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SHRI A.D.K.

MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

ABOUT THE COMPANY

For over 21 years, Amity Electronics a multi product manufacturer and


suppliers company earned the confidence of our valued customers by
providing professional assistance on all of our Telecommunication
Systems, Video Surveillance Systems, Home Security Cameras & Security
Camera Systems, Music System Installations, Inverters & Online UPS
Systems, Water Sensor, and Photo Switches etc.
We would like to introduce ourselves as one of the leading company in the
Telecommunication Systems, Complete Electronic Security System,
Inverters & Online UPS Systems, Fire Alarming Systems, etc. in India.
Amity Electronics provides the customer a state of art technology, to give
various solutions to the customer which suits their residential, commercial
& industrial applications. The company has laid considerable stress for
integration application in the latest technology in security industry for the
entire range of electronic security system to give the customer for the best
value of his money and a trouble free system.
Amity Electronics is providing services to prestigious Domestic and
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

Multinational Companies, State & Central Government Departments,


Universities, Indian Army, and Residentional Areas, etc. Our services are
highly demanded in all above mentioned sectors which require
Telecommunication, Electronics Security Systems and other Installations.
With the help our large infrastructure we are looking forward to emerge as
India’s one of the best organization.

Our operations are based in Mathura (UP) and from here we intend to
cater all over country. We are awarded fourth times by First Prize in Uttar
Pradesh Pavilion in International Trade Fair, Pragti Maidan, New Delhi.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

AMITY VISION
"A world class organization through
Consistent improvement in Quality at all level.”

AMITY MISSION
To practice continuous improvement in production and
delivery processes through leading-edge value-addition and
leveraging technology

To maintain high degree of efficiency and attain international


standards

Quality through people and technology

Constant endeavor to deliver customer and stake-holder


delight
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

OUR QUALITY POLICY


Our quality management system fully complies with the requirements of
ISO 9001:2008 standards.
Amity consisting of officers and staff avows to provide quality training to all
its customers and to ensure optimum utilization of its training resources.
For this, every individual of Amity will adhere to ISO 9001:2008 standards
and will demonstrate its compliance in all spheres of activities.
The quality policy of "Amity Electronics Corporation" is to ensure "High
Quality Work" to the complete satisfaction of each and every customer and
thus achieve leadership in the market as a reputable and reliable supplier.
To achieve this goal, "Amity Electronics Corporation" shall continuously
pursue these objectives:-
 Improve on effectiveness of the Quality Management System,
Processes and Product Requirements.
 Emphasis on "Do it Right the First Time and Every Time".
 Improve on Sales & Production through implementation of innovative
marketing strategies and introduction of latest technology.
 Aim a "Win - Win" situation for all involved i.e.. customers, suppliers,
employees, and share holders.
Measure the achievement of these objectives and progress towards
continual improvements.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

OVER VIEW OF PRODUCT OF THE AMITY


ELECTRONICS CORPORATION

INVERTERS

Wide range of inverters from analogue to digital from quasi sine wave to
pure sine wave, from 200VA, 500VA, 650VA, 1250VA, Analogue to sine
wave 500VA TO 500 KVA INVERTERS.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

TELECOMMUNICATION

Have an experience of 20 years with the base of more than 1000


installation of EPABX from smaller size to thousand lines from basic
exchange to highly sophisticate digital exchange. Amity under take the
complete projects on turn key basis for large complexes like universities,
collages, residential complexes, commercial complexes hostals,etc.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

ELECTRONICS SECURITY SYSTEM

experience in installing complete security systems, surveillance systems,


fire surveillance system, door assess system etc. in smaller & large size
complexes, residential complexes etc.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

SERVO STABILIZER

Servo Three Phase and Single Phase Voltage stabilizer which are highly
functional and work effectively. Our servo voltage stabilizers match with
international standards. Their controlled flow of voltage protects domestic
and commercial electrical & electronic system from power fluctuation.
An ISO 9001:2000 certified organization we are amongst the reliable
manufacturer ofpower conditioning equipment like servo stabilizer, AC
stabilizer, UPS’s and motors. Our equipment is used for high efficiency and
accurate performance
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER SWITCHES

Subtech Automatic Changeover Switches has a unique construction. We


offer premium quality Automatic Changeover Switches. It has the four
breaks per pole thereby resulting into faster Quenching of arc. The load
and line can be connected on either side by virtue of isolation on both the
sides. Subtech is considered as one of the most trustworthy automatic
change over switches suppliers in the industry.
Features
The switching mechanism is quick make; quick break type independent of
the speed of the operation
It comes in operation voltage from 150V to 280V AC with extra unique
features
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

INTRODUCTION OF THE INVERTER


A power inverter, or inverter, is an electrical device that changes direct
current (DC) to alternating current (AC) the converted AC can be at any
required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers,
switching, and control circuits.
Solid-state inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of
applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large
electric utility high-voltage direct current applications that transport bulk
power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources
such as solar panels or batteries.
The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier. The electrical
inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. It is so named because early
mechanical AC to DC converters were made to work in reverse, and thus
were "inverted", to convert DC to AC.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

TYPES OF INVERTER
Square wave
The square wave output has a high harmonic content, not suitable for
certain AC loads such as motors or transformers. Square wave units were
the pioneers of inverter development.
Modified sine wave
The output of a modified square wave, quasi square, or modified sine wave
inverter is similar to a square wave output except that the output goes to
zero volts for a time before switching positive or negative. It is simple and
low cost (~$0.10USD/Watt) and is compatible with most electronic devices,
except for sensitive or specialized equipment, for example certain laser
printers, fluorescent lighting, audio equipment.
Most AC motors will run off this power source albeit at a reduction in
efficiency of approximately 20%
Multilevel
A multilevel inverter synthesizes a desired voltage from several levels of
direct current voltage as inputs. The advantages of using multilevel
topology include reduction of power ratings of power devices and lower
cost. There are three topologies - diode clamped inverter, flying capacitor
inverter and cascaded inverter.
Pure sine wave
A pure sine wave inverter produces a nearly perfect sine wave output (less
than 3% total harmonic distortion) that is essentially the same as utility
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18
supplied grid power. Thus it is compatible with all AC electronic devices.
This is the type used in grid-tie inverters. Its design is more complex, and
costs more per unit power.
Resonant
Resonant inverters are based on resonant current oscillation.
Grid tie
A grid tie inverter is a sine wave inverter designed to inject electricity into
the electric power distribution system. Such inverters must synchronise
with the frequency of the grid. They usually contain one or more Maximum
power point tracking features to extract the maximum amount of power,
and also include safety features.
Synchronous
A synchronous inverter connects to a grid and allows routing to or from the
grid depending on need.
Stand-alone
A stand-alone inverter is often used to convert direct current produced by
renewable energy sources like solar panels or small wind turbines for
power to homes and small industries, mostly in remote locations lacking a
utility grid.
Solar
A solar inverter can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by an
off-grid electrical network. Solar inverters have special functions adapted
for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking
and anti-islanding protection.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

APPLICATIONS
DC power source utilization
Inverter designed to provide 115 VAC from the 12 VDC source provided in
an automobile. The unit shown provides up to 1.2 amperes of alternating
current, or enough to power two sixty watt light bulbs.
An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar
panels, or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required
voltage; in particular it can operate AC equipment designed for mains
operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage.
Micro-inverters convert direct current from individual solar panels into
alternating current for the electric grid. They are grid tie designs by default.
Uninterruptible power supplies
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) uses batteries and an inverter to
supply AC power when main power is not available. When main power is
restored, a rectifier supplies DC power to recharge the batteries.
Induction heating
Inverters convert low frequency main AC power to higher frequency for use
in induction heating. To do this, AC power is first rectified to provide DC
power. The inverter then changes the DC power to high frequency AC
power.
HVDC power transmission
With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC
power is transmitted to another location. At the receiving location, an
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

inverter in a static inverter plant converts the power back to Variable-


frequency drives
A variable-frequency drive controls the operating speed of an AC motor by
controlling the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to the motor.
An inverter provides the controlled power. In most cases, the variable-
frequency drive includes a rectifier so that DC power for the inverter can be
provided from main AC power. Since an inverter is the key component,
variable-frequency drives are sometimes called inverter drives or just
inverters.
Electric vehicle drives
Adjustable speed motor control inverters are currently used to power the
traction motors in some electric and diesel-electric rail vehicles as well as
some battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric highway vehicles such as
the Toyota Prius and Fisker Karma. Various improvements in inverter
technology are being developed specifically for electric vehicle applications.
Inverter air conditioning
An inverter air conditioner uses a variable-frequency drive to control the
speed of the motor and thus the compressor.
The general case
A transformer allows AC voltage to be stepped up or down to a desired
voltage at the same frequency. Inverters, plus rectifiers for DC, can be
designed to convert from any voltage, AC or DC, to any other voltage, also
AC or DC, at any desired frequency. The output power can never exceed
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

the input power, but efficiencies can be high, with a small proportion of the
power dissipated as waste heat.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF INVERTER SECTION

The block diagram of Inverter system is shown in left side fig. (a). We an
understand the basic principle a inverter by the fig. (b), as shown in block
diagram. The D.C. voltage goes to the oscillator circuit through D.C.;
source. The oscillator provides the same designed frequency as D.C.
source; signal at low voltage appliances. The low voltage A.C. output by
the oscillator is fed to a transformer, which has properties of step down.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18
We used Transformer because getting the required level of A.C. voltage. In
fig.
(b) switch 'S' is directly connected alternately, at position 1 &2. At a fast
speed switch S' is not closed to any of the terminal for long time. Then an
A.C. voltage will get occur across the Primary winding. We can easily
understand the direction of current in primary winding by fig. (b).
Thus we can get mains A.C. supply at its output. The main part of inverter
is a Battery, which works without any noise, without producing any smell or
other harmful radiation etc. This process directly attains us the function of
rectification. Normally inverter is an electrically operated device but it does
not require any special maintenance as electrical device. Domestic Inverter
is usually equipped with large batteries to provide continuous power at say
500 watt to 1 K watt.
(b) switch 'S is directly connected alternately at position 1 &2. At a fast
speed switch 'S is not closed to any of the terminal for long time. Then an
A.C. voltage will get occur across the Primary winding. We can easily
understand the direction of current in primary winding by fig. (b). Thus we
can get mains A.C. supply at its output. The main part of inverter is a
Battery, which works without any noise, without producing any smell or
other harmful radiation etc. This process directly attains us .the function of
rectification. Normally Inverter is an electrically operated device but it does
not require any special maintenance as electrical device. Domestic Inverter
is usually equipped with large batteries to provide continuous power at say
500 watt to 1 K watt.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

MAIN DIFFERENCE IN 500 WATT AND 1000 WATT.


Inverter is number of batteries, designing of transformer, number of Mosfet
and code number of Mosfet. In other way some difference in value of
resistance and voltage.
All types of 500 watt inverter are designed for a 12 Volt battery where the
value of load current is 40 — 50 amperes. But the value load current
decreases 20 25 ampere causing working of inverter on 24 volts. This
circuit does not work in good condition causes of low current.
The necessary thing is the difference in number of turn's transformer
winding. But the, ampere-hour is double because of two batteries; it means
that we should take current at double time
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

LIST OF COMPONENTS TO ASSEMBLE INVERTER

Cabinet

Relay--Coil Rating 12 V D.C.

Circuit Breaker over Load Switch

(A) 7.0-A, 240 — 24 V –

(B) 4.0 A, 240 —, 24V –

(C) Capacitor 2.0 Micro F, +/- 5%

(D) Transformer — 08/06

(E) Connectors —4 PIN, 6 PIN, 2 Pin

(F) Rocker Switch

(G) ICI – 6 PIN MOC 3021

(H) IC 2-14 PIN – LM 324N

(I) IC 3– 14 PIM 4 N35


SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF INVERTER:

The required properties of a well and good inverters are:-

1) The appear voltage of inverter should be approximate nearly to the


220 volt 1.0°/0 A.C. R.M.S. to suit the electrical gadget that are fun
on it.
2) The output frequency should be within 50 Hz. -4 1%. This can be
possible only in driven Inverter. Technically driven type of Inverter is
the superior form of "Feedback" type Inverter.
3) Automatic cutout at overload condition: - The feature gives to
customer's maximum, flexibility in connecting the Inverter directly to
the mains line so that he has the choice of running. As particular
desires.
4) ENT occasion or the load shedding.
5) Auto overload reset after a predestined time say seven second or SO
this.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

CHARGING OPERATION OF INVERTER:-

The charging operation is accomplished in battery. When the mains A.C. is


present then the mains supply of 210 V is reached at primary winding of 18
V transformer trough relay. In this condition the transformer works in step
down system and converts 230V A.C. input into approximate 12V A.C.at
secondary winding.
FRONT SIDE:-
Requirement in Inverter: In front side; five LED's are arranged which glows
at the instructive direction of using PCB system. These LED's works as
indicators of different.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

Positions Indications of LED's are given below:


RED -- AUTO ON
LIGHT GREEN -- CHARGING
YELLOW -- INVERTER ON
DARK GREEN -- OVER LOAD
ORANGE -- LOW BATTERY
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS OF INVERTER CABINET

VISUAL INDUCTION:
Light green (Charging)--Cut off at 13.8 V (float charging)
Dark green (over load) – Buzzer on (When load increases more then the
Capacity of inverter).
Yellow (inverter on) -- cut off at 10V.
Feature does away with the running about in the dark manually restart.
Vi) Inverter can be trippers due to overload during peak hours.
Vii) The automatic change from mains to Inverter and vice-versa
with a black out period, not exceeding milli second, good
quality, and better charging circuit is a very important aspect of
Inverter because battery life totally depends on it.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

REQUIREMENTS OF A PARTICULAR POWER INVERTER:

FOR INVERTER (500 WATT REQUIRED MATERIALS):


The main outer part of inverter is a cabinet which is made by iron.this
cabinet has two sides:-
a) Back side
b) Front side
Back side
For back side of Inverter we use these materials for connections:-
BYPASS SWITCH:
We can easily understand the working of bypass switch by its name,
bypass. As like its name, it bypasses the mains or cut off to the inverter. If
we kept ON this switch then the inverter will have been charged and at the
time of power failure, it will gives required A.C. voltage. If we kept OFF this
switch then the Inverter will have been charged but at the time of power
failure, Inverter will not give A.C. voltage.
SOCKET:
For connect the inverter with outer device we use a three pin socket which
has rating of current 7.5 amp. For 500 watt Inverter and 15 amp. For 1 K
watt. Inverter.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

FUSE:
Fuse is a most useful part of Inverter. For charging and mains Inverter we
use two fuses. For charging we use a fuse of rating 4 amps. And for mains
connection we use a fuse of rating 7 amps.
MAIN LEAD:
We use normally three types of wire of different colours as green, red and
black connected to the socket and fuse mains.
CONDENSER:
In Inverter we used the condenser for charging and discharging. For 500
watt Inverter, it has rating of 200 I IF, 5% 440 volt A.C. 50IIZ on the
temperature 85°C.
RELAY:
In 500 wattage Inverter to change over relay of rating 12 V D.C. and for 1 K
wattage inverter we uses 24 V D.C. relay. Relay has eight terminals in
which first two terminals are start and ending point of coil winding. In coil
when current starts to flow, then current develops a magnetization. Second
two terminals give A.C. voltage at power presence. Internally coil terminals
are connected parallaly to fuse terminals. At the third two terminals are
connected with mains fuse which provide inverter output in the form of
normal A.C. output last two terminals, one connected to the to the
condenser for charging and other connected to the transformer.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF RELAY:-


The basic working principle can be specified by the circuit shown in fig in a
normally using relay circuit (in change over) it has two separate circuit
system. One of them is switching circuit. This circuit used to ON/OFF two
another circuit of relay which called switched circuit.
When the switch S 1 get closed in relay circuit the current start to flow
through the coil and by the electromagnetic effect there is a magnetization
get produced, which pulls the relay armature down. This condition get
closed the contact to the ON position. At OFF state of the relay armature
get not down and this connect to the OFF position.
STRUCTURE OF RELAY:
Usually in voltage operated relay, coil has high resistance, which
connected in parallel with the supply voltage in relay circuit. By the supply
source, at power presence a very little current flows in coil, which called
OFF state of relay. At any change in coil voltage the current get affected
which energies or de-energies the relay.
TRANSFORMER:
We use two types of Transformer of different rating.
A. Small Transformer (18 V O.P. at secondary)
B. Big Transformer (230 V 0/P at secondary)
SMALL TRANSFORMER:
This transformer used a step down/Step up Transformer. It has the rating of
9-0-9V. Means total output of 18V, which generates a current of 750 milli
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

appm. At power presence it works as step-down Transformer. It contains


more than number of primary winding to the secondary winding. We can
give the secondary voltage as:
Vs (Vp/Np) Ns
Where,
Vs = O/P voltage at seconday

Vp = Number og turns in secondary

Np = I/P voltage at primary.

Ns = Number of turns in primary

This developed voltage of 12v is used to charge the battery. When mains
A.C. into get fails then the relay opretion in ON position which converts 12
v. A.C. into 12v. A.C. this 12v D.C. changes into 12v A.C. Through PCB
plate then big transformer (O/P 230v) converts 12v A.C. into 230v A.C.
because the output comes by battery charging. At power presence battery
charges by the output of small transformer (O/P 18v) through relay.
FRONT SIDE:
Requirement in Inverter:
In front side, five LED's are arranged which glows at the intructive direction
of using PCB system. These LEDs works indicators of different positions.
Indications of LED's are given below:-
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

RED - Auto ON
LIGHT GREEN - Charging
YELLOW - Inverter ON
DARK GREEN - Over Load
ORANGE - Low Battery

MAIN CIRCUIT OF INYERTERS:


All types of inverters have three type of circuit.
(a) Charger circuit
(b) Inverter circuit
(c) Change over circuit
Working of charger Circuit:-
This circuit work when the main A.C. supply, is connected with the inverter.
WORKING OF INVERTER CIRCUIT:-
When the main AC supply is not applied then the inverter circuit has been
worked. The steps working of inverter circuit is given below.
WORKING OF CHANGE OVER CIRCUIT
(1)The A.C. supply of main line reached at output circuit, so all equipment
(bulb, fan) are in working Condition.
(2) We change the main AC supply in low voltage DC supply by tilt
connection of step down transformer and the rectifier circuit. Mt voltage of
DC supply is more than the battery voltage. This DC supply is going to
battery so the battery will charged.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

MAIN DIFFERENCE IN 500 WATT AND 1000 WATT PWM


INVERTER
The main difference in designing of inverters is number of batteries of
inverter is number of batteries designing of transformer, number of Mosfet
and code number of Mosfet. In other way some difference in value of
resistance and voltage.
All types of 500 watt inverter are designed for a 12 Volt battery where the
value of load current is 40 — 50 amperes. But the value load current
decreases 20 — 25 ampere causing working of inverter on 24 volts. This
circuit does not work in good condition causes of low current.
The necessary thing is the difference in number of turn's transformer
winding. But the ampere-hour is double because of two batteries it means
that we should take current at double time.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF INVERTER:


The required properties of a well and good inverters are:-
i) The appear voltage of inverter should be approximate nearly to the
220 volt 10% A.C. R.M.S. to suit the electrical gadget that are fun
on it.
ii) The output frequency should be within 50 Hz. + 1%. This can be
possible only in driven Inverter. Technically driven type of Inverter
is the superior form of "Feedback" type Inverter.
iii) Automatic cutout at overload condition: - The feature gives to
customer's maximum flexibility in connecting the Inverter directly to
the' mains line so that, he has the choice of running. As particular
desires.
iv) ENT occasion of the load shedding.
v) Auto overload reset after a predestined time say seven second or
so this.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

Working of different using components:


Diod: diode is used to convert A.C. voltage in D.C. Diode is bi directional
deice.
Buzzer: the buzzer is connected to indicate us, when over load occurs in
the inverter, buzzer produces a special type of sound which indicates over
loading.
Connector: we require two type of connector.
(a) Four pin connector
(b) Six pin connector
Legs: we use legs in inverter and connect at below side of inverter .by legs
we can prevent the cabinet of inverter for any damage.
Wires: we use different wire of different color and different diameter.
(a) Thin wire-0.5mm
(b) Thick wire-5 mm
Ties: we use plastic made ties by which we can make a bus of wires and
gives wiring finishing in inverter.
Sleeves: we use different type of sleeves which cover wire soldering any
terminal. Ithas different shape according to diameter as 0.5mm or 0.2mm.
I0mm etc. it is plastic made and like hollow flexible pipe.
Jacks: jacks are used to connect the wire it connect the wire it connector
finally, whish prevent any cross wiring in prevent.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

VESUAL INDICATION:-
Light Green (Charging) - Cut Off at 1 3.8 V (Float
Drank Green (Ovel Load) - Buzzer on When load increases
more than the capacity of Inverter)
Yellow (Inverter ON) - Charging) Cut OFF at 10 V.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) SYSTEM:


Printed Circuit Board is the most useful and important part of Inverter.
Rating of using components in IICE1 depends upon the wattage of the
Inverter. But using components are same in different wattage inverter.
a) Regulator
b) Oscillator
c) Inverter
a) Regulator:
It is the main part of PCB, contains SCR (Silicon Controlled rectifier), which
has a shape of short Heat sinks. This SCR used for charging operation.
SCR knows as thyristor also, which can be triggered or turn ON by Gate
Pulses or Increases the anode voltage.
b) Oscillator:
Oscillator is used to oscillate the D.C When in a device; any current
generates an alternative voltage, called an Oscillator.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

e) Inverter:
It is also a circuit system of PCB in 500 wattage inverter 6 MOSFET's are
connected and in 1 K wattage Inverter 12 MOSFET's are connected with
long Heat sinks. These long I Heat sinks are connected with MOSFET to
prevent them from the Thermal Runaway. MOSFET's used to achieve high
Reliability and Efficiency.
Heat MOSFET's of them provides the half cycle of A.C. signal and other
half MOSFET; s provides next half cycle of A.C. signal.
Inverter has a IC 3524, in IC 3524, a pin called shut off pin". IC 324 has
four OP-AMP When OP-AMP gives overload amplified voltage then the
shut off pin of IC 324 get shut of and inverter comes M shut of position.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

TELECOMMUNICATION
EPABX (Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange)
The electronic private automatic branch exchange (EPABX) is equipment
that has made day-to-day working in the offices much simpler, especially in
the area of communication. The EPABX may be defined as a switching
system that makes available both internal and external stitching functions
of any organisation.The selection of an EPBAX is a difficult task and
requires deep knowledge of traffic pattern of the office. By using an EPABX
both the internal and external needs of the organisation are fully served.
With the advent of powerful microprocessors and advancements in the field
of computers, the EPBAX can boast of versatile features. Hotline can be
established between the boss and his immediate subordinates.
The feature of a call transferring and forwarding is another area enabling
mobility of the users. Auto conferencing and automatic redialing of numbers
found engaged on the first trial are some of other advancements in the
features of the EPBAX. The selection of an EPBAX for an organisation
should be preceded by a thorough study of the needs of the office. The
exchange should be supporting features like voice DISA-n-auto attendant.
This feature helps in doing away with a receptionist or an attendant.
Further, the specifications should ensure inbuilt paging, auto fax homing,
hot outward dialing, remote dialing; remote servicing and auto shut
dynamic lock.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

ELECTRONICS SECURITY SYSTEM


Burglar alarm
A burglar alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion – unauthorized
entry – into a building or area. They are also called security alarms,
security systems, alarm systems, intrusion detection systems, perimeter
detection systems, and similar terms.
Burglar alarms are used in residential, commercial, industrial, and military
properties for protection against burglary (theft) or property damage, as
well as personal protection against intruders. Car alarms likewise protect
vehicles and their contents. Prisons also use security systems for control of
inmates.
Some alarm systems serve a single purpose of burglary protection;
combination systems provide both fire and intrusion protection. Intrusion
alarm systems may also be combined with closed-circuit television
surveillance systems to automatically record the activities of intruders, and
may interface to access control systems for electrically locked doors.
Systems range from small, self-contained noisemakers, to complicated,
multi-area systems with computer monitoring and control.
Design
The most basic alarm consists of one or more sensors to detect intruders,
and an alerting device to indicate the intrusion. However, a typical premises
security alarm employs the following components:
Premises control unit (PCU), or panel: The "brain" of the system, it reads
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

sensor inputs, tracks arm/disarm status, and signals intrusions. In modern


systems, this is typically one or more computer circuit boards inside a metal
enclosure, along with a power supply.
Sensors: Devices which detect intrusions. Sensors may placed at the
perimeter of the protected area, within it, or both. Sensors can detect
intruders by a variety of methods, such as monitoring doors and windows
for opening, or by monitoring unoccupied interiors for motions, sound,
vibration, or other disturbances.
Alerting devices: These indicate an alarm condition. Most commonly,
these are bells, sirens, and/or flashing lights. Alerting devices serve the
dual purposes of warning occupants of intrusion, and potentially scaring off
burglars.
Keypads: Small devices, typically wall-mounted, which function as the
human-machine interface to the system. In addition to buttons, keypads
typically feature indicator lights, a small mulch-character display, or both.
Interconnections: between components. This may consist of direct wiring
to the control unit, or wireless links with local power supplies.
In addition to the system itself, security alarms are often coupled with a
monitoring service. In the event of an alarm, the premises control unit
contacts a central monitoring station. Operators at the station see the
signal and take appropriate action, such as contacting property owners,
notifying police, or dispatching private security forces. Such signals may be
transmitted via dedicated alarm circuits, telephone lines, or Internet.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

SERVO STABILIZER
Introduction
It is commonly observed that, AC main supply is never 230 Volt or 415 Volt,
but varies from 150 Volt - 300 volt and 300 Volt - 500 Volt. The difficulties
caused by them are well known, such as Over Load Condition, Line
Losses, Poor Power Factor and several other reasons. Generally constant
voltage which is required to load is never constant, but in fluctuation
manner. It is observed that during the daytime, the voltage is quiet low and
during the night the Voltage is high then the normal.
This fluctuation in supply system results frequent breakdown, low
production and also loss of energy. The performance of any electrical
equipment is optimum at its rated voltage. Both over / under voltages are
harmful for the system. The under voltage reduces efficiency whereas the
over voltage shortens the life.

The power agencies insist the consumer to fix the capacitor to improve
power factor to get better results in power saving. But Voltage is far more
important factor to save the power loss
In case of very Low / High voltages, the telecom systems are powered by
DG sets. Our Line Conditioner Unit meets the requirement of input voltage
variation from 110V - 300V (Single phase) and 300V - 550V (Three phase).
In India, there are large voltage variations in the mains power supply. To
overcome this problem, we are offering Line Conditioner Unit.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

General

Servo Stabilizers are automatic line Voltage corrector using synchronous


motor in close loop control. The stabilizer employ continuously variable
auto transformer, buck-boost transformer, AC synchronous motor, state of
the art IC closed loop control system with all protection, metering, indication
and control system to give desired output voltage within the specified limits
for a range of input voltages. Provision for manual correction of voltage can
also be provided.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER SWITCHES


A transfer switch is an electrical switch that reconnects electric power
source from its primary source to a standby source. Switches may be
manually or automatically operated. An Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) is
often installed where a backup generator is located, so that the generator
may provide temporary electrical power if the utility source fails.
As well as transferring the load to the backup generator, an ATS also
commands the backup generator to start, based on the voltage monitored
on the primary supply. The transfer switch isolates the backup generator
from the electric utility, when the generator is on and is providing temporary
power. The control capability of a transfer switch may be manual only, or a
combination of automatic and manual. The switch transition mode (see
below) of a transfer switch may be Open Transition (OT) (the usual type),
or Closed Transition (CT).
Types
Open transition
An open transition transfer switch is also called a break before make
transfer switch. A break before make transfer switch breaks contact with
one source of power before it makes contact with another. It prevents back
feeding from an emergency generator back into the utility line, for example.
One example is an open transition automatic transfer switch (ATS). During
the split second of the power transfer the flow of electricity is interrupted.
Another example is a manual three position circuit breaker, with utility
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

power on one side, the generator on the other, and "off" in the middle,which
requires the user to switch through the full disconnect "off" position before
making the next connection.
Closed transition
A closed transition transfer switch is also called a make before break
transfer switch. In a typical emergency system, there is an inherent
momentary interruption of power to the load when it is transferred from one
available source to another (keeping in mind that the transfer may be
occurring for reasons other than a total loss of power). In most cases this
outage is inconsequential, particularly if it is less than 1/6 of a second.
There are some loads, however, that are affected by even the slightest loss
of power. There are also operational conditions where it may be desirable
to transfer loads with zero interruption of power when conditions permit. For
these applications, closed transition transfer switches can be provided. The
switch will operate in a make-before-break mode provided both sources are
acceptable and synchronized. Typical parameters determining
synchronization are: voltage difference less than 5%, frequency difference
less than 0.2 Hz, and relative phase angle between the sources of 5
electrical degrees. Since the maximum frequency difference is 0.2 Hz, the
engine will generally be required to be controlled by an isochronous
governor.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

Soft loading
A soft-loading transfer switch actively changes the amount of load accepted
by the generator.
Static transfer switch
A static transfer switch uses power semiconductors such as Silicon-
controlled rectifiers (SCRs) to transfer a load between two sources.
Because there are no mechanical moving parts, the transfer can be
completed rapidly, perhaps within a quarter-cycle of the power frequency.
Static transfer switches can be used where a reliable and independent
second source of power is available and it is necessary to protect the load
from even a few power frequency cycles interruption time, or from any
surges or sags in the prime power source.
Applications
Typical load switching applications for which closed transition transfer is
desirable include data processing and electronic loads, certain motor and
transformer loads, load curtailment systems, or anywhere load interruptions
of even the shortest duration are objectionable. A closed transition transfer
switch (CTTS) is not a substitute for a UPS (uninterruptible power supply);
a UPS has a built-in stored energy that provides power for a prescribed
period of time in the event of a power failure. A CTTS by itself simply
assures there will be no momentary loss of power when the load is
transferred from one live power source to another.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

Home use
Homes with standby generators may use a transfer switch for a few circuits
or the whole home. Different models are available, with both manual and
automatic transfer. Often small transfer switch systems use circuit breakers
with an external operating linkage as the switching mechanism.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

PREFACE
Our course of DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a three year
diploma course after 2nd year examination ,we have to do INDUSTRIAL
training of TWELVE WEEK, which is also called field exposure by this field
exposures we get the knowledge of technical institution.
This is a short training for the students about their related field. This training
gives on experience to the student for a particular job in which the possible
difficulties, that can arises between and the way in which they may
handling it successfully this training makes student more aware about the
advantages of related field.
I am completed my industrial training of “Amity Electronics Corporation”
Mathura. In my training, I learnt about Invertors, Stabilizer & ATS
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Our diploma course is professional courses by which we get the changes
for job. It gives practical knowledge but this knowledge is not enough for to
days technical condition. Our government started industrial training for
improving this condition.
I pay my great thanks to the respected principal & staff of Electrical
department for there suggestions they helped me in industrial training and
visited their to solve problems.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

CONCLUSION

Vocational training is very important for technical students. With this


vocation training, we as a technical student utilized our technical
knowledge in industry. We get confidence, how to represent our self in
Technical Installation. This training is very helpful for our future Technical
development.
From this training, we set exposure in the field of Inverter. We understand
various types of stabilizer, Automatic changeover switch, Electronic
security system , making circuits.
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18

CONTENTS
 PREFACE
 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
 CERTIFICATE
 ABOUT THE COMPANY
 PRODUCT
 INTRODUCTION OF THE INVERTER
 LIST OF THE COMPONENTS
 DIFFRENCE BETWEEN 500 WATT & 1K WATT INVERTER
 WORKING OF THE INVERTER
 IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF THE INVERTER
 WORKING OF COMPONENTS
 CHARGING OPRATION OF INVERTER
 TELECOMMUNICATION
 ELECTRONICS SECURITY SYSTEM
 SERVO STABILIZER
 AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER SWITCHES
 CONCLUSION
SHRI A.D.K.MAHILA POLYTECHNIC, MATHURA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
2017-18