARAMETERS 7. usage of its heat for the enterprise’s own needs shall be envisaged. 7. SNiP 41-02-2003. For open and closed systems. the following values shall be adopted at the average daily temperature of outdoor air: 8 °C in regions with design temperature of outdoor air for the design of heating up to minus 30 °C and averaged design temperature of indoor air of heated buildings 18 °C. to the level specified by the standard. The temperature of network water returned to the boiler stations is not standardized. 7.47 In condensate collection and return systems.46 Condensate returned form the consumers to the heat source shall comply with the requirements of regulations on technical operation of electric power stations and networks of Minenergo of Russia.44 Delivery (capacity) of the pumps for condensate pumping shall determined according to the maximum hourly condensate flow. heat medium temperature adjustment . and one of the pumps shall be in standby.2 The maximum design temperature of network water at the outlet form the heat source. 7. At discharging into the industrial wastewater collection system with permanent discharge.5 If heat receivers in heating and ventilation systems are not equipped with individual automated indoor temperature adjustment devices.1 In centralized heat supply systems. 7. 10 °C in regions with design temperature of outdoor air for the design of heating lower than minus 30 °C and averaged design temperature of indoor air of heated buildings 20 °C. 6. Heat networks. The number of pumps in each pumping station should be taken up equal to no less than two. water shall generally be used for heating. ventilation and hot water supply systems of residential. 6. Possibility of using water as a heat medium for technological processes shall also be checked. the beginning and the end of the heating season. Discharge head of the pumps supplying condensate into the common network shall be determined with consideration of the conditions of joint operation thereof in all condensate return modes. the temperature of condensate being returned is not standardized. heating. the condensate shall be permitted not to be cooled. The pump head shall be determined according to the value of the pressure loss in the condensate pipeline with consideration of the condensate vertical head from the pumping station to the collection tank and the excess pressure value in the collection tanks.3 The temperature of network water returned to thermal electric power stations with combined heat and electric power generation shall be determined by the technical and economic assessment. Averaged design temperature of indoor air of heated industrial buildings 16 °C.45 Permanent and emergency discharge of condensate into stormwater or domestic wastewater collection systems shall be permitted after its cooling down to the temperature of 40 °C.4 At calculating the graphs of network water temperature in the centralized heat supply systems. Usage of steam as a common heat medium for technological processes. 6. the minimum temperature of network water at the outlet from the heat source and in the heat networks shall provide for the possibility of raising the temperature of the water supplied to the hot water supply. in the heat networks and heat receivers shall be determined on the basis of technical and economic assessments. ventilation and hot water supply systems of enterprises shall be permitted upon the technical and economic substantiation. public and industrial buildings and in the capacity of the heat medium.

winter mode – at the maximum water withdrawal for hot water supply from the return pipeline. Heat networks. ventilation and hot water supply system. summer mode– at the maximum load of hot water supply system in the non-heating season. ventilation and hot water supply – by means of changing the heat medium temperature at the heat source depending on the outdoor air temperature. central quality and quantity one according to the combined load of heating.10 In residential and public buildings.8 For separate water heat networks going from the one heat source to enterprises and residential areas.2 For water heat networks. the breaking point of water temperature in the supply and return pipelines shall be adopted at the outdoor air temperature corresponding to the breaking point of the graph of adjustment according to the heat load. heat accumulating capability of buildings and facilities. 8. centralized quality and quantity adjustment supplemented by group quantity adjustment at the heat points in order to reduce the fluctuations of hydraulic and heating parameters in specific in-block (sub-district) systems to the extent ensuring quality and sustainability of the heat supply system. 7. should be performed in the heat networks: central quality one according to the heat load. calculation of hydraulic modes shall be obligatory. transitional mode. for open heat supply system – no lower than 60 °C. the following hydraulic modes should be envisaged: design mode – according to the design network water consumptions. 7. SNiP 41-02-2003. ventilation units and hot water supply systems. static mode– in the absence of heat medium circulation in the heat network. adjustment of heat medium temperature or consumption in the heat points shall be envisaged. 7.6 In case of quality and quantity adjustment of heat allocation for heating of water in consumer hot water supply systems. ventilation and hot water supply – by means of adjustment of both the temperature and consumption of network water at the heat source. availability and locations of accumulation tanks.11 Usage of heat supply adjustment graphs «with cutting-off» of temperatures for heat networks shall not be permitted. 7.7 In heat supply systems. 7. it shall be permitted to envisage different graphs of heat medium temperature. Central quality and quantity adjustment at the heat source can be supplemented with group quantity adjustment at the heat points predominantly in the transition period of the heating season starting with the breaking point of the temperature graph with consideration of the schemes of connection of heating. . automated adjustment according to the temperature graph should be envisaged in order to sustain the average indoor air temperature in the building. In case of centralized quality and quantity adjustment according to the combined load of heating.at the maximum water withdrawal for hot water supply from the supply pipeline. the water temperature in the supply pipeline shall be: for closed heat supply system – no lower than 70 °C. 8 HYDRAULIC MODES 8. if heating appliances therein are not equipped with heat regulating valves. according to the combined load of heating. 7. upon availability of individual devices for adjustment of indoor air temperature by the quantity of networks water flowing through the receivers at the heat consumer’s in heating and ventilation systems.1 During the design of new CHS and renovation of the existing ones as well as during development of activities aimed at enhancement of operational readiness and failure-free operation of all system elements.9 In public and industrial buildings where reduction of air temperature during the night and out-of-service time is possible. pressure fluctuations in the heat supply system.

equivalent roughness values shall be permitted to be adopted upon confirmation of actual values thereof by means of testing with consideration of the operation period.10 Water pressure in the return pipelines of water heat networks of open heat supply system during the non-heating season as well as in the supply and circulation pipelines of hot water supply systems should be adopted to be no less than 0. 8.05 MPa) and 0.12 Head of the network pumps should be determined for heating and non-heating periods and adopted to be equal to the total of head losses in the units at the heat source. 8. if water is used as the heat medium.6 In the heat networks. In case of using pipelines made of other materials in heat networks. 8. Head of the booster pumps at the supply and return pipelines should be determined according to piezometric graphs at the maximum water consumptions in the pipelines with consideration of hydraulic losses in the equipment and pipelines. for water heat networks kэ = 0. ventilation and hot water supply are recommended to be made equal. 8.7 Static pressure in heat supply systems. for networks of hot water supply systems kэ = 0. booster and mixing pumps shall not be lower than cavitation pressure and shall not exceed the values permissible according to the pump design durability conditions.001 m.0002 m.4 Equivalent roughness of internal surface of steel pipes should be adopted as follows: for steam heat networks kэ = 0. Impermissible pressure increase in the pipelines and equipment at static pressures should be ruled out. shall be determined for network water temperature of 100 °C. 8. the minimum internal diameter of the pipes shall be taken up no less than 32 mm. 8. feeding. 8.5 Diameters of the supply and return pipelines of two-piped water heat networks at combined heat supply for heating. 8. non- heating periods and for the static mode shall be permitted to be envisaged.05 MPa higher than the static pressure of consumer hot water supply systems. enterprises with different daily operation modes should be determined with consideration of discordance of the maximum hourly steam consumption of separate enterprises. 8.9 Water pressure in the return pipelines of water heat networks during the operation of network pumps shall be excess one (no less than 0. Installation of separate groups of feeding pumps with different heads for heating. 8. additional steam quantity condensing due to heat losses in the pipelines shall be taken into consideration in the total consumption. 8.8 Water pressure in the supply pipelines of water heat networks during the operation of network pumps shall be taken up based upon the conditions of the non-boiling of water at the maximum temperature thereof in any point of the supply pipeline. For saturated steam pipelines. and for circulation pipelines of hot water supply systems – no less than 25 mm. 8.3 Steam consumption in steam heat networks supplying. Heat networks. in the supply and return pipelines from the heat source to the farthermost consumer and in the consumer system (including the losses in the heat points and pumping stations) at the total design water consumptions. SNiP 41-02-2003.1 MPa lower than the permissible pressure in consumer heat usage systems.14 Delivery (capacity) of operational feeding pumps at the heat source in closed heat supply system should be taken up equal to water consumption for compensation of network . in the equipment of the heat source and in the appliances of consumer systems directly connected to the heating networks.0005 m. emergency mode.11 Water pressure and temperature at the suction branch pipes of the network.13 Head of the feeding pumps shall be determined based on the condition of supporting static pressure in water heat networks and checked for network pumps operational conditions during the heating and non-heating periods.

17 At determining the head of network pumps. 9 HEAT NETWORKS ROUTE AND LAYING METHODS 9. and in open systems – one operating and one standby pump. at the number of five pumps in a group. SNiP 41-02-2003. as a rule. in units of water heat network division into areas (in splitting units) in closed heat supply systems.18 During the design of CHS with heat consumption of over 100 mWt. crossing of residential and public buildings by through water heat networks with diameters of 400 .in closed heat supply systems – no less than two. . be envisaged for heat networks (ductless. aboveground laying of heat networks shall be permitted. pressure Рn ≤ 1. 9. Laying of heat networks across the embankments of public highways of categories I. the differential pressure at the inlet of two-piped water heat networks in the buildings (in case of elevator connection of heating systems) should be taken up equal to design pressure losses at the inlet and in the local system with the coefficient of 1. Excess head is recommended to be eliminated in the heat points of the buildings. with the exception of territories of health care institutions and institutions for children. consumer heat usage systems should be determined. one of these shall be the standby unit. one of these shall be the standby unit. feeding pumps . during the installation.1 In population aggregates.6 MPa shall be permitted upon compliance with the following requirements: pipe laying shall be carried out in accessible cast reinforced concrete ducts with enhanced waterproofing. a standby pump shall be permitted not to be installed. 9. 8. water losses from the heat network. in heat networks. and in open systems – equal to the total of the maximum water consumption for hot water supply and water consumption for compensation of losses. Heat networks. In exceptional cases. in ducts or in city and in-block tunnels jointly with other engineering networks). 8. Duct ends shall extend beyond the building to no less than 5 m. 100% checkup of steel pipe welds of heat pipelines shall be obligatory. it shall be permitted to install one feeding pump without a standby.15 MPa. water outlets with the diameter of 300 mm shall be arranged from the lower points of the duct into stormwater collection system beyond the building. 8. II and III shall not be permitted. Upon substantiation.5 but no less than 0.600 mm. heat pipelines within the building shall not have any branchings. booster and mixing ones (in heat networks) – no less than three.2 Heat networks going across a territory not subject to development outside population aggregates should be laid above the ground on low supports. 8. underground laying shall. crossing of residential and public buildings by through water heat networks with heat pipeline diameters up to 300 mm inclusive shall be permitted upon eth condition of laying the networks in crawlways and tunnels (with the height of no less than 1. the need for a complex protection system preventing water hammer effects and impermissible pressures in the equipment of water heating units of heat sources. shutoff and control valves and fittings shall be installed beyond the building. in open systems – no less than three.16 The number of pumps shall be determined as follows: network pumps – no less than two.3 During the route selection. one of these shall also be the standby unit.8 m) and arrangement of drainage shafts in the lowest point at the outlet form the building.15 Head of the mixing pumps should be determined according to the largest differential pressure between the supply and return pipelines. The number of pumps shall be determined with consideration of their joint operation in the heat network. at that the standby pump shall be installed irrespective of the number of pumps. one of these shall be the standby unit.

to switches and frogs of rail roads on subsiding soils .8 Crossing of rivers. automobile roads. SNiP 41-02-2003. be made from the building to the closest chamber. tram roads as well as buildings and facilities by heat networks should. open drains.002. . 9.4 Laying of heat networks at the operating steam pressure over 2.05 i= r . tunnels and other artificial facilities . Laying of heat network pipelines in ducts and tunnels together with other engineering networks except for the listed above shall not be permitted. the heat networks shall. pipes. the least horizontal clear distances should be adopted as follows. to bridges. compressed air pipelines with the pressure up to 1.6 MPa. be laid above the ground. as a rule.30. Laying of heat network pipelines shall be envisaged in one row or above the other engineering networks. access holes and exits from the ducts within the territory of the institutions shall not be permitted.2 MPa and the temperature over 350 °C in he ducts with other engineering networks shall not be permitted. pressure wastewater networks. communication cables.). heat networks shall be permitted to be laid without any slope. shutoff valves and fittings shall be installed beyond the boundaries of the territory. the slope shall not exceed 0.10 In case of underground crossing of rail roads by heat networks . m: to switches and frogs of rail roads and points of cables connection to the rails of electrified rail roads .11 At the places of crossing the rail roads of general network as well as rivers. 9. compressed air pipelines with the pressure up to 1. Crossing of buildings and facilities of health care institutions as well as pre-school and educational institutions for children by through heat network routes shall not be permitted. (1) where r – roller or ball radius. as a rule. be carried out at right angle. laying along the bridges etc. and that of underground and aboveground railroad facilities – no less than 60°. 9. power cables with the voltage up to 10 kV. Heat networks.6 Underground laying of heat networks shall be permitted to carry out together with the engineering networks listed below: in ducts – with water supply pipelines. arrangement of ventilation shafts. 9. it shall be permitted to carry out crossing at a smaller angle but no less than 45°.20. cm.10. as a rule. gullets. Upon substantiation. At that. 9. mazout pipelines. at heat pipelines laying across the territories of industrial enterprises – according to the relevant special norms. in tunnels – with water supply pipelines with the diameters up to 500 mm.5 Slope of heat networks irrespective of the flow direction of the heat medium and laying method shall be no less than 0. Heat networks across the territory of the said institutions shall only be permitted to be laid under the ground in cast reinforced concrete channels with waterproofing. control cables intended for maintenance of heat networks. Slope of the heat networks to separate buildings in case of underground laying shall. 9.7 Horizontal and vertical distances from the exposed face of construction structures of ducts and tunnels or pipelines insulation enclosure in case of ductless laying of the heat networks to buildings.9 Crossing of tram roads by underground heat networks should be envisaged at a clear distance of at least 3 m from switches and frogs. 9.6 MPa. 9. permanent automobile road and rail road bridges shall be permitted to use. facilities and engineering networks should be taken up according to Appendix B. At using roller and ball supports. At certain sections (at networks crossing. At that.

a clearance of at least 100 mm shall be envisaged. be envisaged. as well as at crossing the gas pipelines. coating against corrosion shall be envisaged. At crossing the railway roads of general network. passage of the gas pipelines through construction structures of the chambers.17 At connection points of heat network pipelines to the buildings where gas supply is provided to. ducts. 9. in . streets. 9. sampling points shall be envisaged at the heat networks at the distance of no more than 15 m to both sides from the gas pipeline to allow for sampling for gas leakage. including grade level facilities of railway and automobile roads.5 m and over. 9. rivers and water bodies by heat networks. 9. In case of laying the heat networks alongside with drainage at the gas pipeline crossing section. tunnels or casings at crossing points shall be at least 3 m longer than the dimensions of the facilities being crossed. crawlways and tunnels shall not be permitted. corrosion protection of heat network pipes and casings shall be envisaged. at the clear distance from the heat networks structure to the pipelines of the networks being crossed of 300 mm and less. as a rule. artificial recesses shall be performed beyond the ground wedge of sliding due to watering.16 In case of underground laying of heat networks in ducts or tunnels.13 At laying the heat networks in casings. arrangement of casings at the water supply. 9. trunk roads. the heat networks should be laid as follows: in ducts . arrangement of dive culverts shall. at the crossing points thereof with gas pipelines. 9. SNiP 41-02-2003. with consideration of Table B. In case of underground crossing of railway. automobile. shutoff valves shall be envisaged at both sides of the crossing as well as provision of means for water drainage from heat network pipelines. underground railway lines. if the crossing length is up to 40 m. Crossing of underground railroad station facilities by heat networks shall not be permitted. the ducts and tunnels should be made of cast reinforced concrete with waterproofing. electrochemical protection shall be envisaged. to each of the sides. At laying heat networks under water obstacles. the drainage pipes should be envisaged to be without holes at the distance of 2 m to both sides form the gas pipeline with hermetic joint sealing. wastewater collection and gas supply pipelines should be envisaged to the clear distance of 2 m to each of the sides from the crossing.18 At crossing points of aboveground heat networks with aerial power transmission lines and electrified railway lines. At crossing points with electrified railway lines and tram roads. gullets.15 At crossing points of heat networks and water supply and wastewater collection networks located above the heat network pipelines. and wherever the gas supply is not provided – devices preventing the ingress of water shall be installed. 9. tunnels or casings at the distance of no more than 100 m from the boundaries of the facilities being crossed.3. in casings – if the works cannot be performed using the open method. tram roads and underground railroad. On the casings. bankings.19 Laying of heat networks along the edges of terraces.14 At the crossing points of heat networks with gas pipelines.if construction and installation works can be performed using the open method.12 The length of ducts. Heat networks. Between the heat insulation and the casing. 9. in tunnels – in the rest of the cases as well as in case the distance from the ground level to the top of the pipeline is 2. In case of underground crossing of underground rail road lines by heat networks. arrangement of devices preventing water and gas ingress to the buildings shall be envisaged. At that. earthing of all current-conducting elements of heat networks shall be envisaged (with the resistance of all earthing devices of no more than 10 Ohm) located at the horizontal distance of 5 m to both side from the power lines. drives of city and district significance as well as streets and roads of local significance. in case of underground laying.

0 MPa. Heat networks. b) for supply and return pipelines of water heat networks: pressure – according got the largest pressure in the supply pipeline beyond the outlet valves at the heat source during operation of network pumps with consideration of relief of the terrain (without consideration of pressure losses in the networks). case of location of buildings and facilities of various purpose under the banking. 10. DS) – according to the steam pressure and temperature after the unit.6 MPa inclusive. 10. at obtaining the steam by means of controlled extraction or turbines backward pressure – according to steam pressure and temperature taken up at the outlets from TEC for a particular steam pipeline system. pressure-reducing or desuperheating units (PRDS.5 The maximum distances between movable pipe supports at straight sections shall be determined by strength calculation based upon the possibility of using the bearing capacity of the pipes to the largest extent possible and the permissible deflection taken up to be no more than 0.1 Pipes. equipment and parts of pipelines as well as for strength calculation for the pipelines and determining of loads from the pipelines onto the pipe supports and construction structures. .2 For heat network pipelines. m.6 For selection of pipes. laying of heat networks in a cast reinforced concrete duct extending to the length of 5 m to the dimension of the pedestrian crossing should be envisaged. but no less than 1.02Dn. it shall be permitted to use non-metallic pipes. temperature – according to the temperature in the supply pipeline at the design outdoor air temperature for design of the heating. PR. Pipes made of high-duty cast iron with globular graphite (VChShG) shall be permitted to be used for heat networks at water temperatures up to 150 °C and pressures up to 1. steel electric-welded pipes or weldless steel pipes should be used. Pipes made of VCHSHG. 10. at obtaining the steam after pressure reducing desuperheating. fittings.4 For hot water supply system networks in closed heat supply systems. the operating pressure and the heat medium temperature should be adopted as follows: a) for steam networks: at obtaining the steam directly from the boilers – according to nominal values of steam pressure and temperature at the outlet from the boiler. 10. valves and fittings and products made of steel and cast iron for heat networks should be adopted in accordance with the regulations on the design and safe operation of steam and hot water pipelines PB 10-573 of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia. Strength calculation for steel and cast iron pipelines should be performed according to the heat networks pipeline strength calculation norms RD 10-400 and RD 10-249.07 MPa and lower and the water temperature of 115 °C and lower at the pressure up to 1. polymeric materials and non-metallic pipes shall be permitted to be used for both closed and open heat supply systems. activities aimed at diversion of emergency waters from heat networks in order to prevent flooding of the development territory shall be envisaged 9. 10 PIPELINE STRUCTURE 10. SNiP 41-02-2003. 10. valves. pipes made of corrosion-resistant materials or coatings shall be used.3 For heat network pipelines at the operating steam pressure of 0.20 In the area of heated pedestrian crossings including those combined with entrances to underground railroad stations.6 MPa inclusive. if the quality and characteristics of these pipes comply with sanitary requirements and agree with the parameters of the heat medium in the heat networks.

7 Operating pressure and temperature of the heat medium shall be adopted the same for the whole of the pipeline irrespective of its length from the heat source to the heat point of each consumer or to the units in the heat network which change the parameters of the heat medium (water heaters. At the CHP load of less than 0.10 In case of installation of cast iron valves and fittings in the heat networks. it shall be permitted to install valves and fittings made of ductile. after condensate pumps – according to the temperature of condensate in the collection tank. 10.9 For heat network pipelines. 10. temperature – up to 75 °C. valves and fittings with ends to be attached by welding or by means of flanges shall. if steel pipes suitable for water and gas are used.11 Usage of shutoff valves in the capacity of control ones shall not be permitted. Usage of valves and fittings made of lattin and bronze shall be permitted at the heat network pipelines at the temperature of the heat medium not exceeding 250 °C. Heat networks. pumping stations). except for the heat points and hot water supply system networks. d) for supply and circulation pipelines of hot water supply system networks: pressure – according to the highest pressure in the supply pipeline during operation of pumps with consideration of relief of the terrain. steel shutoff valves shall be installed.6 MPa and Dn ≥ 300 mm at Рn ≥ 2. 10.6 MPa bypass pipelines with valves should be envisaged (relief bypasses). 10.5 MPa.12 For heat networks. After the said units.6 MPa and lower and the temperature of 115 °C and lower. SNiP 41-02-2003. Pipe unions permitted to be used shall be of the nominal diameter of Dn ≤ 100 mm at the heat medium pressure of 1.8 Heat medium parameters for water heat networks under renovation shall be adopted according to the parameters in the existing networks.13 For valves and gates at water heat networks with the diameter of Dn ≥ 500 mm at the pressure of Рn ≥ 1. . At the outgoing parts of heat networks from the heat sources and at the connections to the central heat points (CHP). be used. valves and fittings made of the following materials shall not be permitted to be used: gray cast iron – in regions with design temperature of outdoor air for design of the heating being lower than minus 10 °C. Valves and fittings made of gray cast iron shall not be permitted to be used at discharge. pressure and temperature adjusters. 10. steel shutoff valves shall be installed. 10. At the connection to an individual heat point (IHP) with the total heat load for heating and ventilation of 0. as a rule.2 mWt or the design temperature of the heat medium of 115 °C and lower. high-duty cast iron – in regions with design temperature of outdoor air for design of the heating being lower than minus 40 °C. temperature after condensate traps – according to the saturation temperature at the highest possible steam pressure directly before the condensate traps.2 mWt and over. the heat medium parameters envisaged for these units shall be adopted. high-duty and gray cast iron in accordance with PB 10-573. blowdown and drainage devices. Within the heat points. flexural stress protection thereof shall be envisaged. ductile cast iron – in regions with design temperature of outdoor air for design of the heating being lower than minus 30 °C. c) for condensate networks: pressure – according to the largest pressure in the network during operation of the pumps with consideration of relief of the terrain. 10. pressure reduction and desuperheating units. and in steam networks Dn ≥ 200 mm at Рn ≥ 1. valves and fittings made of ductile or high-duty cast iron shall be permitted to be installed at the inlet thereto.

with arrangement of a shunt pipe between the supply and return pipelines with the diameter equal to 0. 10.to 1500 m. and for pipelines laid under the ground with Dn ≥ 900 mm . 10. in case of underground laying. Dn ≥ 600 » 5. at using valves and fittings made of carbon steel. at that double installation of the valves inside and outside the building shall not be permitted.3 of the pipeline diameter but no less than 50 mm.500 mm .19 Discharge tools of water heat networks should be installed based upon provision for duration period of water discharge and filling of the sectioned part (of one pipeline). Dn = 350 . canopies (awnings) shall be envisaged for protection of valves form atmospheric precipitation. 10. in units at the branching pipelines with Dn over 100 mm. At steam and condensate heat networks. 10. storage. boxes with electric heating shall be envisaged for valves and gates with Dn ≥ 500 mm to prevent air temperature reduction in the boxes to values lower than minus 30 °C in case of the networks stoppage. c) in water and steam heat networks. At remote valve controlling.15 Valves and gates with electric drives.to 5000 m upon ensuring that the formed section of a single pipeline can be emptied and filled back within a period of time not exceeding the value specified in 10. intermediate discharge tools shall be envisaged. metal jackets should be envisaged for valves and gates with electric drives to prevent unauthorized access and protect from atmospheric precipitation. 10.14 Valves and gates with Dn ≥ 500 mm should be electrically driven. and at through trunk pipelines boxes shall. installation and operation shall be envisaged.500 same 4. 10. It shall be permitted to increase the distance between sectioning valves for the pipelines with Dn = 400 . b) on pipelines of water heat networks of Dn ≥ 100 mm at the distance of no more than 1000 m from each other (sectioning valves). for pipelines with Dn ≥ 600 mm . SNiP 41-02-2003.19.20 Mud traps in water heat networks should be installed on the pipelines before the pumps and before the pressure adjustors in splitting units. sectioning valves shall be permitted not to be installed. and at laying the heat networks on low supports. Heat networks. activities aimed at preventing reduction of the steel temperature to values lower than minus 30 °C during transportation. two valves and a check valve between them with Dn = 25 mm shall be installed at the shunt pipe. be installed. If discharge of water from the pipelines in he lower points is not ensured within the specified time period. valves and fittings at the bypasses should also be equipped with electric drives. shall be installed in chambers with aboveground boxes or underground chambers with natural ventilation ensuring the air parameters in accordance with technical specifications for electric drives for valves. In case of pipes laying at the overpasses or high separately standing supports. 10.17 Shutoff valves in heat networks should e installed: a) on all outgoing heat network pipelines from the heat sources irrespective of the heat medium parameters and pipeline diameters and on condensate pipelines at the connection to condensate collection tank. nippers with valves and fittings for discharge of water shall be envisaged (discharge tools).16 In construction regions with design outdoor air temperature of minus 40 °C and lower. Mud traps shall not be required to .to 3000 m. h: for pipelines with Dn ≤ 300 mm – no more than 2. as a rule.18 In lower points of water heat network pipelines and condensate pipelines as well as parts being sectioned. At aboveground laying of heat networks on low supports.

The temperature of water being discharged shall be reduced to 40 °C. nippers with plugs and condensate traps connected to the nipper via a drainage pipeline shall be envisaged. In case of water diversion into domestic wastewater collection system. the discharge of water can be performed into concrete pits with further water removal via drain ditches. every 400 .28 To compensate for heat deformations of heat network pipelines. and in the rest of the cases condensate discharge shall be performed to the outside. Heat networks. one valve or isolator should be installed at each nipper. Water removal from discharge shafts or pits shall be permitted to be performed into natural water bodies or onto the terrain if agreed upon with the inspection authorities. a separate condensate trap shall be envisaged for each of them (including for those with identical steam parameters). Direct water discharge from one section of the pipeline to an adjacent section thereof as well as from the supply pipeline into return one shall be permitted. Direct discharge of water into the heat network chambers or onto the ground surface shall not be permitted.2 MPa and lower. 10. SNiP 41-02-2003. at the connection point. In pipeline units on the branchings prior to valves and in local bends of the pipelines with the height of less than 1 m. In case of underground laying or . 10. he following should be done: ensure continuous drainage of steam pipelines. IN case of aboveground laying of the pipelines across a non-developed territory. be installed in installation places of sectioning valves.300 m with the opposed slope. At the operating steam pressure of 2.23 Discharge of water from the pipelines in lower points of water heat networks at aboveground laying shall be ensured from each pipe separately. In the same points as well as at straight sections of steam pipelines. arrangement of air vents shall not be obligatory. 10.22 In upper points of heat network pipelines including those at every section formed nippers with valves and fittings intended for air venting shall be installed (air vents). corrugated and bellows expansion joints – for parameters of the heat medium and laying methods in accordance with technical documentation of the manufacturing plants. the following methods of compensation and compensating devices shall be used: flexible expansion joints (of various shape) made of steel pipes and pipeline bending corners – at any parameters of the heat medium and laying methods. at the operating steam pressure over 2. sealing steel expansion pieces at the parameters of the heat medium Рn ≤ 2. 10.1 MPa. Specialized condensate pipelines for condensate discharge shall not be envisaged.2 MPa – two tandem isolators shall be installed.24 In lower points of steam networks and before vertical rises.25 For startup drainage of steam pipelines.5 MPa and t ≤ 300 °C for pipelines with the diameter of 100 mm and over.27 Condensate removal from continuous drainage of steam networks into the pressure condensate pipeline shall be permitted upon the condition that. 10. startup drainage of steam pipelines shall be envisaged. 10. troughs or pipelines. At laying several steam pipelines.21 Arrangement of bypass pipelines around mud traps and regulating valves shall not be permitted. 10.500 m with the co-current slope and every 200 . startup expansion joints intended for partial compensation of temperature deformations due to the change of axial stress in a constrained pipe. with flow breaking into downshafts and subsequent water diversion by gravity or mobile pumps into the wastewater system. nippers with valves and fittings shall be envisaged.26 For continuous drainage of steam pipelines or at combination of continuous drainage and startup drainage. 10. the condensate pressure in the drainage condensate pipeline exceeds the pressure in pressure condensate pipeline by at least 0. a return valve shall be installed at the gravity pipeline to operate in case of the water backflow.

10. ball supports – for pipes with the diameter of 200 mm and over at horizontal movement of pipes at an angle to the route axis in case of laying in tunnels. be used. 2. For flexible expansion joints. Short-radius and welded bends shall not be permitted to be directly welded into the pipe without a nipper (pipe. laying of pipelines on suspended supports shall not be permitted.32 Distance between adjacent welds at straight sections of pipelines with heat medium pressure up to 1.6 MPa and temperature up to 250 °C shall be no less than 50 mm. Inserts without expansion pieces shall be permitted to be used allowing for full or partial compensation of temperature deformations by means of alternating changes of axial stresses (compression – extension) in the pipe. at separately standing supports and overpasses. at brackets. Welded sector bends shall be permitted to be used upon the condition of their manufacture with additional welding processing of the inside of welds. 10. checkup for longitudinal deflection shall be obligatory. 10.31 For heat networks.30 Heave meters for control of thermal extensions of the pipelines in heat networks irrespective of the heat medium parameters and the pipeline diameters are not required to be installed. Stamped-and-welded and welded sector bends shall be permitted to be used upon the condition that 100 % control of welded joints of the bends by means of ultrasonic flaw detection or radioscopy is carried out. Notes 1. Parts of the pipelines including bends made of electrically welded pipes shall not be permitted to be manufactured with a spiral weld. 10. . pipeline parts and elements of plant manufacture shall.5 MPa and the temperature up to 200 °C as well as for steam heat networks with operating pressure up to 2.2 MPa and the temperature up to 350 °C. 10. at separately standing supports and overpasses. welded sector bends shall be permitted to be used. for heat media with higher parameters – no less than 100 mm. with the bending radius of no less than one diameter of the pipe. 10.33 Short-radius bends shall be permitted to be welded together without a straight section. branch pipe). 4. Welded sector bends for pipelines made of VCHSHG pipes shall be permitted to be used without additional welding processing of the inside of welds if reverse bead formation in ensured and the depth of incomplete penetration does not exceed 0. 3. at brackets. In this case. aboveground laying on low supports. short- radius bends of plant manufacture shall be used. Heat networks. roller supports – for pipes with the diameter of 200 mm and over at axial movement of pipes in case of laying in tunnels.34 Movable pipe supports should be envisaged as follows: sliding supports – irrespective of the direction of horizontal movement of pipelines at any of the laying methods and for all pipe diameters. For pipelines of water heat networks with operating pressure of the heat medium up to 2. rigid suspensions – in case of aboveground laying of pipelines with flexible expansion joints and in self-compensation sections of pipelines. Distance from a crosswise weld to the beginning of a bend shall be no less than 100 mm. spring supports or suspensions – for pipes with the diameter of 150 mm and over in places of vertical movement of pipes. metal jackets preventing unauthorized access to sealing expansion pieces and protecting from atmospheric precipitation should be installed. angle bends and other bent elements of pipelines.8 mm at the length of no more than 10 % of the weld length at each joint. Stamped-and welded T-pieces and bends shall be permitted to be installed for heat media of all parameters. SNiP 41-02-2003.29 At aboveground laying. as a rule. N o t e – At sections of pipelines with sealing and axial corrugated expansion joints.

be of “grasping” type (yoke clamp. tunnels. at aboveground laying and in heat points are outlined in Appendix В. At selecting the location point. and for steam networks – no less than twentyfold thermal movement of pipes with suspension which is the farthermost from the immovable support. flood or other waters. 10. In case of aboveground laying of heat pipelines. combustible materials shall be permitted to be used for heat insulation and cover layers. If startup expansion joints are provided. at aboveground laying and laying in the premises.37 At using CEJ and CCU on heat pipelines at underground laying in ducts. In case of underground ductless laying and laying in crawlways.41 In case of ductless laying. 10. 10. tunnels. pipelines conveying combustible substances in tunnels (accessible ducts). 10. in case of the probability of earthworks to be performed close to the heat pipeline route. Axial corrugated compensating units (CCU) (corrugated expansion joints protected from contamination. 11. 11. CEJ and CCU can be located in any point of a heat pipeline between immovable supports or conventionally immovable cross-sections of the pipe unless there are limitations imposed by the manufacturing plant. fire safety norms and be selected depending on specific conditions and laying methods.35 Length of rigid suspensions shall be taken up as follows: for water and condensate heat networks – no less than tenfold. non-combustible materials of combustibility groups G1 and G2 are recommended to be used for the cover layer of heat insulation. chambers. chambers. in case of the probability of flooding of heat pipelines by ground. 11. SNiP 41-02-2003. In case of joint underground laying of heat pipelines with electric power or low-current cables.2 Materials of heat insulation and the cover layer of heat pipelines shall comply with the requirements of SNiP 41-03. be used. guide supports shall not be installed. heat pipelines should be checked for stability (longitudinal deflection) in the following cases: at small depth of heat pipeline laying (less than 1 m from the pipe axis to the ground level). heat insulation materials and structures which have been proved in practice should. 11 HEAT INSULATION 11. boxes. frame ones) to restrain the transverse shift without prevention of axial movement of the pipe.3 Every 200 m. New materials and structures shall be permitted to be used upon obtaining positive results of independent testing carried out by specialized laboratories. as a rule. In case of separate laying of heat pipelines in tunnels (accessible ducts). 10.1 For heat networks.39 Requirements to pipelines location at laying thereof in crawlways.36 Axial corrugated expansion joints (CEJ) shall be installed in premises. Heat networks. usage of non-combustible materials (NC) shall be obligatory only for the cover layer of the heat insulation of heat pipelines. . Installation of CEJ in the open air and in heat chambers in metal casing protecting the joints from external impacts and contamination.4 In case of laying the heat pipelines in heat insulation made of combustible materials. a tunnel (accessible duct) should be divided into sections with fire partitions of type 1 with fire-resistant doors of type 2. as a rule. external impacts and transverse loads by means of a durable casing) can be used at any pipe laying methods. heat insulation structure made of combustible materials shall not be permitted to be used. 10. installation of guide supports shall be obligatory.40 Technical characteristics of expansion joints shall comply with the calculation of strength in cold and operating condition of the pipelines. a possibility of moving the joint casing aside to the whole of its length in any direction shall be ensured.38 Guide supports should. in accessible ducts. pipe-like. 10.

the indoor air temperature shall be taken up equal to 20 °C. cost of the heat insulation structure and the heat. the design temperature of heat medium for supply heat pipelines of water heat networks shall be adopted as follows: at a constant temperature of network water and quantity adjustment – the maximum temperature of the heat medium. the following requirements to heat pipelines in assembly should be complied with: at using structures with non-hermetic coatings. 11.70 °C.7 At determining heat losses of the pipelines.heat pipelines in hermetic steam impermeable waterproofing envelopment. 11. 11. Representative structures – plant manufactured heat pipelines in foamed polyurethane insulation with polyethylene coating as per GOST 30732.every 10 m. Representative structures – plant manufactured heat pipelines in foamed polymeric mineral or reinforced foam concrete heat insulation.70 °C. temperature and insolation resistance parameters shall remain within the specified limits during the whole of design service life of each element or structure.).heat pipelines with steam permeable waterproofing coating or in monolithic heat insulation. At using heat pipeline structures in heat insulation made of combustible materials in non- combustible enclosure. Selection of heat insulation thickness should be carried out as per SNiP 41-03 for specific parameters with consideration of climatologic data of the construction area.11 Obligatory requirements to heat pipelines of group «a»: uniform density of structure filling with heat insulation material. 11. 11.10 At selecting the structure for underground ductless laying of heat networks. external corrosion rate of steel pipes shall not exceed 0. . at that. the cover layer of heat insulation shall be water impermeable without prevention of drying of moistened heat insulation. SNiP 41-02-2003.9 At selecting the heat pipeline structures of aboveground and duct laying.70 °C and 55 °C at 95 – 70 °C. 90 °C at 150 . for vertical sections -. crawlways and underground floors of residential building. Heat networks. at the places where heat pipelines go out from the ground.8 At location of heat pipelines in service premises. At selecting heat insulation materials which cause changing of heat medium parameters (design temperature. at using structures with hermetic coatings. Average yearly temperature for return heat pipelines of water heat networks shall be adopted equal to 50 °C. at that the exterior consolidated layer thereof shall be water impermeable and at the same time steam permeable. group «b» . 11.03 mm/year. the inserts shall be permitted not to be made. and the temperature at the surface of the heat pipeline structure – no higher than 45 °C. arrangement for replacement of a moist section with a dry one.6 Heat insulation material and heat pipeline structure should be selected according to the economic optimum of the total operational costs and capital investments into the heat networks. associated structures and facilities. at a variable temperature of networks water and quality adjustment – average yearly temperature of the heat medium 110 °C at the temperature graph of adjustment 180 . 11. and the interior layer contacting the pipe surface shall protect the steel pipe against corrosion. adjustment modes etc. arrangement of operational remote control system (ORC) of heat insulation moisturizing. inserts made of non-combustible materials with the length of at least 3 m should be envisaged: in each chamber of the heat network and at the connections to buildings. envelopment hermiticity and availability of ORC system. comparison of centralized heat supply system options as a whole should be performed. 65 °C at 130 . in case of aboveground laying – every 100 m. temperature resistance parameters shall remain within the specified limits during the design service life.5 Fastenings of heat pipelines shall be made of corrosion-resistant materials or be coated with anti-corrosion coatings. two groups of heat pipeline structures shall be considered: group «a» .

membrane waterproofing to the height exceeding the maximum ground water level by 0. Heat networks.12 At calculating the insulation thickness and determining the yearly heat losses from heat pipelines laid without ducts to the depth of the heat pipeline axis over 0. abrasion resistance of the protective coating – no more than 2 mm/25 years. the air temperature therein should be taken up equal to no higher than 40 °C.2 For external surfaces of ducts. 11. 12 CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURES Underground laying 12.7 m from the top of the heat insulation structure. . 11. tunnels. brackets and other steel structures for heat network pipelines shall be protected against corrosion. the design ambient temperature shall be taken up equal to the average yearly temperature of the ground at the specified depth. 11.03 mm/year. SNiP 41-02-2003. At the heat pipeline laying depth of less than 0. and for external surfaces of construction structures and concrete inserts – waterproof insulation. for hot water supply system networks – according to the maximum temperature of hot water. 11. the heat conductivity factor of heat insulation shall be taken up with consideration of potential moisturizing of the heat pipeline structure. Diameter of the drainage pipes shall be adopted according to the calculation. external corrosion rate of the pipes shall not exceed 0. external corrosion rate of the pipes shall not exceed 0. For determining the ground temperature in the temperature field of an underground heat pipeline.16 In case of heat networks laying in crawlways and without ducts. Obligatory requirements to physical and technical characteristics of heat pipeline structures of group «b»: temperature resistance parameters shall remain within the specified limits during the design service life. at heat network laying beyond the ground water level. associated drainage should be envisaged. arrangement of associated drainage shall not be required.1 Frames.14 At determining thickness of heat insulation of heat pipelines laid in accessible ducts and tunnels. the heat medium parameters should be taken up as per 11. external corrosion rate of the pipes shall not exceed 0. the heat medium temperature shall be taken up as follows: for water heat networks – according to the temperature graph of adjustment at the average monthly outdoor air temperature of the design month. chambers and other structures. 12.7.3 At laying heat networks in the ducts below the maximum level of ground water. 11.03 mm/year.4 For associated drainage.13 At selecting the structures of aboveground heat pipelines. the design ambient temperature shall be taken up equal to the sane ambient air temperature as for aboveground laying.7 m. pipes with prefabricated elements as well as ready-made pipe filters shall be used.5 m or other efficient waterproofing. the following requirements to physical and technical characteristics of heat pipeline structures should be taken into consideration: temperature resistance parameters shall remain within the specified limits during the design service life. insulating plaster and membrane waterproofing of the cover slabs of the said facilities shall be envisaged 12.15 At determining the yearly heat losses from heat pipelines laid in ducts and tunnels. 12.03 mm/year. If usage of associated drainage proves impossible.shall be envisaged In case of ductless laying of heat pipelines with polyethylene cover layer.

12. one of them shall be in standby. The air temperature in tunnels shall be permitted to be reduced from 40 to 33 °C by means of mobile ventilation units. at he turns and in units where due to the layout conditions the pipelines. arrangement of artificial beds is recommended. Delivery (capacity) of the operating pump shall be adopted according to the value of the maximum hourly volume of the incoming water with the factor of 1. 12. whenever necessary. located diagonally. with the length of at least 4 m and the width of at least the largest diameter of the pipe laid plus 0. 12. 12. 12. The manhole bottom elevation shall be taken up to be 0. 12.17 In case of ductless laying of heat networks. 12. valves and fittings make the passage difficult. a tank with the capacity of no less than 30% of the maximum hourly volume of drainage water shall be envisaged Removal of water from the associated drainage system shall be arranged by gravity or by pumping it into stormwater collection system.15 In tunnels.9 Design of panel immovable supports shall necessarily include an air clearance between the pipeline and the support and allow for pipeline replacement without demolition of the concrete body of the support.8 m. supply and exhaust ventilation shall be envisaged. Access holes shall be envisaged in all end points of arterial sections of tunnels. Local reduction of the chamber height to 1. Heat networks. In panel supports. access pits shall be envisaged at every 300 m of distance.16 Vent shafts for tunnels can be combined with entrances to the tunnels.7 For removal of water from the associated drainage system. The width of passageways between the pipelines shall be equal to the outside diameter of the uninsulated pipe plus 100 mm but no less than 700 mm.003.15 MPa. at least two pumps shall be installed at the pumping station.11 For tunnels. Ventilation of tunnels shall provide for the air temperature therein of no higher than 40 °C during both winter and summer time. arrangement of inspection manholes shall be envisaged at least every 50 m.8 The slope of associated drainage pipes shall be taken up to be at least 0. openings ensuring water drainage shall be envisaged.3 m lower than the laying elevation of the connecting drainage pipe. In soft soils with the bearing capacity less than 0.5 At the bend corners and straight sections of associated drainage system.12 In tunnels. SNiP 41-02-2003. If materials emitting amounts of hazardous substances exceeding the MAC in the air of the working area in the course of operation are used for heat insulation of the pipes. arrangement of ventilation shall be obligatory. Water removal from pits of other chambers (not in lower points) shall be ensured by means of mobile pumps or directly by gravity into wastewater collection systems with arrangement of a hydraulic gate at the gravity pipeline. and in case of potential water backflow – additional shutoff valves. 12. 12.14 Gravity removal of accidental water shall be envisaged from the lower points of chamber and tunnel pits into discharge wells as well as arrangement of shutoff valves at the inlet of the gravity pipeline into the well.6 For water collection. 12.15 MPa.1 m. and during the repair works – no higher than 33 °C. The distance between the supply and exhaust shafts should be determined by calculation.8 m shall be permitted. water bodies or gullets.13 The number of holes for chambers should be at least two. 12. the heat pipelines shall be laid onto a sand bed at the soil bearing capacity of at least 0. .7 m. 12. but no less than 0. 12.2. Clear height of the chambers from the floor level to the bottom of the projecting structures shall be no less than 2 m. The need for natural ventilation of the ducts shall be determined by the designs thereof.10 The height of accessible ducts and tunnels shall be no less than 1. as well as openings for ventilation of ducts. entrances with stairs at the distance of no more than 200 m from each other shall be envisaged as well as emergency and access holes at the distance of no more than 200 m for heat networks. taking into consideration the removal of accidental waters.

from 0. 13 CORROSION PROTECTION OF PIPELINES Protection against internal corrosion 13. trunk roads and streets shall be permitted in ducts. 12.1 At selecting the internal corrosion protection method for steel pipes of heat networks and developing the feeding water treatment schemes. Branchings not located at immovable supports should also be equipped with absorbing pads. hydrogen ion exponent рН. 13. for high separately standing supports and overpasses – to allow for passage of railway and automobile transportation means under the heat pipelines and overpass structures.22 Vertical distance from the grade level of the ground to the bottom of the pipelines should be adopted as follows: for low supports . the following basic parameters of network water should be considered: water hardness. 12.23 In case of aboveground laying of heat networks. SNiP 41-02-2003.6 m with railings and stairs should be envisaged. usage of corrosion inhibitors. installation of corrosion indicators should be envisaged.5 m and over. content of sulphates and chlorides.20 In case of temperature expansion compensation by route turns.18 Ductless laying of heat pipelines can be used under the impassable parts of streets and inside of the residential blocks. treatment and deaeration of additionally fed water. heat pipelines shall be permitted to be laid in ducts or casings. 12. Z- shape expansion joints at ductless laying of pipelines.3 m to 1. content of organic impurities (water oxidation susceptibility). under streets and roads of V category and those of local significance. Aboveground laying 12.3 For internal corrosion control on supply and return pipelines of water heat networks at the outlets from the heat source and in the most representative points. usage of non-chemical electrochemical water treatment method.6 m shall be envisaged.2 m depending on the ground grading and slopes of the heat pipelines. gullets and in other pipeline sections that are difficult to access for maintenance.19 In case of underground crossing of roads and streets.IV categories. requirements outlined in Appendix B shall be complied with. content of oxygen and free carbonic acid in the water. 13. L-shape. reduction of oxygen content in network water. heat pipeline sloping shall be ensured. Heat networks. absorbing pads or channels (recesses) should be envisaged. Stairs with the sloping angle over 75° or the height over 3 m shall have railings. application of anti-corrosion coating onto the internal surface of steel pipes or usage of corrosion-resistant steels. 12. 12. stationary grounds with the width of 0. gangways with the width of no less than 0. rivers.21 On overpasses and separately standing supports in crossing points of rail roads.2 Protection of pipes against internal corrosion should be performed by means of: increasing the рН level within the limits recommended by TOR. U-shape.24 For maintenance of valves and equipment located at the height of 2. Under the driveways of automobile roads of I . Protection against external corrosion . 12.

electrochemical protection of the pipelines. The bridge length should be determined with consideration of the maximum heat expansion of the pipeline. at crossing points of heat networks with railway lines of electrified transport. increasing the transition resistance of construction structures of heat networks by using electrically insulating immovable and movable pipe supports. 13. 13. Cross-section of the bridges shall be determined by calculation and be taken up equal to at least 50 mm2 across the copper. 13. deign solutions preventing external corrosion of heat network pipes shall be envisaged.0-20.518.11 Control and measurement points (CMP) for measurement of pipeline voltage difference from the ground surface should be installed with the interval of no more than 200 m: in chambers or installation places of immovable pipe supports outside the chambers.10 Current-conducting bridges at expansion glands shall be made of a multi-strand copper wire. installation of electrically insulating flanges at the pipelines at the connection of the heat network (or in the closest chamber) to the facilities which can be the source of stray currents (tram depot. application of anti-corrosion coating onto the steel pipes shall not be required. if more than two lines are crossed. steel wire cable. repair shops etc. whereas arrangement of an ORC system signaling about moisture ingress into the heat insulation layer shall be ensured Irrespective of the laying method. protection of the pipe metal form external corrosion shall not be required. in installation places of electrically insulating flanges.6 Ends of pipe sections. balancing potentials between the parallel pipelines by installing crosswise current- conducting bridges between adjacent pipelines at using electrochemical protection methods. structures of heat pipelines in foamed polymeric mineral heat insulation. with consideration of requirements of RD 153-34. the CMP shall be installed at both sides of the crossing with arrangement of special chambers. For heat pipeline structures with other heat insulation materials irrespective of the laying methods. T-joints and other metal structures which are not shop- insulated shall be covered with anti-corrosion coating. increasing the longitudinal electric conductivity of pipelines by installing electric bridges at expansion glands and on flange-mounted fittings. bends. in the stray currents field at positive and sign-variable voltage difference between the pipelines and the ground. anti-corrosion coatings applied directly onto the external surface of the pipe shall be used. 13. at crossing points or parallel laying with steel engineering networks and facilities.7 In case of ductless laying under conditions of high corrosion activity of the soils. 13. except for the structures with hermetic protective coating.5 For heat pipeline structures with foamed polyurethane heat insulation with hermetic external envelopment. in case of using VCHSHG pipes.8 As an additional corrosion protection means of steel pipelines of heat networks against stray current corrosion in case of underground laying (in crawlways or ductless). cable.9 Crosswise current-conducting bridges should be envisaged in chambers with pipe branchings and in through sections of the heat networks. the following activities should be envisaged: location of the heat networks route away from railway lines of electrified transport reduction of the number of crossings therewith. 13. 13. SNiP 41-02-2003. railway substations. at places where heat network routes approach the points of cables connection to the rails of . if necessary. Steel bridges shall be coated to ensure protection against corrosion. Heat networks.).4 During the design development. 13. additional protection of metal pipelines of heat networks shall be envisaged. in the rest of the cases usage of steel rods or strips shall be permitted.

electrified roads. All activities listed or a part thereof can be carried out in a heat point. adjusting pumps or automatically regulated elevators lowering the temperature of water delivered into the heating. protection of local systems against emergency increase of the heat medium parameters. 13. Independent pipelines from the CHP for connection of ventilation system in case of using an independent scheme of connecting the heating systems shall be envisaged at the maximum heat load for ventilation of over 50 % of the maximum heat load for the heating. depending on its purpose and local conditions. arrangement of access places to pipes in heat network chambers should be envisaged for carrying out engineering diagnostics of corrosion condition of steel pipes by non-destructive methods. ventilation.8 Design water temperature in supply pipelines after CHP shall be taken up as follows: if the heating systems of buildings are connected according to a dependent scheme – equal to. equipment. control and automation instruments shall be located to be used for the following: conversion of the heat medium type or parameters thereof. 14 HEAT POINTS 14.12 In case of underground laying of heat pipelines. 14. heat accumulation. 14. control of the heat medium parameters. if an independent scheme is used – no more than 30 °C lower than the design water temperature in the supply heat network pipeline before the CHP but no higher than 150 °C and no lower than the design one adopted in the consumer system. SNiP 41-02-2003.3 Arrangement of a connection IHP shall be obligatory for each building irrespective of availability of CHP. Instruments controlling the heat medium parameters and recording the heat consumption should be envisaged in all heating points. water treatment for hot water supply system. return of condensate and quality control thereof. adjustment of heat medium consumption and heat distribution among the consumption systems (via distribution networks in CHP or directly into the systems of IHP). cooling.same. 14. Heat networks. fittings. valves. central heat points (CHP) . for two or more buildings. the design water temperature in the supply heat network pipeline before the CHP. filling and additional feeding of the heat consumption system. heat medium and condensate consumption. collection. hot water supply systems and technological heat-using units of a single building or apart thereof. valves and fittings in heat points should be adopted as outlined in Appendix В. 14.7 Connection of heat consumers to heat networks in heat points should be envisaged according to the schemes ensuring the minimum water consumption in heat networks as well as heat saving by means of using heat consumption regulators and limiters of the network water maximum consumption. equipment of sanitary technical systems of buildings and facilities including booster pumping units supplying water for domestic and fire fighting needs shall be located.2 In heat points. 14. equipment. at that in the IHP only the activities required for connection of a particular building and not available in the CHP shall be envisaged.6 Basic requirements to location of pipelines. 14. ventilation and air conditioning systems. the water temperature in the supply pipeline of the heat network . record of heat loads. 14. as a rule.4 In closed and open heat supply systems.9 At determining the heating surface of water-to-water water heaters for hot water supply and heating systems.5 In the premises of heat points. 14. the need for arrangement of CHP for residential and public buildings shall be substantiated by a technical and economic assessment.1 Heat points are subdivided into: individual heat points (IHP) – for connection of heating.

capacious water heaters shall be permitted to be used in the capacity of hot water accumulation tanks upon the condition of their capacity complying with the required one by calculation for accumulation tanks. At the maximum heat load for hot water supply up to 2 MWt it shall be permitted to envisage only one water heater of hot water supply system in each heating stage. connected in parallel. in steam heat networks.14 Mud traps shall be installed: in the heat point at the connection of supply pipelines. . 14. each of them designed for 100 % of the heat load – for heating systems of buildings not permitting for interruptions in the heat supply. each of them designed for 75 % of the heat load. 14.12 The minimum number of water-to-water water heaters should be adopted as follows: two. the counter-current scheme of heat medium flow should be adopted. For hot water supply systems. Filters shall be installed downstream the water flow before mechanical water meters (vane. usage of water heaters of other types with high thermo- technical and operational characteristics and small size shall be permitted. in IHP – irrespective of their availability in the CHP. In case of installation of steam-water water heaters in heating.for heating systems of buildings constructed in regions with the design outdoor air temperature lower than minus 40 °C.13 At the pipelines. 14. heir number shall be taken up to be no less than two. SNiP 41-02-2003. and standby water heaters shall be permitted not to be envisaged. should be taken up equal to the temperature at the breaking point of the water temperature graph or the minimum water temperature if there is no breaking point in the temperature graph. and for heating systems – also the water temperature corresponding to the design outdoor air temperature for the design of the heating. arrangement of startup bridges between the supply and return .15 In heat points. In steam-to-water water heaters. connected in parallel in each of the heating stages. 14. of the hot water supply system – into the inter-tube space.11 For fast sectioned water-to-water water heaters. The largest of the obtained heating surface values shall be adopted as the design one. connected in parallel. the temperature of the heated water at the outlet from the water heater into the hot water supply system should be taken up no less than 60 °C. two. in heat units of consumers of 3rd category – at the connection of the supply pipeline.for hot water supply system. ventilation or hot water supply systems. same. turbine ones). 14. at the return pipeline before the adjustment instruments and water and heat recording devices – no more than one. In addition to fast water heaters. steam shall be delivered into the inter-tube space. except for the buildings not permitting for interruptions in heat supply for hot water supply. Heat networks. Arrangement of nippers with valves and fittings with the nominal diameter of 15 mm for air venting in the upper points of all pipelines and with the nominal diameter of no less than 25 mm – for water discharge in lower points of water and condensate pipelines. standby water heaters designed for the heat load in accordance with the operational mode of technological units of the enterprise shall be envisaged 14.10 At determining the heating surface of water heaters of hot water supply system. one – for other heating systems. at that the heating water from the heat network shall be delivered: to water heaters of the heating system – into the tubes. Water discharge units shall be permitted to be installed not in the CHP pit but in special chambers beyond the CHP. For technological units not permitting for interruptions in heat supply. each of them designed for 50 % of the heat load. two. . plate-type heat exchanger and other equipment (upon the request of the manufacturing plant).

21 In heat points. bedroom premises of boarding schools. Chemicals and materials used for water treatment and coming into direct contact with water delivered into the hot water supply system shall be permitted for use by authorities of Gossanepidnadzor of Russia in the practice of domestic water supply system. water treatment should be envisaged to be performed. premises with long-term staying of patients. as a rule. The tank design should include for a device preventing the ingress of the liquid encapsulant into the hot water supply system. elevators. a checking calculation of heat inputs from the heat point into the adjacent premises should be performed. The design air temperature in the working area during the cold period of the year should be taken up to be no higher than 28 °C.19 For heat points. 14. supply and exhaust ventilation should be envisaged and designed for the air exchange determined according to the heat emissions from the pipelines and the equipment. during the warm period of the year . mud traps and water and heat recording devices shall not be permitted. 14. in CHP. wards and operating rooms of hospitals.25 From a heat point.5 °C higher that the outdoor air temperature according to parameters A. a drain box shall be installed.22 The minimum clear distances from separately standing aboveground CHP to exterior walls of the listed premises shall be no less than 25 m. pipelines of heat networks as well as the pipelines bypassing the pumps (except for the booster ones). exits shall be envisaged: . 14. rest-homes. Heat networks. health resorts. In conditions of especially constraint environment. 14. internal surface of the tanks shall be protected against corrosion by means of using protective coatings or cathodic protection. holiday hotels. 14. 14. 14. drain sewage or associated drainage system. Heat points equipped with pumps shall not be located adjacently above or under the premises of residential apartments. bedrooms and playrooms of pre-school institutions for children. shall be divided into separately standing ones.23 Heat points.8 m. those built to buildings and facilities and those built into buildings and facilities. hotels. one drainage pump should be envisaged. activities aimed at additional heat insulation of the enclosures of the adjacent buildings should be envisaged. The pit shall be covered with a detachable grate. activities aimed at prevention of exceedance of noise levels permitted for premises of residential and public buildings shall be envisaged.5 × 0. 14. The pump intended for water removal from water collection pit shall not be permitted to be used for flushing of the heat consumption system. regulating valves. In IHP. internal surface of the tanks shall be protected from corrosion and water therein form aeration by means of using liquid encapsulants. 14. hostels. For pumping the water away from the water collection pit into the wastewater collection.17 Potable water treatment shall not cause deterioration of its sanitary and hygienic parameters. physicians’ offices. usage of magnetic and silicate water treatment only shall be permitted. Overflow regulators and condensate traps shall be equipped with bypass pipelines. If the permitted air temperature in these premises is exceeded.16 For protection of pipelines and equipment of centralized hot water supply systems connected to heat networks via water heaters against corrosion and scale formation.5 × 0. At locating the heat points in residential and public buildings. and in case the gravity water removal proves impossible – a water collection pit shall be installed with dimensions of at least 0. audience halls of places of entertainment. according to their location on the general plan. In the absence of vacuum deaeration. SNiP 41-02-2003.18 At installing accumulation tanks for hot water supply systems in heat points with vacuum deaeration.24 Heat points built into the buildings should be located in separate premises at exterior walls of the buildings.20 In the floor of the heat point. reduction of the distance to 15 m shall be permitted upon the condition of taking additional measures aimed at reduction of noise to levels permissible according to the sanitary norms. 14.

dimensions of the assembly hole and gates shall be 0. dismountable lift-and-carry machinery should be envisaged. from 1. 14. valves and fittings or non-detachable parts of equipment units. in residential and public buildings shall be separated from other premises by partitions or enclosures preventing unauthorized access into the heat point.5 m and over prove impossible. of category III – the rest of the electrical receivers. At that.1 to 1. booster. 15 ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY AND CONTROL SYSTEM Electric power supply 15. electrical receivers of heat networks should be envisaged: of category I – booster pumps of heat networks with the pipe diameter over 500 mm and drainage pumps of dive culverts.into the adjoining premises. valves and fittings located at the height of 1.28 Heat points located in the premises of production and storage buildings as well as administrative and auxiliary buildings of industrial enterprises.1 Electric power supply of electrical receivers of heat networks should be carried out according to electrical installation regulations (PUE). assembly holes or gates in the walls should be envisaged. same. mixing and circulation pumps of heat networks with the pipe diameter less than 500 mm and heating and ventilation systems in heat points.27 With regard to explosion-and-fire and fire safety. mobile grounds or mobile units (ladders) shall be envisaged. stationary grounds with railing and permanent stairs shall be envisaged. over 2. staircase well or corridor.32 In permanently manned CHPs.2 Equipment controlling the electrical units in underground chambers shall be located in . pumps for water filling and discharge from accumulation tanks for additional feeding of heat networks in open heat supply systems.29 For assembly of equipment with dimensions exceeding dimensions of the doors in aboveground heat points.2 m larger than the overall dimensions of the largest equipment or a unit of pipelines.0 t . stairs and railings should be adopted in accordance with the requirements of GOST 23120. additional feeding pumps in splitting units. the following stationary lift-and- carry machinery shall be permitted to be envisaged: at the weight of the load to be relocated from 0. With regard to reliability of electric power supply. 14. 14. at the length of the heat point premises of over 12 m – two exits.5 to 2. and the second one . 14. 15. Distance from the level of the stationary ground to the upper slab shall be no less than 2 m.0 to 2. valves and fittings located at the height of 2. Premises of heat points serving consumers of steam with the pressure over 0. A possibility of using mobile lift-and-carry machinery shall be permitted to be envisaged.suspension manual single-beam cranes. If usage of dismountable machinery proves impossible.30 For relocation of equipment. SNiP 41-02-2003.26 Apertures for natural lighting of heat points are not required to be envisaged.0 t .suspension electrical single-beam cranes. 14. one of these shall lead directly outside. of category II – isolation valves if remote control is available. a lavatory with a wash-basin should be envisaged. at the length of the heat point premises of 12 m and less – one exit into the adjoining premises.5 m from the floor level. corridor or staircase well. 14. Doors and gates shall be opened from the premises or the building of the heat point by pushing outside.31 For maintenance of equipment. Heat networks.0 t – monorails with hand hoists and crabs or suspension manual single-beam cranes. dispatch control room. same. premises of heat points shall comply with requirements of category D as per NPB 105.07 MPa shall have at least two exits irrespective of dimensions of the premises. Dimensions of the grounds. If construction of passageways for mobile grounds as well as maintenance of equipment. 14.

b) instrumentation with the required valves for measurement of: water temperature in the supply (on a selective basis) and return pipelines before sectioning valves and. the following should be envisaged: a) automated regulators. water pressure in the supply and return pipelines before and after sectioning valves and regulating units and. closure (opening) of automated regulators and fast-response isolation valves. 15.«before itself» (backup head regulator). Automation and control 15. regulators.5 In heat chambers. water consumption in the supply and return branching pipelines Dn ≥ 400 mm. the premises located above the ground level. isolation valves. In the rest of the premises. switching on the feeding devices in splitting units for sustaining the static water pressure in the shut-down sector at a specified level. emergency lighting shall be provided by means of mobile storage battery lamps. Permanent emergency and evacuation lighting should be envisaged in the premises of permanent staying of operational and repair personnel.3 Electrical lighting should be envisaged in pumping stations. boxes. 15.8 Automation of mixing pumping stations shall ensure constancy of the specified mixing coefficient and protection of heat networks after the mixing pumps from water temperature increase as compared to the specified one in case of pumps stoppage. division (splitting) of the water network into hydraulically independent sector in case the water pressure exceeds the permissible level. in tunnels and dive culverts. Lighting intensity shall be taken up according to the current norms. steam pressure in branching pipelines before the valve. chambers equipped with electrical equipment as well as on the grounds of overpasses and separately standing high supports in installation places of electrically driven valves. 15. as a rule. anti-shock devices and interlocking providing for: a specified water pressure in the supply or return pipelines of heat networks with sustaining of a constant pressure in the supply pipeline «after itself» and in the return one . protection of the heat source equipment. switching on the standby pump installed at the return pipeline in case the pressure in the suction pipeline of the pumping station exceeds the permissible level or the one installed at the supply pipeline – in case of the pressure in the pressure pipeline of the pumping station reduces. c) protection of heat networks equipment and consumer heat usage system from impermissible changes of pressure in case of stoppage of network or booster pumps. in the supply and return branching pipelines Dn ≥ 300 mm before the valve.9 Pumping stations shall be equipped with a set of reading and recording instruments .4 In heat networks. in the return branching pipeline Dn ≥ 300 mm before the valve downstream the water flow. automated switching on the standby pump (AVR) in case the operating pump switches off or the pressure in the pressure branch pipe drops. SNiP 41-02-2003. as a rule.7 Drainage pumps shall ensure automated removal of the incoming water. in heat points. 15. a possibility of measuring temperature and pressure of the heat medium in the pipelines should be envisaged. closure (opening) of automated regulators.6 Automation of booster pumping stations on the supply and return pipelines of water heat networks shall ensure: specified constant pressure in the supply or return pipelines of the pumping station at any network operation modes. heat networks and consumer heat usage system from impermissible changes of pressure in case of emergency switching off the booster pumps. control and measurement instruments. 15. Heat networks. 15.

The reason for calling the maintenance personnel shall be recorded locally.17 For heat networks. In substantiated cases – for a part of the city with consideration of development of the heat supply system. stopping the water supply to an accumulation tank at reaching the upper limit level and distribution of water at reaching the lower level. with a single central dispatch room. indication of the upper limit level (beginning of overflow into the overflow pipe). (including water consumption measurement) installed locally or at the control panel. interlockings ensuring that water supply to the tank is stopped completely at reaching the upper limit level of tank filling. a single-staged system of dispatch control shall. SNiP 41-02-2003. 15.18 Newly constructed dispatch rooms of heat networks enterprises should. For large heat supply systems (cities with population over 1 million people) or systems with a particularly complicated structure . record and adjustment instruments installed locally or at the control panel. Dispatch control of heat networks with heat loads of 100 MWt and lower shall be determined by the city public utilities management structure and shall. switching on the standby pump at switching off the operating one.12 Heat points should be equipped with automation means. Dispatcher control 15.13 Automation and control means shall ensure operation of heat points without permanent staying of maintenance personnel (being manned for no more than 50 % of the operation time). indication of status and disturbances at the control panel. 15. protection of the heating system from emptying. At the facilities operating without permanently staying maintenance personnel. light-and-sound indication shall be output to the premises of personnel on duty.11 If accumulation tanks are installed in permanently manned facilities. 15. be located in the premises of repair and maintenance facilities. switching off the discharge pumps. as a rule. dispatch control should be envisaged. sustaining the static pressure in heat consumption systems at their independent connection. 15. 15. stopping the water distribution at reaching the lower level (switching off the discharge pumps). 15. form part of a joint dispatch service of the city (JDS) or district. Heat networks. . the disturbance signal shall be output to the dispatch room.15 At heat network enterprises with facilities thereof being dispersed territorially.16 Dispatch control should be developed with consideration of prospective development of the heat networks of the whole city. water temperature in the tank – a reading instrument.10 Accumulation tanks (including pumps for tanks filling and discharging) of hot water supply system shall be equipped with: control and measurement instruments for level measurement – a recording instrument. 15. as a rule. as a rule. a specific water temperature in the hot water supply system. protection of heat consumption systems form increased pressure or water temperature in case a hazard of permissible parameter limits to be exceeded occurs. with central and district dispatch rooms. a two- staged structure of dispatch control shall be envisaged. be envisaged. heat engineering control. pressure at all supply and outgoing pipelines – a reading instrument.14 Automation of heat points shall ensure: adjustment of heat consumption in the heating system and limiting the maximum consumption of network water at the consumers’. 15. a specific pressure in the return pipeline or a required differential pressure of water in the supply and return heat network pipelines.

15. If necessary.1 During the design of heat networks and facilities thereon in regions with seismic activity of 8 and 9 points. SNiP 41-02-2003. consumption of the heat medium. ACS TP shall be permitted to be used. pumps and commutation equipment providing for voltage supply into the pumping station. remote control of startup and stopping of pumps and electrically driven valves with operational significance remote indication of position of electrically driven valves. indication. differential pressure between the supply and return mains. peaty and permafrost soils. salinized. the following shall be envisaged: remote measurement of pressure.21 Teleautomation shall ensure operation of pumping stations without permanent manning.22 For pumping stations and central heat points. emergency announcement remote indication of limiting values for feeding water consumption. consumption of feeding water. 15. Heat networks. control and automation. 15. temperature. 15. telemetry sensors shall be located in specialized premises combined with the premises of electrotechnical equipment ruling out the impact of water and steam onto this equipment in case of emergencies. alongside with the requirements of the present . remote control of isolation valves and regulating valves with operational significance. on snubbed territories. swelling.25 Selection of sensors should be performed based on the simultaneous signal output to the dispatch room and the control panel of the facility being controlled. in electric motors – the stator current. the following shall be envisaged in the regulating units of heat networks: remote measurement of the heat medium pressure in the supply and return pipelines. interlocking of electric motors of the main valve and the bypass thereof shall be ensured in the control schemes. 15. arrangement of operation (dispatch) telephone communication shall be envisaged. 15. remote measurement of pressure. Teleautomation 15.19 For heat networks of cities. in regions with subsiding soils of type II.26 In dispatch rooms. Communications 15. upon the technical and economic substantiation. the following teleautomation instruments shall be envisaged: remote indication of equipment disturbances or incompliance with a specific value of parameters being controlled (a generalized signal). Valves on the bypasses of valves subject to remote control shall be equipped with electric drives. temperature in the return branching pipelines.24 Teleautomation equipment. 16 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO THE DESIGN OF HEAT NETWORKS IN SPECIAL NATURAL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF CONSTRUCTION General requirements 16.20 Usage of technical means of teleautomation shall be determined by the dispatch control goals and shall be developed in integration with usage of technical means of supervision. 15. temperature and consumption of the heat medium in the supply and return pipelines of network water as well as steam and condensate pipelines.23 At the outlets of heat networks form the heat sources.27 Permanently manned CHP shall be equipped with telephone communications.

Pipelines shall be laid at the distance of at least 50 m from each other and have no redundancy shunts between themselves. 16.14 For compensation of heat expansion of the pipelines.9 At the places where heat network pipelines go through the foundations and walls of the buildings.5 Joint laying of heat networks with gas supply pipelines in ducts and tunnels irrespective of the gas pressure shall not be permitted. 16. 16. flexible expansion joints (of various shape) made of steel pipes and pipeline turning bends shall be used. 16. water heaters and tanks activities shall be envisaged ensuring the longitudinal and angular movements of the pipelines. immovable supports.16 At using underground and aboveground methods of laying the heat networks in . Corrugated and bellows expansion joints for heat networks shall be permitted to be used. 16. regulating and safety valves. SNiP 41-02-2003. each pipeline shall be designed for the supply of 100 % of the heat at a specific level of reliability parameters.10 At the points of pipelines connection to the pumps. 16.3 Distance between the sectioning valves should be taken up equal to no more than 1000 m. irrespective of the pipes diameter and the heat medium parameters. 16. on through pipelines the distance shall be permitted to increase up to 3000 m. 16. 16. For sealing of the clearance. 16. Joint laying with gas pipelines conveying natural gas shall only be permitted in in-block tunnels and common trenches at the gas pressure of no more than 0. Regions with permafrost soils 16. columns etc. overpasses or low separately standing supports shall be used. chambers. 16.7 Ductless laying of heat networks shall be permitted to envisage for pipelines with Dn ≤ 400 mm. heat networks can be designed without consideration of requirements of the present section. a clearance between the surface of the heat insulation structure of the pipe and the top of the aperture of at least 0. public and industrial buildings as well as along the walls of buildings. one should also comply with construction requirements to buildings and facilities located in the said regions.4 Laying of heat networks made of non-metal pipes shall not be permitted. 16.2 Isolation. Irrespective of the laying method.005 MPa. N o t e – With subsiding soils of type I. trusses. Heat networks. drainage facilities of the pipelines should be carried out on the basis of materials of engineering and geocryological surveys of the territory being developed with consideration of the forecast for changes of permafrost-soil conditions and the adopted principle of using the permafrost soils in the capacity of the foundation for the designed and operated buildings and facilities. shall not be permitted. 16.15 Schematics of heat networks of cities and other population aggregates shall envisage the heat supply along at least two mutually redundant pipelines.8 Laying of through heat networks under residential.6 Design seismic activity for buildings and facilities of heat networks shall be taken up equal to the seismic activity of the construction region.13 Selection of heat networks route as well as location of expansion joints. shall be made of steel. Upon substantiation. norms and regulations. Regions with seismic activity of 8 and 9 points 16. elastic water and gas impermeable materials should be used.11 Movable roller and ball pipe supports shall not be permitted to be used.2 m shall be envisaged. Laying on high separately standing supports and usage of heat network pipes for connection between the supports shall not be permitted.12 In case of aboveground laying.

to the duct slab . 16. for branchings to separate buildings being constructed or having been constructed on permafrost soils with retaining the permafrost condition (method 1 as per SNiP 2.22 Discharge facilities of water heat networks shall be designed based on the condition of water discharge from one pipeline of the sectioned pipeline part within one hour. tunnels and chambers. 16.21 At laying heat networks in ducts. Heat networks. Joint underground laying of heat networks with other engineering networks in ventilated ducts with going onto the ground surface within the aired crawlways of buildings shall be permitted.24 The smallest pipe diameter irrespective of consumption and parameters of the heat medium shall be taken up equal to 50 mm. land leveling shall be envisaged to ensure diversion of hot water in case of emergency from the construction structures to a distance ruling out the thermal impact thereof onto the permafrost soil. low or high separately standing supports as well as in aboveground ducts located on the ground surface. 16. the following activities aimed at retaining the stability of the heat networks structure shall be envisaged: networks laying in ducts or tunnels with natural or artificial ventilation ensuring the required temperature condition of the soil. The water shall be discharged from the pipelines directly into the wastewater collection systems with water cooling to the temperature permitted by the wastewater collection network structures and preventing hazardous thermal impact onto the permafrost soils in the foundation thereof.100 mm larger. membrane waterproofing made of bitumen rolled materials and applied onto external surfaces of construction structures and concrete inserts shall be envisaged. ductless laying shall not be permitted. 16. 16. to the duct bottom . 16.19 In case of underground laying of heat networks constructed with retaining the permafrost condition (method I). 16. Activities aimed at retaining the stability of heat networks shall be selected on the basis of calculation of the permafrost soil thawing area next to the pipelines and the overall forecast of the changing of permafrost-soil conditions within the territory being developed. replacement of the soil at the base of the ducts and tunnels with a non-subsiding one. 16. Water discharge into the ducts and chambers shall not be permitted. removal of accidental and emergency water from chambers and tunnels.50 mm larger. 16. the minimum clear distances between the pipelines and construction structures specified in Appendix B shall be increased.25 The minimum height of sliding supports for pipes at underground laying of heat networks shall be taken up equal to at least 150 mm.23 For pipeline units.04). SNiP 41-02-2003.26 Distance between movable pipe supports at laying the heat networks in aboveground ducts shall be adopted with the coefficient of 0.20 Along the heat networks route. 16.27 At laying the heat networks in ducts.17 Aboveground laying of heat networks shall be carried out on overpasses. aboveground laying of networks shall be envisaged at the distance of 6 m from the building wall.28 Horizontal clear distances from the heat networks at underground laying thereof to the foundations of the buildings and facilities shall be adopted as follows: during construction of buildings and facilities on permafrost soils using method I – no less than 2 m from the soil thawing area next to the duct determined by calculation but no less . arrangement of a piling foundation. subsiding (at thawing) permafrost soils. 16.7 to the distances obtained during the strength calculation of the pipelines. at that measures shall be taken in order to prevent soil thawing under the foundations of the buildings. aboveground chambers (boxes) shall be envisaged at aboveground laying of heat networks on low separately standing supports or in aboveground ducts. 16.02.18 In case of underground laying of heat networks. provision of water impermeability of the ducts.

16. with ventilated spaces under the building. 16. except for design thermal expansion.35 At determining dimensions of flexible expansion joints.4 Notes 1 At the value ε < 1 mm/m. Table 4 Length of the snubbed pipeline route section. 2 At ductless laying of heat networks with insulation allowing for pipe movement inside the insulation.37 Slopes of heat networks at underground laying and those of associated drainage pipes should be adopted with consideration of the expected slopes of the land surface due to the impact of underground workings. 16. flexible expansion joints made of pipes and turning bends shall be used for compensation of heat expansion of the pipelines and additional movements due to the impact of the land surface deformations.29 Heat insulation fill at laying the heat networks in aboveground ducts and joint suspension insulation for the supply and return pipelines shall be permitted to be used upon relevant substantiation. additional consideration of expansion Δlξ shall not be required. than the values specified in Table 3. ε – expected value of relative horizontal deformation of land surface adopted for each route section within the boundaries of the deformation impact areas from each working according to mining-and-geological data. L – distance between the adjacent expansion joints at ductless laying of heat networks or between immovable pipe supports at the rest of the laying methods.6 0.33 Placement of hot water tanks and condensate tanks below the grade level of the ground during construction on permafrost grounds using method I shall not be permitted.34 At all methods of laying the heat networks. m 30-50 51-70 71-100 101 and over Coefficient mξ 0. 16. 16. 16. 16. Snubbed territories 16. movements due to the impact of land deformations Δlξ shall additionally be taken into consideration Δlξ = ±mξεL.31 Laying of pipelines in the facilities on the heat networks should be envisaged above the floor level. a water drainage and discharge system should be envisaged preventing the thermal impact onto the soils.5 0. °C Soil from 0 to minus 2 from minus 2 to minus 4 below minus 4 The minimum horizontal clear distances. forces from immovable supports shall not be transferred to the building structures.30 Buildings of heat points and other facilities on the heat networks should be designed to be constructed above the ground. m. m Loamy 7 6 6 Sandy 8 7 6 Macrofragmental 10 8 8 16. Arrangement of channels and pits in the floor shall not be permitted. .7 0. Heat networks. additional movements Δlξ at determining the size of expansion joints shall not be required to be considered.38 At laying the heat networks in underground floors and crawl spaces of the buildings. calculation of self- compensating pipeline sections.32 For emptying the equipment and pipelines. SNiP 41-02-2003. 16. mm/m.36 Movement joints shall be envisaged in ducts and tunnels. Table 3 Average yearly temperature of permafrost soil. during construction of buildings and facilities on permafrost soils using method II (without retaining the permafrost condition) – no less than the values specified in Table 3. (2) where mξ – coefficient adopted according to Table 4.

mm Layer thickness of the up to 100 from 100 to 300 over 300 subsiding soil. In soils of type II of subsidence. in soils of type II of subsidence with water permeable (drainage) sub-soils – at least 1.4 m. Subsiding. At laying the heat networks with distances which are less than those specified in Table 5.5 thicknesses of the salinized or swelling soil layer. 16.41 At underground laying of heat networks. Heat networks.43 At underground laying of heat networks in parallel to the foundations of buildings and facilities in salinized and swelling soils.45 Capacious facilities shall. and with non-drainage sub-soils – at least threefold .5 10 Over 12 7. At the subsidence value over 40 cm. as a rule. with the thickness of at least 10 cm across the whole width of the trench. 16. SNiP 41-02-2003. salinized and swelling soils is minimal. salinized and swelling soils 16. 16.44 In the chamber foundations. requirements of 16. the minimum horizontal distances to the foundations of buildings and facilities shall be no less than 5 m.3 Appendix B From 5 to 12 5 7.9 and 16. Dn ≥ 500 mm .46 Distance from capacious facilities to buildings and facilities of various purpose shall be: in the conditions of salinized and swelling soils – at least 1.3 m. The minimum horizontal distance to the curbstone of the automobile road for pipelines with the diameter over 100 mm shall be taken up at least 2 m Table 5 Nominal diameter of the pipes. ductless laying shall not be permitted. a catch-water drain should be envisaged for diversion of stormwater and thaw water.5 10 15 During construction of buildings and facilities in soils of type II with subsiding properties thereof having been eliminated by compaction or stabilization or in case of arrangement of piling foundations under the buildings and facilities. 16. clear horizontal distances from the exposed face of construction structures of the heat networks to the foundations of buildings and facilities shall be adopted according to Table B. soil compaction to the depth of at least 1 m shall be envisaged. activities shall be envisaged to prevent subsidence of construction structures causing deflection of the pipelines to values exceeding the permissible design value.3 of Appendix B as for subsiding soils of type I.5 thicknesses of the subsiding layer. be located in the areas where a drainage layer is available and the thickness of subsiding. laying of an additional layer of loamy soil treated with water repellent materials (bitumen or pine-tar) shall be envisaged. The minimum clear horizontal distance from the external wall of the duct or tunnel to the water supply Dn < 500 mm .3 m.10 shall also be complied with. public and industrial buildings by heat networks at underground laying shall not be permitted. m Up to 5 Same as for subsiding soils of type I as per Table B. 16.42 Crossing of residential. 16. If the construction ground for capacious facilities is located in a sloping area. water impermeable structures of ducts and chambers shall be envisaged as well as o=continuous removal of accidental and emergency water from the chambers.39 During the design of heat networks and facilities. 16.40 During the design of heat networks. and at the subsidence value over 40 cm. m The minimum horizontal clear distances. the values shall be adopted according to Table 5. soil compaction at the ducts foundation shall be envisaged to the depth of 0.

ductless laying shall not be permitted. at the peat layer thickness over 1 m – on piling foundation with arrangement of solid reinforced concrete raft under the ducts and. suffosion settlement or swelling of soils in the foundation. with consolidated or dehydrated peat.2. 16. and upon availability of leveling by cutting or filling – from the level of the cutting or filling.0. slime and fill-up grounds. pumping stations etc. in case of construction of associated drainage system. the ducts at connections to the buildings at the distance specified in Table 5 shall be water impermeable. 16.51 In case the subsidence value of the building foundation exceeds 20 cm. swelling soil layer shall be measured from the natural relief surface. 16.50 Connections of heat networks to the buildings should be made hermetic. SNiP 41-02-2003. respectively. the clearance between the surface of heat insulation structure of the pipe and the bridge above the aperture shall be at least 30 cm and no less than the design value of subsidence at construction of buildings with carrying out a set of relevant activities.2 m.01 to the side of water collection waterproof pit.53 The route of heat networks should be located across the following areas: with the lowest total thickness of layers of peat.48 To ensure control of the condition and operation of heat networks at their designing on subsiding. piling foundations should be envisaged. salinized. Heat networks. 16. The bottom of a duct adjoining the building shall be higher than the foundation base to a value of at least 50 cm. The contour of the compacted soil shall exceed the dimensions of the facilities by at least 3.1 . APPENDIX A (obligatory) . 16. waterproof floor moldings shall be envisaged to the height of 0.5 m. construction of sand cushion across the whole of the trench bottom and a cast reinforced concrete slab under the foundation of ducts and chambers. In foundations (walls of underground floors).55 For separately standing supports and over pass supports.0 .49 Passage of pipes and ducts through the walls of facilities shall be carried out using compression glands providing for their horizontal movement inside and beyond the facilities to 1/5 of the potential value of subsidence.0 m to each side. 16.56 Foundations for ducts and chambers at underground laying of heat networks should be taken up as follows: at the peat layer thickness up to 1 m – with complete peat removal. 16. public and industrial buildings by heat networks at underground laying shall not be permitted. Biogenic soils (peat) and slime soils 16. soil compaction should be envisaged to the depth of 2. The clearance should be sealed with elastic materials. requirements of 16. 16. under the drainage pipes. salinized and swelling soils.52 During the design of heat networks and facilities thereon. with firm sub-soils underlying the peats. 16. Floors shall be water impermeable and have the slope of at least 0.10 shall also be complied with.54 At underground laying of heat networks. a possibility of free access to their basic elements and units shall be envisaged. In jointing places of floors and walls. N o t e – The thickness of the subsiding. thickness of the subsiding layer but no more than 40 m. 16.57 Crossing of residential.47 Under the floors of heat points. as well as capacious facilities.

25 in constraint environment) – upon compliance with requirements of note 5 To oil-filled cables with voltage over 110 kV 1.0-20.1074-01 Potable water. water drain. m Underground laying of heat networks To water supply.1.0 » tram roads 1. Microclimatic parameters in the premises GOST 30732-2001 Steel pipes and shaped parts with heat insulation made of foaled polyurethane in polyethylene envelopment.2 To sheathed communication cables 0.04-88 Bases and foundations on permafrost soils SNiP 2.1 – Vertical distances The minimum vertical clear Facilities and engineering networks distances. II 1. Hygienic requirements the quality of water in centralized potable water supply systems. gas supply. SNiP 41-02-2003. Technical specifications GOST 30494-96 Residential and public buildings.5 To power and control cables with voltage up to 35 kV 0.02.4. of the rail roads of general network 2.0 To the top of the road surface of general purpose highways of categories I. Heat networks.15 To the rail base of the rail roads of industrial enterprises 1.5 .518-2003 Standard guidelines on external corrosion protection of heat network pipelines APPENDIX B (obligatory) DISTANCES FROM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURES OF HEAT NETWORKS OR PIPELNES INSULATION ENVELOPMENT AT DUCTLESS LAYING TO BUILIDNGS. wastewater collection 0.0 and III To the bottom of the drain ditch or other water-diverting facilities or to the 0. grounds and railings. Technical specifications SNiP 2.01-85* Interior water supply and wastewater collection of the buildings SNiP 41-03-2003 Heat insulation of equipment and pipelines SanPiN 2.04. LIST OF REGULATORY DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THE PRESENT DOCUMENT GOST 9238-83 Clearance gauge for buildings and rolling stock of rail roads with gauge 1520 (1524) mm GOST 9720-76 Clearance gauge for buildings and rolling stock of rail roads with gauge 750 mm GOST 23120-78 Steel stairways.5 (0.0 (0.0 Same. FACILITIES AND ENGINEERING NETWORKS T a b l e B. Quality control NPB 105-03 Determining the categories of premises.5 in constraint environment) – upon compliance with requirements of note 5 To a telephone conduit unit or to a sheathed communication cable in the pipes 0. buildings and external units with regard to explosion-and-fire and fire safety PB 10-573-03 Regulations on design and safe operation of steam and hot water pipelines PUE Electrical Installation Regulations Regulations on technical operation of electric power stations and networks RD 10-249-98 Norms of strength calculation for stationary steam and hot water boilers and pipelines RD 10-400-01 Norms of strength calculations for heat network pipelines RD 153-34.

«Cp».0 500 6. . ventilation of the tunnels (ducts. power and control cables with voltage up to 35 kV.3 m.7 m. slabs of chambers and ventilation shafts for tunnels and ducts projecting above the ground to the height of at least 0. permissible laying depths from the ground level to the top of upper slabs of ducts and tunnels shall be 0.35. casings). no less than: at the width of a pipe group up to 1. In the impassable part. SNiP 41-02-2003. «Cn» as per GOST 9238 and GOST 9720 To the top of the driveway of automobile roads 5. 5 The ground temperature at the crossing points of heat networks with electric cables at the laying depth of power and control cables with voltage up to 35 kV shall not increase to more than 10 °C as compared to the highest average monthly summer temperature of the ground and to 15 °C – to the lowest average monthly temperature of the ground at the distance of up to 2 m from the outermost cables. 7 Distances to telephone conduit unit or to a sheathed communication cable in the pipes should be specificated according to special norms. the clear distance from the ground surface to the bottom of the heat insulation of the pipelines shall be. reduction of clear vertical distance shall be permitted. 7 of the present Notes.5 m. 4 At ductless laying.0 To the top of pedestrian roads 2.0 150 4. e) at a high ground water table. 3 At underground laying of heat networks and crossing power.0 these facilities) Aboveground laying of heat networks To the rail head of railway roads Dimensions «C». » » » » over 1. m.5 m. 6.0. If ensuring the specific temperature mode by means of deep laying of heat networks proves impossible. at places of underground crossings of heat networks with communication cables.0. telephone conduit units. m embankment base of the railway roadbed (in case of heat networks location under these facilities) To metropolitan railway facilities (in case of heat networks location under 1. c) to the top of ductless laying enclosure 0. d) at the connections of heat networks to the buildings. Heat networks. kV: up to 1 1. the clear distance from water heat networks of an open heat supply system or networks of hot water supply system to wastewater collection pipes located above or below the heat networks shall be taken up to be no less than 0.0 35-110 4. upon arrangement of reinforced heat insulation and compliance with requirements of paras 5.5 m . it shall be permitted to envisage reduction of the ducts and tunnels laying depth and location of the upper slabs above the ground level to the height of at least 0.0.5 220 5.0. 6 Laying depth of heat networks at places of underground crossing of railway roads of general network in heaving soils shall be determined by calculation based on the conditions ruling out the impact of heat emissions to the uniformity of porous heaving of the soil.3 Same.4 m.5 m . II and III) should be taken up no less than: a) to the top of upper slabs of ducts and tunnels . replacement of the heaving soil at the crossing area or aboveground laying of heat networks shall be envisaged. 2 At aboveground laying of heat networks on low supports. The minimum vertical clear Facilities and engineering networks distances.5 Notes 1 The laying depth of heat networks from the ground or road surface level (expect for automobile roads of category I. the ground temperature at the laying depth of an oil-filled cable shall not be increased by more than 5 °C as compared to the average temperature in any time of year at the distance of 3 m to the outermost cables. control and communication cables. the heat networks can be located above or under the cables. b) to the top of upper slabs of chambers .2 To parts of overhead catenary of tramways 0.0.2 To aerial power transmission lines at the largest deflection thereof.4 m. if the transport movement conditions are not impaired.0 330 6. of trolleybuses 0.5. 8 Upon relevant substantiation.3 m and to the top of the ductless laying enclosure .4 m.0 from 1 to 20 3.

0 Dn = 900 and over 8. m Underground laying of heat networks To foundations of buildings and facilities: a) at laying in ducts and tunnels and non-subsiding soils (from external wall of the duct.0 ground water toward the heat networks 3. T a b l e B2 – Horizontal distances from underground water heat networks of open heat supply system and networks of hot water supply systems to potential contamination sources The minimum horizontal clear Contamination source distances. in subsiding soils of type I at: Dn < 500 5. Heat networks.0 (but no less than the trench depth of the heat network to the base of the outermost facility) To the axis of the nearest railway of electrified rail road 10.0 Same.5 same.5 To poles and pillars of external lighting and communications networks 1.0 2. Dn > 200 mm 3.0 To support foundations of fly-overs 2.8 To the edgestone of the street.0 at ductless laying of heat networks Dn ≤ 200 mm 1.0 (but no less than the trench depth of the heat network to the embankment base) Same. irrigation fields: in the absence of ground water 10.8 To the nearest roadbed facility 3. Cemeteries. with gauge 750 mm 2.0 ground water toward the heat networks N o t e – In case of wastewater collection networks location below the heat networks at parallel laying.0 Dn > 100 up to Dn < 500 7.5 To the external edge of the drain ditch or road embankment bed 1. facilities and engineering networks Buildings.0 Dn ≥ 500 8.0 Dn ≥ 500 8.0 b) at ductless laying in non-subsiding soils (from the ductless laying envelopment) at the pipe diameter. mm: Dn < 500 5.0 in the presence of ground water and in filtering soils with movement of 20. road (driveway edge.0 in the presence of ground water and in filtering soils with movement of 50. if above the heat networks – the distances specified in the table shall be increased by the difference in the laying depth. tunnel) at the pipe diameter.0 Dn ≥ 500 7. the horizontal distances shall be taken up no less than the difference between the networks laying elevations. Septic tanks and catchpits: in the absence of ground water 7. in subsiding soils of type I at: Dn ≤ 100 5. Facilities and pipelines of domestic and industrial wastewater collection systems: at laying of heat networks in ducts and tunnels 1. facilities and engineering networks The minimum clear distances.75 To the axis of the nearest tram road 2. animal burial sites.3 – Horizontal distances from construction structures of heat networks or pipelines insulaton envelopment at ductless laying to buildings.0 To foundations of railing and pipeline supports 1. SNiP 41-02-2003.0 To the axis of the nearest railway of a rail road with gauge 1520 mm 4.0 Same. T a b l e B. landfills. wayside reinforced line) 1.0 Dn = 500-800 5. mm: Dn < 500 2.0 . m 1.

m To support foundations of overhead catenary of rail roads 3.0 To power and control cables with voltage up to 35 kV and oil-filled cables (up 2.8 To the external edge of the drain ditch or road embankment bed 0.0 to radio broadcast cables To water supply piping 1.5 To drainages and stormwater collection system 1. of tramways and trolleybuses 1.3 MPa at dustless laying of heat 1.0 the heat networks duct) Aboveground laying of heat networks To the nearest roadbed facility 3 To the axis of the rail road from intermediate supports (at crossing the rail Dimensions «C».0 (see note 10) To ducts and tunnels of various purpose (including to the edges of irrigation 2.0 network channels) To metropolitan railway facilities with external membrane waterproofing 5. facilities and engineering networks The minimum clear distances. SNiP 41-02-2003. a sheathed communication cable in the pipes and 1.2 MPa 2. Heat networks.6 MPa at laying the heat 2.0 (but no less than the trench depth of the heat network to the facility foundation) Same. kV: up to 1 1 from 1 to 20 3 35-110 4 150 4.5 To the aerial power transmission line with the largest cable deflection at the (see note 8) voltage.6 MPa 1.5 To tree trunks 2.0 To gas supply pipelines with pressure up to 0.3 to 0. mm: Dn from 500 to 1400 25 (see note 9) Dn from 200 to 500 20 (see note 9) Dn < 200 10 (see note 9) To networks of hot water supply system 5 Same.0 b) at laying in ducts (upon the condition of arrangement of ventilation shafts at 15. from 0.5 Same.0 supply system) To gas supply pipelines with pressure up to 0.0 networks in ducts.5 Same. kV (at approaching and crossing): up to 1 1.0 Same. «Cp».2 MPa 4. in subsiding soils of type I 2.0 To residential and public buildings for water heat networks.0 (but no less than the trench depth of the heat network to the facility foundation) To the railing of aboveground metropolitan railway lines 5 To tanks of vehicle fuel-filling stations: a) at ductless laying 10. without membrane waterproofing 8.0 over 35 3. from 0.0 from 1 to 35 2.5 220 5 330 6 500 6. Buildings.0 networks without drainage Same. condensate heat networks at pipe diameters.01 (see note 10) To bushes 1.6 to 1.63 MPa.0 (see note 1) to 220 kV) To support foundations of aerial power transmission lines at the voltage. steam pipelines with pressure Рn ≤ 0. tunnels as well as at ductless laying with associated drainage Same. over 0. to steam heat networks: .6 to 1.0 To tree trunks 2. «Cn» as roads) per GOST 9238 and GOST 9720 To the axis of the nearest tram road 2.0 To a telephone conduit unit.0 To industrial and domestic wastewater collection system (with a closed heat 1.

3 For heat networks laid below the foundation bases of supports.4 m. 9 At aboveground laying of temporary (up to 1 year of operation) of water heat networks (bypasses). when underground laying of heat networks at the distance of closer than 2 m from the trees. reduction of the distance from the heat networks to water supply and wastewater collection networks to 0. SNiP 41-02-2003.). Buildings. usage of fully covered steel isolation valves etc. m Рn from 1. 1 m from the bushes and other planting is required.3 shall be increased and taken up to be no less than the difference in the networks laying depths. reduction of distances to facilities located on the networks (wells. activities aimed at protection of engineering networks from breaking down during repair and construction of heat networks shall be envisaged.5 m. facilities the difference in laying elevations shall additionally be taken into account with consideration of the natural ground slope.3 MPa 40 Notes 1 Reduction of the distance specified in Table shall be permitted upon the condition that along the whole of the area of close location of heat networks and the cables the soil temperature (taken up according to climatic data) at the cables laying place at any time of year does not increase as compared to the average monthly temperature by more than 10 °C for power and control cables with voltage up to 10 kV and by 5 °C . 4 At parallel laying of underground heat and other engineering networks at different laying depths.) specified in Table B. 6 Distances to specialized communication cables shall be specificated according to the relevant norms. 10 In exceptional cases. 2 At laying the heat and other engineering networks in common trenches (at simultaneous construction thereof). or measures aimed at foundation strengthening shall be taken. 5 At parallel laying of heat and other engineering networks.35 kV and oil-filled cables up to 220 kV.0 to 2. testing of the pipelines at 1.for power control cables with voltage of 20 . At networks laying in constraint environment and the impossibility to increase the distances. reduction thereof to 10 m shall be permitted. chambers. 8 At parallel laying of aboveground heat networks with an aerial power transmission line with the voltage from 1 to 500 kV outside population aggregates. the horizontal distance from the outermost cable should be taken up to be no less than the support height. facilities and engineering networks The minimum clear distances. Heat networks. the distances specified in Table B. envisaging activities aimed at provision of facilities integrity during construction and assembly works. buildings.5 to 6. 7 Distance to aboveground boxes of heat networks for location of isolation and regulating valves (in the absence of pumps therein) to residential buildings shall be taken up to be no less than 15 m. the thickness of heat insulation layer of the pipelines shall be doubled. In especially constraint environment. .0 MPa.3 to the value of at least 0. the distance to residential and public buildings can be reduced upon provision of population safety measures (control of 100% of the welds.5 of the maximum operating pressure but no less than 1. recesses etc.5 MPa 30 from 2.8 m shall be permitted in case of location of all networks on the same level or with the difference in the laying elevations of no more than 0.

ABOVE THE GROUND AND IN HEAT POINTS C.1 The minimum clear distances at underground and aboveground laying of heat networks between construction structures and pipelines should be adopted according to Tables C.1 - C. at aboveground laying of the pipelines tunnel tunnel of the and in heat points wall bottom tunnel vertical horizontal 25-80 150 100 150 100 100 100-250 170 100 200 140 140 300-350 200 120 200 160 160 400 200 120 200 160 200 500-700 200 120 200 200 200 800 250 150 250 200 250 900 250 150 300 200 250 1000-1400 350 250 350 300 300 N o t e – At renovation of heat networks using the existing construction structures. no less than To the To the surface of heat insulation structure f an Nominal diameter To the To the upper slab adjacent pipeline in tunnels. SNiP 41-02-2003.1 – Crawlways In millimeters Clear distance from the surface of heat insulation structure of the pipelines. no less Nominal diameter of the than pipelines To the duct To the surface of heat insulation To the upper To the duct wall structure of an adjacent pipeline slab of the duct bottom 25-80 70 100 50 100 100-250 80 140 50 150 300-350 100 160 70 150 400 100 200 70 180 500-700 110 200 100 180 800 120 250 100 200 900-1400 120 250 100 300 N o t e – At renovation of heat networks using the existing ducts. T a b l e C. TUNNELS.Tunnels.3. deviation from the dimensions specified in the present table shall be permitted. aboveground laying and heat points In millimeters Clear distance from the surface of heat insulation structure of the pipelines.2 . Heat networks. T a b l e C. . deviation from the dimensions specified in the present table shall be permitted. APPENDIX C (obligatory) REQUIREMENTS TO LOCATION OF PIPELINESS AT THEIR LAYING IN CRAWLWAYS.

2 The minimum distances from the edge of movable supports to the edge of bearing structures (cross heads. slab and bottom of the tunnels should be adopted as follows: at Dn ≤ 500 .150 mm.3 The maximum clear distances from heat insulation structures of bellows expansion joints to walls. C. and flanged valves Dn ≤ 150 mm and bellows expansion joints – alternately with an offset (along the axis) in plan between them of at least 100 mm. the minimum distances from the cross head or bracket edge to the axis of the pipe without consideration of the shift shall be no less than 0.9 In heat points.5 Dn. bearing piles) shall ensure the maximum possible lateral shifting of the support with the margin of at least 50 mm. Heat networks. In addition. m.6 A supply pipeline of two-piped water heat networks at laying thereof in the same row with the return pipeline should be located to the right along the heat medium flow direction from the heat source. If compliance with the said distances proves impossible. the clear width of passageways should be adopted as follows. SNiP 41-02-2003. mm: up to 500 100 600 and over 150 C.3 – Pipeline units in tunnels.200 mm against each other. C.8 Expansion glands at supply and return pipelines of water heat networks in chambers shall be permitted to be installed with an offset in plan of 150 . mm. brackets. Table C. C. at Dn = 600 and over . C.4 Clear distance from the surface of heat insulation structure of the pipeline to construction structures or to the surface of heat insulation structure of other pipelines after thermal movement of the pipelines shall be at least 30 mm. no Name less than From the floor or slab to the surface of heat insulation structures of the pipelines (for 700 transition) Lateral passageways for maintenance of valves. to the surface of heat insulation structure of pipe branchings 300 From the raised valve spindle (or handwheel) to the wall or slab 200 For pipes with the diameter of 600 mm and over between the walls of adjacent pipes 500 from the expansion gland side From the wall and the valve flange to the nippers for water discharge or air venting 100 From the valve flange on the branching to the surface of heat insulation structures of 100 he main pipes Between heat insulation structures of adjacent bellows expansion joints at the joint diameters. no less than: . chambers. mm: up to 500 600 from 600 to 900 700 from 1000 and over 1000 From the wall to the flange of the expansion gland body (from the branch pipe side) at the pipe diameters.5 Clear width of the passageway in tunnels shall be taken up equal to the diameter of the larger pipe plus 100 mm but no less than 700 mm. fittings and expansion glands (from the wall to the valve flange or to the gland) at the pipe diameters. boxes and heat points Clear distance.7 At aboveground laying. mm: up to 500 600 (along the axis of the pipe) 600 and over 800 (along the axis of the pipe) From the floor or slab to the valve flange or to the axis of the expansion gland bolts 400 Same. C. C. pipes of smaller diameters shall be permitted to be fastened to pipelines with the heat medium temperature of no higher than 300 °C. the expansion joints should be installed alternately with the offset in plan of at least 100 mm against each other. C.100 mm.

water steam condensate. heat networks facilities. Pumps with electric motors with voltage up to 1000 V and the pressure branch pipe diameter of no more than 100 mm shall be permitted to be installed: at a wall without a passageway.1.10 In CHP. same.8. water steam.2. between the pumps and a distribution panel or a control and measurement instruments panel . with provision of a passageway around it of at least 0.7 m. the clear distance between projecting parts of the pumps with electric motors shall be no less than 0. C.2. assembly grounds should be envisaged with the dimensions thereof being determined according to the dimensions of the largest equipment piece (except for a tank with the capacity over 3 m3) or an equipment and pipelines unit supplied for erection in assembly. between the pumps and a wall .3 m. Keywords: heat networks.3 m.0. at that the clear distance from projecting parts of the pumps and electric motors to the wall shall be no less than 0. between projecting parts of equipment or between these parts and a wall . 1000 V and over . pumping stations. heat source. hot water. between the pumps with electric motors with voltage up to 1000 V . SNiP 41-02-2003.1.0. two pumps on one foundation without a passageway between them. centralized heat supply systems. heat points . at that. Heat networks.0.1.0.