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Program Designed Exclusively for HCL BPO
Voiceless [s] [p] [t] [k] [∫] [t∫] [θ] [f] [h] Soap, dance, kiss Paper, pocket, pen Token, ticket Cake, quick, matriarch (sh) Show, posh (ch) Catch, chirp (th)Think, cloth, bath, breath Five, phone, rough Help, somehow [z] [b] [d] [g]  [d] [ð] [v] [j] [m] [n] [ŋ] [ℓ] [r] [w] Voiced Zoom, easy, busy Bike, buster, biscuit Donut, dread Goat, example (zh) Vision, beige, treasure (ge/j) Jam, bridge (the)The, bathe, clothe, breathe Very, vest, vine (y) Young, yes, yesterday Money, some, comb Nine, sun (ng) Ring, ringing Love, kill Roam, river Wary, west, wine
Comparison of [s] and [z] Ice False Fierce Eyes Falls Fears Peace Face Race Peas Phase Raise
Shoe Shine Susan shineth shoes and socks; socks and shoes shines Susan. She ceased shining shoes and socks, for shoes and socks shock Susan.
Unusual Pleasure It’s a pleasure to measure your unusual vision. She made the decision to camouflage the beige garage. As usual he came casual, which I find unusual. Leisure time is usually for indulging in activities of casual interest.
The Vile VIP When revising his visitor’s version of a plan for a very well paved avenue, the VIP was advised to reveal none of his motives. Eventually, however, the hapless visitor discovered his knavish views and confided that it was vital to review the plans together to avoid a conflict. The VIP was not convinced, and averred that he would have it vetoed by the vice president. This quite vexed the visitor, who then vowed to invent an indestructible paving compound in order to avenge his good name. The VIP found himself on the verge of a civil war with a visitor with whom he had previously conversed easily. It was only due to his insufferable vanity that the inevitable division arrived as soon as it did. Never again did the visitor converse with the vain VIP and they remained divided forever.
Where Is William? William the wacky, wonderful walrus was last seen eating a wafer along the seashore. He likes to waddle up to shore and wallow in the sun, thinking of waffles and wafers to eat for fun. He wanders hither thither, waving to one and all. Wide-eyed, he whooshes through the waters without a whimper or a whine. Why did he disappear, this willful William of mine? Without a whisper without a word, he slipped into the waves. Where have you gone oh wacky William of mine?
A Surly Sergeant Socked an Insolent Sailor Sam, a surly sergeant from Somerset saw a sailor sit silently on a small seat reserved for youngsters. He stayed for several minutes, while tots swarmed around. Sam asked the sailor to cease and desist but he sneered in his face. Sam was so incensed that he considered it sufficient incentive to sock the sailor. The sailor stood there for a second, astonished, and then strolled away. Sam was perplexed but satisfied and the tots scampered like ants over to the seesaw.
Out in the Pasture Out in the pasture the nature watcher watches the catcher, while the catcher watches the pitcher who pitches the balls. Whether the temperature's up or whether the temperature's down, the nature watcher, the catcher and the pitcher are always around. The pitcher pitches, the catcher catches and the watcher watches. So whether the temperature rises or whether the temperature falls the nature watcher just watches the catcher who's watching the pitcher who's pitching the balls.
A Family Mystery Peter Wharton had certainly tried to trace his grandparents. His parents had moved from Dayton, Ohio, to Fort Morton, Colorado, east of the Rocky Mountains. He knew that one of his grandmothers was from Great Britain, but he hadn’t been able to locate her. Suddenly, when he didn’t expect it, a letter arrived from Great Britain. It was written by a woman named Katie Newton who claimed to
be his aunt. Katie Newton sent a picture that she had found at the bottom of an old carton. It was taken a long time ago of a little girl that Katie said was her mother. The girl, wearing a cotton dress with buttons down the front, was holding a kitten. On the back of the picture was written “Dotty Burton, 1936”. Peter had forgotten until now that his grandmother’s name was Dotty Burton. Apparently Katie Newton who sent the picture was his mother’s sister. He couldn’t believe that he hadn’t heard of her before. Peter Wharton was eager to straighten out the family mystery.
Sometimes several consonants are grouped together into clusters. Two-consonant beginnings: Three-consonant beginnings: Two-consonant beginnings and endings: Build up words in the following blocks using:
stop strike trips tripped
spoon split snaps slipped
strong square (skw) stops blocks slips stopped
A A N I
I C E
I T I
T T I I I T T T
T T T T
T O O O O
M A M A M M M
All vowel sounds are voiced sounds. Are short or long:
Up, come, butter It, fit, women, cabinet, sit, enough Pull, wool, wood, would, good, woman Egg, end, any, send, heaven Hot, shot, caught, stop
Art, palm, father, laugh Eat, feet, easy, seat, eagle Pool, food, useful, move
And, at, apple, happy Awesome, tall, orange, haul
(The schwa – represents any compressed vowel sound) Heav(e)n, sev(e)n, ov(e)n, t(o)day, t(o)morrow, c(o)mplain, (a)bout, (a)ccount, sof(a) Thursday, Saturday, nurse, first, wonder, ever, cover
Diphthongs – two vowel sounds combined to make one long vowel sound ai ei I, try, mine, five, height Eight, plate, ate, save, paper Toy, boil, oil, oyster, voice au Found, now, hound, about, out Soap, note, no, told, boat, cone Beer, deer, dear, clear, here, hear Bear, bare, chair, stair, dare, air Poor, tour, moor
A Lot of Long, Hot walks in the Garden John was not sorry when the boss called off the walks in the garden. Obviously, to him, it was awfully hot, and the walks were far too long. He had not thought that walking would have caught on the way it did, and he fought the policy from the onset. At first, he thought he could talk it over at the law office and have it quashed, but a smack obstacle halted that thought. The top lawyers always bought coffee at the shop across the lawn and they didn’t want to stop on John’s account. The problem was not office politics, but office policy. He resolved the problem by bombing the garden.
realized that he was not deep. thought he’d be even neater if he were the deepest peak picker in Peoria. This is not easy for a peak picker to admit and it pitched Peter into a pit of peak picking despair. It wasn’t enough to trouble us. passed by and laughed. When he observed that it contained a couple of sandwiches and a hard. The Tan Man A fashionably tan man sat casually at the bat stand. though. The manager. Satisfied at last. Peters. and New Zealand. a champion peak picker. “Jack. The professor then proceeded to unwrap the parcel. he lashed bats so fast that he seemed to dance. “You’re about average Jack. a peak picker’s peak picker. but it was done so under handedly that hundreds of sun lovers rushed to the defense of their beloved sun. The manager was aghast. however. As a matter of fact. you’re a master bat lasher!” he gasped. -6- . None of this was relevant on Monday. To show them more clearly what he meant. He wanted them to examine it very carefully. so he clambered to his feet and lashed bats faster than any man ever lashed bats. when the sun burnt up the entire country. Can’t you lash faster than that?” Jack had enough. He was pitiful for six weeks and then lifted himself to hitherto unrevealed personal peaks. Phoenix.boiled egg he exclaimed with a puzzled air that he could have sworn that he had already eaten his lunch. lashing a handful of practice bats. Peter. The Absent Minded Professor An absent minded professor was lecturing on anatomy to a class of students. On his peak peak picker’s week. One cannot but speculate what can come of their proposal.Accent Neutralization What Must The Sun Wonder About? Some pundits proposed that the sun wonders unnecessarily about sundry and assorted conundrums. Pick a Peak People who pick weekly seem to need to appear deep in order to be distinguished from mere peak pickers. a crabby old bag of bones. Jack sat back and never lashed another bat. he said he had brought with him a parcel containing a dissected frog.
how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick. I won't wish the wish you wish to wish. Say this shortly. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. The shells she sells are surely seashells. but the stump thunk the skunk stunk. When a night's light.Accent Neutralization TONGUE TWISTERS How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? How much ground would a groundhog grind if a groundhog could grind ground? I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. The skunk thunk the stump stunk. For a night-light's light's a slight light. Betty bought some butter but the butter was bitter so she bought a bit of better butter to make the bitter butter better. She sells seashells by the seashore. I'm sure she sells seashore shells. say this softly. So if she sells shells on the seashore. And tonight's a night that's light. -7- . Unique New York Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Say this sharply. but if you wish the wish the witch wishes. A skunk sat on a stump. Say this sixteen times in succession. You've no need to light a night-light On a light night like tonight. like tonight's light. It is really not quite right To light night-lights with their slight lights On a light night like tonight. say this sweetly.
does the doctor who doctors the doctor doctor the doctor the way the doctor he is doctoring doctors? Or does he doctor the doctor the way the doctor who doctors doctors? Around the rugged rock the ragged rascal ran. Sure the ship's shipshape. But the thought I thought wasn’t the thought I thought I thought. If one-doctor doctors another doctor.Accent Neutralization We surely shall see the sun shine soon. sir. I thought a thought. -8- . Any noise annoys an oyster but a noisy noise annoys an oyster more.
‘zh’. bugs. ‘z’. takes. drugged. churches. ‘ge/j’ sounds. the ‘es’ in the plural sounds like ‘iz’ passes. Exceptions – for words which (in the singular) end with ‘s’. For words which in the present tense end with voiceless sounds – the ‘ed’ in the past tense sounds like [t] tapped (tapt). buzzed. lived. possessives and all third person singular simple present tense (all words ending with ‘s’) 1. tests 2. pasted. garages. For words which (in the singular) end with voiceless sounds – the ‘s’ in the plural sounds like [s] tickets. mimes 3. contractions. For words which (in the singular) end with voiced sounds – the ‘s’ in the plural sounds like [z] dreads. tips. ‘ch. climbed 3. guided. troubled. For words which in the present tense end with voiced sounds – the ‘ed’ in the past tense sounds like [d] died. pushes. chairs. baths. voiced (voist) 2. defended Plurals. laughed (laft). laughs. pulls. Exceptions – for words ending in the present tense with ‘t’ and ‘d’ sounds – the ‘ed’ in the past tense sounds like ‘id’ or ‘ed’ toasted. patched (patcht). dreaded. ‘sh’. roasted. buzzes. 1. bathed. passed (past). posted. judges -9- . lives. dies.Accent Neutralization WORD ENDINGS Past tense verbs Most verbs are converted into past tense by adding ‘ed’.
clock Bat. shove Paper. We reached the restaurant at 7:30 pm hungry. Geoff Push. and exhausted. Pearls are formed inside the shells of oysters. he’s Balloon. email Beg. rock. “You have to wait. hat. Gees!!! I’m tired of this” That was the last time we visited the restaurant and warned friends about it too. “Call him once more. decide Sleep. sandwich Tank. she’s. Cultured pearls were developed by the Chinese in the twentieth century. bowl.Accent Neutralization EXERCISE Find the odd one out Cake. A perfect pearl that is round and has a great luster is worth a lot of money. wardrobe. “I do not serve that table. watch. Dave.” I waved at him once more. pull. streamer Jacket. keyhole Timer. parakeet Sing. We seated ourselves at one of the tables and I signaled a waiter who was serving at the adjacent table.” came the reply. fax. catch It’s. cat. car. The largest pearl fisheries are in Asia. goggles Dog. lock. dance. savour. Perhaps a “diamond is a girl’s best friend. He saw us but did not respond. carpet Key. I called up my wife and we decided to eat out at a popular restaurant. puff. said my wife. gloves.” but pearls will always win a woman’s favor! Own the Problem It was around six in the evening.” He then muttered quite audibly. act Phone. borrow. Joey”. sow. dream. twirl. . “They pay me peanuts. reap Tap. “May be he did not see you. steal Plough. wake Tom. sway Pearls The pearl is one of the most treasured gems. They are larger than nature’s pearls. jeep Taste. scissors Bed.10 - .
because she was apprehensive about an interview the next week. it spoke to the water bearer one day by the stream. to deliver only half my load because this crack in my side causes water to leak out all the way back to your master's house. Yet she smiles and treats all her customers alike. Searching the database. she searched the warehouse for a copy.11 - . Of course. "As we return to the master's house. each hung on the end of a pole which he carried across his neck. she makes you feel important. What makes her go way beyond ‘good’ service? She says she likes the feeling she gets when she surprises people by going beyond what they expect. the perfect pot was proud of its accomplishments. with the bearer delivering only one and a half pots full of water to his master's house." . that could lead to hundreds next week. she not only calls to confirm the order. THE CRACKED POT A water bearer in India had two large pots. Because of my flaws. and miserable that it was able to accomplish only half of what it had been made to do. you have to do all of this work." the pot said. Be it an order for two books or two hundred.Accent Neutralization Customer and You For example. For a full two years this went on daily. But the poor cracked pot was ashamed of its own imperfection. She says that every order is important because. and you don't get full value from your efforts. although someone may be ordering just a few books today. The other pot had a crack in it and by the time the water bearer reached his master's house it had leaked much of its water and was only half full. She sent it to the woman with a note saying she knew how important it was." "Why?" asked the bearer. After hanging up. Sometimes the order is for just a few books. The water bearer felt sorry for the old cracked pot. so she had sent her own copy. "I am ashamed of myself. One of the pots was perfectly made and never leaked. but she tells me when it will be shipped. Then she calls to tell me that it’s been shipped and when it’s slated to arrive. I want you to notice the beautiful flowers along the path. No luck. After two years of what it perceived to be a bitter failure. Carmel saw that the book was on back order and wouldn’t be available for two weeks. and I want to apologize to you. when I leave a book order on her voice mail. for these past two years. She told me of a woman who called to order Overcoming Anxiety. Returning to her desk she found a copy on her bookshelf. and in his compassion he said. "What are you ashamed of?" "I have been able.
I planted flower seeds on your side of the path. God will use our flaws to grace his table. he would not have this beauty to grace his house. and I took advantage of it. The bearer said to the pot. Know that in our weakness we find our strength.12 - . the old cracked pot took notice of the sun warming the beautiful wild flowers on the side of the path. and every day while we walk back from the stream. and this cheered it some. But if we will allow it. But at the end of the trail." Each of us has our own unique flaws.Accent Neutralization Indeed. In God's great economy. Without you being just the way you are. Acknowledge them. For two years I have been able to pick these beautiful flowers to decorate my master's table. and so again the pot apologized to the bearer for its failure. nothing goes to waste. as they went up the hill. . We're all cracked pots. you've watered them. "Did you notice that there were flowers only on your side of your path. it still felt bad because it had leaked out half its load. and you too can be the cause of beauty. but not on the other pot's side? That's because I have always known about your flaw. Don't be afraid of your flaws.
13 - .Exercise Mark the ending sound of the following past tense verbs with a “t” “d” “id”: Finished Raised Packed Loved Tasted Stopped Cooked Whispered Skipped Pushed Ironed Avoided Followed Rated Pasted Looked Traded Started Cleaned Shouted Hoped Pulled Sewed Spoiled Phoned Rented Passed Liked Tapped Stated Baked Screamed Lifted Tugged Mended Treated Write the sound of the ending for each word and then circle the odd one.Accent Neutralization WORD ENDINGS . Watches Lunches Pears Dishes Saves Dogs Eyes Tables Dentists Newspapers Babies Talks Matches Beaches Apples Gates Makes Birds Noses Chairs Doctors Magazines Ladies Walks Voices Chimes Oranges Pages Cooks Cats Toes Couches Lawyers Books Daisies Runs .
Speech music is something that indicates the mood and the spirit of the speaker. there is no feeling or passion in speech. Why intonate? − − − − − − It is pleasant to listen to when there is music in speech. Eg. Eg.Accent Neutralization SPEECH MUSIC What is Speech Music? As the name suggests speech music refers to the basic style or flow of any language. Intonation Intonation (or voice modulation) is the rising and falling of the pitch of your voice during speech. Every language has its authentic pattern of ups and downs that create music. Eg. It adds meaning to what we say. Increase the pitch of the word you want to intonate. Speech is extremely monotonous without intonation. Incorrect intonation communicates the wrong message. By varying the tone of our voice we can change the meaning of our words.14 - . He will be late. [Request] Intonation is the chief means by which the speaker conveys his/her attitudes and emotions. [Command] Please shut the door. [Statement] He will be late? [Question] − The Intonation of our voice also tells the listener if we are issuing a command or making a request. Stretch the word that you want to intonate. It is easier to understand when we intonate. Please shut the door. Really! / Sorry / Thank you / Please / Oh no! Ways to intonate − − − Increase the volume when you speak the word you want to intonate. which is unique to that particular language. Intonation helps to distinguish between different types of sentences. Without intonation. .
Rules for Correct Intonation of Words Where to intonate? To be able to intonate correctly we should be able to identify the word or words that need to be intonated.Accent Neutralization Though all the three ways lead to the same goal the most effective way of intonating is by increasing the pitch of the word that needs to be intonated. It is natural to start with the first two methods since they are easy but don’t stop till you master the art of increasing the pitches. Eg. Usage of “NOT” Whenever there is a negation in the sentence. I think it’s a white elephant. Eg. . but I can find out and let you know. In other words whatever word highlights the purpose of speaking that sentence is intonated. What I understand is that you are not from planet Earth. Eg. Contrast When two contradictory ideas are presented in the same sentence then both the opposite words are intonated. Eg. stress the negation itself. Opinion While expressing your opinion you stress on the word that shows that it’s just an opinion that you are expressing and not a fact. Let us look at the various ways to pick out the right words for intonation. I have no idea what you are asking. − − − − New Information or Purpose Contrast Usage of “NOT” Opinion New Information Whenever the sentence gives out a new piece of information the words which bring out the meaning are intonated. This is the house that Jack built.15 - .
croissants. Your Tone of voice expresses your feeling or mood. will you? Meaning sure (I believe this is a bus stop. fruit juice and milk for breakfast. your audience won’t be able to share it with you. intonation is level.) sure (I feel certain that you won’t forget.) not sure (I’m afraid that you may forget. When the tag falls in pitch. cereal. When the tag rises in pitch.” − Doubts have rising intonation. Tag Questions A tag question has two parts. can’t we? We can catch the bus here can’t we? 2. “Would you like to dance?” − Open-ended questions have falling intonation. or should be. bacon. evident in our voice when we speak. Eg. We can catch the bus here.) Tone Tone is the emotion that is. “I had fruits. Eg.) not sure (I’m not sure that this is a bus stop.” However. You won’t forget. remember that pitch change will be effective only if you are able to speak with tone (emotion in the voice). the speaker sounds less sure of the answer. . if your voice doesn’t express it. Eg. a statement and yes-no question called a tag. you need the magical quality of enthusiasm. eggs. Tag Question 1. Eg. hash brown potatoes. Although it may be bubbling away inside you. “So what are you doing this evening?” − During pauses (commas) in a sentence. “I’m going to die today?” − Close-ended questions have rising intonation.16 - .Accent Neutralization Rules for Correct Intonation of Sentences Intonation remains constant during a sentence and only rises or falls at the end: − Statements have falling intonation. the speaker sounds more sure of the answer. “You’re going to die today. will you? You won’t forget. Eg. To be a convincing speaker.
Response – Sorry (reluctantly) Sorry (sincerely) Sorry (repeatedly to irritate) Now try these sentences: I’m having an awful stomach ache.Oh my God! (Horror) When your sister pours ice cubes in your shirt. can indicate a variety of emotions by changing the inflection. Response .000. ‘Hello’ – surprised and delighted. ‘Hello’ – male welcoming a female friend. ‘Hello’ – pleased to see friends.’ (Pleasure) Even a simple word like ‘Hello’. Your car just got stolen. – Happy – Bored – Sarcastic – Warm .Oh my God! When you receive shocking news. I’m sorry. Thank you very much for coming to my party.000 lottery. I just won the $2.17 - . Response – Oh my God! (Terrified) and (Hilarious) When made to say in the presence of others.Accent Neutralization Some ‘tones’: Warm Happy Interested Friendly Humorous Excited Cold Sad/Angry Bored Pained Hostile Sarcastic Impatient Serious Here is an opportunity to practice using the full range of your voice by saying the word ‘really’ to indicate the feelings expressed below: ‘I have just lost my job’ ‘You need to get your hair cut’ ‘Your work is exceptionally good’ ‘Really?’ (Horror) ‘Really. Now practice the same range of emotions with the following words: Sue fell into the manhole.’ (Annoyance) ‘Really. Response.
A rolling stone / / gathers no moss. – Angry – Sad – Excited – Impatient Pauses A pause is a brief moment during which the speaker is silent. Chuck heard a large crunch. fifty-one-dollar raffle tickets b.Accent Neutralization Welcome to our company.” 3. a. (Correct pause) I finished / / my homework and watched TV. but with a premonition that something was about to happen. the twenty-two-inch goldfish b. fried chicken. (Wrong pause) Read the following sentences pausing where indicated.18 - . as he shifted into reverse and backed out of his parking space. Where would you pause. I just got a promotion. “Please help me / / Sally. The speaker can use a pause to convey or emphasize meaning. 1. in these sentences? Chuck was sightseeing near the seashore in Portugal. fifty one-dollar raffle tickets 3. 2. a. potato salad. and a coke _____ 22” fish _____ 22” fish _____ $1 a ticket _____ $1 a ticket _____ three things _____ 2” fish _____ 2” fish _____ $51 a ticket _____ $51 a ticket _____ four things .” 4. Chuck negotiated a good price. Take your time. 5. He stopped at a shop near the ocean that specialized in exotic shells. I don’t agree / / and I won’t change my mind. a. Mark the appropriate meaning for each sentence. 1. Sure enough. White / /the new employee / / is always late. Eg. the twenty two-inch fish 2. I finished my homework / / and watched TV. The shop sold him an unusual shell in a fancy glass box. Sentences should be divided through the use of pauses. I have a broken arm. Mr. Steve said / / “I’m happy to accept your offer. He left the store satisfied.
Children who celebrate Christmas • a national British holiday. 6. software. Assemble sentences about celebrations and holidays in English-speaking countries. Valentine’s Day. 2. fried chicken. potato. • surrounding a horse race called the Foster’s Melbourne Cup. The world is so full // of a number of things. a. 1 1.Accent Neutralization b. The speaker pauses at the e4nd of each thought group. In late October 3. // I’m sure we should all // be as happy as kings. Thanksgiving is celebrated • look forward to presents from • originated when wealthy Santa Claus people gave Christmas boxes to the less fortunate. • is on February 14th. the computer. and keyboard 5. phone. 5. and a coke 4. salad. In most English-speaking countries. • sell more flowers in late May • by giving gifts and eating birthday cake. and tape deck b. 4. a car. • with a family gathering and turkey.19 - . • on Canada Day (July 1st) and the Fourth of July. the computer software and keyboard b. Boxing Day. a. . a car phone and tape deck _____ three things _____ two things _____ two things _____ two things _____ two things _____ four things _____ three things _____ three things _____ three things _____ three things Thought Groups Native speakers divide longer sentences into thought groups to make them easier to understand. 7. A thought group is a phrase or short sentence that is spoken. Flower shops 2 • a day for remembering someone you love • the whole of Australia unites in celebration • people celebrate their country’s independence • children dress up in costumes and collect candy 3 • to celebrate Halloween.
20 - . Hand me the salt. On the first Tuesday in November • people celebrate birthdays • by many people in the United States and Canada • on December 25th. Simplifying Clusters Three-consonant clusters often lose the middle sound in rapid speech. • because of Mother’s Day. He dire:x the traffic. The touris:s are everywhere. In the United States and Canada 9. (gd) stop watch (pw) plastic bag (kb) looks like new (ksl) tax forms (ksf) What’s the problem? (tsthe) an action film (nf) Will you deduct some of the charges? We’ll adapt some of their customs. The fa:x are obvious. (The : means to hold the sound briefly in place) sts ths sks cts tests tourists months tenths desks asks directs facts tes:s touris:s mons tens des:s as:s direx fax The tes:s are graded.Accent Neutralization 8. Clusters are not necessarily only found within individual words. please. vine ripened (nr) It’s a big deal. . Jim returned late last night. Ha as:s about you. mons and mons of work nine-tens of the marbles Fourteen des:s were moved.
bakes it tur-naround turn-zaround loo-kalike look-saway jum-psup jump-tup cal-lafter call-dafter pull-dout bake-sit Will you deduct a dollar from the bill? We’ll adapt all the customs.I knee a ride.” “Sue’s in love” sounds like “Suzan’s love”. turn around 2. looks away 5. “Missed her” sounds like “Mister. a black: car a fine: night stop: pushing mile: long prevent: disease moved: twice a wet: diaper listened: to her . called after 9.21 - . . pulled out 10. but hold it longer. jumped up 7. Hand over your wallet! Add an ending sound to the underlined word and link it to the next word: The foe is ringing. say the sound once.I her him laugh. . Try the following: 1. Please moo your car. The consonant that finishes one word connects to the sound at the beginning of the next word. The row is closed for repairs.Accent Neutralization Linking (Liaisons) The words in phrases or thought groups are usually linked together. . look alike 4. call after 8. Turn rye at the corner.Do you have fie dollars? Linking the same consonant sound When you link two consonant sounds that are the same. jumps up 6. turns around 3. Jane was the last of the group to return. The : means to hold the sound briefly in place.
.” “Open your mouth” “Ha. NURSERY RHYMES Jack and Jill went up the hill To fetch a pail of water Jack fell down and broke his crown And Jill came tumbling after “Johnny. and had such a good time that we decided to do it again. We all cooked our favourite recipes. She seemed lonely. little star.Accent Neutralization Linking two vowels results in either a ‘y’ sound or a ‘w’ sound. So I persuaded the neighbours to put in a few dollars to buy her a gift. When we went to deliver the dinner. have you any wool?” “Yes sir. yes sir. In the end. and I thought she’d appreciate some attention. “Yes. the old lady was dressed to go out – apparently with a new boyfriend! So we ate the dinner ourselves.22 - . ha. ha.” “Eating sugar?” “No. Johnny”.” “Baa baa black sheep. How I wonder what you are Up above the world so high Like a diamond in the sky. One for my Master and one for my Dame And one for the little boy who lives down the lane. twinkle.” “Telling lies?” “No. The old lady in our apartment building hadn’t been feeling so well. appreciate usual creative persuade stereo casual video go out we all show up the end shoe on A Creative Idea I had an idea. we all decided to have a huge potluck dinner. three bags full.” Twinkle. Papa. Papa. Papa.
When asked “Why a third?” He replied. “It is just as I Feared! “Two owls and a hen.Edward Lear . For want of a rider the battle was lost. And all for the want of a horseshoe nail. Who said. is a crime. Sir. For want of a shoe the horse was lost. He stepped in a puddle Right up to his middle And never went there again! For want of a nail the shoe was lost. Who married three wives at a time. For want of a battle the kingdom was lost. “Four larks and a wren “Have all built their nests in my beard.” There once was a man very weird.” .23 - . “One’s Absurd! “And bigamy. There once was a man so sublime.Accent Neutralization Doctor Foster Went to Gloucester In a shower of rain. For want of a horse the rider was lost.
which pains her greatly. surrounded by lovely grounds. . There is. It may be of some interest to you that my daughter was married in the WC. It is capable of holding 229 people and is open on Sundays and Thursdays. In England. however. plenty of standing room. has been ill and unable to go recently. as it was there that she met her husband. I suggest you arrive early. My wife. We are holding a bazaar to provide plush seats for all since many feel it is long needed. . It is located in the middle of a grove of pine trees. Others prefer to wait till the last minute and arrive just in time! I would recommend your ladyship plan to go on a Thursday. It has been almost a year since she went last. as there is an organ accompaniment.24 - .Accent Neutralization THE WATER CLOSET In the days when you couldn't count on a public toilet facility. a bathroom never entered their minds. With deepest regards. The acoustics are excellent and even the most delicate sounds can be heard everywhere. I take great pleasure in informing you that the WC is located 9 miles from the house. sadly. She was concerned as to whether the guesthouse contained a WC. The Schoolmaster . which stands for “Water Closet". She was registered to stay in a small guesthouse owned by the local schoolmaster. I look forward to escorting you there myself and seating you in a place where you can be seen by all. an English woman was planning a trip to India. The schoolmaster. She wrote to the schoolmaster inquiring of the facilities about the WC. The newest addition is a bell. a bathroom is commonly called a WC. It was a wonderful event. You will be pleased to know that many people bring their lunch and make a day of it. It was wonderful to see the expressions on their faces. There were 10 people in every seat. As there are many people expected in the summer months. asked the local priest if he knew the meaning of WC. Together they pondered possible meanings of the letters and concluded that the lady wanted to know if there was a” Wayside Chapel" near the house . which rings every time a person enters. So the schoolmaster wrote the following reply: Dear Madam. This is an unfortunate situation especially if you are in the habit of going regularly. not fluent in English.
They are small. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense. I never said the boss was a grouch. Structure words are not very important words. Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence. I never said the boss was a grouch. Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or ‘beat’. I never said the boss was a grouch. we accentuate or stress only a few particular words in a sentence. 1. you will probably still understand the sentence. If you remove the structure words from a sentence.Accent Neutralization STRESS In English. I never said the boss was a grouch. and helps to emphasize the meaning we are trying to convey. They give the sentence its correct form or ‘structure’. Remember. The sentence has no sense or meaning. . This is referred to as stress. I never said the boss was a grouch. Most sentences have two types of word: − − Content words Structure words Content words are the key words of a sentence. I never said the boss was a grouch. If you remove the content words from a sentence. we do not articulate each word of a sentence with equal emphasis. especially when spoken fast. Sentence stress is the music of spoken English.25 - . Sentence Stress Try stressing each word in turn and see the different meanings that emerge: I never said the boss was a grouch. you will not understand the sentence. incorrect stress can convey the wrong message. simple words that make the sentence correct grammatically. I never said the boss was a grouch. It can help you to understand spoken English.
on the radio. These segments are called syllables. or in films. A syllable is a word or part of a word pronounced with a single. Every word is broken into sound segments. Native speakers of English listen for the STRESSED syllables. SELL SELL PLEASE SELL MY MY CAR CAR CAR BECAUSE I’M GOING GOING GOING TO TO FRANCE FRANCE FRANCE. If you use correct word stress in your speech. It can change the speed at which we speak (and listen to) the language. you can USE it! . 2.Accent Neutralization Rhythm Why is this important for pronunciation? It is important as it adds ‘music’ to the language. uninterrupted sounding voice. for example. Count the syllables in the following words: Telephone Entrepreneur Organization Prospect Hour The syllables that are not stressed are ‘weak’ or ‘small’ or ‘quiet’. The strongest accent is called primary stress. you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and your comprehension. Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English . there by making that syllable more prominent than others. the next most prominent is called secondary stress. It is the rhythm of the English language. the accents are indicated by such symbols as (´) for primary or main stress and (") for secondary stress. After that. word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. In many dictionaries. Remember to stress on those words which will convey the right meaning of what you are saying. Your first step is to HEAR and recognize it. not the weak syllables. Word Stress As sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.26 - . The time between each stressed word is the same. it helps to understand syllables. Understanding syllables To understand word stress.
Suffixes: ion. (One word cannot have two stresses. photography.Accent Neutralization There are two very important rules about word stress: − One word. the stress usually falls on the first syllable. ious. Eg. permit. the stress usually falls on the first syllable. ique Eg. meter Eg. Suffixes: ee. separate. increase. contest. stress falls on the suffix itself. contract. Chinese.27 - . suspect Rule 2 – Verbs In verbs with two (or more) syllables. contract. Caution. Rules for Word Stress Rule 1 – Nouns In nouns with two (or more) syllables. Eg. contest. address. ity. iable. graduate. stress usually falls on the second syllable. suspect Rule 3 – Adjectives In adjectives with two syllables. digest. present. one stress. ese. . object. Software. eer. implement. content. Pretty. exploit. increase. conduct. iant. biology. Trainee. implement. ogy. ial. associate. advocate. ient. Eg. So if you hear two Stresses. present. you have heard two words. Keyboard. the stress falls on the syllable just before the suffix. cassette. digest. desert. desert.) − The stress is always on a vowel. not one word. permit. content. object. ic. addict. graduate. Stress falls on the first part of the compound noun. ify. exploit. boutique Rule 5 – Compound Nouns Compound nouns are nouns with two words inside of them. advocate. − In words with these suffixes. addict. ette. address. Eg. associate. database. conduct. duplicate Rule 4 – Suffixes − In words with these suffixes. graphy. volunteer. ical.
Always focus on pronouncing stressed words well. log out. Eg. 3. thirteen. Don’t focus on pronouncing each word. get out. UCLA. Rule 7 – Numbers For all the ‘teens’ stress falls on the second syllable. Tips: 1. come in. stress is on the first syllable Eg. Focus on the stressed words in each sentence. log in. CPU. USA. 2. BBC. CNN. stress falls on the second part in these combinations. CD. VSNL.Accent Neutralization Rule 6 – Verbs + Prepositions There are many verbs and prepositions that go together. Stress on words ending with . non-stressed words can be glided over. CNBC.ION Application Association Attention Civilization Conversation Opinion Decision Declaration Destruction Division Education Religion Imagination Information Observation Occasion Population Fragmentation Preparation Production Recognition Situation Cultivation Projection Artistic Atlantic Pathetic Stress on words ending with – IC/ICAL Patriotic Electric Pacific Specific Sympathetic Problematic Stress on words ending with – ICAL Electrical Practical Technical Original Philosophical Stress on words ending with – IOUS Ceremonious Fallacious Contagious Suspicious Outrageous Righteous Scientific Apologetic Enigmatic Political Criminal Psychological Mechanical Physical Atrocious Envious Courageous Notorious Delicious Flirtatious . and for all the multiples of ten.28 - . thirty Rule 8 – Acronyms Acronyms are very common in American English. Remember that non-stressed words and syllables are often “swallowed” in English. PC. Eg. The stress in acronyms is almost always on the last letter.
What is the content of the letter? He is an associate of mine.Accent Neutralization Activity Opportunity Facility Stress on words ending with – ITY Necessity Responsibility Simplicity Equality Stability Ambiguity Stress on words ending with – IAL Industrial Ceremonial Official Essential Superficial Celestial Curiosity Ability Antiquity Artificial Confidential Credential Memorial Presidential Palatial Chemically Stress on words ending with – ICALLY Economically Psychologically Statistically Stress is placed on these suffixes Absentee Engineer Portuguese Brunette Refugee Volunteer Boutique Cassette Trainee Chinese Technique Cigarette Career Japanese Unique How stress on the syllable changes the meaning of the sentence I had a good work out today? That is a good record. . They were rewarded for good conduct. Do you want separate checks? An implement is a tool. We were content with the result. They are taking a survey. They must survey the damage.29 - . They will conduct a workshop. Do you associate with your neighbors? Please duplicate this key Separate them by code Will they implement a new policy? I want to supplement my income. Do you take vitamin supplement? I work out at the gym? Please record the lecture. This is a duplicate copy.
Hold my hand. They’re not related. Here’s your hat. Don’t react. It’s a fact. Prescribe medication. She’s pretty. You can open it. He’s witty.Accent Neutralization The Echo Game Speaker: fantastic acquainted understand contented appropriate committee committee interruption interruption accommodation accommodation identification identification identification inappropriate inappropriate inappropriate complexion complexion arithmetic arithmetic interact interact interact contradiction contradiction satisfaction Echo: It’s plastic He fainted. He’s my uncle. I can hope for it. . He sent it. I looked at it. He lifted it. You guessed it. It’s the black one. I made the arrangements. Let’s have lunch now. Here’s the winner. It’s not over yet. I noticed it. He checks it. I’m on vacation. Pass the chicken. He went on vacation.30 - .
you just can’t miss! Chorus 4. no more guesses. 3. (I said) Practice – It’s the only way. when is it picked? When is it toasted. Reduce those “of’s” and reduce those “and’s” Have a cup o’ coffee. 2.31 - .Accent Neutralization Pronunciation Rap 1. “E-d” endings must be clear. Make small talk – every day. 5. Chorus (And) Practice – It’s the only way. Remember to link those final “S’s”. when is it ticked? Chorus . Whether you whisper. Present me with a present of a brand new shirt. If you want to speak English in a way that’s cool Put it in your body as you learn each rule. She likes apples while she sits on beaches When he’s hungry he goes for peaches. And those endings. Shout them out for all to hear! And. Wash you face ‘n’ hands Drop that “h” when you “give ‘er a kiss. Tap the rhythm and feel the beat Put that language in your feet. when is it posted. stretch it out Ice cream in the desert makes a great dessert. whether you shout Stress that syllable.” With all this rhyming. Make small talk – everyday.
Well. Articulate! – And you’ll do great You won’t say A when you mean to say eight. and you’ll feel grand ‘cause when you talk. In the shower. Practice intonation till it fills your head! SISTERS AND BROTHERS. make ‘em low Start rapping and tapping. and ten parts fun. You won’t get Kay when you want to get cake (See the difference a sound can make!) 7.Ellen Stein . and in your bed. they’ll understand! Chorus 8.Accent Neutralization 6. that’s the way to get things done – Ten parts rhythm.32 - . Put in pauses where they need to go Change those pitches – make ‘em high. GET INTO THE FLOW INTONATION IS THE WAY TO GO!! .
an exciting time of flashing swords and clashing “en garde” cries! And finally. it’s the color of welcome water in a heat wave. gloomy – a dead color. the sun chasing it. a honeymoon and love. My white will be heaven. as the saying goes. glittering. There is green as well. but I have discovered it. making it shine. calm and collected. cool. a white cake. the lovely refreshing blue of a calm ocean. My green grows in me like a young tree. My white will be special. a red that is so very rare. a jet in flight. then my white will be clouds. sparkling with stars. Red is inside me. a long dress and a veil.33 - . it is a happy red. It is the same red glow I see at sunset. rising up inside me like a great ball of fire. Black is not a reminder of storms. a white bouquet. . My red is not the usual angry red everyone talks of. the stars at night. It is dangerous. But my blue is the sky making friends with the sun and cotton puff clouds. Other people talk about “feeling blue” and “blue Monday”. Green is life when you watch winter branches become heavy with green leaves in spring. white! I am saving it for my special day. My silver is a special color of adventure and excitement. It can be shiny. Black is the sky at night. stunning. Not the green of jealousy. My black mood takes hold of me when I feel the need to show I can be sophisticated.Accent Neutralization TRUE COLOURS I am peaceful today. the red of a clown’s nose. I am blue. too. the red of the symbolic heart storing love and happiness. an evening dress studded with diamonds. exploding into the air and spurting forth small flames of laughter. Black is supposed to be dull. carrying the moon on a silken thread. My white will be shared. but the green I feel and see when I am close to nature.
Accent Neutralization INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATORS CODE A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z - ALPHA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO / EASY FOX / FOXTROT GOLF HOTEL INDIA JULIET KILO MIKE / MOTHER NANCY / NOVEMBER OSCAR PETER / PAPA QUEBEC / QUEEN ROMEO / ROGER SUSAN / SIERRA TANGO UNION / UNIFORM VICTOR WATER / WHISKY XRAY YANKEE ZULU .34 - .
Paul Jackson .35 - .Accent Neutralization US STATES AND THEIR CAPITALS Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Montgomery Juneau Phoenix Little Rock Sacramento Denver Hartford Dover Tallahassee Atlanta Honolulu Boise Springfield Indianapolis Des Moines Topeka Frankfort Baton Rouge Augusta Annapolis Boston Lansing St.
Accent Neutralization Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada : : : : Jefferson City Helena Lincoln Carson City Concord Trenton Santa Fe Albany Raleigh Bismarck Columbus Oklahoma City Salem Harrisburg Providence Columbia Pierre Nashville Austin Salt Lake City Montpelier Richmond Olympia Charleston Madison Cheyenne New Hampshire : New Jersey New Mexico New York : : : North Carolina : North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island : : : : : : South Carolina : South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming : : : : : : : : : : .36 - .
37 - .Accent Neutralization GRAMMAR .
. flock in every a sheep black do unto do unto as others to would them like you . can’t hurt don’t know money is . his is by known man a friends . face off nose your . is of a cherries speak . the pay fiddler that as to as man he born begins die.38 - . soon is . justifies the it pours it but never rains.Accent Neutralization SENTENCE STRUCTURE EXERCISE: Unscramble these proverbs the policy honesty best is . a plants he for that plants posterity tree life bowl just . there’s . don’t spite your to cut you you what . evil of all root the . first and must they dance . mother trust is of deceit the the end means . you . then think.
it both you have ways two a three crowd is company. friends the of Every cupboard has .39 - . until learn how go to don’t the near water you swim.Accent Neutralization two to there question are sides every . the skeleton in a family . An . cannot . is . all things end to come good must Must best part .
I’ve got headache. It reached 12. but many have refused medical care or fled from hospitals. Dustin Marshall tipped his hat and yelled "Giddyup!" as he cowboy-type pistol" at bank employees. fearing they might be arrested for either causing EXERCISE IV 1. BJ Services. What is name of this village? 4.Accent Neutralization ARTICLES Complete with a. and approached fire which raged on for days. According to police reports. Workmen hour pipeline before finally choking out explosion Houston. Are you okay? No. which killed over 700 people last weekend was yesterday extinguished by suffocating from flames with United States fire-fighting company by thick nitrogen-rich layer of foam. 3. another bank six days later while wearing EXERCISE III raging pipeline fire in Jesse. Enjoy your holiday and don’t forget to send me postcard. and fire erupted while over 1. Hundreds of people were believed to have been injured. 7. Sirks was trying to crank crashed in EXERCISE II 17-year-old was arrested and charged with robbing pointed bank while dressed in cowboy propeller when plane took off without pilot.40 - . an or the EXERCISE I bizarre incident occurred when Paul Sirks was trying to get his plane going. after it quit on landing. Marshall was also charged with robbing ghost mask. 2. Texas-based company.000 feet and flew around for two hours. 6. . I like this room but I don’t like colour of carpet. It finally ran out of gas and bean field northwest of Columbus. fire or scavenging gas. outfit.000 people were trying to collect gasoline spilling from damaged government-owned pipeline. Don’t forget to turn off light when you go out. spent less than shooting nitrogen-rich foam from hoses onto in oil fires. We live in old house near station. A company official said they had extensive experience government about putting out blaze. 5. Delta State. Canada is very big country.
We left Rome. Have your new offices got ______ canteen? 14. 7. New York. I don't know who ______ man was. Diana is ______ very nice person. When you're ready. We have got new offices near ______ centre of the city. Harold is ______ most obnoxious person I know. Have you already had ______ lunch? 9. What is largest city in Canada? EXERCISE V 1. if that's OK with you. visited Alps and made a quick stop Tower and enjoyed a sunny London. Could you close ______ door.41 - . I'm looking for ______ new job. 4. 5. Was John ______ one with the red hair? 10. 3. time on board wasn't boring as there were plane were all Ellis Island and Italian. I'm sure it won't be long before people are living and working in ______ space. 19. 6. please? It's really cold. Tonight we are probably going to eat in ______ hotel restaurant and then get to bed early. I spoke to several people at the cocktail party. I cannot remember what filling was in ______ sandwich. What is name of director of film we saw last night? 9. flew over Harrods. 20. 18. I hate staying in hotels but it's part of the job. 11.Accent Neutralization 8. ______ red one and ______ blue one. I cannot remember if I saw that film on television or at ______ cinema. My door is ______ red one. Make sure you put your name at ______ end of the report. There we went shopping in Hyde Park. we saw Statue of Liberty. 12. Before we landed Empire State JFK airport. . 13. people on afternoon in On the following day we left for two films to watch on at TV. 8. 2. I arrived in in USA last Monday. When you come out the lift. you'll see two doors. For lunch I had a sandwich. 16. We need to do more for ______ poor. The greatest invention of the 20th century is ______ computer. EXERCISE VI Hi John. I'll take you to ______ airport. I'd like to invite him to ______ dinner next week. I saw ______ man going into the office. Last night we went out for ______ meal. 15. 17.
Peter .Accent Neutralization Building. Please say hello to Peter and Mandy. I hotels very much. don't like hotel I stayed in was on corner of 42nd Street and 5th Avenue. Yours.42 - . but I didn't have time to rent an apartment.
Accent Neutralization PREPOSITIONS .43 - .
44 - .Accent Neutralization .
45 - .Accent Neutralization .
I couldn't get in ______ the door so I had to climb ______ a window. 2. 6. To get to the Marketing department. She took the key ______ her pocket and put it ________ the lock.Accent Neutralization EXERCISE I 1. 3. you have to go ______ those stairs and then ______ the corridor to the end. 4. He drove ______ me without stopping and drove off ______ the centre of town. .46 - . He made his escape by jumping ______ a window and jumping ______ a waiting car. 5. I saw something about it ______ television.
He used to be a regular visitor ______ Tuesdays. I always walk ______ them. I was still at school ______ 1993. I left work ______ ten o'clock last night. 20. Sally left school ______ the age of 16 and went to work ______ a bank. He was driving ______ 180 miles per hour when he crashed ______ the central barrier. 6. I didn't get time to come and visit you ______ last Tuesday. 12. 16. 12. 10. This style was very popular ______ the 1970's. It's unlucky to walk ______ a ladder in my culture. I bought this computer ______ the summer. 20. 13. The restaurant is ______ the High Street. I took over this job ______ the middle of last year. 17. ______ the woman with the long blonde hair. 14. 18. ______ the cinema. I phoned her up and spoke to her ______ Wednesday morning. I saw him sometime ______ June. 18. Harry comes to work ______ car but I prefer to come ______ foot. I went ______ him and asked him the best way to get ______ town. 4. 15. 10. . I jumped ______ the fence. John is the person standing ______ the window. We bought the company ______ Thursday. 19. I was in a meeting ______ all day yesterday. 2. 13. 5. 17. 7. He took the book ______ the shelf and put it ______ his bag. EXERCISE II 1. Were you at the last meeting ______ July 13? 9. 11. 22 May. I bought this computer ______ the start of the summer. I knew Chris Smith quite well ______ when I was at university.47 - . I saw Bob in the street ______ yesterday. I spoke to her ______ three weeks ago. Look. She ran ______ the corridor and ______ the stairs to the second floor. 14. I bought this computer ______ last summer. that car's ______ fire.Accent Neutralization 7. He saw a parking space ______ two cars and drove ______ it. They were very popular ______ the middle of the 19th Century. 9. 19. 15. He jumped ______ the wall and ______ the garden. 3. I took the old card ______ the computer and put ______ the new one. When the bull ran ______ me. 16. I last saw him ______ the beginning of September. I met him ______ January of last year. 11. 8. 8.
use a singular verb. 6. The exception to this rule appears in the case of the first person and second person pronouns I and you. anyone. each one. somebody. The verb agrees with the subject. not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase. Don't is a contraction of do not and should be used only with a plural subject. everyone. the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer the verb. and no one are singular and require a singular verb. With these pronouns. nobody. . everybody. 2. Doesn't is a contraction of does not and should be used only with a singular subject. neither. either. 4. use a plural verb. 5. anybody. someone.48 - . 3. When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by or or nor. The words each. When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by and. When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by or or nor. Do not be misled by a phrase that comes between the subject and the verb. the contraction don't should be used.Accent Neutralization MAKING SUBJECTS AND VERBS AGREE 1.
. 11. in addition to. a plural verb is required. and family. including. but when referring to the dollars themselves. together with.) 9. it requires a singular verb. the subject follows the verb. tweezers. In very few cases.Accent Neutralization 7. Note: the word dollars is a special case. Since there is not the subject. mathematics. 10. the verb agrees with what follows. or as well do not change the number of the subject. the verb is too. Expressions such as with. committee. team. measles. In sentences beginning with there is or there are. the plural verb is used if the individuals in the group are thought of and specifically referred to. 8. trousers. If the subject is singular. Nouns such as civics.49 - . Nouns such as scissors. (There are two parts to these things. dollars. and shears require plural verbs. Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person but that are considered singular and take a singular verb. accompanied by. such as: group. When talking about an amount of money. class. and news require singular verbs.
is are 11. is are 2. appear appears 10. Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator ____ going to have to make a decision. is are . Some of the votes __________ to have been miscounted. Three-quarters of the students __________ against the tuition hike. Three-quarters of the student body __________ against the tuition hike. _________ a formidable opponent on the basketball court.Accent Neutralization EXERCISE I 1. are is 5. Some of the grain __________ to be contaminated. are is 8.50 - . Everyone selected to serve on this jury _____ to be willing to give up a lot of time. A high percentage of the population _________ voting for the new school. presents present 7. The tornadoes that tear through this county every spring _____ more than just a nuisance. together with her teammates. have has 9. is are 12. He seems to forget that there __________ things to be done before he can graduate. seem seems 4. ______ my boss or my sisters in the union going to win this grievance? Is Are 3. There _______ to be some people left in that town after yesterday’s flood. Kara Wolters. have has 6.
Neither the teacher nor the students ____________ to understand this assignment.Accent Neutralization 13. ARE IS 12." IS ARE 10. The piano as well as the pipe organ ____________ to be tuned for the big concert. Hartford is one of those cities that ____________ working hard to reclaim a riverfront. IS ARE 4. The mayor together with his two brothers ____________ going to be indicted for accepting bribes. ARE IS 13. . . HAS HAVE 6. Either the Committee on Course Design or the Committee on College Operations ____________ these matters. was were EXERCISE II 1. The jury ____________ their seats in the courtroom. ____________ either my father or my brothers made a down-payment on the house? HAS HAVE 9. . DECIDE DECIDES . ARE IS 5. Neither of my two suitcases ____________ adequate for this trip. John or his brother ____________ going to be responsible for this. HAVE HAS 11. ARE IS 3. A high percentage of the people _________ voting for the new school. Everybody in the class ____________ done the homework well in advance. SEEM SEEMS 8. HAS HAVE 2. TAKE TAKES 7. There ____________ a list of committee members on the head-table.51 - . A few of the students ____________ doing so well they can skip the next course. HINT: Try starting the sentence with "Of those cities that . Some of the grain ____________ gone bad.
One of my instructors ____________ written a letter of recommendation for me. The price of these jeans reasonable. Fifty miles 16. (is/are) there. 19. Neither parent 10. The poor a heavy load.52 - . (is/are) mahjong. The quality of the candies 8. Neither his father nor his mother 9. (has/have) been robbed by the robber. One of these most intelligent students whose example (is/are) under 18 full marks John. (is/are) a long time. Ten tons 15. Bread and butter our daily food. The books borrowed from the library 3. (is/are) been missing. The boss. (is/are) fond of playing mahjong. (is/are) a friend of mine.(is/are) poor. The boy who won the two medals 4. as well as platinum. (is being/are being) . 14. None of my friends 11. (has/have) suffering. One of the books 18.Accent Neutralization 14. (was/were) made the same mistake. (is/are) HAS 2. (score/scores) Peter. (has/have) recently risen in price. Many a student 12. Thirty years 17. (is/are) the question. (is/are) arrived. HAVE EXERCISE III 1. Collecting match-boxes 7. (is/are) on my desk. (has/have) a long distance. (has/have) one of his favourite pastimes. as well as his colleagues. (play/plays) 5. B. The famous singer and composer 6. (is/are) followed John. Gold. The only one of these most intelligent students who (is/are) 22. You should decide which one of the three choices A. One of the most intelligent students who (is/are) 21. 13. or C best (answer/answers) 20.
53 - . I had been studying English for five years before I moved to the U. I was studying English when you called yesterday.Accent Neutralization TENSES Simple Present Simple Past Simple Future If you are having problems. Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect I will have studied every tense by the time I finish this course. Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous I will have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive. Two years ago. I studied English in England. Present Continuous Past Continuous I am studying English now. I have been studying English for five years. I study English everyday. I have studied English in several different countries. Future Continuous I will be studying English when you arrive tonight.S.S. I am going to study English next year. I will help you study English. . I had studied a little English before I moved to the U.
I hope it stops by Saturday because I want to go to the beach. 12. A: What (you. The Maya established a very advanced civilization in the jungles of the Yucatan. virtually) the New World. however. If Vera (keep) drinking.Accent Neutralization EXERCISE I 1. If it (snow) this weekend. by the time Europeans first (arrive) in 11. Samantha (live) in Berlin for more than two years. You look really great! (You. 8. When I return to Australia. 5. do) B: I (try) when the accident occurred? to change a light bulb that had burnt out. 4. 3. I came to England six months ago. 6. there 9. she (live) when the Berlin wall came down. In fact. I'm thinking about buying a new one. she (lose. for nine months and I (be) 7. exercise) at the fitness center? 2.54 - . Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) . It (rain) all week. eventually) her job. I (have) the same car for more than ten years. their culture (disappear. 10. A: What do you call people who work in libraries? B: They (call) librarians. we (go) skiing near Lake Tahoe. I started my economics course three months ago. Sam (arrive) in San Diego a week ago. I (study) in England for exactly one year. .
In two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. Now you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours. isn't it? He (watch) his grammar every day since he American television programs and (study) first arrived in San Diego. Joseph's English (improve. I have not traveled much yet. Things (change) a great deal The trip (be) in the last hundred and fifty years. I don't care if you (miss) work too many times. You are fired! the bus this morning. Listen Donna. When Carol (call) last night. traveling (become) the 19th century.55 - . 2. I (watch) my favorite show on television. I discovered that Jane (prepare) beautiful candle-lit dinner. 18. really) . I am sick of rain and bad weather! Hopefully. 19. 17. The pyramids are actually quite small.Accent Neutralization 13. In the last hundred years. 15. I (visit) San Francisco by the time I leave the United States. it (take) much easier and very comfortable. very rough and often dangerous. Soon he will be totally fluent. I (work) until I retire! for this company for more than thirty years. and I intend to stay here . I (see) many pictures of the pyramids before I went to Egypt. a 20. at the EXERCISE II 1. Pictures of the monuments are very misleading. however. when we (wake) the sun (shine) . up tomorrow morning. I (stay) Sheraton in San Francisco. If you (need) to contact me sometime next week. When I (arrive) home last night. You (be) late to 14. the Grand Canyon and 16.
Tanzer. 5. this morning I (get) breakfast and (leave) to set my alarm. Jim (read) night at this time. They the newspaper. She (go) year. 7. not) (study. Last and he (read) the . She (cook) dinner. they (do. However. for work late because I (forget) 8.56 - . I. (eat) breakfast at 7 o'clock and up at 6:30. Everyday I (wake) (leave) (skip) up at 6 o'clock. this week they (be) . By the time we (get) station. taught by Mrs. Tomorrow at this time. they (do) the newspaper and Kathy (make) the same thing. and you (work) your studies and (find) anything. Thomas is an author.Accent Neutralization 3. on the other hand. still) paying job. (accomplish. three since he was twenty-eight. Susan (wait) for us for more than two hours. Right now. The students (be. he (write) collections of short stories and a book of poetry. to the train 6. Sam (try) to change a light bulb when he (slip) and (fell) . she plans to go to Peru. However. abroad almost every summer. Next 4. We were late because we had some car problems. Altogether. He (write) seven novels. He (write) mystery novels and travel memoirs. usually) taught by Mr. I in some new high 10. Monty. also) same thing. for work at 8 o'clock. Sharon (love) to travel. She (prepare) are very predictable people! dinner and he (read) 9. By this time next summer. you (complete) a job.
Who is not necessarily on the phone now? 12. I'm going to make dinner for Frank. Bob has been talking on the phone for an hour. Whose action bothers you? 15. Bob always talks in class. I make dinner for Ted. I will be making dinner for Tony. Mary is always talking in class. Jane never left Jamestown. Bob has never left Jamestown. I'm making dinner for Judy. Jane talks on the phone. Tim arrived when Mary was leaving. Frank left.Accent Neutralization 11. Jane left when Tim arrived.57 - . Who are you offering to make dinner for? 13. After Tim arrived. Jane is talking in class. Who is still alive? . Who did not run into Tim? 14. John had left when Tim arrived. Bob left when Tim had arrived. I'll make dinner for Mary. Mary is talking on the phone.
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