Laboratory Manual
Semester 1 2011
The class will be split into Wednesday (10am1pm) and Friday sessions (25pm) and run in the
laboraotry EE440, Building J03. Two students are in each experiment group.
The laboratory work of this subject has three experiments and one term project.
Lab1: Laboratory Introduction – Review of opamp circuits to be familiar with lab
equipment in Lab 440;
Lab2: Common mode BJT amplifier;
Lab3: Differential amplifier and current mirror based on MOSFETs;
Term project: Audio power amplifier.
Breadboards will be lent to each experiment group in the first lab session and are required to be
returned to the technical officer – Ms. Kavitha Jeevanandam (R441), before the end of
semester.
The term project starts in the week 8 and is due in the week 12. Students can get a project kit
from Ms. Kavitha Jeevanandam in the lab440 in the week 8. Details of the project are in the end
of this manual or go http://129.78.67.83/people/ruihong.chu/ELEC3404.html.
ASSESSMENT
Laboratory work directly accounts for 30% of the UoS, in which experiments take 15% and the
project takes 15%. The marks are allocated among the three experiments as: 3% marks for Exp1
and 6% for the Exp.2 and Exp.3 respectively. Students should reach a satisfactory standard of
reporting laboratory work. Read the detailed requirements for log books below. In the end of
each lab session, the experiment is assessed on three parts: 1) your own prelab work, 2)
observations by lab demonstration staff on your participation in group work in the laboratory
and 3) your record of the experiment written in your own log book. For the project, students
LABORATORY LOGBOOK
Students are required to use a proper logbook (bound book). All preparatory and experimental
work and project work must be recorded in it. You should describe, in detail, what you are
doing so that years later you could testify under crossexamination in a court of law if necessary
– these are the skill that you need to develop. Instead of writing your own description you may
refer to this lab manual, provided you also add details such as component values and
interconnections. Generate descriptive headings such as "midfrequency input resistance" in
addition to any section number
For all practical work you should relate your measurements to theory, and make suitable
comments on the degree of agreement. All work recorded during the laboratory session must be
dated at the beginning, and dated and signed at the end by the student. It must then be also
initialled by one of the laboratory staff.
Your laboratory notebook is to be a chronological record, DO NOT leave blank spaces for
filling in with later results or analysis. If you make a mistake cross out the error with a single
line so that it may still be read. DO NOT use liquid paper or delete supposed errors in such a
manner that they may not be read, as you may later find the material to be useful.
PREWORK
There are prelab works for each experiment. The prework must be completed in the logbook
before entering the laboratory.
The prework usually consists of some mathematical analysis that is closely related to the
experimental work and is intended to prepare you for the lab. The labs are designed so that a
student who has done the prework should be able to complete the lab in the allotted time. If you
find that you are having difficulties completing labs then it is probably a good idea for you to
do all of the theoretical work (in addition to the assigned prework) for the experiment before
entering the lab.
To ensure that you can complete the experimental tasks within the allocated lab session, you
could collect all the parts and components from the Lab440 and build the circuits on
breadboards before starting the actual lab. Therefore you have more time on testing in the lab
session.
AIMS
Get familiar with the equipment in the 3rd year electronic laboratory – Lab440, by
reviewing simple opamp circuits.
Learn how to use an oscilloscope to measure frequency response and voltage gain for an
amplifier.
PRELAB WORK
1. For an inverting opamp circuit given below, calculate the voltage gain. Typically with
this circuit you would use an input capacitor to set a Low Frequency 3 dB point
somewhere between 20  50 Hz. What value of capacitor is needed in this case?
10K
1K

Vout
+
Vin
2. In the Figure below, the open/close loop frequency response for an opamp is illustrated.
For the closeloop frequency response, estimate its high frequency 3 dB point and marked
on the graph.
3. Apart from the voltage gain and frequency response, another important specification for
an opamp is the slew rate. How does the slew rate affect the performance of an opamp?
Find out how to calculate the slew rate and the value for µA741 in the datasheet [1].
Power rail
offset N1 NC
1 8
IN Vcc+
2 7
uA741
IN+ OUT
3 6
Vcc offset N2
4 5
2. Connect the noninverting opamp with a 1k load shown in Fig.2. Measure voltage gain
(Vout/Vin) versus frequency and sketch the frequency response. To do this, firstly measure
the 3dB cutoff frequencies by the means of 7/5 ratio. Then measure the gain at center
frequency and the frequency bigger and smaller than the higher 3dB and lower 3dB
frequency respectively to quickly plot the frequency response.
3. Build an inverting amplifier shown in Fig.3 on the breadboard. Measure the voltage gain
(Vout/Vin) versus frequency and sketch the frequency response. Mark out the 3dB cutoff
frequencies on the plot. Calculate the theoretical voltage gain and compare with the
experimental one.
+15V
1K

Vout
741
+
Vin
15V
1K
4. Build a voltage follower circuit as shown in Fig.4 on the breadboard. Input a square wave
of about 1 kHz from the function generator. Observe the slope of the transitions at the
output and compare it with that of the input square wave. That will give you a "slew rate"
in volts/microsecond of the opamp. The specification of 741 [1] says to expect 0.5
volts/microsecond  what happens in your measurement?
Reference:
[1] Data sheet of 741, available on:
http://www.alldatasheet.com/view.jsp?Searchword=UA741&q=UA741
[2] How to use a breadboard, available on: http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/breadb.htm
AIMS
Learn to design and construct a BJT common emitter amplifier.
Be able to test performances of an amplifier, such as input/output impedance, voltage gain
and frequency response, and interpret testing results.
PRELAB WORK
Design a common emitter amplifier shown in the Fig.1 using a BC 547 to have an emitter
current of about 1 milliamp.
Vcc=20V
Rc
R1
Cc
+
Cb BC547
+
BC547
R2
+
Re Ce
10uF
c b
e
Design Notes
Aim for about 10% of VCC across Re. Then choose an E12 value [2] for Re to set the
emitter current of 1mA.
The base voltage then needs to be at about 2.7 Volts.
Ensure that the current flow through the voltage divider R1 and R2 is at least 10 times the
base current (which also flows through resistor R1) and this tends to minimize the
possibility that the base current (when varying with AC) will effect the biasing
arrangement.
Make VCE about the same as the voltage drop across Rc for a largest output swing.
Design Tasks
Select E12 values for R1, R2, Rc, and Re.
Choose values for the input and output DC blocking capacitors Cb and Cc so that they do
not affect the circuit performance at 10 kHz.
Develop the AC equivalent circuit of the amplifier – from which you can predict the
voltage gain, and input and output resistance. These predictions will be compared with
corresponding measurements later on.
There are three parts in this experiment: DC biasing, small signal performance, and large signal
performance of the amplifier.
Measure the output and calculate the voltage gain. Compare with the predictions in
prework. Record the waveforms of the output and input in the same coordinate and
comment on the phase relationship.
Frequency response
Here you need to use/develop common sense to use enough measurement points so
that you are able to sketch frequency response which will fall of (drop) at both the low
frequency and also the high frequency ends. Three points are crucial to locate the
frequency response: midband frequency, and lower and higher 3dB cutoff frequency,
which are corresponding to the max gain and the gain with 3dB drop respectively.
You can use 5/7 approximation to measure lower and upper 3 dB cutoff frequencies:
start at midband frequency, make the output cover 7 divisions (peak to peak) on CRO
You can also measure the output voltage at the frequency lower and higher than low
3dB and high3dB, respectively. With these five points you can sketch the frequency
response.
In order to measure the input impedance, a schematic circuit diagram in Fig.2 is used,
where a resistor R is inserted externally between the input of the amplifier and the
function generator. The block in dashed line is the amplifier, which is represented by
the input impedance Zin. The value of R is to be chosen properly based on the
predicted input impedance of the amplifier. You need to measure the voltage on both
sides of R (with respect to the ground), that is V1 and V2, and calculate the input
impedance Zin with the value of R. Compare the measured value with the predictions
in the prelab and comment on the discrepancy.
Note: To measure the current flowing through the R accurately, you may increase the
amplitude of the signal from the function generator depending on the resistance of R.
However the voltage at the input of the amplifier must be remained as small signal
level, i.e cannot be bigger than 20mVpp.
Zout
output
Open Circuit R
Vout
Reference:
[1] Datasheet of BC547, available on:
http://www.alldatasheet.com/view.jsp?Searchword=BC547&q=BC547
[2] E12 series resistor, check related information on: http://www.st
andrews.ac.uk/~www_pa/Scots_Guide/info/comp/passive/resistor/e12/e12.html
AIMS
To understand the important specifications of a long tailed differential amplifier, such as
differential gain, common mode gain, and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR).
PREWORK
1. The circuit below shows a simple MOSFET differential amplifier. Choose values for Rs,
Rg, and Rd to provide a leg current of about 1mA.
2.
Design notes:
As the input impedance of a MOSFET is very large, to provide a DC potential of 0V
at the gate, Rg should be more than several mega ohms (MΩ) or even directly
grounded. Remember that this is essential to allow DC bias to actually happen!
Assume the MOSFET Q1 and Q2 are exactly matching, half of this 'leg' current then
flows through each MOSFET so choose an E12 resistor value for Rd which sets the
drain voltage about half way between 0 volts and 10 volt supply.
Find out the threshold voltage Vt of 2N7000 from the datasheet [1]. Assume the over
drive voltage Vov is about 1 volt, from the drain current of half of 1mA and
1 W 1 W
I D kn (VGS Vt ) 2 kn Vov2 , you can work out VGS and further RS. Use E12 series
2 L 2 L
resistor value for RS to set it close to the calculated one.
R Iref
0
ID3 ID4
Q3 + Q4
VGS

VSS
EXPERIMENTAL WORK
1. Classic MOSFET Differential Amplifier
Measure DC bias
Build a circuit shown in Fig.1 on a breadboard. Power on the circuit by 10V (DC
supply set up as in Fig.2) and measure the DC biasing at the gate, source and drain and
the leg current to prove that the MOSFET is biased in the saturation region. Compare
the measurements with the calculations in prelab work. The pin arrangement of
2N7000 is also illustrated in Fig.2.
+10V
Rd
1uF
Vout
1uF 2N7000
+
Q1 Q2
Vin
1mA
Rs
10V
Fig.1. The circuit for measuring differential voltage gain Fig.2 DC power supply connection
+10V
Rd
1uF
Vout
Vin Vin
1mA
Rs
10V
Fig.3. The circuit for measuring common mode voltage gain
Note: You may have this all designed and wired in place on your breadboard and
DC performance tested at home or prior to the scheduled lab session so that you
can make best use of your lab time making useful measurements.
Rd
1uF
Vout
1uF 2N7000
+
Q1 Q2
Vin
+10V
R 1mA
Q3 Q4
2N7000
10V
Fig.4. Differential amplifier with a current mirror and differential input
Reference
[1] Datasheet of 2N7000, http://www.alldatasheet.com/view.jsp?Searchword=2N7000
[2] Sedra/Smith, Microelectronics Circuits, 5th edition, Oxford University Press, 2004.