Online GATE Preparation for Electrical(EE) & Electronics(EC). Get Online Study Material for "Compensators" & Ace your GATE 2018 Preparation Online. You will learn concepts such as Cascade, Feedback, Phase Lead, Phase Lag, Lag Lead, Maximum Lead-Lag Frequency, Maximal Phase Lead-Lag.

© All Rights Reserved

2.7K views

Online GATE Preparation for Electrical(EE) & Electronics(EC). Get Online Study Material for "Compensators" & Ace your GATE 2018 Preparation Online. You will learn concepts such as Cascade, Feedback, Phase Lead, Phase Lag, Lag Lead, Maximum Lead-Lag Frequency, Maximal Phase Lead-Lag.

© All Rights Reserved

- exp78
- How to identify power IC.docx
- Relative Stability and Bode Plot - GATE Study Material in PDF.compressed
- amc1916
- Vector FittingHeinzel
- PSpice Notes
- Amps 1 Final
- Orcad PSpice Notes
- ps8 hello world
- Electro Mechanics 2
- MIT6_003S10_assn08
- Digital Control of a Boost PFC With SAB80C166 Microcontroller
- In 2009 Gate Question
- Vibrations Chapter 5_2013_mod (1)
- phaselag1web
- Unconventional PLLs
- Process Tank
- Dea.brunel.ac.Uk Cmsp Home Saeed Vaseghi Chapter04-Z-Transform
- Modeling and Analysis of Digital Control Systems
- State Variable Analysis

You are on page 1of 10

Material in PDF

In these GATE Preparation Notes, we discuss Compensators. These are used for

performance improvement. In the previous lesson about Design and Tuning in Control

System, we studied the different types of controllers and their usage in time response

improvement. Improvement in parameter can be brought in, either through time

response specifications or through frequency response specifications. Once a set of

performance specifications has been selected, the next aim is to select a configuration

forth overall system. To improve the performance, comparators can be used in the

system.

This topic on Compensators forms an important part of Control Systems. Here we will

learn about concepts such as Cascade Compensators, Feedback Compensators,

Phase Lead Compensators, Phase Lag Compensators, Lag Lead

Compensators, Maximum Lead-Lag Frequency, and Maximal Phase Lead-

Lag. This topic is important from the point of view of GATE EE and GATE EC. It is

also useful for exams like IES, BSNL, BARC, DRDO etc.

Before starting this module, you are advised to take a look at some of the previous

articles. You can download this article in PDF to refer and revise later.

Recommended Reading –

Design & Tuning in Control Systems

1|Page

Polar Plot and its Analysis

Compensators

In terms of block diagram and transfer function, the compensator can be placed either

in the cascade (or series) with the main transfer function or in the feedback (or parallel)

path. The positioning of compensators is shown as follows.

Cascade Compensation

Feedback Compensation

In general, there are two situations in which compensation is required. In the first

situation, the system is absolutely unstable and the compensation is required to stabilize

it as well as to achieve a specified performance. In the second case, the system is stable

but the compensation is required to obtain the desired performance. They are used

when the system alone cannot meet the required specifications due to the physical

limitation of components used.

General form of lead compensator is given as

s+z

Gc (s) =

s+p

1 1

Here, z = ,p =

T αT

Z

α= < 1 for lead compensator

P

The pole zero location of lead compensator in s-plane is given as

3|Page

s

s + z z (z + 1)

Gc (s) = =

s + p P ( s + 1)

p

α(1 + sT)

Gc (s) = α<1

(1 + αsT)

Now, α is an attenuation factor hence lead compensator is always used with an amplifier

1/α.

(1 + sT)

After applying amplifier, Gc (s) =

(1 + αsT)

√1 + ω2 T 2

|Gc (jω)| = , ∠Gc (jω) = tan−1 (ωT) − tan−1 (αωT)

√1 + α2 ω2 T 2

1

Critical frequency due to zero, ωz =

T

1

Critical frequency due to pole, ωp =

αT

ωz < ωp(∵α<1)

The Bode plot for the system can be drawn as

From the plot above, phase lead compensator can be said as analogous to high pass

filter.

Maximum phase is achieved at ωm frequency

dϕ

at ω = ωm , =0

dω

1

ωm = = √ ωz ωp

T√α

(Try to derive it yourself).

Maximum phase, ϕm = tan−1 (ωm T) − tan−1 (αωm T)

ωm T − αωm T

= tan−1 [ ]

1 + αω2m T 2

1−α

tan ϕm = ωm T [ ]

1 + αω2m T 2

1 1−α

= .T[ 1 ]

T√α 1 + α. 2 . T 2

T

1−α

tan ϕm =

2√α

At ω = ωm, magnitude is Mm

1

√1 + ω2m T 2 √1 + T2

T2 α

Mm = =

√1 + α2 ω2m T 2 √1 + α2 .

1

. T2

T2 α

1

Mm =

√α

1

In dB, Mm = 10 log10 dB.

α

If we realize phase lead compensator in an RC circuit, it will be like

5|Page

1

Vo R2 R1 C

Gc (s) = = 1 =s+ R1 +R2

Vi R1 s+( ) . 1/R1 C

R2 + sc

1 R2

R1 +

sc

R2

T = R1 C, α = <1

R1 + R 2

Transfer function for a phase lag compensator is

s+z

Gc (s) =

s+p

1 1

Where p = , z = for β > 1

βT T

The pole zero location for log compensator is drawn as

β(1 + sT)

Transfer function can also be written as Gc (s) =

(1 + βsT)

√1 + ω2 T 2

Removing β through attenuator, Gc (s) =

√1 + β2 T 2

1

Critical frequency due to zero, ωz =

T

1

Critical frequency due to pole, ωp =

βT

Since β > 1, ωz> ωp

The Bode plot of the system can be drawn as

1

For phase lag network, ωm =

T√α

1−α

tan ϕm =

2√α

1

Mm = 10 log10 dB

α

(Try to verify it yourself)

In realization of phase lag compensator, the circuit is given as

7|Page

1 1

R 2 + sC 1 s+

R2 C

Gc (s) = 1 = R1 +R2 [ 1 ]

R1 + R 2 + s+ R +R

sC R2 ( 1 2 )R2 C

R2

R1 + R 2

β= > 1, 𝑇 = R2C

R2

The general form of lag lead compensator transfer function is

s + z1 s + z2

Gc (s) = .

s + p1 s + p2

Here z1, p1are lag compensator parameter while z2, p2 are lead compensator parameters.

Z1 Z2

= β > 1, = α < 1

P1 P2

1 + sT2 1 + sT2

The transfer function can also be written as Gc (s) = ( )( )

1 + βsT2 1 + αsT2

The Bode plot for the lag lead compensator can be drawn as

1 1

ωm1 = , ωm2 =

T1 √β T2 √α

1−β 1−α

tan ϕm1 = , tan ϕm2 =

2√β 2√α

1 1

Mm1 = 10 log10 dB, Mm2 = 10 log10 dB

β α

From above plot, Lag Lead Compensator is analogues to Band Reject Filter.

9|Page

While designing compensator, it should be kept in mind that the frequency of maximum

phase must be equal to gain crossover frequency. Only then it will increase phase

margin.

Liked this article? Let us know in the comments. Some more articles you may like.

GATE Virtual Calculator 2018 – Practice Here!

- exp78Uploaded bysubhasht0301
- How to identify power IC.docxUploaded bySk Wong
- Relative Stability and Bode Plot - GATE Study Material in PDF.compressedUploaded byNarendra Agrawal
- amc1916Uploaded bysalam87
- Vector FittingHeinzelUploaded byFranco Carlos
- PSpice NotesUploaded byAnbalagan Guru
- Amps 1 FinalUploaded bynarayana swamy
- Orcad PSpice NotesUploaded by69bus
- ps8 hello worldUploaded bySundaram
- Electro Mechanics 2Uploaded byVishwaka Bandara
- MIT6_003S10_assn08Uploaded bykaruppasamynagaraj
- Digital Control of a Boost PFC With SAB80C166 MicrocontrollerUploaded byBoom Smile
- In 2009 Gate QuestionUploaded byRahul Sankar
- Vibrations Chapter 5_2013_mod (1)Uploaded byZain Baqar
- phaselag1webUploaded byEmmanuel Olivar
- Unconventional PLLsUploaded byAndrew Jones
- Process TankUploaded byShiyas Basheer
- Dea.brunel.ac.Uk Cmsp Home Saeed Vaseghi Chapter04-Z-TransformUploaded byanjanikuma
- Modeling and Analysis of Digital Control SystemsUploaded byRonald George
- State Variable AnalysisUploaded byamrit
- Digital Image ProcessingUploaded bysasikalasivakumar
- Module 3.ScilabUploaded byorg25gr
- Laplace Transforms and Transfer FunctionsUploaded byJai Gaizin
- loksewa2.pdfUploaded byAvik Poudel
- CS-Lab 8Uploaded byJoseph Un
- 1-s2.0-S1474667015364685-main.pdfUploaded byVignesh Ramakrishnan
- Calculus PpUploaded byAbdullah Waqas
- ragazzini1952.pdfUploaded byHenry Lois Davila Andrade
- 01 IntroductionUploaded byPablo
- Rollup Abinitio Run Time BehaviourUploaded byVivek Kaushik

- UIIC Assistant Result for Phase IIUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- SSC CPO Answer Key - Paper II 2017Uploaded bynidhi tripathi
- SSC CHSL Vacancies 2016Uploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Final_Annual_Calendar_2018_201901022018Uploaded byTopRankers
- Sbi Clerk Vacancies 2018Uploaded byTopRankers
- ASRB Exam Date NoticeUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Introduction to State Space Analysis - GATE Study Material in PDFUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Introduction to State Space Analysis - GATE Study Material in PDFUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Design and Tuning in Control Systems - GATE Study Material in PDFUploaded byNarendra Agrawal
- Nyquist Plot and Stability Criteria - GATE Study Material in PDFUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Root Locus Diagram - GATE Study Material in PDFUploaded byAtul Choudhary
- Polar Plot and Its Analysis - GATE Study Material in PDFUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Frequency Response for Control System Analysis - GATE Study Material in PDFUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Nielit Cut Off 2017Uploaded bynidhi tripathi
- NABARD Grade B Final ResultUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- NABARD Grade a Final ResultUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- ISRO Exam Analysis - ECEUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- ISRO Exam Analysis - MechanicalUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Written Test Results for SSC Stenographer Grade 'C & D' 2017Uploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Answer Key to IBPS Clerk Prelims Live Leak Model Question Paper 2016Uploaded byTestbook Blog
- Live Leak – IBPS Clerk Prelims Model Question Paper Predicted Pattern 2017Uploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Answer Key to RBI Assistant Prelims Live Leak 2016Uploaded byTushita
- Live Leak RBI Assistant Prelims 2017 Model Question Paper Based on Predicted PatternUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- SSC JE Exam DatesUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Answer Key to SSC CGL Tier II Quant Live LeakUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- SSC CGL Tier II Quant Model Question PaperUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Medical Officer StreamUploaded bynidhi tripathi
- Legal StreamUploaded bynidhi tripathi

- Vikram Solar West BengalUploaded byhimadri.banerji60
- Cla Manual Optokon en 11Uploaded byAhmed Sakr
- MARTHA Project Final Report SlidesUploaded byheadwayblog
- Medium_voltage_application_guide_EN.pdfUploaded bymahesh_sali2003
- Adi Tv Philips 21pt5221 60 Chassis L01.2A ABUploaded bybioteky
- DL360 G7 DatasheetUploaded byGrietzen Sinnema
- sephora group-5Uploaded byapi-241807815
- Synopsis for SRS of SpicejetUploaded byNikhil Rawat
- IP Rating ReffUploaded byricardo
- Arema Mre Chapter 8Uploaded byvaibhav
- Computer AcronymsUploaded byRoger Embalsado
- AIESEC Sweden LC VP C JD 11-12Uploaded byMaria Moskalenko
- STW1000Uploaded byauto_emocion
- pt_case_5Uploaded byWesley Florvil
- ACMOS-47Uploaded byAkash Verma
- Guía programación drive FC280Uploaded byJanio Loli
- Critical Analysis on PMPUploaded byFawad Ejaz Bhattí
- DEMDissUploaded byFrank Fahrenheit
- Assy User Manual SAPUploaded byvenulaxman2010
- Eclipse IP v. Southwest AirlinesUploaded byPriorSmart
- Seanewdim Ped Psy ii35 Issue 71Uploaded byseanewdim
- cs619 final report softwareUploaded bycs619finalproject.com
- Csr1010 Data Sheet Cs-231985-DsUploaded bypadritita
- Swindle dismissal fileUploaded byMike Marino
- Notifier-AMPS-24-AMPS-24E-Addressable-Power-Supply-Supplement.pdfUploaded bytfs2008
- RIBA Outline Plan of WorkUploaded byken
- Guia de Ususario-ipmaUploaded byLuis Paredes Torres
- Chap 001Uploaded byNirujan Kanagasingam
- Socialize Your Customer Experience in 3stepsUploaded byAry Antonietto
- Medical electronics. Lesson PlanUploaded byramyajesi

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.