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LUCKNOW (INDIA) VOL. 24, No. 1 January, 2018

IN THIS ISSUE President ISEB's New Year Message
Interna onal Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB) was
Letters 02 founded on 3rd December 1994 on the campus of CSIR- NBRI
under the guidance and inspira on of Dr. P.V. Sane, who was then
Director of this Ins tute. He was unanimously elected as its first
President. Subsequent Directors of CSIR-NBRI nursed this
News Flash 03 organiza on over the years under their proac ve guidance and
support. ISEB is now a 23 years' old interna onal organiza on. It
has a membership of over 450 spread over different parts of India.
Across the globe, we have members from Bangladesh, Canada,
Sea Level Rise and Germany, Sri Lanka, U.K. and U.S.A. The quality of membership is a
Cross Border Migrants – ma er of pride for ISEB as scores of academicians, vice-chancellors, reputed professors,
An Arduous Challenge Directors of pres gious na onal laboratories researchers, scholars and students are represented
in fair number in this Society. A highly dis nguished scien st of U.K., who is a former Director of
Prof. C.K. Varshney Kew Botanic Gardens Sir Ghillean T. Prance, F.R.S., is a member of ISEB for over two decades.
(India) 03
My own associa on with ISEB is quite old. I joined the Society as a Life Member long before I
joined CSIR-NBRI as its Director.
EnviroNews, the quarterly newsle er of ISEB was launched on 1st January 1995 and the current
Ladybird Beetles: An
issue is the 93rd issue of this highly popular scien fic news magazine. While hard copies are
Ecofriendly Agent for
Pest Management supplied to its over 450 members, its electronic version is received by more than 5,000
individuals across the globe.
Prof. Omkar ISEB's highly popular and informa ve website (h p:// has been visited by over
(India) 05 60,000 people, mostly in foreign countries. ISEB has launched a biannual scien fic journal -
Interna onal Journal of Plant and Environment since 2015 and in a short span of 3 years it has
gained interna onal acclaim and recogni on.
The biggest feather in ISEB's cap is the organiza on of five Interna onal Conferences on Plants
News & Views 09 and Environmental Pollu on (ICPEP-1 to ICPEP-5) in 1996, 2002, 2005, 2010 and 2015) in
collabora on with CSIR-NBRI which were a ended by over 175 delegates from more than 30
countries of the world. This has put ISEB on world map of plant and environmental sciences and is
Conferences 12
Happy New Year 2018
President and Members of the Executive of
International Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB)
Books 12 Wish a Very Happy, Fruitful and Prosperous New Year to all
Members of ISEB and readers of EnviroNews
With this issue, EnviroNews enters the 24th year of its publication

ENVIRONEWS, January 2018 1
now known and accepted all over the world. Soon a er joining ISEB as its President I asked my colleagues to immediately plan for
Sixth Interna onal Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollu on (ICPEP-6). This Conference is slated to be held during 27-30
November, 2018 at CSIR-Na onal Botanical Research Ins tute, Lucknow.
I invite all the members of ISEB and readers of EnviroNews to a end ICPEP-6 Conference and also u lize this opportunity to visit
laboratories of CSIR-NBRI and interact with our scien sts and to explore the possibili es of collabora ve research. On behalf of CSIR-
NBRI and ISEB, I assure you of a warm hearted welcome by my colleagues and most enjoyable and frui ul stay in Lucknow.
S.K. Barik
President ISEB & Director CSIR-NBRI
Lucknow, India


F irst of all I would express my sincere
a p o l o g i e s fo r s u c h a d e l aye d
response to your mail. I feel greatly
Groundwater for Sustainable
Development OR a Special Issue based
on the presenta on of the papers in this
in India.
And also please check the As2018
homepage for the
honored to receive your invita on to join conference linking plants, food chain upcoming 7th Interna onal Congress and
the esteemed Interna onal Advisory and contaminated water environments. Exhibi on on Arsenic in the Environment-
Commi ee of ICPEP-6 to be held at CSIR- Please think about this and please let me Environmental Arsenic in a Changing
NBRI, Lucknow next year between 27-30 know – please visit the website of our World – the deadline for the submission
November 2018. I would kindly accept journal website: of abstracts is towards the end of
this invita on and would extend my full December, 2017.
support to the event. Just as an add on – I h ps://
would also like to affiliate the Internal undwater-for-sustainable- Best regards
Society of Groundwater for Sustainable development— and please encourage Prof. Prosun Bha acharya
Development (ISDSD, to your colleagues to submit their Professor of Groundwater Chemistry,
manuscripts to this journal which is KTH Royal Ins tute of Technology
be a joint partner of the ICPEP -6 and
thema cally linked with the scope. I am Department of Sustainable Development,
provide in-kind scien fic support (we are
Environmental Science and Engineering
not a very big society as yet!) and also travelling to India next week and hope to
KTH-Interna onal Groundwater Arsenic
explore an avenue to publish the Volume get connected on telephone while I am
Research Group, Sweden
of abstracts in our Elsevier Journal—

Dr. Suchi Srivastava, Senior Scien st, Department of Plant Microbe Interac on, CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow, India.
Dr. Naveen Kumar Singh, Department of Chemistry, Manipal University, Jaipur, India.
Mr. Ambedkar Gautam, UGC SRF, Plant Ecology & Environmental Science Division, CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow, India.
Dr. Archana More, Associate Professor, Department of Botany, S.N. Govt. P.G. College, Khandwa, M.P, India.
Dr. Amit Kumar, Dr. D. S. Kothari, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Botany ,Lucknow University, Lucknow, India.

2 ENVIRONEWS, January 2018
Prof. C.K. Varshney Professor Emeritus, Dr. R.D. Tripathi, Emeritus Scien st CSIR- Academy of Sciences, Allahabad during
School of Environmental Sciences, JNU NBRI and Emeritus Professor, AcSIR 13-14 November, 2017.
and Dis nguished Adjunct Professor (AIT, (former Chief Scien st, CSIR-NBRI & Honours and Awards:
Bangkok), founder member and one of Professor, AcSIR) delivered a lead lecture Dr. Seema Mishra, Life member of ISEB
the Advisors of ISEB was invited to Chair a “Bioremedia on of Arsenic in Soil and has been honoured as “Visi ng Scien st”
Session at Amity Interna onal Crops for Sustainable Environment and at the Ins tute of Plant Molecular
Conference on Legal Dimensions of Agriculture” at the 58th Annual Biology, Biology Centre CAS (Czech
Environment, held at Amity Law School, Conference of Associa on of Academy of Sciences), ČeskéBudějovice,
Gurgaon, 27th to 28th October 2017. Prof. Microbiologists of India (AMI) & Czech Republic. She visited Desy,
Varshney in his address highlighted the Interna onal Symposium on Microbes Hamburg, Germany from June 29- July 8,
complex issue of interna onal for Sustainable Development: Scope & 2017 to carry out the experiments in the
obliga ons towards climate refugees Applica ons (MSDSA-2017), held at project 'Arsenic toxicity in Rice plant'. The
whose numbers will inevitably explode as Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar visit was sponsored by Desy (Deutsches
a result of climate change induced University, Vidya Vihar, Rae Bareli Road, Elektronen-Synchrotron), Hamburg,
salinity, high surges and submergence of A
Lucknow during November 16-18, 2017. Germany.
island and coastal ecosystems from sea Dr. Tripathi also chaired a Session on
She has been selected for the
level rise. He further emphasized that the “Young Scien st Awardees of AMI” on
membership of “The Na onal Academy
problem of climate migrants is a highly November 18, 2017.
of Sciences, India (NASI)”, Allahabad,
vexing issue that needs urgent a en on Dr. Tripathi, delivered a lecture en tled 2017.
from global community. “Bioremedia on of Arsenic” on the Dr. Seema Mishra has been awarded
Prof. R.S. Tripathi delivered a lecture on occasion of Science Academies' “Young Woman Leadership Award” by
“Ecosystem, Its Components and Educa on Programme, Lecture 'Prof. H.S. Srivastava Founda on for
Diversity” under the Science Academies' Workshop, Phy todiversity in Science & Society,, 2016-17.
Educa on Programme at the Lecture Environmental Perspec ve, Department Dr. Sanjay Dwivedi, Senior Technical
Wo r k s h o p o n “ P hy t o d i v e rs i t y i n of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow Officer and Life member of ISEB, visited
Environmental Perspec ve” organized in organized
B by Indian Academy of Sciences, DCe s y ( D e u t s c h e s E l e k t r o n e n -
the Department of Botany, Lucknow Bengaluru, Indian Na onal Science Synchrotron), Hamburg, Germany on
University during 13-14 November, 2017. Academy, New Delhi and The Na onal deputa on from June 29- July 8, 2017.

Sea Level Rise and Cross Border Migrants – An Arduous Challenge
Prof. C.K. Varshney
Professor Emeritus, Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
& Distinguished Adjunct Professor (AIT, Bangkok)

Sea level rise is one of the most complex Most of the island na ons lie not more of Cape Verde, Tangier Island, Virginia,
impacts of global warming, yet it remains D 3 meters above sea level. Satellite
than E chef Island, Alaska are most
and Sari
one of the least studied aspects of images reveal that many islands have threatened from rising sea level.
climate change. Unabated emission of either reduced in size drama cally or
A comprehensive study of 12,983 islands
greenhouse gases strongly suggested disappeared. A recent study found that at
of all sizes above 2.5 hectares across the
that sea level rise will accelerate in the least eight islands in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean, including the Philippines
future with a poten al rise from 0.5 to 2 have disappeared due to rising sea levels.
and Hawaiian Islands, found that some 15
m at the end of the century. A report from Islands in Micronesia have disappeared in
to 62% of islands would en rely
the UNEP warned that sea level rise recent years with li le to no evidence
disappear under sea level rise ranging
around the small island states could be up they existed at all. Several Solomon
from 1 to 6 meters. Indonesia, an
to four mes the global average of 3.2mm Islands had similar fates in recent decades
archipelagic na on of more than 17,000
per year. According to some researchers as they were overtaken by the sea.
islands, faces some of the worst threats.
the world has already locked in 1.3 Republic of Kiriba , Republic of Maldives,
More than 2,000 of its island are at risk of
meters sea level rise and will be much Republic of Fiji, Republic of Palau,
disappearing due to sea level rise. An
more if carbon emission is to con nue. Federated States of Micronesia, Republic
assessment of poten al consequences of

ENVIRONEWS, January 2018 3
sea level rise for 1,269 French islands coast. Three-quarters of the world's The government of Kiriba had endorsed
worldwide, revealed that up to 12% of all mega –ci es are by sea and seriously a plan to buy nearly 6,000 acres on Vi
islands could be en rely submerged. threatened by the rising sea level. Venice, Levu, Fiji's main island to move the en re
New Caledonia and French Polynesia are also known as the Floa ng City, could popula on off Kiriba . For them, moving
likely to suffer most significant loss of disappear within 100 years from the sea- won't be a ma er of choice, it is basically
islands. level rise. Likewise, Bangkok, a city of ten a ma er of survival.
million, is sinking at a rate of 2
Sinking islands present one of the most We do not have a solid grasp of the
cen meters every year. It could be
drama c scenarios of the impact of dimension of climate migrant problem
en rely under water in the span of a few
climate change. Sea level rise poses and future migratory pa erns.
decades if sea level rises faster than
existen al threat to coastal communi es Predic ons about how many people will
ini ally expected. Out of the ten most
and small island states in par cular. The be displaced and will end up crossing
–vulnerable countries in the
en re popula ons of low-lying States na onal borders vary widely from 50
world—na ons with large coastal
such as the Maldives, Tuvalu, Kiriba and million or 1 billion people over the
popula ons and sufficient infrastructure
the Marshall Islands may in future be coming decades. We don't even know
to mi gate rising seas—seven of them
obliged to leave their own country as a how many people have already moved
a re in A s ia - Pa c ifi c reg io n . I n d ia ,
result of climate change. Bangladesh is because of coastal submergence.
Bangladesh and Indonesia top the list,
highly prone to sea level rise and climate Systema c data collec on and sta s cs
with a combined 100 million people at
change. One-meter rise in sea level—a about cross border migrants is lacking.
risk. It is unfortunate that the island
plausible scenario this century—would
inhabitants have done li le to contribute Climate migrant face many social and
submerge a fi h of Bangladesh and turn
to global warming, but they are going to economic hurdles in integra ng with new
30 million into “climate migrants”. Over
face some of the direst consequences of communi es, which increases their
the past two decades, Bangladeshi
rising sea level. With sinking of islands vulnerability to exploita on, financial
people have been moving out in large
their unique culture, art history, hardship and discrimina on. This can
groups. A sizable number of Bangladeshis
biodiversity will be submerged and lost also lead to instability. Many experts now
are living illegally in India, while many
forever, apart from triggering human agree that can be traced in part to an
others have gone to Malaysia and the
migra on at unprecedented scale. extended drought from 200-2010, which
Middle East.
led the roots of the Syrian conflict to
No one wants to be forced out of their
Indian islands too, face threat of going rising food prices, urban migra on, and
country because of disasters or the
under water due to sea level rise. The first increasing resentment at the ruling Al
effects of climate change. Sea level rise
inhabited Indian island Lohachara, once Assad regime for corrup on and poor
will be par cularly acute for island states,
home to 10,000 people, was submerged governance.
where increased intensity and severity of
by the rising sea level in 1980. The New
sea rise may overwhelm domes c Under present interna onal law, there is
Moore Island in Bay of Bengal has been
infrastructure and water supplies. Ocean no special provision to admit those
also consumed recently by the rising sea.
acidifica on, that could deplete fish leaving their countries for these reasons;
Ghoramara Island in the Sunder ban area
resources and poten ally undermine the rather they are dealt with through
has lost about half of its landmass forcing
physical stability of islands, is an normal immigra on channels.
two thirds of its popula on to move out.
addi onal factor compelling people to Accordingly, if someone from a country
In Kerala the Munroethuruthu delta
migrate. Thus for many islanders cross has to move out of his or her country
islands, located at the confluence of
border migra on is not an op on, but a because of sea-level rise or if a cyclone
Kallada River and Ashtamudi Lake have
necessity. people to cross an interna onal border,
already started to drown steadily.
governments are under no obliga on to
Andaman and Nicobar archipelagos The drivers of migra on are
treat them differently than any other
composed of 265 big and small islands in mul dimensional and complex. The
economic migrant seeking permission to
Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep a group environmental factors, and the
enter. In July 2015, Supreme Court of
of 25 small islands in Arabian Sea mostly economic, social, poli cal and
New Zealand explicitly rejected the
have low eleva on and do not rise more demographic considera ons shape an
request for refugee status by a ci zen of
than five meters above sea level. Their individual's decision to migrate. Island
Tuvalu arguing that they could no longer
topography is flat and relief features such people are highly dependent on climate-
remain in their country because of the
as hills, streams, valleys, render them sensi ve sectors such as tourism,
effects of climate change.
highly vulnerable to sea level rise. fisheries and agriculture, among the first
to suffer from sea level rise would be their According to ar cle 1.A(2) of the 1951 UN
Globally 2 billion people or 39% of the
economies and livelihood, which then Conven on rela ng to the Status of
popula on or four out of every ten
prompt people to migrate. Re f u g e e s , t h e s o c a l l e d G e n e v a
people live within 100 kilometers of a
4 ENVIRONEWS, January 2018
Conven on, a “refugee” is a person thousands of people ge ng stranded in for an individual because na onality is
who…owing to well-founded fear of other countries without any protec on, the principal link between the individual
being persecuted for reasons of race, dignity or en tlement. and the interna onal law.
religion, na onality, membership of a
Two years ago in 2015, the world I n v i e w o f p ro te c o n ga p wo r l d
par cular social group or poli cal
celebrated a great achievement—an community has to do more and think
opinion, is outside the country of his
interna onal climate agreement. seriously about addressing the challenge
na onality and is unable or, owing to such
Unfortunately, the Paris Agreement lacks of cross boarder displacement. There is
fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the
the urgency, depth and coordinated an urgent need for an interna onal
protec on of that country. Thus UN does
framework necessary for addressing the process to formulate effec ve policies
not recognize climate or extreme
immense challenges of climate-induced and mechanisms that can respond to the
weather as grounds for asylum under the
migra on. Currently, na onal and needs of those who will face the awful
1951 Refugee Commission. As a result,
interna onal response to this challenge is reality that they can no longer survive in
those migra ng due to sea level rise or
insufficient and protec on for affected their own country and will seek to enter
the deteriora ng climate change are not
people remains inadequate. another country. Imagina ve and
accorded safety and legal protec ons
ingenious methods are required to
given to those fleeing persecu on. The displacement of people from sea
mainstream migra on into development
level rise is a cross border issue that
Cross border migra on by climate planning. It is important that under the
extends beyond the authority of a single
affected people is highly tragic, but sadly, aegis of UNFCCC a fast track interna onal
country. No single country—and its
the required concern and apprecia on of process should start urgently for
people—should have to bear the burden
the gravity and complexity of this addressing the challenge of cross border
alone. The governess of statelessness has
inevitable human tragedy by the world migra on in ways that preserve human
also a racted some a en on in the
community is nowhere near of what is dignity, ensure protec on, enhance
debate on climate migra on. Not having
looming on the horizon. Legal solu ons resilience and strive to ensure migra on
a na onality raises significant difficul es
will have to be found to avoid hundreds of with dignity.

Ladybird Beetles: An Ecofriendly Agent for Pest Management
Prof. Omkar
Ladybird Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology,
University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007 (India);

Introduc on represent the seven joys and sorrows of egg which gives rise to larva and passes
the mother Mary. They are called the through four larval stages. The final larval
The insects belonging to order
beetles because they belong to the order stage pupates and metamorphoses into
Coleoptera and family Coccinellidae are
Coleoptera and have the characteris c an adult (Plate-1). Dixon (2000) described
commonly termed as Ladybird beetles,
spherical body. Their forewings are thick ladybirds as Aphidophagous and
Ladybeetles or Ladybirds. Majority of the
and leathery, and provide protec on to Coccidophagous; former have fast
ladybird beetles are predaceous in nature
t h e f u n c o n a l a n d m e m b ra n o u s development and the la er have slow
and are employed as biocontrol agents.
hindwings. The ladybirds are most development which is possibly adap ve
However, some members of family
fascina ng and various products of in nature. But both the groups have
Coccinellidae belonging to subfamilies
human use are designed of the ladybird similar number of larval instars, except
Epilachninae and Coccinelinae are
shape. They are quite a rac ng to the one coccidophagous species that has
phytophagous in nature and are harmful
children across the world. They have three larval instars rather than the usual
to crop plants as pests.
always been associated with good luck four instars. The aphidophagous
The term ladybird has been coined from charms. ladybirds generally lay eggs in clusters
the species, Coccinella septempunctata while coccidophagous ones lay eggs
Life Cycle
Linnaeus (Plate-1) and the term lady singly.
refers to the virgin Mary because of the Ladybirds are the ancient and successful
Food of Ladybirds
resemblance of scarlet elytral colour with group of insects that evolved in the lower
Her Cloak. They are the most recognized Permian period, about 280 million years Food greatly influences the growth,
and loved insects. The seven black spots ago. They are holometabolous insects development, survival, reproduc on and
present on the two elytra are supposed to because their life cycle starts from the progeny fitness of ladybirds. The diet of

ENVIRONEWS, January 2018 5
differences in their nutri ve values and have higher capture efficiencies and can
the ways by which these nutrients are easily reproduce at lower prey densi es
assimilated and u lized post prey for longer dura on of me. However, the
consump on. Rejected foods of ladybirds generalist species adopt a one-size-fits-
are unpalatable due to their all strategy, which results in their lower
intensive/aposema c coloura ons capture efficiencies, making them
and/or presence of certain difficult to sustain at lower prey density.
allelochemicals. Consequently, they are Moreover, unlike the generalist species,
rejected even a er encounters. whose adults frequently move between
patchy prey habitats, the specialist
Certain prey species are also harmful to
species stay in the prey patches and lead
ladybirds, causing their mortality, and are
a more sedentary life due to their greater
termed as toxic prey species. One of the
tolerance of lower prey densi es. They
toxins is cyanoglycoside sambunigrin,
even start to reproduce earlier than the
producing hydrocyanate a er enzyma c
generalist species and also reproduce in
spli ng. Another poten ally toxic
the later stages of declining prey patch.
compound is alkaloid sambucine. Thus,
Plate 1: Life cycle of Coccinella septempunctata Thus, their sedentary, stubborn and non-
the aphid species that have been found to
dispersing behaviour makes them the
be toxic for some ladybirds either cause
predaceous ladybirds includes aphids, be er biocontrol agents.
gradual poisoning, or an acute toxicity in
coccids, psyllids, diaspids, pentatomids, ladybirds. Further, ladybirds accept some The analysis of how a ladybird responds
aleyrodids, and other insects and prey species which worsen their life- to varying pest popula ons and how it
acarines. However, the non-predaceous history parameters, although they are affects pest management can be
ladybird species feed on fungi, pollens, not toxic, and they are considered as understood in terms of the func onal
honey dew, etc. Thus, the dietary breadth 'problema c prey'. Moreover, the prey response. It is the predator's feeding
in predaceous ladybirds is an outcome of species selected by oviposi ng females response against the increasing prey
the seasonal abundance and the as food for their larvae are termed as density, and can be analy cally explained
synchrony of their poten al prey. 'nursery prey', and they are the species of by Holling's type I (linear), type II
Moreover, a ributes like morphology, prey on which the larvae are likely to (curvilinear), and type III (sigmoidal)
chemistry and behaviour of the prey, the develop the best in terms of survival and responses. Ladybirds usually exhibit a
efforts involved in reaching the prey, the growth. type II func onal response, where there
host plant architecture, and the level of is an ini al increase in the rate of prey
threats or challenges imposed by Ladybirds have a tendency for prey
consump on with increase in prey
intraguild predators and other natural specializa on, which could be both diet-
densi es up to a certain level and this rate
enemies also affect the dietary breadth of and habitat- related. The concept of prey
decreases with a further increase in prey
predaceous ladybirds. While some specializa on elucidates that ladybirds
density. This happens due to sa a on, as
ladybirds are stenophagic and have a reared on subop mal diets for few
there is a threshold of prey consump on
narrow prey range, the others are genera ons specialize and condi on
and the prey density dependent curve
euryphagic and depend on wide prey themselves for the subop mal diet.
reaches an asymptote.
range. The former are further termed as These condi oned ladybirds perform
specialists as they feed on monospecific be er on a subop mal diet than those on Numerous factors affect the func onal
or few prey species. However, the la er the op mal diets. Moreover, the response outcomes of ladybird
are termed as generalists or switching of prey a er few genera ons of predators. These include, genera on
polyphagous, based on their broad rearing on either subop mal or op mal me ra o of predator and prey, prey
dietary habits. diets causes deteriora on in their preference, prey switching, size disparity
performance and fitness. Further, the between prey and predator, prey density,
Among the accepted foods of ladybirds, prey specializa on in ladybirds has been predatory stage, walking speed of
o n l y c e r ta i n fo o d s s u p p o r t b o t h argued as a func on of their size, or the predator and prey, gender, intrinsic rate
development and reproduc on, and are size and density of their prey. The body of increase of prey and predator,
termed as essen al foods. The rest are size of ladybirds provides an important consump on rate, prey patchiness,
meant only for their survival and are trade-off determining their dietary predator patch alloca on me, host
known as alterna ve foods. Further, the breadth and the prey specializa on. plant, abio c factors, and intra- and
essen al food is classified into op mal, Specialist ladybird species prefer the prey interspecific predator compe on.
adequate and marginal, based on the species that closely matches their size, Moreover, the func onal responses of

6 ENVIRONEWS, January 2018
ladybird predators are interlinked with quality (wavelength), and dura on of the density of intraguild prey increases,
their numerical responses. The numerical exposure (photoperiod) significantly the frequency of intraguild preda on
response of a predator is its tendency to affect the development, reproduc on increases. On the contrary, an increase in
increase its number with increasing prey and progeny fitness. Ladybirds have a extraguild prey density lowers the
density; and can be both aggrega ve and wide range of tolerance limits to these possibili es of intraguild preda on. The
reproduc ve numerical responses. In variables. They are primarily diurnal rela ve size and stage, mobility of
response to increasing prey density, insects and depend on visual cues and species, aggressive strategies,
predaceous ladybirds show aggrega ve presence/absence of light to undergo mandibular structure, degree of feeding
numerical response by increasing the various essen al ac vi es, like ma ng, a n d h a b i t a t s p e c i fi c i t y, d e fe n s e
cumula ve prey consump on; however, moul ng, and pupa on. Most ladybirds strategies, and density of extraguild prey
the rate of prey consump on decreases are highly sensi ve to light, par cularly determine the outcome of intraguild
curvilinearly due to mutual interference. its photoperiod and wavelength. Short preda on.
The reproduc ve numerical response is a day-lengths with intensi es of 1500 lux
Majority of the ladybirds a ack, prey
consequence of the func onal response are beneficial for the reproduc ve
upon, and displace other members of
in predaceous ladybirds; because the ac vi es. The likelihood of female
their family in a limited food resource
females lay high number of eggs at higher ladybirds accep ng the males increases
struggle. Invasion and establishment of
prey densi es, which is a direct in the dark because females are unable to
aggressive species following
implica on of their func onal response. evaluate visual criteria to select male and
displacement of indigenous ones may be
thereby ma ng rejec on displays are also
Effects of abio c factors on life an outcome of such interac ons. The
minimized. However, prolonged light
a ributes of Ladybirds Harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis
days could have a nega ve effect on the
(Pallas) is an invasive species that has a
Temperature is the most crucial abio c physiology of ladybirds.
compe ve advantage over the
factor affec ng ecological, func onal,
There exists a photoperiod-dependent indigenous species, such as Coccinella
and behavioural a ributes of predaceous
bimodal or two-peak pa ern in the septempunctata, Coleomegilla maculata
ladybirds. It sets the limits of biological
development of certain ladybirds, where DeGeer, Hippodamia variegata Goeze,
ac vity in form of low and high
the first peak represents fast developing and Adalia bipunctata L., due to its vast
temperature thresholds. The
and the second shows slow-developing prey range, and higher preda on and
developmental rate is almost zero at
individuals in the same cohort of eggs. foraging poten al. This invasive species
lower development threshold, which
The slow-developing individuals are frequently indulges in either interference
increases with temperature, reaches a
generally more in numbers in short day- compe on or the apparent compe on.
peak value, and then decreases rapidly as
lengths; however, long day-lengths Thus, it either interferes with other
the high thermal threshold is achieved.
promote fast developing adults having compe tors or may compel the inferior
Not much lower development threshold
heavier body masses and more capable indigenous species to become specialist
varia on occurs in ladybirds with similar
of producing quan ta ve progeny. White predators of less preferred prey in nature.
dietary habits and this is also a reason for
light is more suitable for essen al
their successful establishment in Ladybirds also struggle with other group
ac vi es compared with its red or blue
different habitats and countries. At the of insects outside the family for the
components of the visible spectrum.
op mum temperature, around 25–30 °C common food resource. They usually co-
in most aphidophagous and Preda on by Ladybirds occur with chrysopid (Neuroptera:
coccidophagous ladybirds, the peak is Chrysopidae) larvae and share the
A guild is formed by the associa on of
a ained at the youngest age of the limited food resources. However,
predators that share a common food
ladybird demography. Therea er, with intraguild interac ons between them are
resource. However, when the ladybirds
further rises in temperature this peak is asymmetrical which could have posi ve,
exploit a common food resource
delayed and shortened. However, in nega ve, or neutral impacts on pest
(extraguild prey) within a guild, they
acarophagous ladybirds the op mum b i o co nt ro l . B o t h c h r ys o p i d s a n d
o en a ack each other. In this struggle,
temperature is 30–35 °C, resul ng in high ladybirds use chemical defenses. The
one becomes dominant (intraguild
values for the demographic parameters, ladybird larvae, pupae, and adults all use
predator) and overpowers the other
like the net reproduc ve rate and the chemical substances containing vola le
(intraguild prey). This exploita ve
intrinsic rate of increase in popula on. hyd ro ca r b o n s /a l ka l o i d s to d e te r
compe on of food resource is more
Not only temperature, the light also advantageous to small-sized ladybirds as
affects the life a ributes of ladybirds. they have lesser food demands. As the Ladybirds and Biocontrol of Pests
Various variables of light, like intensity, density of extraguild prey decreases or
The term biological control (=biocontrol)

ENVIRONEWS, January 2018 7
was introduced by Smith (1919) for the cucumbers were highly successful. promising future in the biocontrol of
“topdown” ac on of natural However, in huge agriculture fields they insect pests of agricultural importance.
e n e m i e s / b i o co nt ro l a ge nt s ( v i z . , were not successful because of their W h i l e m a j o r i t y o f l a d y b i rd s a re
predators, parasitoids and pathogens) in impaired foraging on account of being generalists, some are specialists. There
maintaining the pest popula on density flightless. However, these adults had are lots of arguments on prey
at a lower level than what may have lower reproduc ve fitness and had fewer specializa on in predaceous ladybirds.
occurred in their absence. Although offspring despite oviposi ng for a longer However, the resource par oning and
several stories exist regarding the period. consistent exposure of a single prey type
successful u liza on of ladybirds as might have evolved the prey
Aphidophagous ladybirds are generally
biocontrol agents, their use in biocontrol specializa on in predaceous ladybirds.
not considered as be er biocontrol
came into existence when the vedalia Moreover, the prey specializa on in
agents largely due to significant
beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) was ladybirds is generally considered as a
differences in their intrinsic rates of
selected to control the popula on of func on of body size, prey size and prey
increase and mean genera on me
scale insect, Icerya purchasi on citrus in density.
ra os, although the rela ve
California (USA) in the year 1889. Ma ng and reproduc ve studies in
development rates of aphidophagous
Therea er, numerous ladybird species ladybirds have provided knowledge on
ladybirds are lower than those of aphids.
were successfully used in the biocontrol the op mal condi ons pertaining to
However, aphid biocontrol could be
of aphids, scale insects and mealybugs. number and quality of mates to produce
benefi ed if the prey is targeted early in
The impact of ladybirds in terms of be er progeny both in terms of quan ty
the season, i.e. prey suppression
successful pest biocontrol is largely and quality. Similarly, the informa on
ini a on could be done when the aphid
dependent on their voracity, prey pertaining to age, aging trajectories and
colony is young. The coccidophagous
specificity, intrinsic rate of increase, and age differences between mates not only
ladybirds are also successful biocontrol
the mean genera on me ra o between increases the level of knowledge on
agents of both coccids and diaspids.
prey and predator. Interes ngly, the size ladybird physiology in general but may
Chilocorus nigritus (Fab.) is a highly
of ladybirds a acking similar kind of prey also help in mass mul plica on of
successful and effec ve generalist
does affect the biocontrol with the large- ladybirds by allowing ma ng with
predator of numerous species of
s i ze d l a d y b i rd s b e i n g t h e b e e r op mal age individuals. The intraguild
Diaspididae with equal effects on some
biocontrol agents. However, if the prey interac ons amongst the ladybird
species of Coccidae and
type is different, the small-sized ladybirds species distress the coexistence of
Asterolecaniidae. The Indian ladybird,
with specializa on on that par cular prey ladybirds and displace many indigenous
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, is
type are more promising biocontrol ladybird fauna, the biological invasions of
also a generalist predator of various
agents than the large but less specialized certain dominant species could result in
scales and mealybugs and has been
ladybirds. complete disappearance of numerous
commercially exploited in both classical
A need for aphid biocontrol led to the and augmenta ve biocontrol programs. na ve ladybird species. Amongst the
introduc on of 179 aphidophagous abio c factors, temperature has a major
Moreover, certain specialist ladybirds impact on the ladybird's life a ributes.
ladybird species in North America since
belonging to genus Stethorus are Moreover, the op miza on of abio c
1900, but only 18 have successfully
poten al biocontrol agents of condi ons, like temperature and light is a
established. A few aphidophagous
tetranychid mites, especially at their high prerequisite for the augmenta ve rearing
ladybirds took many years to establish.
density. Similarly, the of ladybirds. There is an utmost need to
However, many established a er
ladybird,Clitostethus oculatus (Blatchley) understand the role of ladybirds in pest
accidental introduc on, including
is credited for the biocontrol of whitefly, management through comprehensive
Coccinella septempunctata, Harmonia
Aleurodicus dispersus (Russell) in Hawaii ecological and ethological studies
axyridis, and Propylea
and India. While the specialists are be er supported with laboratory
quatuordecimpunctata (L.). The
biocontrol agents than the generalists experimenta on, and glasshouse and
introduc on and invasion of certain
because of their selec ve feeding and field studies. The use of biocontrol agents
aphidophagous ladybird species has
persistence in the target prey habitats, in the suppression of pest popula ons
been implicated in the decline of some
the invasion of generalists in their minimizes the use of pes cides in
na ve species in the USA and elsewhere.
resource space is an issue of serious agriculture. Biocontrol is an ecofriendly
A flightless form of Harmonia axyridis
concern as they become intraguild prey technique which is cost-effec ve in the
was also produced using a chemical
or they are forced to emigrate. long run and self-perpetua ng, and
mutagen followed by selec ve breeding.
The Inunda ve releases of such flightless Conclusions would lead to sustainable agriculture.
adults against aphids on glasshouse The predaceous ladybirds have a

8 ENVIRONEWS, January 2018

China and India to avoid mercury from coal-fired power plants, along with petroleum and natural gas and, for
emissions in 2050 other measures such as bans on new prac cal purposes, are non-
Mercury is a health concern due to its mercury mines. The Conven on agreed biodegradable, even though they
long-las ng environmental presence and upon flexible regula ons instead of fragment during weathering into
toxicity. Most people come into contact specific emissions limits in order to progressively smaller pieces. Marine
with mercury by ea ng contaminated accommodate countries at different debris is composed primarily of plas cs
seafood as well as rice and other foods. levels of technological advancement. It which accumulate in circula ng ocean
Burning coal was responsible for an called for countries to “control, and convergence zones called gyres. There
e s m ate d 2 4 % o f h u m a n - ca u s e d where feasible, reduce” emissions in has been concern that small plas c
mercury emissions in 2010, making it the coal-fired power plants using the best fragments might be mistaken for food by
second largest global source of the techniques and best environmental plankivorous sea life. More than a third of
contaminant. Plants opera ng in Asia prac ces available to them. the stomachs of lanternfish captured at
contribute the most to these emissions. Source: Science for Environment Policy the ocean's surface in the N. Pacific gyre
For this study, the researchers explored contained plas c fragments. Importantly,
Plas c Ocean Pollu on a Driver of
the future impacts of the Conven on on ingested plas cs were similar in size (1-3
Climate Change?
global mercury emissions and mm) and color (clear, white and blue) to
Though burning fossil fuels is the primary the area's zooplankton.
deposi on.
cause of global warming, fossil fuels
With the countries s ll relying heavily on Researchers confirmed that lanternfish
could also be driving climate change via a
coal, China is predicted to avoid 90 are consuming plas cs and es mated
c o m p l e te l y d i ffe re n t m e c h a n i s m
tonnes of emissions and India could avoid that the weight of plas c debris
involving ocean plas c debris and ny,
150 tonnes in 2050. This could avoid consumed annually by fish in the in the N.
bioluminescent fish living hundreds of
approximately 2 and 13 micrograms per Pacific gyre alone is 10s of tons. Inges on
meters beneath the ocean's surface.
square metre of mercury deposi on over of plas c debris by lanternfish is thought
Lanternfish (aka myctophids) are only a to explain an otherwise head-scratching
China and India, respec vely. While
few inches long typically but so finding. Mass quan es of the plas cs
avoided deposi on over other regions is
ubiquitous that they account for over half t h at a re e nte r i n g t h e o c e a n a re
lower, there are projected decreases in
the ocean's total fish-mass. They are vital disappearing, according to scien sts who
the amount of mercury deposited into
to the ocean's ability to sequester more measured plas c debris in the surface
o c e a n s t h a t c a n s u s ta i n a q u a c
carbon than all the world's forests do on waters of all five of the world's major
environments important to Europe and
land through a daily mass migra on that gyres. Importantly, the missing plas c is
the US. Addi onally, if stricter — yet s ll
plays out in all seven seas. By day, largely debris 2-3 mm in size, matching
feasible — ac ons are taken, an extra
lanternfish avoid predators in deep, dimly the lanternfish's plankton diet.
combined 170 tonnes of emissions could
lit waters, but they ascend nightly to the
be avoided by the two countries. Intes nal blockage, malnutri on and
surface to gorge on carbon-rich plankton
The researchers highlight that their study starva on are obvious poten al dangers
before descending back down where
only discusses emissions that can be of consuming plas c debris, though
they deposit their carbon-rich poop. They
avoided through technology uptake, and chemicals associated with marine
also sequester carbon when eaten by
that overall emissions will likely s ll plas cs might pose greater threats.
larger fish.
increase as economies and energy Oily toxic pollutants commonly found in
Carbon sequestra on by lanternfish is
markets con nue to boom while relying seawater adsorb to the surface of
central to the overall role of marine
on coal. They highlight the necessity of plas cs. Once ingested, the pollutants
environments in reducing human-caused
avoiding coal consump on and can transfer to the ssues of wildlife with
CO2 emissions in the atmosphere – by an
transi oning toward less carbon- poten al for transfer up the food chain as
es mated 20-35 percent. Thus, anything
intensive energy sources for reducing smaller fish are eaten by larger ones.
harmful to lanternfish could hinder the
emissions from present-day levels. In Threat also stems from the basic building
ocean's capacity to act as a carbon sink.
fact, they es mate that a transi on away blocks of some polymers. Polycarbonate
Alarming evidence that small bits of
from coal using just current technology plas c, for example, is derived from BPA
floa ng plas c debris resemble the
could avoid approximately 6% and 36% (bisphenol A), an estrogen mimic so
plankton lanternfish feast on could spell
more emissions from China and India, harmful to the development of lab
trouble for them and, consequently, the
respec vely, than the strict regula on animals that use of polycarbonate
scenario with heavy coal use. plas cs in baby bo les and sippy cups
Lanternfish are consuming ocean was banned in the United States in 2012.
The UN Minamata Conven on, which
plas cs The basic cons tuents of polyvinyl
was adopted in 2013, sets forth
regula ons to control mercury emissions Most plas cs are s ll derived from chloride (PVC) and polystyrene plas cs

ENVIRONEWS, January 2018 9
are known or suspected carcinogens. had mul ple xylem columns spaced p e r fo r m w h i c h s p e c i fi c d i ge s ve
The myriad of addi ves which impart around the perimeter of a hollow trunk. A func ons in the bee gut.
desired proper es to plas c products network of crisscrossing strands The researchers measured the repertoire
add another layer of concern. Phthalate connected the ver cal xylem—much like of simple chemical compounds -- the so-
plas cizers and polybrominated flame a chain-link fence spreads from pole to called "metabolome" -- from bee guts.
retardants are common addi ves which pole—and so ssue filled the spaces They then compared the gut
interfere with hormonal systems in between all these strands. New growth metabolomes of bees colonized with
m a m m a l s , fo r exa m p l e . B e ca u s e formed in rings around each of the xylem each bacterial species individually and in
addi ves are not bonded to the plas c columns while an increasing volume of combina on. By this method, they
polymer, they can leach out of ingested so ssue forced the strands to spread iden fied what each bacterial species
plas cs into an organism's ssues. out. All of this expanded the girth of the contributes to the bee diges on and the
trunk, allowing for a taller tree. But it also various strategies bacteria deploy to co-
Source: The Environmental Magazine
split apart the tree's xylem skeleton, exist in the animal gut.
The world's first trees grew by which required the tree to con nually
spli ng their guts Of par cular note, they iden fied one
repair itself.
several species of the genus Lactobacillus
Scien sts have discovered some of the In the largest of the two fossil trunks, that digests convert specific plant
best preserved specimens of the world's above the bulge, the xylem and so compounds called flavonoids -- abundant
first trees in a remote region of China. At ssue occupied a ring about 50 in pollen and recently linked to the health
up to 12 meters tall, these spindly species cen meters in diameter and 5 of mice and humans through their
were topped by a clump of erect cen meters thick, with external roots breakdown by the gut microbiota.
branches vaguely resembling modern making up the remainder of the 70- Another bee gut bacterial species,
palm trees and lived a whopping 393 cen meter-diameter tree trunk. The Bifidobacterium asteroides, triggered the
million to 372 million years ago. But the scien sts es mate cladoxylopsids could produc on of bee hormones that can
biggest surprise is how they got so big in have been 8 to 12 meters tall. modulate the immune system and
the first place.
This growth strategy has not been seen in behavior of its host.
Today's trees grow through a rela vely any other tree in Earth's history. It's crazy Honey bees, a principal pollinator in
simple mechanism. The trunk is a single that the oldest trees also had the most agriculture and natural environments,
cylindrical sha made up of hundreds of complex growth strategy. The trees are have suffered from colony declines in
woody strands called xylem, which par cularly important, because they recent years. The gut bacteria in bees and
conduct water from the roots to the dominated Earth during the Devonian their pollen-rich diet are known
branches and leaves. New xylem grow in period from 419 million to 358 million contributors to honey bees' health, and
rings at the periphery of the trunk just years ago. They formed the first forests understanding the func ons of the
behind the bark, adding girth so the tree and played a key role in absorbing carbon various bacteria could have implica ons
can get taller. dioxide from the atmosphere. They also for colony health as a whole.
This is not how ancient trees known as added oxygen to the atmosphere,
Contrary to human gut microbiota, the
cladoxylopsids grew, however. Two affec ng the climate and influencing
bee gut is composed of only a few
specimens discovered in a desert in condi ons that fostered the emergence
bacterial species. This makes analyzing
China's northwestern Xinjiang province of other life forms.
each member separately and
in 2012 were remarkably well preserved. Source: Science determining its contribu on to the
That's because they underwent a process
How honey bee gut bacteria help to overall metabolite changes in the gut
in which silica—likely emi ed by a nearby
digest their pollen-rich diet feasible.
volcano—saturated the tree and took on
the shape of the wood's internal The honey bee gut is colonized by The researchers have iden fied many
structure as it decayed, preserving its 3D specialized bacteria that help digest exci ng metabolic func ons of bee gut
cellular structure. components of the floral pollen diet and bacteria. The next step is to understand
produce molecules that likely promote how these func ons impact colony's
The fossils reveal that, unlike modern
bee health. A group of Swiss researchers health so that one day we can apply our
trees with a single sha , cladoxylopsids
have uncovered which bacterial species findings in apiaries.
Source: Science Daily

All foreign na onals who intend to par cipate in the Sixth Interna onal Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollu on (ICPEP-6), which will
be held during 27-30 November 2018 at CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow, India must forward their duly filled Pre-registra on (P.R.) form by e-mail or online
latest by 1 February 2018. P.R. forms must include detailed informa on about their Na onality, Passport No., Date & place of issue, Date of
expiry, Name/designa on of the authority issuing the passport. Organizing Commi ee of ICPEP-6 is required to forward this informa on about
overseas delegates to the ministries of Home and External Affairs at the earliest.

10 ENVIRONEWS, January 2018
Pre-registration (till 1 February 2018)
6th International Conference on Plants & Environmental Pollution
Jointly organized by
International Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB) &
CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-NBRI), Lucknow, INDIA
27-30 November 2018
Venue: CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, INDIA
Prof. Girish Sahni, Director General, CSIR, Govt. of India, New Delhi – Chief Patron
Prof. Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary, DST, Govt. of India, New Delhi – Patron
Prof. S.K. Barik, Director, CSIR-NBRI & President, ISEB
Dr. K.J. Ahmad, Secretary, ISEB
Organizing Secretaries ICPEP-6
Dr. R.D Tripathi Dr. Nandita Singh Dr. Vivek Pandey
(Emeritus Scien st, CSIR-NBRI) (Consultant Scien st, CSIR-NBRI) (Senior Principal Scien st, CSIR-NBRI)
Addi onal Secretary ISEB Joint Secretary, ISEB Joint Secretary. ISEB
Interna onal Advisory Commi ee (ICPEP-6): Dr. V.P. Aneja (USA), Dr. K. S. Bawa (USA), Prof. J.N.B. Bell (UK), Prof. P. Bha acharya (Sweden), Prof. H. Brix
(Denmark), Dr. S. Cieslik (Italy), Dr. F.J. Corpas (Spain), Prof. R.E. Crang (USA), Dr. O.P. Dhankher (USA), Prof. A. Dhawan (India), Prof. N. M. Dickinson (New
Zealand), Dr. N. Fomproix (France), Prof. H.M.D.O. Freitas (Portugal), Prof. D.A. Grantz (USA), Prof. M. Greenway (Australia), Prof. E. Grill (Germany), Prof. J.A.
Harikrishna (Malaysia), Prof. M. Hasanuzzaman (Bangladesh), Prof. T. Izuta (Japan), Prof. R.K. Kohli (India), Dr. A.H. Legge (Canada), Prof. Dr. B. Markert
(Germany), Dr. M.M Mirsanjari (Iran), Prof. A.K.M. Nazrul-Islam (Bangladesh), Prof. E. Oksanen (Finland), Prof. M. Ozturk (Turkey), Dr. M.L. Pignata
(Argen na), Dr. Ms. L. Radhouane (Tunisia), Prof. V.R. Reddy (USA), Prof. K.R. Reddy (USA), Prof. R. Rinnan (Denmark), Dr. I.N. Safronova (Russia), Dr. S. Saha
(Germany), Prof. S. Sahi (USA), Prof. P.H.N. Saldiva(Brazil), Prof. M.J.S. Sánchez (Spain), Prof. W.Sawahel (Egypt), Prof. Dr. K. Strzalka (Poland), Dr. R.K. Tayal
(India), Prof. A.K. Tripathi (India)
Areas/disciplines of the Conference: 1. Bioindicators and Bioremedia on, 2. Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3. Environmental Impact
Assessment and Eco-Audi ng , 4. Biodiversity and conserva on , 5. Plant Responses to Environmental Pollu on, 6. Climate Change, mi ga on and
adapta on for Human Health and Global Food Security, 7. Impacts of Air Pollu on and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems, 8. Environmental Educa on,
Outreach and Informa on, 9. Contemporary Environmental Issues: (a) Paleo-environment (b) Environmental Laws (c) Disaster Management (d) Waste
Management (e) Indoor Pollutant (f) Bio-pollutants (g) Bio-energy/Biofuel (h) Sustainable Agriculture (i) Botanical Gardens (j) Alien Plant Invasion (k) Bio-
prospec on (l) Noise Pollu on (m) Urban Pollu on & Green Belt Designing (n) New and Renewable Energy (o) Water Pollu on (p) Biodiversity and Bio-
economy of North East in India.
Email:; Website: h p://

International Journal of Plant and Environment
[ISSN No.: 2454-1117 (Print) and 2455-202X (Online); UGC Journal No. 43696]
[An Official of Publication of International Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB), Lucknow, India]
Volume 3, Number 2
To access the issue please click
1. Studies on Trace Elements Distributed in Glycyrrhiza Taxa in Hatay-Turkey
Munir Ozturk, Volkan Altay and Faruk Karahan
2. Role of microRNAs in Arsenic Stress Tolerance of Plants
Sudhakar Srivastava and Varsha S. Pathare
3. Dissecting Papaya Leaf Curl Disease (PLCD) Complex and Assessing its Potential for
siRNA Based Targeting
Saurabh Verma and Sangeeta Saxena
4. Effects of Cyanobacterial Inoculation on the Growth and Yield of Triticum aestivum L.
var. Deva K9117
Vinod Rishi, Ravindra Singh and A.K. Awasthi
5. Taxonomical Synonymy of Red Seaweed Gracilaria foliifera (Forsskal) Borgesen, 1932
with Gracilaria corticata J. Agardh, 1852 based on Multi-Local Phylogeny
Pushpendu Kundu and Felix Bast
6. In vitro Propagation of Saprophytic Moss Splachnum sphaericum Hedw.
Vinay Sahu, K.K. Rawat, Ankita Srivastava and A.K. Asthana
7. Economical and Environmental Importance of Mulberry: A Review
Ashmita Ghosh, Debnirmalya Gangopadhyay and Tanmay Chowdhury
8. Dwindling Numbers of Eremostachys superba Royle ex Benth. in its Type Locality:
Mohand (Dehradun)
Veena Chandra, Parineeta Singh and Naveen Kumar
9. Comet Assay: A Strong Tool for Evaluating DNA Damage and Comprehensive
Guidelines for Plant Cells
Ashish Agnihotri and Chandra Shekhar Seth
10. Carbon Di Oxide Fertilization: Effects on Plant Productivity
Supriya Tiwari and N.K. Dubey

ENVIRONEWS, January 2018 11
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