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A technical seminar report submitted in partial fulfillment of
The requirement of Bachelor of Technology.

Roll No: 11142507
Branch: CSE
Year: 2014-2018






I take this opportunity to express my hearty thanks to all those who individually as well as
collectively helped me in the successful completion of this seminar.

I would like to express my immense gratitude and sincere thanks to prof. Neeraj Mangla, whose co-
operative guidance has helped me in successful completion of this seminar.

Name: Sumit Kumar Sharma

Branch: CSE
Roll no: 11142507



Virtual reality or virtual realities (VR), which can be referred to as immersive multimedia or
computer-simulated reality, replicates an environment that simulates a physical presence in places in
the real world or an imagined world, allowing the user to interact with that world. Virtual realities
artificially create sensory experience, which can include sight, touch, hearing, and smell.

Most up-to-date virtual realities are displayed either on a computer screen or with an HD VR special
stereoscopic displays, and some simulations include additional sensory information and focus on real
sound through speakers or headphones targeted towards VR users. Some advanced haptic systems
now include tactile information, generally known as force feedback in medical, gaming and military
applications. Furthermore, virtual reality covers remote communication environments which provide
virtual presence of users with the concepts of telepresence and telexistence or a virtual artifact (VA)
either through the use of standard input devices such as a keyboard and mouse, or through
multimodal devices such as a wired glove or omnidirectional treadmills. The immersive environment
can be similar to the real world in order to create a lifelike experience—for example, in simulations
for pilot or combat training—or it can differ significantly from reality, such as in VR games.

Virtual reality is an artificial environment that is created with software and presented to the user in
such a way that the user suspends belief and accepts it as a real environment. On a computer, virtual
reality is primarily experienced through two of the five senses: sight and sound.

The simplest form of virtual reality is a 3-D image that can be explored interactively at a personal computer,
usually by manipulating keys or the mouse so that the content of the image moves in some direction or zooms
in or out. More sophisticated efforts involve such approaches as wrap-around display screens, actual rooms
augmented with wearable computers, and haptic devices that let you feel the display images.


It is certified that the work contained in this report titled “VIRTUAL REALITY” is the origina l
work done by Sumit Kumar Sharma and has been carried out under my supervision.

Prof. Neeraj Mangla

Seminar Supervisor
Department of CSE
MM University, Mullana


Acknowledgments 2
Abstract 3
Certificate 4
Table of Contents 5
Chapter 1: Introduction 6

Chapter 2: The History of VR 7-8

Chapter 3: Types of VR 9-10
Chapter 4: Technologies of VR 11-13
Chapter 5: Architecture of VR System 14-15
Chapter 6: Application of VR 16-17
Chapter 7: Current Problem & Future Work 18-19
Chapter 8: Summary 20-21
References 22



The definition of virtual reality comes, naturally, from the definitions for both ‘virtual’
and ‘reality’. The definition of ‘virtual’ is near and reality is what we experience as
human beings. So the term ‘virtual reality’ basically means ‘near-reality’. This could, of
course, mean anything but it usually refers to a specific type of reality emulation.
We know the world through our senses and perception systems. In school we all learned
that we have five senses: taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. These are however only
our most obvious sense organs. The truth is that humans have many more senses than
this, such as a sense of balance for example. These other sensory inputs, plus some
special processing of sensory information by our brains ensures that we have a rich flow
of informatio n from the environment to our minds.
Everything that we know about our reality comes by way of our senses. In other words,
our entire experience of reality is simply a combination of sensory information and our
brains sense-making mechanisms for that information. It stands to reason then, that if you
can present your senses with made-up information, your perception of reality would also
change in response to it. You would be presented with a version of reality that isn’t really
there, but from your perspective it would be perceived as real. Something we would refer
to as a virtual reality.
Answering "what is virtual reality" in technical terms is straight-forward. Virtual reality is
the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which
can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this virtual
world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to manipulate
objects or perform a series of actions.
The concepts behind virtual reality are based upon theories about a long held human
desire to escape the boundaries of the ‘real world’ by embracing cyberspace.



In 1950, flight simulators were built by US Air Force to train student pilots. In 1965,
a research program for computer graphics called “The Ultimate Display” was laid out. Until
that time VR was just a concept and was not very 1988, commercial development
of VR began. In 1991, first commercial entertainment VR system was released.
Virtual reality in the 21st century

The first fifteen years of the 21st century has seen major, rapid advancement in the
development of virtual reality. Computer technology, especially small and powerful mobile
technologies, have exploded while prices are constantly driven down. The rise of smartphones
with high-density displays and 3D graphics capabilities has enabled a generation of
lightweight and practical virtual reality devices. The video game industry has continued to
drive the development of consumer virtual reality unabated. Depth sensing cameras sensor
suites, motion controllers and natural human interfaces are already a part of daily human

computing tasks.
Recently companies like Google have released interim virtual reality products such as the
Google Cardboard, a DIY headset that uses a smartphone to drive it. Companies like
Samsung have taken this concept further with products such as the Galaxy Gear, which is
mass produced and contains “smart” features such as gesture control.
Developer versions of final consumer products have also been available for a few years, so
there has been a steady stream of software projects creating content for the immanent market
entrance of modern virtual reality.


It seems clear that 2016 will be a key year in the virtual reality industry. Multiple consumer
devices that seem to finally answer the unfulfilled promises made by virtual reality in the
1990s will come to market at that time. These include the pioneering Oculus Rift, which was
purchased by social media giant Facebook in 2014 for the staggering sum of $2BN. An
incredible vote of confidence in where the industry is set to go. When the Oculus Rift
releases in 2016 it will be competing with products from Valve Corporation and HTC,
Microsoft as well as Sony Computer Entertainment. These heavyweights are sure to be
followed by many other enterprises, should the market take off as expected



Windows on World (WoW): With this kind of system, also known as "desktop VR" the user
sees the 3-D world through the 'window' of the computer screen and navigates through the
space with a control device such as a mouse. Like immersive virtual reality, this provides a
first-person experience. One low-cost example of a 'Through the window' virtua l reality
system is the 3-D architectural design planning tool Virtus WalkThrough that makes it
possible to explore virtual reality on a Macintosh or IBM computer. Developed as a computer
visualization tool to help plan complex high-tech filmmaking for the movie The Abyss, Virtus
WalkThrough is now used as a set design and planning tool for many Hollywood movies and
advertisements as well as architectural planning and educational applications. A similar, less
expensive and less sophisticated program that is starting to find use in elementary and
secondary schools is Virtus VR (Law, 1994; Pantelidis, nd).

Immersive VR: Usually when we think of virtual reality, we think of immersive systems
involving computer interface devices such as a head-mounted display (HMD), fiber-optic
wired gloves, position tracking devices, and audio systems providing 3-D (binaural) sound.
Immersive virtual reality provides an immediate, first-person experience. With some
applications, there is a treadmill interface to simulate the experience of walking through
virtual space. And in place of the head-mounted display, there is the BOOM viewer from
Fake Space Labs which hangs suspended in front of the viewer's face, not on it, so it is not as
heavy and tiring to wear as the head-mounted display. In immersive VR, the user is placed
inside the image; the generated image is assigned properties which make it look and act real
in terms of visual perception and in some cases aural and tactile perception (Brooks, 1988;
Trubitt, 1990; Begault, 1991; Markoff, 1991; Minsky, 1991; Gehring, 1992). There is even
research on creating virtual smells; an application to patent such a product has been submitted
by researchers at the Southwest Research Institute (Varner, 1993).

Telepresence: The concept of cyberspace is linked to the notion of telepresence, the

feeling of being in a location other than where you actually are. Related to this,

teleoperation means that you can control a robot or another device at a distance. In the
Jason Project, children at different sites across the U.S. have the opportunity to
teleoperate the unmanned submarine Jason, the namesake for this innovative science
education project directed by Robert Ballard, a scientist as the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institute (EDS, 1991; Ulman, 1993; McLellan, 1995).


Augmented VR: A variation of immersive virtual reality is Augmented Reality where a

see-through layer of computer graphics is superimposed over the real world to highlight
certain features and enhance understanding. One application of augmented reality is in
aviation, where certain controls can be highlighted, for example the controls needed to
land an airplane. And many medical applications are under development (Taubes, 1994b).
Recently, for the first time, a surgeon conducted surgery to remove a brain tumor using an
augmented reality system; a video image superimposed with 3-D graphics helped the
doctor to see the site of the operation more effectively (Satava, 1993).



Head-Mounted Display (HMD): Head-mounted displays or HMDs are probably the most
instantly recognizable objects associated with virtual reality. They are sometimes referred
to as Virtual Reality headsets or VR glasses. As we might have guessed from the name,
these are display devices that are attached to our head and present visuals directly to our
eyes. At a minimum, if a device conforms to those two criteria we may consider it an HMD
in the broadest sense.
HMDs are not the sole purview of virtual reality, they have been used in military, medical

and engineering contexts to name but a few. Some HMDs allow the user to see through
them, allowing digital information to be projected onto the real world. Something which
is commonly referred to as augmented reality.
When we look at the diversity of HMDs that exist today within the context of virtual reality, it
becomes apparent that there’s much more to these devices than strapping two screens to
our eyes. In order to allow for an immersive experience either as a personal media device
or as a full-on virtual reality interface, there are a number of technologies that can be
incorporated in an HMD.


Data Glove: A data glove is an interactive device, resembling a glove worn on the hand,
which facilitates tactile sensing and fine-motion control in robotics and virtual reality .

Data gloves are one of several types of electromechanical devices used in haptics
Tactile sensing involves simulation of the sense of human touch and includes the ability
to perceive pressure, linear force, torque, temperature, and surface texture. Fine-motio n
control involves the use of sensors to detect the movements of the user's hand and fingers,
and the translation of these motions into signals that can be used by a virtual hand (for
example, in gaming ) or a robotic hand (for example, in remote-control surgery).


CAVE: A CAVE is typically a video theater sited within a larger room. The walls of a CAVE
are typically made up of rear-projection screens, however flat panel displays are becoming
more common. The floor can be a downward-projection screen, a bottom projected screen or
a flat panel display. The projection systems are very high-resolutio n due to the near distance
viewing which requires very small pixel sizes to retain the illus io n of reality. The user wears
3D glasses inside the CAVE to see 3D graphics generated by the CAVE. People using the
CAVE can see objects apparently floating in the air, and can walk around them, getting a
proper view of what they would look like in reality. This was initially made possible by
electromagnetic sensors, but has converted to infrared cameras. The frame of early CAVEs
had to be built from non-magnetic materials such as wood to minimize interference with the
electromagnetic sensors, obviously the change to infrared tracking has removed that
limitation. A CAVE user's movements are tracked by the sensors typically attached to the 3D
glasses and the video continually adjusts to retain the viewer’s perspective. Computers
control both this aspect of the CAVE and the audio aspect. There

are typically multiple speakers placed at multiple angles in the CAVE, providing 3D
sound to complement the 3D video.

Software Packages: There are many software packages available in the market. Most
of them are paid software like virtual reality studio (100$ approx.), Autodesk Cyberspace
Development kit (over 1000$) but there are also some free software like multiverse.

VRML: VRML stands for virtual reality modeling language. It is a standard language
for interactive simulation within the World Wide Web. This allows to create virtual
worlds network via the internet and hyperlinked with the World Wide Web. Aspects of
virtua l world display, interaction and internetworking can be specified using VRML
without being dependent on special gear like HMD.VR models can be viewed by
Netscape or IE with a browser plug-in.




Architecture of virtual system consists of input processor, simulation processor,

rendering processor and world database.
Input Processor: It controls the devices used to input information to the computer.
The main objective of input processor is to get the coordinate data to the rest of the
system with minimal lag time. The main components of input processor include
keyboard, mouse, 3D position trackers, a voice recognition system, etc.
Simulation Processor: The process of imitating real things virtually is
called simulation. This is the core of the virtual reality system. It takes the user
inputs along with any tasks programmed into the world and determine the actions
that will take place in the virtual world.
Rendering Processor: Simulation processor imitates the real things but
sensation are not produced to produce this sensation we use rendering processor
.It creates the sensation that are output to the user. Separate rendering processes
are used for visual, auditory, haptic and other sensory systems. Each renderer take
a description of the world stat from the simulation process or derive it directly
from the world database for each time step.
World Database: This is also known as World Description Files. It stores the
object that inhabit the world, scripts that describes actions of those objects.

This database contains all the objects which we are going to experience virtua lly. For
instance if we want to experience the space virtually then the world database must
have all the objects that are in space like the sun, the moon, stars, planets, etc.



Virtual Reality in the Military:

Fig.6.1 Virtual reality parachuting simulation

Virtual reality has been adopted by the military – this includes all three services (army,
navy and air force) – where it is used for training purposes. This is particularly useful
for training soldiers for combat situations or other dangerous settings where they have to
learn how to react in an appropriate manner.
A virtual reality simulation enables them to do so but without the risk of death or a
serious injury. They can re-enact a particular scenario, for example engagement with an
enemy in an environment in which they experience this but without the real world
risks. This has proven to be safer and less costly than traditional training methods.
Virtual Reality and Education:
Education is another area which has adopted virtual reality for teaching and learning
situations. The advantage of this is that it enables large groups of students to interact
with each other as well as within a three dimensional environment.
It is able to present complex data in an accessible way to students which is both fun
and easy to learn. Plus these students can interact with the objects in that environment
in order to discover more about them.
Virtual Reality in Healthcare:

Healthcare is one of the biggest adopters of virtual reality which encompasses surgery
simulation, phobia treatment, robotic surgery and skills training.
One of the advantages of this technology is that it allows healthcare professionals to learn
new skills as well as refreshing existing ones in a safe environment. Plus it allows this
without causing any danger to the patients.
A popular use of this technology is in robotic surgery. This is where surgery is performed
by means of a robotic device – controlled by a human surgeon, which reduces time and
risk of complications. Virtual reality has been also been used for training purposes and, in
the field of remote telesurgery in which surgery is performed by the surgeon at a separate
location to the patient.
Virtual Reality in Engineering:
Virtual reality engineering includes the use of 3D modelling tools and visualiza tio n
techniques as part of the design process. This technology enables engineers to view their
project in 3D and gain a greater understanding of how it works. Plus they can spot any
flaws or potential risks before implementation.
This also allows the design team to observe their project within a safe environment and
make changes as and where necessary. This saves both time and money.
What is important is the ability of virtual reality to depict fine grained details of an
engineering product to maintain the illusion. This means high end graphics, video with a
fast refresh rate and realistic sound and movement.
Virtual Reality in Entertainment:
Virtual reality games are becoming very popular with many teenagers who love the
graphics, animations and best of all, being able to talk to others. After all, what could be
better than the chance to interact with top end technology and without any adults to get in
the way?
These games are available for Xbox 360, PS2 and 3 as well as the Mac and PC so whatever
console you use there is a VR game for that. This is pretty cool when you think about it.



Simulator Sickness Symptoms: Simulator sickness is by no means a new phenomenon.
It is similar to motion sickness, which has existed for as long as humans have used additiona
l modes of transportation, but can occur without any actual motion of the subject. The first
documented case of simulator sickness occurred in 1957 and was reported by Havron and
Butler in a US Navy helicopter trainer. The most common identifiable symptoms are general
discomfort, nausea, drowsiness, headache and in some cases vomiting.

Expensive: Virtual reality technology is expensive. Common people can hardly manage to
have such technologies. It requires additional hardwares which are also very expensive.
A big problem with virtual reality is cost: a fully immersive set up such as a CAVE where
someone is able to interact with objects in an enclosed space is expensive. In fact it’s that
expensive that only university research departments and companies with a research and
development (R & D) section are able to afford this type of set up.

Lack of Integration Between application packages: Integrating the virtual reality

hardwares with the application package is a major issue. It requires very precise and
expertise hands to integrate the application package with the hardwares.
Future works:


High Fidelity systems: Researches are being done to enhance the fidelity of virtual reality
systems. To take a better experience and making vr systems more and more reliable
scientists are trying hard and are developing new tools.

Cost-Saving: Virtual reality technology is not within the reach of common people because
of its high cost and additional hardwares requirement. Developments are going on to make
low cost vr technology. Scientists are trying to develop such tools that require less
hardwares and can generate output with great reliability and accuracy.

Collaborative: Integrating application packages with the hardwares of the vr system was
quite difficult in the early stage of vr technology but now with the efforts and development
of new applications integration problem has been minimized to a great extent and the
developers are trying hard to develop the applications which can be easily collaborated with
the vr hardwares.



Everything we experience in life can be reduced to electrical activity stimulating our brains as our sensory
organs deliver information about the external world. This interpretation is what we consider to be
"reality." In this sense, the brain is reality. Everything you see, hear, feel, taste and smell is an
interpretation of what's outside, and created entirely inside your head. We tend to believe that this
interpretation matches very closely to the external world.

Nothing could be further from the truth.

It is the brain that "sees", and in some important ways what it sees does not reflect the
information it derives from sensory input. For this reason, we are all living in our own
reality simulations - abstractions - that we construct as a result of both what we perceive
with our senses and how our brains modify this perception. Such things as color, smell and

taste, for example are not properties of the outside world itself, but rather a category
created by the process of perception. In order to experience the world in a meaningful
way, the brain must act as a filter/interference between us and the "real" world.
Words have always been a crude method of relaying intent. VR holds out the promise of
allowing us to literally show one another what we mean rather than merely describing it
with crude verbal approximations. The limitation of words is that the meaning they
convey is only as detailed as the definitions the reader or listener attaches to them. For
this reason VR offers the possibility of evolving our communication into a kind of
telepathy, ultimately bridging the gap between our discrete imaginations. "This is what
virtual reality holds out to us - the possibility of walking into the constructs of the
imagination." - Terence McKenna.
VR is the ultimate medium of syntactical intent; the only way to figuratively "show" someone
exactly what you mean is to literally show them. Words are exceptiona lly ineffective at
conveying meaning, as they are a low-bandwidth, lossy medium of knowledge transference.
VR will let us remove the ambiguity that is the discrepancy between our internal dictionaries
and bypass communication through symbolism altogether. The result will be perfect
understanding, as all parties behold the same information.
The term Virtual Reality (VR) is used by many different people with many meanings.
There are some people to whom VR is a specific collection of technologies that is a Head

Mounted Display, Glove Input Device and Audio. Some other people stretch the term to
include conventional books, movies or pure fantasy and imagination. The NSF taxonomy
mentioned in the introduction can cover these as well. However, my personal preference,
and for purposes of this paper, we restrict VR to computer mediated systems.

"Virtual Reality is a way for humans to visualize, manipulate and interact with computers
and extremely complex data"

The visualization part refers to the computer generating visual, auditory or other sensual
outputs to the user of a world within the computer. This world may be a CAD model, a
scientific simulation, or a view into a database. The user can interact with the world and
directly manipulate objects within the world. Some worlds are animated by other processes,
perhaps physical simulations, or simple animation scripts. Interaction with the virtual world,
at least with near real time control of the viewpoint, in my opinion, is a critical test for a
'virtual reality'.
Some people object to the term "Virtual Reality", saying it is an oxymoron. Other terms
that have been used are Synthetic Environments, Cyberspace, Artificial Reality, Simula tor
Technology, etc. VR is the most common and sexiest. It has caught the attention of the