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imaginary number last. Because either part could be 0, technically any real

number or imaginary number can be considered a complex number. Complex does not

mean complicated; it means that the two types of numbers combine to form a complex,

like a housing complex — a group of buildings joined together.

Real numbers are tangible values that can be plotted on a horizontal number line,

such as fractions, integers or any countable number that you can think of. Imaginary

numbers are abstract concepts that are used when you need the square root of a

negative number.

We already know that r = sqrt(a2 + b2) is the modulus of a + bi. We write this

modulus as |a+bi|.

We also know that the point p(a,b) in the Gauss-plane is a representation of a + bi.

The intersection point s of [op and the trigonometric circle is s( cos(t) , sin(t) ).

Here and in all such expressions k is an integer value.

Simply take an x-axis and an y-axis (orthonormal) and give the complex number a +

bi the representation-point P with coordinates (a,b).

The point P is the image-point of the complex number (a,b).

The plane with all the representations of the complex numbers is called the Gauss-

plane.

With the complex number a + bi corresponds just one vector OP or P.

The image points of the real numbers 'a' are on the x-axis. Therefore we say that the

x-axis is the real axis.

The image points of the 'pure imaginary numbers' 'bi' are on the y-axis. Therefore

we say that the y-axis is the imaginary axis.

The modulus is r = 64. The argument is (2.pi/3).

The roots are 2( cos(pi/9 + 2 k pi/6) + i sin(pi/9 + 2 k pi/6) ) with k = 0,1,..,5

So conjugate complex numbers have the same modulus and opposite arguments.

Lesson Summary

There is only one practical method for finding the power or roots of a complex number.

Before raising a complex number to a power or finding a root or roots of a complex

number, the complex number must be in polar or cis form, and then De Moivre’s

Theorem can be utilized.

Graphing both of these complex solutions on the same polar axis reveals an important feature

of the roots of complex numbers:

What this reveals is that both solutions are the same distance from the origin, and but

they are rotated by π radians when graphed. This suggests is that the roots of

complex numbers, when graphed, are spaced apart in such a manner, that the

difference between their angles is equal. In this case, both solutions are separated by

π radians. Finding the cube root of a complex number would have the three solutions

be \begin{align*}\frac{2\pi}{3}\end{align*} radians or 120º apart when graphed. Finding

the fourth root of a complex number would have the four solutions

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