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QOS

Implementing Cisco
Quality of Service
Version 2.5

Fast Lane Lab Guide


Version 2.5.1
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Lab Guide © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Table of Contents
Case Study 1-1: QoS Mechanisms 1
Activity Objective ....................................................................................................................... 1
Visual Objective ........................................................................................................................ 2
Required Resources ................................................................................................................. 2
Case Study Background Information ......................................................................................... 2
Job Aids .................................................................................................................................... 4
Task 1: Apply QoS Mechanisms ............................................................................................... 4
Lab 2-1: IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline Measurement 7
Activity Objective ....................................................................................................................... 7
Visual Objective ........................................................................................................................ 8
Required Resources ............................................................................................................... 10
Command List ......................................................................................................................... 10
Task 0: Initialize the Network .................................................................................................. 15
Task 1: Verify Network Connectivity ........................................................................................ 16
Task 2: Create a Baseline Measurement of Network Traffic .................................................... 19
Task 3: Measure the Network Performance under Traffic Load ............................................... 24
Task 4: QoS Measurement Lab Results .................................................................................. 27
Lab 2-2: Configuring QoS with Cisco AutoQoS 29
Visual Objective ...................................................................................................................... 30
Required Resources ............................................................................................................... 30
Command List ......................................................................................................................... 30
Job Aids .................................................................................................................................. 32
Task 0: Initialize the Network .................................................................................................. 33
Task 1: Configure Cisco AutoQoS Classify on the Catalyst 2960-S Switch ............................. 34
Task 2: Configure Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise on Cisco IOS Routers ........................... 42
Task 3: Measure Network Performance with Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise ...................... 45
Task 4: QoS Measurement Results......................................................................................... 52
Case Study 3-1: Classification and Marking 55
Activity Objective ..................................................................................................................... 55
Visual Objective ...................................................................................................................... 56
Required Resources ............................................................................................................... 56
Case Study Background Information ....................................................................................... 56
Job Aids .................................................................................................................................. 59
Task 2: Identify Network Locations Where Classification and Marking Should Be Applied ...... 63
Lab 3-2: Classification and Marking Using MQC 67
Activity Objective ..................................................................................................................... 67
Visual Objective ...................................................................................................................... 68
Required Resources ............................................................................................................... 68
Command List ......................................................................................................................... 68
Task 0: Initialize the Network .................................................................................................. 70
Task 1: Configure an IP Extended Access List ........................................................................ 71
Task 2: Configure MQC Classification ..................................................................................... 72
Task 3: Configure Class-Based Marking ................................................................................. 73
Lab 3-3: Using NBAR for Classification 75
Activity Objective..................................................................................................................... 75
Visual Objective ...................................................................................................................... 76
Required Resources ............................................................................................................... 76
Command List ......................................................................................................................... 76
Job Aids .................................................................................................................................. 78
Task 0: Initialize the Network .................................................................................................. 78
Task 1: Upgrade the NBAR Protocol Pack .............................................................................. 79
Task 2: Discover Applications and Traffic by Using NBAR ...................................................... 81
Task 3: Configure Classification with NBAR ............................................................................ 83
Lab 3-4: Configuring QoS Preclassify 89
Activity Objective..................................................................................................................... 89
Visual Objective ...................................................................................................................... 90
Required Resources ............................................................................................................... 90
Command List ......................................................................................................................... 90
Task 0: Initialize the Network .................................................................................................. 92
Task 1: Configure a GRE Tunnel ............................................................................................ 93
Task 2: Configure QoS Preclassify.......................................................................................... 96
Lab 3-5: Campus Classification and Marking Using MQC 99
Activity Objective..................................................................................................................... 99
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 100
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 100
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 100
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 102
Task 1: Configure a Trust Boundary...................................................................................... 103
Task 2: Configure CoS-to-DSCP Mapping ............................................................................ 105
Task 3: Configure Class-Based Marking ............................................................................... 106
Task 4: Verify QoS Markings................................................................................................. 108
Task 5: Adjust Router Classification and Marking Policy ....................................................... 110
Lab 4-1: Configuring Fair Queuing 113
Activity Objective................................................................................................................... 113
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 114
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 114
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 114
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 116
Task 1: Configure Fair Queuing ............................................................................................ 117
Task 2: Measure Network Performance with Fair Queuing ................................................... 119
Task 3: Adjust the Fair Queuing Configuration ...................................................................... 122
Task 4: Measure Network Performance with Fair Queuing Configured with 256 Dynamic
Queues ................................................................................................................................. 123

IV Implementing Cisco Quality of Service (QOS) v2.5 © 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Task 5: QoS Measurement Lab Results ................................................................................ 127
Lab 4-2: Configuring LLQ- CBWFQ 129
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 130
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 130
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 130
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 132
Task 1: Configure a CBWFQ Policy with LLQ ....................................................................... 133
Task 2: Apply and Monitor CBWFQ with LLQ Operation ....................................................... 136
Task 3: Measure Network Performance with CBWFQ ........................................................... 138
Task 4: QoS Measurement Lab Results ................................................................................ 140
Lab 4-3: Configuring Campus-Based Queuing Mechanisms 143
Activity Objective ................................................................................................................... 143
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 144
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 144
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 144
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 146
Task 1: Review Egress Queuing Defaults ............................................................................. 147
Task 2: Configure Global Egress Queuing Parameters ......................................................... 148
Task 3: Configure and Monitor Egress Queuing .................................................................... 150
Case Study 5-1: WRED Traffic Profiles 153
Activity Objective ................................................................................................................... 153
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 154
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 154
Case Study Background Information ..................................................................................... 154
Job Aids ................................................................................................................................ 155
Task 1: Create WRED Traffic Profiles ................................................................................... 158
Lab 5-2: Configuring DSCP- Based WRED 161
Activity Objective ................................................................................................................... 161
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 162
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 162
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 162
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 164
Task 1: Configure DSCP-Based WRED ................................................................................ 165
Task 2: Monitor DSCP-Based WRED.................................................................................... 167
Task 3: Configure DSCP-Based CBWRED with ECN ........................................................... 168
Task 4: Monitor DSCP-Based WRED with ECN .................................................................... 169
Lab 5-3: Configuring WTD Thresholds 173
Activity Objective ................................................................................................................... 173
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 174
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 174
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 174
Job Aids ................................................................................................................................ 175

 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc. TOC V


Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 176
Task 1: Configure and Monitor Weighted Tail Drop ............................................................... 177
Lab 6-1: Configuring Class- Based Policing 181
Activity Objective................................................................................................................... 181
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 182
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 182
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 182
Job Aids ................................................................................................................................ 183
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 184
Task 1: Configure Single Token Bucket Class- Based Policing ............................................. 185
Task 2: Monitor Single Token Bucket Class-Based Policing.................................................. 186
Task 3: Configure Dual Token Bucket Class- Based Policing................................................ 187
Task 4: Monitor Dual Token Bucket Class-Based Policing .................................................... 187
Lab 6-2: Configuring Class- Based Shaping 189
Activity Objective................................................................................................................... 189
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 190
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 190
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 190
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 192
Task 1: Migrate Traffic to the MPLS Service ......................................................................... 193
Task 2: Configure Class-Based Shaping ............................................................................... 195
Task 3: Configure Hierarchical Shaping ................................................................................ 198
Lab 7-1: Configuring Class- Based Header Compression 203
Activity Objective................................................................................................................... 203
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 204
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 204
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 204
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 206
Task 1: Configure Class-Based Header Compression .......................................................... 207
Task 2: Monitor Class-Based Header Compression .............................................................. 208
Lab 7-2: Configuring LFI 209
Activity Objective................................................................................................................... 209
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 210
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 210
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 210
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 212
Task 1: Configure LFI............................................................................................................ 213
Task 2: Monitor LFI ............................................................................................................... 215
Lab 8-1: Mapping Enterprise QoS Policy to the Service Provider Policy 217
Activity Objective................................................................................................................... 217
Visual Objective .................................................................................................................... 218
Required Resources ............................................................................................................. 218

VI Implementing Cisco Quality of Service (QOS) v2.5 © 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Command List ....................................................................................................................... 218
Task 0: Initialize the Network ................................................................................................ 220
Task 1: Adjust QoS Markings to Match the Service Provider QoS Policy .............................. 221
Task 2: Re-mark Inbound Traffic from the Service Provider .................................................. 224
Lab Answer Keys 227
Case Study 1-1: QoS Mechanisms ....................................................................................... 227
Lab 2-1: IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline Measurement ...................................................... 230
Lab 2-2: Configuring QoS with Cisco AutoQoS ..................................................................... 236
Case Study 3-1: Classification and Marking .......................................................................... 245
Lab 3-2: Classification and Marking Using MQC ................................................................... 248
Lab 3-3: Using NBAR for Classification ................................................................................. 250
Lab 3-4: Configuring QoS Preclassify.................................................................................... 254
Lab 3-5: Campus Classification and Marking Using MQC ..................................................... 257
Task 4: Verify QoS Markings ................................................................................................. 261
Lab 4-1: Configuring Fair Queuing ........................................................................................ 264
Lab 4-2: Configuring LLQ-CBWFQ........................................................................................ 270
Lab 4-3: Configuring Campus-Based Queuing Mechanisms ................................................. 277
Case Study 5-1: WRED Traffic Profiles ................................................................................. 282
Lab 5-2: Configuring DSCP-Based WRED ............................................................................ 284
Lab 5-3: Configuring WTD Thresholds .................................................................................. 292
Lab 6-1: Configuring Class-Based Policing ........................................................................... 294
Lab 6-2: Configuring Class-Based Shaping ........................................................................... 298
Lab 7-1: Configuring Class-Based Header Compression ...................................................... 301
Lab 7-2: Configuring LFI ....................................................................................................... 304
Lab 8-1: Mapping Enterprise QoS Policy to the Service Provider Policy ................................ 306

 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc. TOC VII


VIII Implementing Cisco Quality of Service (QOS) v2.5 © 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Case Study 1-1: QoS
Mechanisms
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will correctly identify which QoS mechanisms can be used and where QoS mechanisms
should be applied to the network in order to implement an administrative QoS policy. After completing this
activity, you will be able to:
Given a network diagram and an administrative policy that requires QoS, correctly identify which QoS
mechanisms can be used and where to implement the policy
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Case Study 1-1: QoS Mechanisms


1 Completely read the customer requirements that are provided.
2 Identify the service classes that are required to implement the
administrative QoS policy based on customer requirements.
3 Identify locations in the network where QoS mechanisms should be
applied in order to meet the customer requirements.
4 After the instructor presents a solution to the case study, discuss
differences in your solution and the one presented by the instructor
with the class.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Case Study Scenario


This case study provides information regarding a large healthcare company. The company has provided you
with a brief description of its requirements and its challenges. Your task is to evaluate the QoS requirements
and, based on these requirements, identify where QoS mechanisms should be applied. You will discuss your
solution with the instructor and other classmates, and the instructor will present a solution for the case study
to the class.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this activity.

Case Study Background Information


This background information will assist you in completing the case study activity.
Company Background
Nuevo Health Care Systems (NHCS) provides health-care information to health-care professionals in ten
major regions of the country.
The NHCS network currently has limited bandwidth capacity for its WAN links, and the company does not
envision being able to increase the bandwidth in the near future. All ten remote sites (one is pictured in the
network illustration) connect to the central site through a 768-kb/s service provider MPLS link. The central
site is connected to the MPLS service with an 8 Mb/s subrate Ethernet connection. The NHCS LAN
bandwidth is 100 Mb/s. NHCS connects to the Internet through its headquarters site.

L-2 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Customer Situation
Since the installation of a new IP telephony system, NHCS has encountered the following increasingly
serious problems with its network:
Users of the ERP applications are complaining about unacceptable response times. Their subsecond
response time has now stretched to multiple seconds in many cases and up to a minute in some cases.
Key patient information files that used to arrive almost instantly now each take 10 to 15 minutes to be
transferred from headquarters to users at the remote sites. (These are moderate-sized, mostly text files.)
Patient graphics files (X-rays, MRIs) that used to each take 20 to 30 minutes to transfer between the
remote sites and headquarters now often have to be transferred overnight. (This delay is acceptable
because these files are usually not needed immediately and tend to be extremely large graphics files.)
Users of the new IP telephony devices are the most upset. The quality of their calls is very poor, and
their calls often just drop.
The key applications that are running on the NHCS network are shown in the table.

NHCS Applications
Application Response Time Use of Bandwidth
Application
Importance Requirements (Daytime)

Enterprise Critical Immediate Moderate


resource
planning
Patient Important Immediate Moderate
information files

Patient graphics Important Minimal Heavy


files

IP telephony Important No delay Moderate

Browser traffic Not important Minimal Heavy

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

© 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-3


NHCS Network
Remote Site A

100 Mb/s

3 5
Headquarters
4
1 2 6
100 Mb/s
768 kb/s
2 1
3

7 4
100 Mb/s
Server
Provider 7 5 Farm
6
MPLS
8 Mb/s
5
100
4 Mb/s

3
n Network location on problem spreadsheet
100 Mb/s

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Network Location Number Description

1 The IP phone interface that is connected to the workstation

2 The IP phone interface that is connected to the switch

3 The switch interface that is connected to the IP Phone

4 The switch interface that is connected to the CE router

5 The CE interface that is connected to the switch

6 The CE interface that is connected to the SP PE router

7 The SP PE interface that is connected to the CE router

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the case study activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

Task 1: Apply QoS Mechanisms


Your task is to evaluate the QoS requirements and, based on the requirements, identify where QoS
mechanisms should be applied. You will discuss your solution with your instructor and classmates, and the
instructor will present a solution for the case study to the class.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

L-4 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 1

Identify the QoS service class requirements.

Given the NHCS network as described, how would you recommend classifying network traffic?

Business Impact
Type of Traffic (Application)
(Rank from 1 to 5)

Step 2

Given the NHCS network as described, how would you recommend deploying QoS mechanisms? Check
each box (✓) where you believe that classification and marking should or could be enabled.

Where to Apply QoS Mechanisms: Classification and Marking


Network Location Classification on Classification on
Marking on Input Marking on Output
Number Input Output

Step 3
Check each box (✓) where you believe that congestion management and congestion avoidance should or
could be enabled.

© 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-5


Where to Apply QoS Mechanisms: Congestion Management and
Congestion Avoidance
Congestion Congestion Congestion
Network Location Congestion
Management on Management on Avoidance
Number Avoidance on Input
Input Output on Output

Step 4
Check each box (✓) where you believe that traffic policing and traffic shaping should or could be enabled.

Where to Apply QoS Mechanisms: Traffic Policing and Traffic Shaping


Network Location Traffic Policing on Traffic Policing on Traffic Shaping on Traffic Shaping on
Number Input Output Input Output

Step 5
Check each box (✓) where you believe link efficiency mechanisms should or could be enabled.

Where to Apply QoS Mechanisms: Link Efficiency


Network Location Compression on Compression on
LFI on Input LFI on Output
Number Input Output

Step 6
Discuss the differences between your solution and the one presented by the instructor with the class.
Activity Verification
You have completed this task when the instructor has verified your case study solution and you have
justified any major deviations from the solution that is supplied by the instructor.

L-6 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2014 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 2-1: IP SLA Setup and
QoS Baseline Measurement
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will familiarize yourself with the lab setup and validate connectivity, configure IP SLA
probes to monitor network quality, and create a baseline measurement of network performance for use in
evaluating the effectiveness of applied QoS mechanisms. After you have completed this activity, you will
be able to:
Verify network connectivity by using show commands and the Cisco IOS tools ping and traceroute
Configure IP SLA probes and use that feature in addition to show commands and ping to identify
baseline network performance statistics
Use Cisco IOS monitoring commands, IP SLA, and network connectivity tools (ping) to gather network
performance data
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 2-1: IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline


Measurement
Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

WGxR1
Provider
Ping Backbone

IP SLA

Ping
SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen-2

L-8 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab Scenario
In this lab you will validate basic connectivity for the lab setup and then perform network performance
testing with and without traffic to create a QoS baseline. You will gather statistics using Cisco show
commands, ping commands, and the Cisco IP SLA feature.
Company Background
E-Commerce University is one of the most respected private universities in California, based on its
progressive educational offerings, which include a Master of Science degree in E-Commerce
Administration and Implementations. E-Commerce University has both a north campus and a south campus.
The north campus is located in Seattle, Washington, and the south campus is located in Santa Monica,
California. Each campus has a population of 500 students and a faculty staff of 50 professors and
administrators.

Customer Situation
The E-Commerce University network currently has limited bandwidth capacity on its 768-kb/s, leased-line
PPP WAN link that connects the north and south campuses, and the university does not envision being able
to increase bandwidth in the near future. Each campus also has a 1-Mb/s Internet connection. The preferred
traffic path between the E-Commerce University campuses is the 768-kb/s link.
The university has recently implemented these three new applications:
An IP telephony system between the north campus and south campus
An Oracle (SQL) student administration database system
Wireless Internet access for the students and faculty members
Some of the other key applications that currently run on the E-Commerce University network that the
university IT staff is aware of include the following:
Faculty remote access (Citrix)
Microsoft Outlook email (Microsoft Exchange)
Web server for accessing university information (HTTP)
Online courseware transfer between the north campus and south campus (FTP)
Because of the deployment of these applications, E-Commerce University has encountered these
increasingly serious problems with its network:
Users of the Oracle (SQL) student administration database system have complained about unacceptable
response times. The subsecond response time has now stretched to multiple seconds in many cases and
up to a minute in some cases.
Users of the new IP telephony devices are the most upset. The quality of their calls is very poor, and
their calls often just drop.
Customer Requirements
You are the new network engineer that E-Commerce University recently hired, and you have been asked to
perform a baseline measurement of the VoIP traffic via the low-speed, 768-kb/s leased-line connection
between the north campus and south campus.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-9


Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

Commands
Command Description

clear counters interface-type interface- Clears counters on one or all interfaces.


number

configure terminal Enters global configuration mode from the terminal.

L-10 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Command Description

enable Activates privileged EXEC mode. In privileged EXEC mode, more


commands are available. This command requires you to enter
the enable password if an enable password is configured.

exit Exits the current configuration mode.

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

ip sla operation-number Enables an IP SLA operation with the specified entry number
and enters IP SLA configuration mode.

ip sla responder Enables the IP SLA Responder for general IP SLA operations.

ip sla schedule operation-number [start- Configures the scheduling parameters for a single Cisco IOS IP SLA
time [after | start-time | now | pending] [life operation.
[forever | seconds]]

ntp master [stratum] Configures Cisco IOS Software as an NTP master clock to which
peers can synchronize themselves.

ntp server ip_address Allows the software clock to be synchronized with the software clock
of an NTP time server.

ping ip_address Uses ICMP echo requests and ICMP echo replies to
determine whether a remove host is reachable.

show interfaces interface-type interface- Displays information about each interface that is configured on
number the device.

show ip ospf neighbor [interface-type Displays OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis.
interface-number] [neighbor-id] [detail]
[fast-reroute]

show ip sla configuration [operation- Displays the configuration values, including all default values for all IP
number] SLA operations or the specified IP SLA operation.

show ip sla statistics [operation-number] Displays operational statistics and status for all IP SLA operations or
[details] the specified IP SLA operation.

show ntp status Displays the NTP status.

telnet ip_address Uses Telnet to connect to a host.

traceroute ip_address [port] [keyword] Discovers the routes that packets will take when traveling to
their destination address.

udp jitter ip_address port-number codec Configures an IP SLA operation in UDP jitter mode to target an
codec-type source-ip ip_address address by using the specified port number and codec.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-11


QoS Lab Topology
The lab topology for the course is split into a number of workgroups and three separate backbones that are
built as VLANs across the SP-Core-Switch switch. Each workgroup has been designed to interface with
two traffic generation backbones named Traffic Gen 1 and Traffic Gen 2 and a shared provider backbone
named Provider Backbone.
Pagent-1 Callgen-1
Traffic Gen 1
Backbone
Pod 1—North Pod X—North
Campus Campus

WG1S1 Fa0/2 Fa0/2 WGxS1

WG1R1 G0/0 Provider G0/0


WGxR1
Backbone

S0/0/0 S0/0/0

WG1R2 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 WGxR2


SP-Core-Switch

G0/0 G0/0

WG1S1 Fa0/3 Fa0/3 WGxS1

Pod 1—South Pod X—South


Campus Traffic Gen 2 Campus
Backbone

Pagent-2 Callgen-2

The figure shows the logical topology of the workgroups and the connectivity for the three lab backbones.
Each workgroup consists of two user-controlled workgroup routers (each router is a Cisco 2901 Integrated
Services Router), as well as one user-controlled workgroup switch (a Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch).
WGxR1 represents the WAN router for the north campus, and WGxR2 represents the WAN router for the
south campus.
Although there appear to be two different workgroup switches in the "QoS Lab Logical Topology" figure,
each workgroup actually has a single switch that is configured to support two different VLANs. One VLAN
represents the switching domain of the north campus and one VLAN represents the switching domain of the
south campus. In this figure, the single switch has been depicted as two different switches in order to
simplify the figure and to visualize the logical build of the network. The same name has been used to
identify the Catalyst 2960-S switch, indicating that it is the same device.
Traffic for each workgroup pod can use the 768-kb/s link between the routers or it can traverse the provider
backbone. Traffic flow through both the connections will be tested in the labs.
The QoS labs use the two routers named Pagent-1 and Pagent-2 to generate traffic from different
applications, including SQL, FTP, Citrix, and Microsoft Outlook. The two routers named Callgen-1 and
Callgen-2 are used in the lab to generate (G.711) VoIP traffic. The traffic generation backbones, Traffic
Gen 1 and Traffic Gen 2, are logically segmented so that traffic from Traffic Gen 1 routes through the north
campus of each pod to the south campus of each pod before arriving at the Traffic Gen 2 backbone.

Note The SP-Core-Switch switch and the traffic generation routers (Pagent-1, Pagent-2, Callgen-1, and
Callgen-2) are preconfigured and managed by the instructor.

L-12 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Pagent-1 Callgen-1
10.1.x.10/24 10.1.x.11/24
Pod X

WGxR1
G0/1
10.4.x.1/24

S0/0/0
DCE G0/0
10.2.x.1/24 10.1.x.1/24

Fa0/2
SP-Core-Switch
WGxS1
Fa0/1
Fa0/3

G0/0
10.3.x.2/24
S0/0/0
10.2.x.2/24

G0/1
10.5.x.2/24
WGxR2
Pagent-2 Callgen-2
10.3.x.10/24 10.3.x.11/24

The figure depicts the physical wiring of the topology. Each workgroup switch is connected via an 802.1Q
trunk to the core switch with two active VLANs. All of the Pagent and Callgen routers are also connected to
the core switch via an 802.1Q trunk and are set up with connections to 12 VLANs (one for each lab
workgroup) as follows:
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 are configured for VLANs 11 to 22. Pagent-
2 and Callgen-2 are configured for VLANs 31 to 42.
Traffic flow to and from the Pagent and Callgen lab routers is designed to traverse the network through
each workgroup as follows:
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 11) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 31) via pod 1.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 12) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 32) via pod 2.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 13) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 33) via pod 3.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 14) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 34) via pod 4.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 15) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 35) via pod 5.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 16) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 36) via pod 6.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 17) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 37) via pod 7.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 18) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 38) via pod 8.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 19) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 39) via pod 9.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 20) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 40) via pod 10.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 21) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 41) via pod 11.
Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 (VLAN 22) send traffic to Pagent-2 and Callgen-2 (VLAN 42) via pod 12.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-13


The logical configuration of each of these VLANs is as follows:

Lab VLAN Logical Address Assignments


Workgroup Pod VLANs Assigned IP Subnets

1 11 and 31 10.1.1.0/24 (VLAN 11) and 10.3.1.0/24 (VLAN 31)

2 12 and 32 10.1.2.0/24 (VLAN 12) and 10.3.2.0/24 (VLAN 32)

3 13 and 33 10.1.3.0/24 (VLAN 13) and 10.3.3.0/24 (VLAN 33)

4 14 and 34 10.1.4.0/24 (VLAN 14) and 10.3.4.0/24 (VLAN 34)

5 15 and 35 10.1.5.0/24 (VLAN 15) and 10.3.5.0/24 (VLAN 35)

6 16 and 36 10.1.6.0/24 (VLAN 16) and 10.3.6.0/24 (VLAN 36)

7 17 and 37 10.1.7.0/24 (VLAN 17) and 10.3.7.0/24 (VLAN 37)

8 18 and 38 10.1.8.0/24 (VLAN 18) and 10.3.8.0/24 (VLAN 38)

9 19 and 39 10.1.9.0/24 (VLAN 19) and 10.3.9.0/24 (VLAN 39)

10 20 and 40 10.1.10.0/24 (VLAN 20) and 10.3.10.0/24 (VLAN 40)

11 21 and 41 10.1.11.0/24 (VLAN 21) and 10.3.11.0/24 (VLAN 41)

12 22 and 42 10.1.12.0/24 (VLAN 22) and 10.3.12.0/24 (VLAN 42)

Each workgroup router has three connections, as shown in the physical topology. The routers each have a
P2P serial connection that is connected to the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both workgroup routers. Each
workgroup router is also connected to the workgroup switch, WGxS1, on GigabitEthernet 0/0. WGxR1 is
placed in the same VLAN as Pagent-1 and Callgen-1 and WGxR2 is placed in the same VLAN as Pagent-2
and Callgen-2. Each workgroup router also connects to SP-Core-Switch on interface GigabitEthernet 0/1.
The addressing scheme for the workgroup routers is in this table (x represents the pod number).

Interface WGxR1 WGxR2

G0/0 10.1.x.1/24 10.3.x.2/24

S0/0/0 10.2.x.1/24 10.2.x.2/24

G0/1 10.4.x.1/24 10.5.x.2/24

The addressing and connectivity scheme for the provider backbone to the workgroup devices via SP-Core-
Switch is in this table.

Workgroup Device SP-Core-Switch


Workgroup Device Workgroup IP Address
Interface IP Address

WGxR1 G0/1 10.4.x.1/24 10.4.x.100

WGxR2 G0/1 10.5.x.2/24 10.5.x.100

WGxS1 Fa0/1 Switched connection Switched connection

L-14 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_IP_SLA_Baseline_Measurement.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_IP_SLA_Baseline_Measurement.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_IP_SLA_Baseline_Measurement.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-15


Task 1: Verify Network Connectivity
You will verify network connectivity by using the Cisco IOS tools ping and traceroute.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Validate that OSPF is running on both workgroup routers and a peer relationship has been established on
the Serial 0/0/0 interface.

WGxR1# show ip ospf neighbor


Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
10.5.x.2 0 FULL/ - 00:00:38 10.2.x.2 Serial0/0/0

WGxR2# show ip ospf neighbor


Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 10.4.x.1 0
FULL/ - 00:00:33 10.2.x.1 Serial0/0/0

Step 2
From the WGxR1 router, perform the following pings to confirm the connectivity and routing protocol
operation:
Ping the local core switch IP address (10.4.x.100).

WGxR1# ping 10.4.x.100


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.4.x.100, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms

Ping the WGxR2 router (10.2.x.2).

WGxR1# ping 10.2.x.2


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.x.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/8 ms

Ping the Pagent-1 (10.1.x.10) and Callgen-1 (10.1.x.11) routers.

WGxR1# ping 10.1.x.10


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.x.10, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms

WGxR1# ping 10.1.x.11


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.x.11, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms

L-16 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 3

From the WGxR2 router, perform the following pings to check the connectivity and routing protocol
operation:
Ping the local core switch IP address (10.5.x.100).

WGxR2# ping 10.5.x.100


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.5.x.100, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms

Ping the Pagent-2 (10.3.x.10) and Callgen-2 (10.3.x.11) routers.

WGxR2# ping 10.3.x.10


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.3.x.10, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/4 ms

WGxR2# ping 10.3.x.11


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.3.x.11, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms

Step 4

On the WGxR1 router, shut down the Serial 0/0/0 interface.

Step 5

From the WGxR1 router, use Telnet to connect to the Pagent-1 router (10.1.x.10) and perform a traceroute
to the Pagent-2 router (10.3.x.10) to confirm that the path from Pagent-1 to Pagent-2 flows through your
pod via the SP-Core-Switch switch.

WGxR1# telnet 10.1.x.10


Trying 10.1.x.10 ... Open
User Access Verification
Username: super
Password: bowl
pagent-1> traceroute 10.3.x.10
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.3.x.10
1 10.1.x.1 0 msec 0 msec 0 msec
2 10.4.x.100 4 msec 0 msec 4 msec
3 10.5.x.2 0 msec 0 msec 0 msec
4 10.3.x.10 4 msec 0 msec *
pagent-1> exit
[Connection to 10.1.x.10 closed by foreign host]

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-17


Step 6

From the WGxR1 router, use Telnet to connect to the Callgen-1 (10.1.x.11) router and perform a traceroute
to the Callgen-2 router (10.3.x.11) to confirm that the path from Callgen-1 to Callgen-2 flows through your
pod via the SP-Core-Switch switch.

WGxR1# telnet 10.1.x.11


Trying 10.1.x.10 ... Open
User Access Verification
Username: super
Password: bowl
callgen-1> traceroute 10.3.x.11
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.3.x.11
1 10.1.x.1 0 msec 0 msec 0 msec
2 10.4.x.100 4 msec 0 msec 4 msec
3 10.5.x.2 0 msec 0 msec 0 msec
4 10.3.x.11 4 msec 0 msec *
callgen-1> exit
[Connection to 10.1.x.11 closed by foreign host]

Step 7

On the WGxR1 router, enable the Serial 0/0/0 interface.

Step 8

Use Telnet to connect to the Pagent-1 router (10.1.x.10) and perform a traceroute to the Pagent-2 router
(10.3.x.10) to confirm that the path from Pagent-1 to Pagent-2 now flows through your pod via the serial
connection (10.2.x.2) between your WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers.

WGxR1# telnet 10.1.x.10


Trying 10.1.x.10 ... Open
User Access Verification
Username: super
Password: bowl
pagent-1>traceroute 10.3.x.10
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.3.x.10
1 10.1.x.1 0 msec 0 msec 0 msec
2 10.2.x.2 12 msec 0 msec 4 msec
3 10.3.x.10 4 msec 4 msec *
pagent-1> exit
[Connection to 10.1.x.10 closed by foreign host]

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-18 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Create a Baseline Measurement of
Network Traffic
You will use ping and IP SLA to create a baseline of network performance with no traffic present.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Clear the interface counters on both of your workgroup routers by using the clear counters command.

Step 2

From WGxR1, perform an extended ping to the Serial 0/0/0 interface of the WGxR2 router, then record the
ping response time in the "WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at the end of the lab. For
the extended ping, use a repeat count of 50 and a datagram size of 160. Repeat the extended ping two more
times and record your results in the table at the end of this lab.

WGxR1# ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 10.2.x.2
Repeat count [5]: 50
Datagram size [100]: 160
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 50, 160-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (50/50), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms

Step 3

Repeat Step 2, but ping from WGxR2 to the Serial 0/0/0 interface (10.2.x.1) on WGxR1 and record the
response-time results in the "WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at the end of this lab.

From both of the workgroup routers, issue the show interfaces serial0/0/0 command and record the
highlighted statistics below to the “WGxR1 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results” table and the
“WGxR2 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results” table at the end of this lab.
WGxR1# show interfaces serial0/0/0
Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial
Internet address is 10.2.x.1/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 768 Kbit/sec, DLY 20000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
Encapsulation PPP, LCP Open
Open: IPCP, CDPCP, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 00:00:01, output 00:00:01, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:00:38
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-19
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
308 packets input, 49328 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
309 packets output, 49673 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
0 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up

Step 4

Because users of the new IP telephony devices are the most upset, your manager has asked for a mechanism
to proactively monitor voice quality so you are aware of any issues before users call in to the helpdesk to
complain. IP SLA can be used to create a UDP jitter probe that can simulate VoIP traffic and provide an
MOS score that is a good indicator of voice quality. In order for the UDP jitter probe to work correctly, one
device must act as an IP SLA responder and the other will generate the probe traffic.

A router can be configured to act as an IP SLA responder with the ip sla responder command.

Configure WGxR2 to act as an IP SLA responder.

Step 5

You can create an IP SLA probe with the ip sla entry-number command. Once the IP SLA entry is created,
it can be configured as a UDP jitter operation with the udp-jitter destination-IP port-number [codec |
control | interval | num-packets | source-ip | source-port] command. After the UDP jitter operation is
configured, you can change operational parameters such as the frequency of operation and timeout values.
When you have completed the configuration, the IP SLA operation can be started with the ip sla schedule
entry-number command.

Configure WGxR1 with an IP SLA UDP jitter probe with an entry number of 10 to target the IP address of
the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface (10.3.x.2) on WGxR2. Configure the operation to use a target port number
of 50000, a codec of G711ulaw, and a source address of 10.1.x.1. Set the frequency of the operation to 30
seconds and leave all other parameters to the default settings. Schedule the operation to start now and to run
forever.
Step 6

Validate the default configuration parameters of the IP SLA UDP jitter operation by using the show ip sla
configuration 10 command.

What is the type of service parameter set to?

How often does the operation run?

How many packets are sent each time the operation is run? How often are packets sent?

L-20 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Review the network statistics that are gathered by your IP SLA UDP jitter operation by issuing the show ip
sla statistics 10 command. Record these values in the “WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics
Command Results” table at the end of the lab.

What are the min/avg/max RTT values for the probe on WGxR1?

What are the min/avg/max source-to-destination latencies? Why are these values zero?

What are the min/avg/max source-to-destination jitter values?

How many packets were lost from the source to destination?

What is the synthetic MOS score for this probe?

Step 7

In order to provide statistics for one-way latency times, the UDP jitter operation requires the clocks of the
source and responder to be synchronized. Synchronize the clocks between the two workgroup routers by
setting WGxR1 as an NTP master clock source with a stratum of 3 and by configuring WGxR2 to pull time
from WGxR1 (using the IP of 10.1.x.1).

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-21


Step 8

Validate that NTP is synchronized between the two devices, WGxR1 and WGxR2, by issuing the show ntp
status command on WGxR2. It could take up to several minutes for NTP to synchronize.

WGxR2# show ntp status


Clock is synchronized, stratum 4, reference is 10.1.1.1
nominal freq is 250.0000 Hz, actual freq is 250.0009 Hz, precision is 2**20
ntp uptime is 2900 (1/100 of seconds), resolution is 4000
reference time is D5B8C9AC.159A9606 (15:54:20.084 UTC Fri Aug 16 2013)
clock offset is 0.0127 msec, root delay is 2.40 msec
root dispersion is 7875.43 msec, peer dispersion is 437.56 msec
loopfilter state is 'CTRL' (Normal Controlled Loop), drift is -0.000003929 s/s
system poll interval is 64, last update was 22 sec ago.

L-22 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 9

Wait 1 minute for another operation to complete and then check the IP SLA UDP jitter operation statistics
again by issuing the show ip sla statistics 10 command. There should be nonzero values for the one-way
latency measurements now. Record the min/avg/max source-to-destination latencies in the corresponding
table at the end of the lab, replacing the zero values.

WG1R1# show ip sla statistics 10


IPSLAs Latest Operation Statistics
IPSLA operation id: 10
Type of operation: udp-jitter
Latest RTT: 5 milliseconds
Latest operation start time: 15:55:54 UTC Fri Aug 16 2013
Latest operation return code: OK
RTT Values:
Number Of RTT: 1000 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 5/5/7 milliseconds
Latency one-way time:
Number of Latency one-way Samples: 1000
Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 2/2/3 milliseconds
Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 2/2/4 milliseconds
Jitter Time:
Number of SD Jitter Samples: 999
Number of DS Jitter Samples: 999
Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/1/1 milliseconds
Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/1/2 milliseconds
Packet Loss Values:
Loss Source to Destination: 0
Source to Destination Loss Periods Number: 0
Source to Destination Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Source to Destination Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Loss Destination to Source: 0
Destination to Source Loss Periods Number: 0
Destination to Source Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Destination to Source Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
0/0 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0
Packet Late Arrival: 0 Packet Skipped: 0
Voice Score Values:
Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 1
MOS score: 4.34
Number of successes: 20
Number of failures: 0
Operation time to live: Forever

Step 10

Clear the interface counters on both of your workgroup routers by using the clear counters command.

Step 11

Notify your instructor when you are done with the prior steps. Your instructor will start both the Pagent and
Callgen traffic generators. Your instructor will advise when all traffic streams are operational.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-23


Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

Task 3: Measure the Network Performance under


Traffic Load
You will use the Cisco IOS monitoring commands, network connectivity tools (ping), and IP SLA statistics
to gather information about the network response during traffic load.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

From the WGxR1 workgroup router, perform an extended ping to the WGxR2 router Serial 0/0/0 interface,
then record the ping response time in the "WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at the end
of the lab. For the extended ping, use a repeat count of 50 and a datagram size of 160. Repeat the extended
ping two more times and record your results in the table at the end of this lab.

WGxR1# ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 10.2.x.2
Repeat count [5]: 50
Datagram size [100]: 160
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 50, 160-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.x.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!!!.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!.!!!!!!
Success rate is 96 percent (48/50), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/142/568 ms

Note Before initiating the extended ping command, wait for the Pagent and Callgen traffic to run for at least 2
minutes so that traffic generation can stabilize. If you do not see longer times for the min/avg/max
values, ask your instructor to validate that traffic is being generated.

Note After the Pagent traffic generation has been started, it is important that the Pagent routers not be used
for network measurements with the ping and traceroute commands, because the Pagent routers
maintain a very high CPU load in generating the traffic demands for the labs.

Step 2

Repeat Step 1, but ping from WGxR2 to the Serial 0/0/0 interface (10.2.x.1) on WGxR1 and record the
response-time results in the "WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at the end of this lab.

L-24 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 3

From both workgroup routers, issue the show interfaces serial 0/0/0 command and record the highlighted
statistics to the “WGxR1 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results” table and the “WGxR2 QoS
Baseline show interfaces Command Results” table at the end of this lab..

WGxR1# show interfaces serial 0/0/0


Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial
Description: to WGxR2
Internet address is 10.2.1.1/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 768 Kbit/sec, DLY 20000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 234/255, rxload 241/255
Encapsulation PPP, LCP Open
Open: IPCP, CDPCP, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:08:06
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 31456
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 39/40 (size/max)
30 second input rate 726000 bits/sec, 611 packets/sec
30 second output rate 706000 bits/sec, 618 packets/sec
235079 packets input, 35398642 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
236138 packets output, 34485306 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
0 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up

Note The traffic sent between Pagent-1 and Pagent-2 is set up so that the traffic rate varies constantly and will
be different between Pagent-1 and Pagent-2. As a result, the drop rate and 30-second input and output
rates on your workgroup router Serial 0/0/0 interface may be different between your WGxR1 and WGxR2
routers. Your values will also differ from the values in the sample output that is provided.

Note Both Callgen routers will generate VoIP calls at a constant rate.

Step 4

Compare the resulting statistics with and without the Pagent and Callgen traffic generation enabled.

Many of the pings have a longer response time in the event of congestion on the low-bandwidth, 786-kb/s
PPP serial link. You should also see some dropped pings and dropped output packets.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-25


Step 5

Review the network statistics that are gathered by your IP SLA UDP jitter operation by issuing the show ip
sla statistics 10 command. Record these values in the “WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics
Command Results” table at the end of the lab.

What are the min/avg/max RTT values for the probe on WGxR1?

What are the min/avg/max source-to-destination latencies on the probes for both routers?

What are the min/avg/max source-to-destination jitter values?

How many packets were lost from the source to destination?

What is the synthetic MOS score for this probe?

Step 6

Compare the resulting IP SLA statistics with and without the Pagent and Callgen traffic generation enabled.

You should notice that the delay, jitter, and packet loss values have all increased while the synthetic MOS
score has decreased.

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-26 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 4: QoS Measurement Lab Results
Activity Procedure
These five tables are used to record the results of your lab testing in this exercise.
Step 1

Record your extended ping results in these two tables:

WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Packet Size Without Pagent and Callgen With Pagent and Callgen

160 bytes min/avg/max min/avg/max

Extended ping 1

Extended ping 2

Extended ping 3

success rate % success rate %

Extended ping 1

Extended ping 2

Extended ping 3

WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Packet Size Without Pagent and Callgen With Pagent and Callgen

160 bytes min/avg/max min/avg/max

Extended ping 1

Extended ping 2

Extended ping 3

success rate % success rate %

Extended ping 1

Extended ping 2

Extended ping 3

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-27


Step 2

Record your WGxR1 and WGxR2 show interfaces serial 0/0/0 command results in these tables.

WGxR1 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results


Without Pagent and Callgen With Pagent and Callgen

Queuing Strategy

Reliability, Txload, Rxload

Total Output Drops

Output Queue: Size/Max Total

Packets Output

Drop % (Calculated as Total Output


Drop / Packets Output)

WGxR2 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results


Without Pagent and Callgen With Pagent and Callgen

Queuing Strategy

Reliability, Txload, Rxload

Total Output Drops

Output Queue: Size/Max Total

Packets Output

Drop % (Calculated as Total Output


Drop / Packets Output)

Step 3

Record your IP SLA statistics for WGxR1 in this table.

WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results


Without Pagent and Callgen With Pagent and Callgen

Min/Avg/Max RTT

Min/Avg/Max Source-to-Destination
Latency

Min/Avg/Max Source-to-Destination Jitter

Source-to-Destination Packet Loss

MOS Score

L-28 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 2-2: Configuring QoS
with Cisco AutoQoS
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure QoS on the workgroup routers and switch by using Cisco AutoQoS and
you will evaluate the performance of the QoS implementation. After you have completed this activity, you
will be able to:
Implement QoS on a Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch by using the Cisco AutoQoS feature
Implement QoS on a Cisco 2901 Integrated Services Router by using the Cisco AutoQoS feature
Use Cisco IOS monitoring commands, IP SLA, and network connectivity tools (ping) to gather network
performance data and evaluate the effectiveness of Cisco AutoQoS implementations
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 2-2: Configuring QoS with Cisco AutoQoS


Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

WGxR1 Provider
Backbone
Ping

IP SLA
Cisco AutoQos

Ping
SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
From the baseline measurement results, the E-Commerce University IT staff has determined that the drop
rate and the latency of the VoIP traffic must be improved immediately. At this point, E-Commerce has
called on you to improve the voice quality and the performance of the Oracle database as quickly as
possible. You decide to implement Cisco AutoQoS in order to improve the network performance in the
limited amount of time you have available. Because Cisco AutoQoS provides automated configuration of
QoS on the network and provides a means for simplifying the implementation, you can improve the
network performance quickly while you continue to learn about QoS.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

Commands
Command Description

[no] auto discovery qos [trust] Enables or disables discovery and data collection for configuring the
Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise feature.

[no] auto qos Installs or removes the QoS class maps and policy maps that are
created by the Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise feature.

L-30 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Command Description

[no] auto qos classify [police] Generates a QoS configuration for an untrusted interface.

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

[no] class-map [match-any | match-all] Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to a specified
class-name class and enters the QoS class map configuration mode. The no form
of this command removes the configuration.

clear counters interface-type interface- Clears the counters on one or all interfaces.
number

clear mls qos interface [interface-type Clears the MLS aggregate-QoS statistics for all interfaces or the
interface-number] statistics specified interface.

[no] encapsulation ppp Sets the encapsulation method for the interface. The no form of this
command removes the encapsulation.

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] ip access-list extended access-list- Defines an IP access list by name or number. The no form of this
name command removes a previously defined access list.

ip access-list extended access-list-name Defines an IP access list by name or number. The no form of this
command removes a previously defined access list.

[no] match access-group [access-group | Configures the match criterion for a class map on the basis of the
name access-group-name] specified ACL. The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] mls qos Enables or disables the QoS functionality globally.

[no] mls qos map cos-dscp Defines the ingress CoS-to-DSCP map for trusted interface. The no
dscp1...dscp8 form of this command removes a prior entry.

[no] mls qos map policed-dscp dscp-list Sets the mapping of policed DSCP values to marked-down DSCP
to policed-dscp values. The no form of this command removes a prior entry.

[no] mls qos queue-set output qset-id Allocates buffers to a queue set. The no form of this command returns
buffers allocation1....allocation4 to the default setting.

[no] mls qos queue-set output qset-id Configures WTD thresholds, buffer availability, and the maximum
threshold queue-id drop-threshold1 drop- memory allocation to a queue set. The no form of this command returns
threshold2 reserved-threshold maximum- to the default setting.
threshold

[no] mls qos srr-queue output cos-map Maps CoS values to an egress queue or maps CoS values to a queue
queue-id [cos1...cos8 | threshold threshold- and a threshold ID. The no form of this command returns to the default
id cos1...cos8] setting.

[no] mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map Maps DSCP values to an egress queue or maps DSCP values to a
queue-id [dscp1...dscp8 | threshold queue and a threshold ID. The no form of this command returns to the
threshold-id dscp1...dscp8] default setting.

[no] [permit | deny] [test-conditions] Creates ACL statements for a named ACL to permit or deny traffic
based on the test conditions. The no form of this command removes the
configuration.

ping Uses ICMP echo requests and ICMP echo replies to determine whether
a remove host is reachable. Entering the command without a variable
enters the extended ping mode.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more
interface. The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-31


Command Description

[no] priority {bandwidth-kbps | percent Allocates priority bandwidth to a class of traffic that belongs to a policy
percentage} [burst] map. The no form of this command removes a previously specified
priority.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] set dscp dscp-value Marks a packet by setting the DSCP value in the ToS byte. The no form
of this command removes a previously configured set value.

show auto discovery qos [interface [type Displays the data collected during the discovery phase of the Cisco
number]] AutoQoS for the Enterprise feature.

show interfaces interface-type interface- Displays information about any interface that is configured on the
number device.

show ip interfaces brief Displays a brief summary of the interface IP information and status.

show ip sla statistics [operation-number] Displays operational statistics and status for all IP SLA operations or the
[details] specified IP SLA operation.

show mls qos interface interface-name Displays statistics for sent and received DSCP and CoS values, the
statistics number of packets enqueue or dropped per egress queue, and the
number of in-profile and out-of-profile packets for each policer.

show policy-map [policy-map-name] Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy
[class class-name] map or of all classes for all existing policy maps.

show running-config Displays the contents of the current running configuration file.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

L-32 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_AutoQoS.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_AutoQoS.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_AutoQoS.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-33


Task 1: Configure Cisco AutoQoS Classify on the
Catalyst 2960-S Switch
In this task, you will enable the Cisco AutoQoS Classify feature on your workgroup Catalyst 2960-S
switch.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Your management has asked that you use Cisco AutoQoS features to improve the performance of the key
network applications, specifically VoIP traffic and the Oracle database. You decide to enable Cisco
AutoQoS Classify on the FastEthernet 0/1 interface of the workgroup switch. Because this switch is the
closest switch to the end traffic that you have administrative control of, the Cisco AutoQoS Classify
feature will enable you to enforce a classification and marking policy at the network edge.

Display and examine the running configuration of your WGxS1 switch.

Step 2

Enable the Cisco AutoQoS Classify feature for traffic on the FastEthernet 0/1 interface of WGxS1.

L-34 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 3

Display and examine the resulting Cisco AutoQoS configuration after enabling Cisco AutoQoS Classify.
Notice that the switch is now configured for SRR queuing with queue 1 configured as a priority queue. The
switch is also configured with several queue mapping statements to map traffic to the correct queue based
on the CoS or DSCP setting. SRR queuing will be covered in more depth in the "Congestion Management"
module. In addition to the SRR queuing and queue mapping configuration, the switch is also configured
with a policed DSCP map statement and an MQC policy consisting of ACLs, class maps, and a policy map.
The policy is applied to inbound traffic on the FastEthernet 0/1 interface.

!
mls qos map policed-dscp 0 10 18 24 46 to 8
mls qos map cos-dscp 0 8 16 24 32 46 48 56
mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 1 threshold 3 4 5
mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 2 threshold 1 2
mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 2 threshold 2 3
mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 2 threshold 3 6 7
mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 3 threshold 3 0
mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 4 threshold 3 1
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 1 threshold 3 32 33 40 41 42 43 44 45
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 1 threshold 3 46 47
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 2 threshold 1 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 2 threshold 1 26 27 28 29 30 31 34 35
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 2 threshold 1 36 37 38 39
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 2 threshold 2 24
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 2 threshold 3 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 2 threshold 3 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 3 threshold 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 4 threshold 1 8 9 11 13 15
mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 4 threshold 2 10 12 14
mls qos queue-set output 1 threshold 1 100 100 50 200
mls qos queue-set output 1 threshold 2 125 125 100 400
mls qos queue-set output 1 threshold 3 100 100 100 400
mls qos queue-set output 1 threshold 4 60 150 50 200
mls qos queue-set output 1 buffers 15 25 40 20
mls qos
!
class-map match-all AUTOQOS_MULTIENHANCED_CONF_CLASS
match access-group name AUTOQOS-ACL-MULTIENHANCED-CONF
class-map match-all AUTOQOS_DEFAULT_CLASS
match access-group name AUTOQOS-ACL-DEFAULT
class-map match-all AUTOQOS_TRANSACTION_CLASS
match access-group name AUTOQOS-ACL-TRANSACTIONAL-DATA
class-map match-all AUTOQOS_SIGNALING_CLASS
match access-group name AUTOQOS-ACL-SIGNALING
class-map match-all AUTOQOS_BULK_DATA_CLASS
match access-group name AUTOQOS-ACL-BULK-DATA
class-map match-all AUTOQOS_SCAVANGER_CLASS
match access-group name AUTOQOS-ACL-SCAVANGER
!
!
policy-map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
class AUTOQOS_MULTIENHANCED_CONF_CLASS
set dscp af41
class AUTOQOS_BULK_DATA_CLASS
set dscp af11
class AUTOQOS_TRANSACTION_CLASS
set dscp af21

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-35


class AUTOQOS_SCAVANGER_CLASS
set dscp cs1
class AUTOQOS_SIGNALING_CLASS
set dscp cs3
class AUTOQOS_DEFAULT_CLASS
set dscp default
!
interface FastEthernet0/1
srr-queue bandwidth share 1 30 35 5
priority-queue out
auto qos classify
service-policy input AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
!
ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-BULK-DATA
permit tcp any any eq 22
permit tcp any any eq 465
permit tcp any any eq 143
permit tcp any any eq 993
permit tcp any any eq 995
permit tcp any any eq 1914
permit tcp any any eq ftp
permit tcp any any eq ftp-data
permit tcp any any eq smtp
permit tcp any any eq pop3
ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-DEFAULT
permit ip any any
ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-MULTIENHANCED-CONF
permit udp any any range 16384 32767
ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-SCAVANGER
permit tcp any any range 2300 2400
permit udp any any range 2300 2400
permit tcp any any range 6881 6999
permit tcp any any range 28800 29100
permit tcp any any eq 1214
permit udp any any eq 1214
permit tcp any any eq 3689
permit udp any any eq 3689
permit tcp any any eq 11999
ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-SIGNALING
permit tcp any any range 2000 2002
permit tcp any any range 5060 5061
permit udp any any range 5060 5061
ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-TRANSACTIONAL-DATA
permit tcp any any eq 443
permit tcp any any eq 1521
permit udp any any eq 1521
permit tcp any any eq 1526
permit udp any any eq 1526
permit tcp any any eq 1575
permit udp any any eq 1575
permit tcp any any eq 1630
permit udp any any eq 1630
!

L-36 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 4

You can validate if there is any traffic matching the policy by checking for marked traffic leaving the
switch toward the two workgroup routers on the FasFastethernet 0/2 and 0/3 interfaces.

Clear the MLS QoS statistics using the clear mls qos interface statistics command. Wait 1 minute to allow
traffic statistics to be gathered and then check if any outbound traffic is being DSCP marked by using the
show mls qos interface interface_name statistics command.

Which DSCP values have outbound packets?

Which traffic classes have matching traffic based on the DSCP values you see marked?

Step 5

You confirm with the Oracle administrators that they use TCP port 1521, which is a match criteria for the
traffic class AUTOQOS_TRANSACTION_CLASS. Because the Cisco AutoQoS Classify feature does not
configure a class for voice traffic, you decide to manually adjust the policy to mark authorized VoIP traffic
to DSCP EF.

In discussions with your telephony administrators, you confirm that all authorized voice traffic occurs
between the two voice systems at the IP addresses 10.1.x.11 and 10.3.x.11. They also confirm that the
system is configured to use UDP ports in the range of 16384 to 32767. Create an access list that is named
University_VoIP to match this authorized voice traffic.

WGxS1(config)# ip access-list extended University_VoIP


WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp host 10.1.x.11 host 10.3.x.11 range 16384 32767
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp host 10.3.x.11 host 10.1.x.11 range 16384 32767

Step 6

Create a new traffic class by configuring a class map that is named University_VoIP that uses the
access list you configured in the previous step as a match criterion.

WGxS1(config)# class-map match-any University_VoIP


WGxS1(config-cmap)# match access-group name University_VoIP

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-37


Step 7

Remove the service policy that Cisco AutoQoS automatically applied, AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-
POLICY, from the Fastethernet Fastethernet 0/1 interface. Apply the traffic class in the policy map
AUTOQOS- SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY and configure the policy map to mark traffic that matches this
class with a DSCP of EF. Once you are done editing the policy map, reapply the service policy to the
Fastethernet Fastethernet 0/1 interface.

WGxS1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1


WGxS1(config-if)# no service-policy input AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
WGxS1(config-if)# policy-map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
WGxS1(config-pmap)# class University_VoIP
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp ef
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# interface fastethernet 0/1
WGxS1(config-if)# service-policy input AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY

Note Prior to modifying a policy map, it is best practice to remove all service policy commands that are
applying that policy map at the interface or class level. Once the policy map is modified, you should
reapply the policy map with the service-policy command. Failure to do this can cause traffic interruption
and in some instances, the intended change will not be applied correctly. In order to reduce repetitive
instruction in this lab environment, these steps are not included in the instructions every time a
modification is made to a policy map.

Step 8

Clear the MLS QoS interface statistics on the workgroup switch, wait 1 minute, and then view the MLS
QoS statistics for the FastEthernet 0/2 and FastEthernet 0/3 interfaces.

What are the DSCP markings for outbound traffic with the modification of the policy map?

You should see no traffic matching the DSCP value of 46 for outbound traffic on either interface, because
the packets that are inspected by a policy map are compared to the classes in the order they are configured
in the policy map. The University_VoIP traffic class was the last traffic class added to the policy
AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY and it will be the last traffic class used to match incoming
packets. The traffic coming from the voice gateways also matches the requirements for the traffic class
AUTOQOS_MULTIENHANCED_CONF_CLASS and the policy will take action on these packets based on
that first match.

L-38 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 9

Validate the order of the traffic classes by using the show policy-map command.

WG1S1# show policy-map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY


Policy Map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
Class AUTOQOS_MULTIENHANCED_CONF_CLASS
set dscp af41
Class AUTOQOS_BULK_DATA_CLASS
set dscp af11
Class AUTOQOS_TRANSACTION_CLASS
set dscp af21
Class AUTOQOS_SCAVANGER_CLASS
set dscp cs1
Class AUTOQOS_SIGNALING_CLASS
set dscp cs3
Class AUTOQOS_DEFAULT_CLASS
set dscp default
Class University_VoIP
set dscp ef

Step 10

In order to ensure that the voice gateway traffic matches the University_VoIP traffic class, you need to
reorder the traffic classes in the policy map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY. Before making any
changes to the policy, remove it from the FastEthernet 0/1 interface.

WGxS1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1


WGxS1(config-if)# no service-policy input AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY

Step 11

Show the running configuration and copy the configuration for the policy map AUTOQOS-SRND4-
CLASSIFY-POLICY to a text file on your computer. Once you have copied the configuration, remove the
policy from the switch.

WGxS1(config)# no policy-map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-39


Step 12

Edit the policy in the text file so that the University_VoIP class is the first class in the policy map.

Add the edited policy map back to WGxS1 and validate your configuration by using the show policy-map
AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY command.

WG1S1# show policy-map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY


Policy Map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
Class University_VoIP
set dscp ef
Class AUTOQOS_MULTIENHANCED_CONF_CLASS
set dscp af41
Class AUTOQOS_BULK_DATA_CLASS
set dscp af11
Class AUTOQOS_TRANSACTION_CLASS
set dscp af21
Class AUTOQOS_SCAVANGER_CLASS
set dscp cs1
Class AUTOQOS_SIGNALING_CLASS
set dscp cs3
Class AUTOQOS_DEFAULT_CLASS
set dscp default

Step 13

Reapply the AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY policy to the Fastethernet Fastethernet 0/1 interface


for inbound traffic.

Step 14

Enable MLS QoS Trust DSCP on Fastethernet 0/1 for the inbound traffic.

Step 15

Clear the MLS QoS interface statistics on the workgroup switch, wait 1 minute, and then view the MLS
QoS statistics for the FastEthernet 0/2 and FastEthernet 0/3 interfaces.

What are the DSCP markings for outbound traffic with the modification of the policy map?

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

L-40 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


After modifying the policy map that is created by Cisco AutoQoS Classify, you verified that outbound
traffic on the FasFastethernet 0/2 and 0/3 interfaces is marked with DSCP values 0, 10, 18, and 46.

WGxS1# show mls qos interface fasfastethernet 0/2 statistics


FastEthernet0/2 (All statistics are in packets)
dscp: incoming
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 29529 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 0 0
10 - 14 : 1421 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 6645 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 0
25 - 29 : 0 0 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 3477 0 6 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
dscp: outgoing
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 30253 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 0 0
10 - 14 : 1443 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 6874 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 0
25 - 29 : 0 0 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 3581 0 0 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
.....Omitted.....

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-41


Task 2: Configure Cisco AutoQoS for the
Enterprise on Cisco IOS Routers
In this task, you will enable the Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise feature on the low-bandwidth, PPP serial
interface of your workgroup router.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Display and examine the running configuration of your WGxR1 router.

Step 2

You have decided to enable Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise on the workgroup routers to automatically
create a QoS policy for the serial connection between WGxR1 and WGxR2. Because you have validated
that the switch is classifying and marking traffic correctly, enable the Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise
discovery phase on the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both routers and configure it to trust the DSCP markings
that are coming from the workgroup switch.

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# auto discovery qos trust

Step 3

Wait at least 1 minute to allow the Cisco AutoQoS discovery phase to detect traffic and then view the traffic
statistics and the suggested QoS policy by using the show auto discovery qos command.

In which traffic classes has the Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise discovery mechanisms detected traffic?

What are the proposed match criteria for the traffic class AutoQoS-Transactional-Trust?

Step 4

Enable Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise on the Serial 0/0/0 interface of WGxR1 and WGxR2 in order to
install the proposed QoS policy. Ensure that you do not include the voip option in the command.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

L-42 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


You examined the configuration installed by Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise. You saw three traffic
classes created by the Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise feature and applied in a policy map with the
bandwidth values measured during the discovery phase. The bandwidth assigned to each traffic class may
vary slightly from the following configuration depending on the traffic patterns during the discovery phase.
Typically when using Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise, the discovery phase will run for an extended
period of time. Because the bandwidth on the serial interface is less than or equal to 768 kb/s, a multilink
interface is automatically configured.

class-map match-any AutoQoS-Bulk-Trust


match ip dscp af11
match ip dscp af12
match ip dscp af13
class-map match-any AutoQoS-Voice-Trust
match ip dscp ef
class-map match-any AutoQoS-Transactional-Trust
match ip dscp af21
match ip dscp af22
match ip dscp af23
!
policy-map AutoQoS-Policy-Se0/0/0-Trust
class AutoQoS-Voice-Trust
priority percent 17
class AutoQoS-Transactional-Trust
bandwidth remaining percent 14 random-
detect dscp-based
class AutoQoS-Bulk-Trust
bandwidth remaining percent 1
random-detect dscp-based
class class-default fair-
queue
!
interface Multilink7
bandwidth 768
ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
ip tcp header-compression iphc-format
ppp multilink
ppp multilink interleave
ppp multilink group 7
ppp multilink fragment delay 10
service-policy output AutoQoS-Policy-Se0/0/0-Trust
ip rtp header-compression iphc-format
!
interface Serial0/0/0
no ip address
auto qos
auto discovery qos trust
ppp multilink
ppp multilink group 7
!
rmon event 33333 log trap AutoQoS description "AutoQoS SNMP traps for Voice Drops"
owner AutoQoS

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-43


Enter the show ip interface brief command on WGxR1 and ensure that the multilink interface is up. The
multilink interface is required for the PPP multilink and interleaving operation and will automatically be
configured by Cisco AutoQoS for serial interfaces with bandwidth equal to or less than 768 kb/s. Notice
that the Serial 0/0/0 IP address assignment has automatically been moved to the multilink interface.

WGxR1# show ip interface brief


Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
Embedded-Service-Engine0/0 unassigned YES NVRAM administratively down down
GigabitEthernet0/0 10.1.x.1 YES NVRAM up up
GigabitEthernet0/1 10.4.x.1 YES NVRAM up up
Serial0/0/0 unassigned YES TFTP up up
Multilink7 10.2.x.1 YES TFTP up up

L-44 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 3: Measure Network Performance with Cisco
AutoQoS for the Enterprise
In this task, you will monitor the network performance with the Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise feature
enabled on your low-bandwidth, PPP serial interface.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

In order to validate the operation of the proposed Cisco AutoQoS policy, change the policy configuration on
WGxR1 so that the IP SLA traffic and the ICMP traffic is in the AutoQoS-Voice-Trust traffic class.

WGxR1(config)# ip access-list extended ICMP


WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any any echo
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any any echo-reply
WGxR1(config)# ip access-list extended IPSLA
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp any any eq 50000
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# class-map match-any AutoQoS-Voice-Trust
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group name ICMP
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group name IPSLA

Note Because Callgen generates the VoIP traffic, the voice quality of the VoIP phone calls cannot be tested
directly. Therefore, after Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise has been enabled, you will modify the
resulting QoS configurations to make the ping traffic (the ICMP echo request and ICMP echo reply) and
the IP SLA UDP jitter traffic have the same EF PHB as the VoIP traffic. In this way, you can compare the
traffic statistics with Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise enabled to the statistics before Cisco AutoQoS
was enabled.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-45


Step 2

Change the policy configuration on WGxR2 so that the IP SLA traffic and the ICMP traffic is in the
AutoQoS-Voice-Trust traffic class.

WGxR2(config)# ip access-list extended ICMP


WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any any echo
WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any any echo-reply
WGxR2(config)# ip access-list extended IPSLA
WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp any eq 50000 any
WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# class-map match-any AutoQoS-Voice-Trust
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match access-group name ICMP
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match access-group name IPSLA

Note The IPSLA access-list is different on the two workgroup routers. If this access-list is not entered correctly
on both routers, IP SLA traffic will not be placed in the priority queue on both routers.

Step 3

The Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise feature configured the bandwidth allocated to the AutoQoS-
Voice-Trust traffic class based on the actual bandwidth utilized by this traffic during the discovery
phase. Because the IP SLA traffic and ICMP traffic was added to the class after the Cisco AutoQoS
configuration was applied, the combined traffic will exceed the bandwidth allocated by Cisco AutoQoS for
the Enterprise. Increase the priority bandwidth that is allocated to the AutoQoS-Voice-Trust class to
40 percent on both workgroup routers to accommodate for the extra bandwidth from the IP SLA operation.

Step 4

From WGxR1, perform an extended ping to the Serial 0/0/0 interface of WGxR2. Then record the ping
response time in the "WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at the end of the lab. For the
extended ping, use a repeat count of 50 and a datagram size of 160. Repeat the extended ping two more
times and record your results in the table at the end of this lab.

WGxR1# ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 10.2.1.2
Repeat count [5]: 50
Datagram size [100]: 160
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 50, 160-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (50/50), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/7/20 ms

L-46 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 5

Perform the same extended ping test three times from WGxR2 to the Serial 0/0/0 interface (10.2.x.1) of
WGxR1 and record the response time results in the "WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table
at the end of this lab.

Step 6

Clear the interface counters on both of your workgroup routers by using the clear counters command.

Step 7

Wait for the interface counters to accumulate traffic statistics for at least 1 minute. From both of your
workgroup routers, issue the show interfaces multilink command and record the highlighted statistics to the
“WGxR1 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results” table and the “WGxR2 QoS Baseline show
interfaces Command Results” table at the end of this lab.”.

WGxR1# show interfaces multilink 7


Multilink7 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is multilink group interface
Internet address is 10.2.1.1/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 768 Kbit/sec, DLY 20000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 158/255, rxload 255/255
Encapsulation PPP, LCP Open, multilink Open
Open: IPCP, CDPCP, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
DTR is pulsed for 2 seconds on reset
Last input 00:00:00, output never, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:00:53
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 7510
Queueing strategy: Class-based queueing
Output queue: 84/1000/6980/205 (size/max total/drops/interleaves)
5 minute input rate 1048000 bits/sec, 976 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 477000 bits/sec, 490 packets/sec
52173 packets input, 7100402 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
26399 packets output, 3220752 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
0 carrier transitions

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-47


Step 8

Wait at least 1 minute to ensure that a new IP SLA operation has completed and then review the network
statistics that were gathered by your IP SLA UDP jitter operation by issuing the show ip sla statistics 10
command. Record the highlighted values in the “WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command
Results” table at the end of the lab.

Your values may vary slightly based on the specific network state when the command was run.

WGxR1# show ip sla statistics 10


IPSLAs Latest Operation Statistics
IPSLA operation id: 10
Type of operation: udp-jitter
Latest RTT: 10 milliseconds
Latest operation start time: 17:53:54 UTC Fri Aug 16 2013
Latest operation return code: OK
RTT Values:
Number Of RTT: 1000 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 5/10/38 milliseconds
Latency one-way time:
Number of Latency one-way Samples: 94
Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 1/3/9 milliseconds
Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 13/15/30 milliseconds
Jitter Time:
Number of SD Jitter Samples: 999
Number of DS Jitter Samples: 999
Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/3/16 milliseconds
Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/4/20 milliseconds
Packet Loss Values:
Loss Source to Destination: 0
Source to Destination Loss Periods Number: 0
Source to Destination Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Source to Destination Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Loss Destination to Source: 0
Destination to Source Loss Periods Number: 0
Destination to Source Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Destination to Source Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
0/0 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0
Packet Late Arrival: 0 Packet Skipped: 0
Voice Score Values:
Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 1
MOS score: 4.34
Number of successes: 18
Number of failures: 0
Operation time to live: Forever

L-48 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 9

Compare the results of the traffic statistics from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline Measurement" lab to
the results from this lab.

Is the ping maximum response time shorter than before Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise was enabled?
Explain.

Is the drop rate higher, lower, or about the same as before Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise was enabled?

Is the IP SLA MOS score higher, lower, or about the same as before Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise was
enabled? Explain.

Step 10

On both workgroup routers, remove the ICMP packets from the AutoQoS-Voice-Trust traffic class by
removing the match criterion for the ICMP access list. You will use ping test to validate the performance of
the Oracle traffic in the AutoQoS-Transactional-Trust traffic class.

Step 11

The Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise feature configured the bandwidth allocated to the AutoQoS-
Transactional-Trust traffic class based on the actual bandwidth utilized by this traffic during the
discovery phase. Increase the bandwidth that is allocated to the AutoQoS-Transactional-Trust
class to 17 percent of the remaining bandwidth on both workgroup routers. This will account for the
additional traffic required by ICMP to test the traffic class.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-49


Step 12

Perform an extended ping from WGxR1 to the 10.2.x.2 address of WGxR2. Use a repeat count of 50 and a
datagram size of 160. Using the extended commands option, set the source IP address of the pings to 10.2.x.
1 and the ToS value to 0x48. Setting the ToS value to 0x48 gives the ICMP traffic a DSCP value of AF21
which allows you to directly measure the performance of the AutoQoS-Transactional-Trust
traffic class.

Is the ping drop rate better than with the results from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline Measurement"
lab when no QoS was applied?

Are the response times as good as the results when the ICMP traffic was in the EF queue? Why?

Step 13

Remove the Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise configuration from both workgroup routers. The
encapsulation on your serial interfaces may be returned to HDLC, the Cisco default serial interface
encapsulation. If so, reconfigure your serial interfaces for PPP encapsulation on both WGxR1 and WGxR2.

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# no auto discovery qos trust
WGxR1(config-if)# no auto qos
% Cannot disable multilink on a multilink group interface
% The multilink group configuration will be removed from all the member links.
WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0
WGxR1(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

L-50 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 14

Remove the Cisco AutoQoS Classify configuration and the configuration you entered for the
University_VoIP traffic class from the workgroup switch. Note that entering the no auto qos classify
command on the FastEthernet 0/1 interface on the Catalyst 2960-S switch will not remove the global QoS
configurations that were enabled. You need to remove them manually. (Refer to Step 3 of the "Configure
Cisco AutoQoS Classify on the Catalyst 2960-S Switch" task of this lab for the global QoS configurations.)

WGxS1(config)# interface fastethernet Fastethernet


0/1 WGxS1(config-if)# no auto qos classify
WGxS1(config-if)# exit
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos map policed-dscp
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos map cos-dscp
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos srr-queue output cos-map
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos queue-set output 1 threshold
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos queue-set output 1 buffers
WGxS1(config)# no policy-map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_MULTIENHANCED_CONF_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_DEFAULT_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_TRANSACTION_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_SIGNALING_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_BULK_DATA_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_SCAVANGER_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-any University_VoIP
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-BULK-DATA
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-DEFAULT
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-MULTIENHANCED-CONF
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-SCAVANGER
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-SIGNALING
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-TRANSACTIONAL-DATA
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended University_VoIP

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain these results:

Step 15

You verified that the ping results are better than they were without QoS applied but not as good as they
were when the ICMP was part of the real-time queue for VoIP.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-51


Task 4: QoS Measurement Results
Activity Procedure
These five tables are used to record the results of your lab testing in this exercise.

Step 1

Record your extended ping results in these two tables:

WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Without Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
With Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
Packet Size (from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
(from This Lab)
Baseline Measurement" Lab)

160 bytes min/avg/max min/avg/max

Extended ping 1

Extended ping 2

Extended ping 3

success rate % success rate %

Extended ping 1

Extended ping 2

Extended ping 3

WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Without Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
With Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
Packet Size (from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
(from This Lab)
Baseline Measurement" lab)

160 bytes min/avg/max min/avg/max

Extended ping 1

Extended ping 2

Extended ping 3

success rate % success rate %

Extended ping 1

Extended ping 2

Extended ping 3

L-52 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 2

Record your WGxR1 and WGxR2 show interfaces command results in these tables.

WGxR1 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results


Without Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
With Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
(from This Lab)
Baseline Measurement" lab)
show interfaces multilink
show interfaces S0/0/0

Queuing Strategy

Reliability, Txload, Rxload

Total Output Drops

Output Queue: Size/Max Total

Packets Output

Drop % (Calculated by You as Total


Output Drop / Packets Output)

WGxR2 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results


Without Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
With Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
(from This Lab)
Baseline Measurement" lab)
show interfaces multilink
show interfaces S0/0/0

Queuing Strategy

Reliability, Txload, Rxload

Total Output Drops

Output Queue: Size/Max Total

Packets Output

Drop % (Calculated by You as Total


Output Drop / Packets Output)

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-53


Step 3

Record your IP SLA statistics for WGxR1 in this table.

WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results


Without Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
With Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
(from This Lab)
Baseline Measurement" lab)

Min/Avg/Max RTT

Min/Avg/Max Source to
Destination Latency

Min/Avg/Max Source to
Destination Jitter

Source to Destination Packet


Loss

MOS Score

L-54 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Case Study 3-1: Classification
and Marking
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will define a QoS policy that assigns network traffic to service classes and you will
identify where classification and marking should be applied to the network. After completing this activity,
you will be able to:
Given a description of network applications, create QoS service classes and assign QoS markers that are
required to implement a QoS policy
Identify the locations where trust boundaries should exist and where classification and marking should
occur
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Case Study 3-1: Classification and Marking


1 Completely read the customer requirements that are provided.
2 Identify the service classes that are required to implement the
administrative QoS policy, based on the customer requirements.
3 Identify the locations in the network where the QoS classification and
marking mechanisms should be applied in order to properly implement
the administrative QoS policy.
4 After the instructor presents a solution to the case study, discuss
differences in your solution and the one presented by the instructor
with the class.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Case Study Scenario


This case study provides information regarding the administrative QoS policy requirements of a large,
multisite network. The company has provided you with a brief description of its requirements. Your task is
to evaluate the QoS requirements. Based on these requirements, identify where the QoS classification and
marking mechanisms should be applied. You will discuss your solution with the instructor and other
classmates, and the instructor will present a solution for the case study to the class.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this case study exercise.

Case Study Background Information


This background information will assist you in completing the case study activity.

L-56 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Company Background
CJ Wit Corporation is a leading manufacturer of medical equipment that is used in outpatient surgical
centers throughout the United States. The company headquarters are located in Eugene, Oregon.
In addition to the headquarters facility, CJ Wit consists of 5 manufacturing facilities and 120 regional sales
and distribution centers. The network at each of the manufacturing facilities is similar to the CJ Wit
corporate network. The regional sales and distribution centers are very low-cost, low-overhead sites.

CJ Wit Corporate Network

Voice-Enabled Non-Voice
Wiring Closet Wiring Closet

Backbone

ERP Database, Email, and Service Provider


Regional Sales
Telephony Servers MPLS Backbone
and
Distribution Extranet Internet
Centers CE Routers

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

The CJ Wit Corporate Headquarters network is shown in the figure.

CJ Wit Regional Sales Office Network


Corporate
Headquarters

128 kb/s PVC

Frame Relay
Network

Regional Regional
Office 1 Office N

Basic
Desktop Switch

Regional
Office 2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

The regional sales and distribution center networks are shown in the figure.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-57


The manufacturing strategy of CJ Wit is to leverage the expertise of contract manufacturers through its
extensive extranet of partners. Currently, the CJ Wit extranet consists of nine contract manufacturers and
suppliers that are all connected with a national service provider backbone.

CJ Wit Extranet Network


CJ Wit Extranet
Corporate HQ Partner 1
CE

CE CE

Service Provider
PE
MPLS Backbone
Internet
PE

CJ Wit
CE P P
Manufacturing
Site 1
PE
P
PE
PE

CE
CE Extranet
Partner 9
CJ Wit
Manufacturing
Site 5

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

The service provider currently uses MPLS on its backbone as shown in the figure.

L-58 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Customer Situation
CJ Wit has recently opened up Internet access to its regional manufacturing facilities and to its regional
sales and distribution centers. As a result, access times to many of the company mission-critical applications
(such as sales and manufacturing databases) have increased dramatically. In addition, the response time
between the corporate headquarters and CJ Wit extranet partners has increased, causing database queries to
time out in some instances. No new applications have been added to the network other than those that
enable corporate-wide Internet access.
The CJ Wit network engineering staff explains the network applications in this manner:
CJ Wit uses OSPF as its routing protocol on all its routers company-wide.
The corporate headquarters and the five manufacturing facilities use VoIP for all intrasite and intersite
communications.
The entire ERP database for the company is located at the corporate site. All other sites
(manufacturing, regional sales and distribution centers, and extranet partners) use this centralized
database for inventory control, sales data, invoicing, and so on. Without complete access and
reachability to the ERP database and its applications, CJ Wit could not manufacture products, ship
inventory, or bill for its services.
Email is used frequently at CJ Wit. The exchange servers and mail gateways are all located in the
server farm at the corporate headquarters.
Internet services have recently been introduced company-wide. One of its largest uses has been
messaging between regional sales and distribution centers and between corporate staff and
manufacturing. No internal messaging service currently exists at CJ Wit. As a result, the productivity
gains realized by this Internet service have become somewhat important to the company. No other
business applications currently exist on the Internet.
Although the CJ Wit manufacturing facilities operate 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, the evening
shifts have a reduced staff and line output. As a result, database synchronization and server backups are
performed during the evening hours. A TCP-based backup application manages file transfers between
manufacturing sites and the corporate headquarters by using an automated version of FTP. Database
synchronization is also TCP-based and has no critical bandwidth or latency requirements.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the case study activity.
The table contains relevant information for standards-based QoS service classes.

Note The WRED minimum threshold is abbreviated as minth and the WRED maximum threshold is
abbreviated as maxth.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-59


QoS Service Classes
DSCP Intended Protocols Service Class and
PHB DSCP Service Class
Value and Applications Configuration

CS6 Class 6 110000 BGP, OSPF, and so Routing Queuing = Rate-based


on (Reserved)
Small guaranteed minimum rate
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth, but minth is
deep to minimize loss

EF EF 101110 Interactive voice Voice Bearer Admission control = RSVP


Queuing = Priority

AF4 AF41 100010 Interactive video and Interactive Admission control = RSVP
associated voice Video
AF42 100100 Queuing = Rate-based
AF43 100110 Active queue mgmt. = WRED
minth AF43 < maxth AF43 <=
minth AF42 < maxth AF42 <=
minth AF41 < maxth AF41

CS4 Class 4 100000 Often proprietary Streaming Admission control = RSVP


Video
Queuing = Rate-based
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth

AF3 AF31 011010 Locally defined Mission-Critical Queuing = Rate-


mission-critical based
AF32 011100
applications
Active queue mgmt. = WRED
AF33 011110
minth AF33 < maxth AF33
<= minth AF32 < maxth
AF32 <= minth AF31 <
CS3 Class 3 011000 SIP, H.323, and so on Voice Queuing = Rate-based
Signaling maxth AF31
Small guaranteed minimum rate
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth, but minth is
deep to minimize loss

AF2 AF21 010010 Database access, Transactional Queuing = Rate-


transaction services, based
AF22 010100
interactive traffic,
Active queue mgmt. = WRED
AF23 010110 preferred data service
minth AF23 < maxth AF23
<= minth AF22 < maxth
AF22 <= minth AF21 <
maxth AF21

L-60 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


DSCP Intended Protocols Service Class and
PHB DSCP Service Class
Value and Applications Configuration

AF1 AF11 001010 Intranet, general data Bulk Data Queuing = Rate-
service based
AF12 001100
Active queue mgmt. = WRED
AF13 001110
minth AF13 < maxth AF13
<= minth AF12 < maxth
AF12 <= minth AF11 <
CS1 Class 1 001000 User-selected service, Less-than-Best Queuing = Rate-based
point-to-point Effort Data maxth AF11
No bandwidth guarantee
applications (Scavenger)
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth

Default Default 000000 Unspecified traffic, Best-Effort Queuing = Rate-based


(Best- email
Minimal bandwidth guarantee
Effort)
Active queue mgmt. or per-flow
Class 0
fair queuing
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth

Task 1: Classification and Marking


Working with the network engineering staff at CJ Wit and the service provider, you have been enlisted to
assist CJ Wit by defining QoS requirements for its network. The first priority is to determine what service
classes to use and to identify where QoS classification and marking mechanisms should be configured in
the network in order to enable the CJ Wit administrative QoS policy, resolving the response-time issues.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-61


Step 1

Identify the service classes that are required to implement the administrative QoS policy, based on customer
requirements. Use the "QoS Service Classes" table to help you with your answer choices. Write your
answers in the table below.

CJ Wit Service Classes


Customer Traffic Service Class

Step 2

In order to provide end-to-end QoS, multiple markers may be required. For each service class that is
required for the CJ Wit network, complete this table with the appropriate value for each specified marker.

CJ Wit QoS Service Class Requirements


Layer 3 Classification Layer 2 Classification
Service Class
DSCP PHB DSCP IP Precedence CoS MPLS EXP

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you determine the service classes that are required for the QoS policy
and you identify the appropriate Layer 3 and Layer 2 QoS markings for each service class.

L-62 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Identify Network Locations Where
Classification and Marking Should Be Applied
Using the information provided in the review of customer QoS requirements for this case study, use the
diagrams of the CJ Wit network to indicate trust boundaries, locations where classification and marking
should be applied, the markers in use, and locations where QoS markers change to ensure end-to-end QoS.
Use the example that is shown to assist you in completing this activity. Indicate the following on the
provided network diagram:
Trust boundaries
Network locations where classification is used
Network locations where classification and marking should be used
Locations where QoS markers change

Trust
Boundary
Classification
Mark Layer 2 CoS
Hosts Marked CoS 0
Classify on CoS
Mark DSCP

WAN Internet

The figure illustrates a sample network that shows trust boundaries, where classification and marking
should be applied, and the markers in use.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-63


Step 1

The CJ Wit network consists of a converged voice and data network. Because voice is a business-critical
application, all voice traffic should be treated appropriately. The user community at CJ Wit ranges from
novice data-entry clerks to advanced systems programmers. As a result, security measures require that
workstations should not be allowed to set packet priorities.
Use the network diagram of the CJ Wit corporate network to indicate the following:
Trust boundaries
Network locations where classification is used
Network locations where classification and marking should be used
Locations where QoS markers change

Voice-Enabled Non-Voice
Wiring Closet Wiring Closet

Backbone

ERP Database, Email, and Service Provider


Regional Sales
Telephony Servers MPLS Backbone
and
Distribution Extranet Internet
Centers CE Routers

L-64 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 2

The CJ Wit regional sales and distribution center networks are very low-overhead operations. Each sales
office is staffed with three to nine employees. Distribution centers are similar to sales offices, but they can
be supported by up to 20 employees. The network at each center consists of a basic 10/100 Mb/s desktop
switch that is used to connect the office workstations to the corporate headquarters or a regional
manufacturing facility via a Frame Relay-connected low-end router.
Use the diagram of the CJ Wit regional network to indicate the following:
Trust boundaries
Network locations where classification is used
Network locations where classification and marking should be used
Locations where QoS markers change

Corporate
Headquarters

128 kb/s PVC

Frame Relay
Network

Regional Regional
Office 1 Office N

Basic
Desktop Switch

Regional
Office 2

Step 3

Discuss the differences between your solution and the one presented by the instructor with the class.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when the instructor has verified your case study solution and you have
justified major deviations from the solution that is supplied by the instructor.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-65


L-66 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Lab 3-2: Classification
and Marking Using MQC
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure classification using MQC and marking using class-based marking. After
completing this activity, you will be able to:
Configure extended IP access lists to match specific traffic characteristics
Configure MQC classification
Configure class-based marking
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 3-2: Classification and Marking Using


MQC
Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

Mark Apps
with MQC

WGxR1 Provider
Backbone

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

Mark Apps
with MQC

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen-2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
Due to the results of the "Configuring QoS with Cisco AutoQoS" lab, the E-Commerce University IT staff
has determined that the VoIP voice quality and the Oracle database application performance have improved
drastically. The university is now calling on you to develop a QoS policy to address the specific QoS
requirements of the university applications. You decide to manually implement the proper QoS mechanisms
by using MQC.
One of the first steps to implement QoS is to properly classify and mark the traffic. Therefore, the first step
is to implement classification and marking.
You decide to first approach the classification and marking by practicing these techniques on the FTP and
HTTP traffic.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

L-68 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Commands
Command Description

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

[no] class-map [match-any | match-all] Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to a specified
class-name class and enters the QoS class map configuration mode. The no form
of this command removes the configuration.

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] ip access-list extended access-list- Defines an IP access list by name or number. The no form of this
name command removes a previously defined access list.

[no] match access-group [access-group | Configures the match criterion for a class map on the basis of the
name access-group-name] specified ACL. The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] [permit | deny] [test-conditions] Creates ACL statements for a named ACL to permit or deny traffic
based on the test conditions. The no form of this command removes the
configuration.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more
interfaces. The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] set dscp dscp-value Marks a packet by setting the DSCP value in the ToS byte. The no form
of this command removes a previously configured set value.

show class-map [class-map-name] Displays class maps and their matching criteria.

show ip access-lists [access-list-number | Displays the contents of all current IP access lists or the contents of the
access-list-number-expanded-range | specified IP access list.
access-list-name | dynamic [dynamic-
access-list-name] | interface name
number [in | out]]

show policy-map [policy-map-name] Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy
[class class-name] map or of all classes for all existing policy maps.

show policy-map interface type number Displays the statistics and configurations of the input and output policies
[input | output] [class class-name] that are attached to an interface.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-69


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_Classification_Marking_MQC.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_Classification_Marking_MQC.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_Classification_Marking_MQC.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-70 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure an IP Extended Access List
You will configure an IP extended access list that matches specific traffic for use in MQC classification.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Connect to WGxR1. Configure an IP extended access list numbered 101 to match all FTP traffic.

Step 2

On WGxR1, configure a second IP extended access list numbered 102 to match all HTTP traffic.

Step 3

Display and verify your IP extended access list configuration.

WGxR1# show ip access-lists


Extended IP access list 101
10 permit tcp any any eq ftp
20 permit tcp any any eq ftp-data
Extended IP access list 102
10 permit tcp any any eq www
Extended IP access list ICMP
10 permit icmp any any echo (150 matches)
20 permit icmp any any echo-reply
Extended IP access list IPSLA
10 permit udp any any eq 50000 (32000 matches)

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-71


Task 2: Configure MQC Classification
You will configure MQC classification.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Create two new class maps that are named match-ftp and match-www to match the FTP and HTTP
traffic, respectively.
Step 2

Display and verify your class map configuration.

WGxR1# show class-map


Class Map match-any class-default (id 0)
Match any

Class Map match-all match-www (id 2)


Match access-group 102

Class Map match-all match-ftp (id 1)


Match access-group 101

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-72 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 3: Configure Class-Based Marking
You will configure class-based marking.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Create a policy map on WGxR1 that is named mark-apps. The policy map includes the two newly
configured traffic classes (match-ftp and match-www). Use class-based marking to mark the FTP
traffic to AF11 and the HTTP traffic to DSCP 0.

Step 2

Display and verify your policy map configuration.

WGxR1# show policy-map mark-apps


Policy Map mark-apps
Class match-ftp
set dscp af11
Class match-www
set dscp default

Step 3

Apply the policy map to the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface of WGxR1 in the inbound direction.

Step 4

Display and verify the operation of your service policy by using the show policy-map interface command.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-73


Step 5

How many packets have been matched and marked on WGxR1 for each traffic class?

Class match-ftp:

Class match-www:

Class class-default:

Step 6

Repeat all tasks and steps in this lab for WGxR2.

Step 7

How many packets have been matched and marked on WGxR2 for each traffic class?

Class match-ftp:

Class match-www:

Class class-default:

Step 8

Save your running configurations of the workgroup routers and the workgroup switch to the startup
configuration in NVRAM.
Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-74 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 3-3: Using NBAR
for Classification
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure classification by using Cisco NBAR. After completing this activity, you
will be able to:
Install and validate a Cisco NBAR Protocol Pack
Discover application traffic by using Cisco NBAR Protocol Discovery
Use Cisco NBAR for traffic classification in a MQC class-based marking policy
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 3-3: Using NBAR for Classification


Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

Mark Apps
with NBAR

WGxR1 Cloud to Provider


Backbone
Upgrade NBAR
Protocol Pack

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

Mark Apps
with NBAR

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen-2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
After practicing with your current classification and marking strategy, you realize that using IP access lists
cannot properly classify all the traffic that is now running on the network. You decide to configure NBAR
for your classification requirements. Before you configure protocol matching with NBAR, you decide to
first analyze the network by using NBAR Protocol Discovery. This action will allow you to validate your
assumptions about the current network traffic, and it will provide information that you can use during your
discussions with the application owners and management regarding the QoS policy. After all traffic has
been properly identified, you plan to configure a new class-based marking policy to classify and mark the
applications that run on the network.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

L-76 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Commands
Command Description

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

[no] class-map [match-any | match-all] Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to a specified
class-name class and enters QoS class map configuration mode. The no form of
this command removes the configuration.

clear ip nbar protocol-discovery Clears the statistics gathered by the NBAR Protocol Discovery feature.
[interface type number]

dir device: List the files on one of the router file systems.

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] ip access-list extended access-list- Defines an IP access list by name or number. The no form of this
name command removes a previously defined access list.

[no] ip nbar protocol-discovery [ipv4 | Configures NBAR to discover traffic for all protocols that are known to
ipv6] NBAR on a particular interface. The no form of this command disables
traffic discovery.

[no] ip nbar protocol-pack protocol-pack Loads the NBAR Protocol Pack. The no form of this command removes
[force] the loaded protocol pack.

[no] match class-map class-map-name Configures a traffic class as a match criterion in a class map. The no
form of this command removes the match criterion from the class map.

[no] match protocol protocol-name Configures the match criteria for a class map on the basis of a specified
protocol. The no form of this command removes the match criteria from
the class map.

[no] [permit | deny] [test-conditions] Creates ACL statements for a named ACL to permit or deny traffic
based on the test conditions. The no form of this command removes the
configuration.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more
interface. The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] set dscp dscp-value Marks a packet by setting the DSCP value in the ToS byte. The no form
of this command removes a previously configured set value.

show class-map [class-map-name] Displays class maps and their matching criteria.

show ip nbar protocol-discovery Displays the statistics gathered by the NBAR Protocol
[interface type number] [stats {byte-count Discovery feature.
| bit-rate | packet-count | max-bit-rate}]
[protocol protocol-name][top-n number]

show ip nbar protocol-pack {protocol- Displays the NBAR Protocol Pack information.
pack | active} [detail]

show policy-map [policy-map-name] Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy
[class class-name] map or of all classes for all existing policy maps.

show policy-map interface type number Displays the statistics and configurations of the input and output policies
[input | output] [class class-name] that are attached to an interface.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-77


Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

Task 0: Initialize the Network


You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_NBAR_Classification.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_NBAR_Classification.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_NBAR_Classification.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-78 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Upgrade the NBAR Protocol Pack
You will upgrade the NBAR Protocol Pack to the latest version that is available.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

While discussing your evolving QoS policy with a Cisco Systems engineer, you mention that you are
planning to implement NBAR to discover network applications and to perform classification and marking.
The engineer recommends that, prior to enabling NBAR, you should upgrade to the latest protocol pack that
is available. You have downloaded the latest protocol pack that is available for your software version to the
flash memory of both workgroup routers, naming the file pp-adv-
isrg2-152-4.M1-13-6.0.0.pack. Validate that the file is present on the flash memory of both
routers.

WGxR1# dir
Directory of flash0:/

1 -rw- 75264 Jan 29 2014 16:34:28 +00:00 WG1R1.TAR


2 drw- 0 Jan 29 2014 16:38:18 +00:00 config
19 -rw- 242777 Jan 27 2014 09:23:30 +00:00 pp-adv-isrg2-152-4.M1-13-6.0.0.pack
20 -rw- 97794040 Jan 27 2014 11:27:50 +00:00 c2900-universalk9-mz.SPA.152-4.M1.bin

256483328 bytes total (158257152 bytes free)

Step 2

Validate the current protocol pack version on both of the workgroup routers by using the show ip nbar
protocol-pack active command.

What is the current version of the NBAR Protocol Pack that is installed on the workgroup routers?

Step 3

Install the NBAR Protocol Pack onto both workgroup routers by using the ip nbar protocol-pack
command while in configuration mode.

WGxR1(config)# ip nbar protocol-pack flash:pp-adv-isrg2-152-4.M1-13-6.0.0.pack

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-79


Note It may take several minutes for the new protocol pack to install.

Step 4

Validate that the protocol pack upgrade was successful on both workgroup routers.

What is the updated version of the protocol pack that is installed on the workgroup routers?

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 5

You have validated that the updated version of the NBAR Protocol Pack is version 6.0.

WGXR1# show ip nbar protocol-pack active


ACTIVE protocol pack:
Name: Advanced Protocol Pack
Version: 6.0
Publisher: Cisco Systems Inc.
File: flash:pp-adv-isrg2-152-4.M1-13-6.0.0.pack

L-80 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Discover Applications and Traffic by Using
NBAR
You will discover network applications and traffic by using NBAR Protocol Discovery.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Disable the existing inbound service policy on the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface of both workgroup routers.

Step 2

Enable NBAR Protocol Discovery on the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface of the WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers.

Note It can take several minutes for NBAR Protocol Discovery to be enabled after the installation of the
new protocol pack. Make sure that you enable NBAR Protocol Discovery on both workgroup routers at
the same time. Do not wait for the command to be accepted on one router before enabling it on the
other.

Step 3

Clear the NBAR Protocol Discovery counters on WGxR1 and WGxR2.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-81


Wait for the interface counters to accumulate traffic statistics for at least 1 minute and then display the
NBAR Protocol Discovery traffic statistics on both workgroup routers.

Step 4

In the space provided below, list the protocols that are discovered by NBAR Protocol Discovery:

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-82 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 3: Configure Classification with NBAR
You will configure classification of discovered applications by using NBAR.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

Based on the applications that are discovered and discussions with the application users at the university,
you decide to create a QoS classification and marking policy with seven traffic classes as outlined in the
table below. On both workgroup routers, configure NBAR classification and MQC marking to classify
inbound traffic on the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface and mark it as outlined in the table. Completion of this
lab step will require the configuration of the seven new traffic classes and the configuration of a policy map
(called marknbar) that marks traffic in each class appropriately. In order to allow flexibility to alter the
match criteria for the class maps in a future lab activity, configure all of the class maps for match-any
unless match-all is required to achieve the required matching criteria.

Class Name
Protocol PHB
(class-map name)

VoIP-Telephony RTP audio EF

Call-Signaling RTCP CS 3

Call-Signaling H.323 CS 3

Mission-Critical Oracle SQL*Net AF31

Low-Latency-Data Citrix AF21

High-Throughput-Data FTP AF11

High-Throughput-Data Exchange AF11

High-Throughput-Data HTTP traffic that is sourced from 10.1.x.10 to 10.3.x.10 or AF11


sourced from 10.3.x.10 to 10.1.x.10
(create the match criteria in a match-all class map that is
named Business-HTTP)

Low-Priority-Data Gnutella CS 1

Low-Priority-Data Skype CS 1

class-default All others BE

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-83


Step 2
Step 2

Display and verify your class map configuration.

Class Map match-all Business-HTTP (id 3)


Match protocol http
Match access-group name Business-HTTP
Class Map match-any class-default
(id 0)
Match any
Class Map match-all match-www (id 2)
Match access-group 102
Class Map match-any Low-Latency-Data (id 7)
Match protocol citrix
Class Map match-any High-Throughput-Data (id 8)
Match protocol ftp
Match protocol exchange
Match class-map Business-HTTP
Class Map match-all match-ftp
(id 1)
Match access-group 101
Class Map match-any Mission-Critical (id 6)
Match protocol oracle-sqlnet

Class Map match-any Call-Signaling (id 5)


Match protocol h323
Match protocol rtcp
Class Map match-any VoIP-Telephony (id 4)
Match protocol rtp audio
Class Map match-any Low-Priority-Data (id 9)
Match protocol skype
Match protocol gnutella

Step 3

Display and verify your policy map configuration.

Policy Map mark-nbar


Class VoIP Telephony
set dscp ef
Class Call-Signaling
set dscp cs3
Class Mission-Critical
set dscp af31
Class Low-Latency-Data
set dscp af21
Class High-Throughput-Data
set dscp af11
Class Low-Priority-Data
set dscp cs1
Class class-default
set dscp default

Step 4

Disable NBAR Protocol Discovery from the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface on WGxR1 and WGxR2.

L-84 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 5

Apply the mark-nbar policy map to the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface of both workgroup routers in the
inbound direction.

Step 6

Wait for the interface counters to accumulate traffic statistics for at least 1 minute. Display and verify your
service policy on interface GigabitEthernet 0/0 of both workgroup routers.

WGxR1# show policy-map interface gigabitethernet 0/0


GigabitEthernet0/0
Service-policy input: mark-nbar
Class-map: VoIP-Telephony (match-all)
3534 packets, 756276 bytes
30 second offered rate 95000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol rtp audio
QoS Set
dscp ef
Packets marked 3534
Class-map: Call-Signaling (match-any)
61 packets, 6908 bytes
30 second offered rate 1000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol h323
43 packets, 5168 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Match: protocol rtcp
18 packets, 1740 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
QoS Set
dscp cs3
Packets marked 61
Class-map: Mission-Critical (match-all)
811 packets, 68013 bytes
30 second offered rate 9000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol oracle-sqlnet
QoS Set
dscp af31
Packets marked 811

.....Omitted......

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-85


Step 7
Step 7

How many packets have been matched and marked for the traffic class VoIP-Telephony?

How many packets have been matched and marked for the traffic class Mission-Critical?

What is the 30-second offered rate for the traffic class Low-Priority-Data?

What is the 30-second drop rate for the traffic class class-default?

Note If the Call-Signaling, High-Throughput-Data, or Low-Priority-Data classes have no


matches, verify your class map configuration to ensure that they are set to match-any and not match-
all.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

L-86 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 8

You validated that there is traffic matching each of the match criteria for the mark-nbar policy on both
workgroup routers when applied to the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface.

WGxR1# show policy-map interface gigabitethernet 0/0


GigabitEthernet0/0
Service-policy input: mark-nbar
Class-map: VoIP-Telephony (match-any)
8960 packets, 1917440 bytes
30 second offered rate 54000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol rtp audio
8960 packets, 1917440 bytes
30 second rate 54000 bps
QoS Set
dscp ef
Packets marked 8960
Class-map: Call-Signaling (match-any)
188 packets, 19114 bytes
30 second offered rate 0000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol h323
131 packets, 13980 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Match: protocol rtcp
57 packets, 5134 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
QoS Set
dscp cs3
Packets marked 188
Class-map: Mission-Critical (match-any)
2465 packets, 226800 bytes
30 second offered rate 6000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol oracle-sqlnet
2465 packets, 226800 bytes
30 second rate 6000 bps
QoS Set
dscp af31
Packets marked 2465
Class-map: Low-Latency-Data (match-any)
25951 packets, 2029214 bytes
30 second offered rate 56000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol citrix
25951 packets, 2029214 bytes
30 second rate 56000 bps
QoS Set
dscp af21
Packets marked 25951

Class-map: High-Throughput-Data (match-any)


17363 packets, 1456658 bytes
30 second offered rate 41000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol ftp
9281 packets, 630194 bytes
30 second rate 17000 bps
Match: protocol exchange
2824 packets, 290978 bytes
30 second rate 7000 bps
Match: class-map match-all Business-HTTP
5258 packets, 535486 bytes
30 second rate 15000 bps
Match: protocol http

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-87


Match: access-group name Business-HTTP
QoS Set
dscp af11
Packets marked 17364
Class-map: Low-Priority-Data (match-any)
3771 packets, 368019 bytes
30 second offered rate 8000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol skype
764 packets, 73839 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Match: protocol gnutella
3007 packets, 294180 bytes
30 second rate 8000 bps
QoS Set
dscp cs1
Packets marked 3771
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
149010 packets, 19982430 bytes
30 second offered rate 574000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: any
QoS Set
dscp default
Packets marked 149011

L-88 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 3-4: Configuring QoS
Preclassify
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure and examine QoS preclassify on a GRE tunnel. After completing this
activity, you will be able to:
Configure a GRE tunnel and confirm that the original packet headers are unavailable to the QoS policy
Configure QoS preclassify on a GRE tunnel and validate that the original packet headers are available to
the QoS policy with QoS preclassify enabled
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 3-4: Configuring QoS Preclassify


Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

WGxR1 Provider
Backbone

QoS Preclassify

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
The E-Commerce University IT staff is considering implementing a GRE tunnel between the north campus
and south campus via the 1-Mb/s Internet connection to serve as a backup for the P2P serial connection. At
this point, the IT manager has asked that you first configure and test the GRE tunnel (without IPsec).
Because the university would be sending different types of traffic over the tunnel the IT staff would like to
know if you will be able to differentiate traffic for prioritization.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

L-90 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Commands
Command Description

[no] interface interface-type interface- Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.
number

[no] ip route [vrf vrf-name] prefix mask {ip- Establishes a static route. The no form of this command removes a
address | interface-type interface-number previously established static route.
[ip-address] } [dhcp] [global] [distance]
multicast [name next-hop-name]
[permanent | track number] [tag tag]

[no] ip unnumbered type number [poll] Enables IP processing on an interface without assigning an explicit IP
address to the interface. The no form of this command disables the IP
processing on the interface.

[no] qos pre-classify Enables QoS preclassification. The no form of this command disables
the QoS preclassification feature.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

show interfaces interface-type interface- Displays information about any interface that is configured on the
number device.

show policy-map interface type number Displays the statistics and configurations of the input and output policies
[input | output] [class class-name] that are attached to an interface.

telnet ip_address Uses Telnet to connect to a host.

traceroute ip_address [port] [keyword] Discovers the routes that packets will take when traveling to their
destination address.

[no] tunnel destination {host-name | ip- Specifies the destination for a tunnel interface. The no form of this
address | ipv6-address | dynamic } command removes a previously defined destination.

[no] tunnel source {ip-address | ipv6- Set the source address for a tunnel interface. The no form of this
address | interface-type interface-number | command removes a previously defined source address.
dynamic}

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-91


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_QoS_PreClassify.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_QoS_PreClassify.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_QoS_PreClassify.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-92 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure a GRE Tunnel
In this task you will configure a GRE tunnel between WGxR1 and WGxR2 that routes through the provider
backbone.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

Verify that the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface on both of your workgroup routers is up and running. Ensure
that WGxR1 sends traffic targeting the IP address of GigabitEthernet 0/1 on WGxR2 through the Internet
connection to the service provider core by performing a traceroute to the 10.5.x.2 address.

WGxR1# traceroute 10.5.x.2


Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.5.1.2
VRF info: (vrf in name/id, vrf out name/id)
1 10.4.x.100 0 msec 4 msec 0 msec
2 10.5.x.2 0 msec * 0 msec

Perform this same test from WGxR2 by performing a traceroute to the 10.4.x.1 address.

WGxR2# traceroute 10.4.x.1


Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.4.x.1
VRF info: (vrf in name/id, vrf out name/id)
1 10.5.x.100 0 msec 0 msec 4 msec
2 10.4.x.1 0 msec * 0 msec

Step 2

Configure a GRE tunnel between your WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers via the Internet connection over the
service provider core as follows:

!WGxR1
!
interface Tunnel0
ip unnumbered GigabitEthernet0/0
tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/1
tunnel destination 10.5.x.2

!WGxR2
!
interface Tunnel0
ip unnumbered GigabitEthernet0/0
tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/1
tunnel destination 10.4.x.1

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-93


Step 3

Configure a static route via the Tunnel0 interface to the 10.1.x.0 or 10.3.x.0 subnet on the respective WGxR
router as follows:

!WGxR1
!
ip route 10.3.x.0 255.255.255.0 Tunnel0

!WGxR2
!
ip route 10.1.x.0 255.255.255.0 Tunnel0

Step 4

Display the tunnel interface and verify that it is in the up state and is operational.

WGxR1# show interface tunnel 0


Tunnel0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is Tunnel
Interface is unnumbered. Using address of GigabitEthernet0/0 (10.1.x.1)
MTU 17916 bytes, BW 100 Kbit/sec, DLY 50000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 244/255, rxload 160/255
Encapsulation TUNNEL, loopback not set
Keepalive not set
Tunnel source 10.4.x.1 (GigabitEthernet0/1), destination 10.5.x.2
.....Omitted.....

Step 5

Use Telnet to connect to the Callgen-1 (10.1.x.11) router and perform a traceroute to the Callgen-2 (10.3.x.
11) router. Verify that the path goes through your GRE tunnel. The username for Callgen-1 is super and the
password is bowl.

callgen-1> traceroute 10.3.x.11


Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.3.x.11
1 10.1.x.1 4 msec 0 msec 0 msec
2 10.3.x.2 0 msec 4 msec 0 msec
3 10.3.x.11 0 msec * 0 msec

L-94 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 6

Use Telnet to connect to the Callgen-2 router and perform a traceroute to the Callgen-1 router. Verify that
the path goes through your GRE tunnel. The username for Callgen-2 is super and the password is bowl.

callgen-2> traceroute 10.1.x.11


Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.1.x.11
1 10.3.x.2 0 msec 0 msec 0 msec
2 10.1.x.1 0 msec 0 msec 0 msec
3 10.1.x.11 4 msec 0 msec *

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-95


Task 2: Configure QoS Preclassify
You will configure QoS preclassify on a Cisco IOS router.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Now that you have configured a tunnel between the north and south campuses over the Internet, you need to
test whether or not you can successfully use a QoS policy on the Gigabit Ethernet connection to the service
provider. Although there are no QoS guarantees over the Internet, you will prioritize applications on your
connection to the provider because this location is the most likely place for your traffic to experience
congestion. Apply the previously created policy that is named mark-apps to outbound traffic on the
GigabitEthernet 0/1 interfaces of both workgroup routers.

Use the show policy-map interface gigabitethernet 0/1 command to validate whether the mark-apps
service policy is correctly matching and marking traffic.

Is any traffic matching the match-ftp traffic class?

Is any traffic matching the match-www traffic class?

Explain the behavior that you are seeing with this policy map that is applied to the GigabitEthernet 0/1
interfaces of both routers.

Step 2

Traffic traversing certain tunnel technologies, such as GRE, requires the QoS preclassify feature in order to
allow the QoS policies to correctly identify the traffic flows. Enable the QoS preclassify feature on the
Tunnel0 interface of both workgroup routers.

Step 3

Validate whether the mark-apps service policy is correctly matching and marking traffic with the QoS
preclassify feature enabled.

Step 4

Now that you have validated the ability to provide QoS services over the GRE tunnel, remove the static
routes via the tunnel interfaces and the mark-apps policy from the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of both
workgroup routers. Remove the tunnel interface on both routers.
L-96 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Step 5

Save your running configurations of the workgroup routers and the workgroup switch to the startup
configuration in NVRAM.
Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-97


L-98 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Lab 3-5: Campus
Classification and
Marking Using MQC
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure campus-based classification and marking. After completing this activity,
you will be able to:
Configure a trust boundary on a Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch to trust only Cisco IP phones
Configure CoS-to-DSCP mapping on a Catalyst 2960-S Switch
Configure a class-based marking QoS policy by using extended IP access lists for classification on a
Catalyst 2960-S Switch
Verify the function of class-based marking on a Catalyst 2960-S Switch by inspecting traffic-marking
statistics
Adjust the classification and marking policy of a branch router to account for campus-based marking
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 3-5: Campus Classification and Marking


Using MQC
Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1 Mark Apps


with MQC

Provider
WGxR1
Backbone

Core
WGxR2 Switch

Mark Apps
with MQC
WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
The university IT staff is concerned that students might learn to alter the QoS markings of their traffic,
giving it preferential treatment over university applications. The IT staff has asked for a method to provide
the proper QoS requirements to the Cisco IP phones in the wiring closet while not allowing the students to
set QoS markings. You decide to establish a trust boundary that extends to these IP phones while protecting
the network from untrusted devices such as student laptops.
In addition, you would like to perform as much of your classification and marking as close to the source of
the traffic as possible. In your conversations with the telephony group, you have discovered that the group
is using IP voice gateway devices that are not capable of marking CoS or DSCP. You plan to use an MQC
policy on the WGxS1 switch to classify and mark some of the network traffic application traffic and the
voice gateway traffic by using IP access lists.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

L-100 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Commands
Command Description

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

[no] class-map [match-any | match-all] Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to a specified
class-name class and enters QoS class map configuration mode. The no form of
this command removes the configuration.

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] ip access-list extended access-list- Defines an IP access list by name or number. The no form of this
name command removes a previously defined access list.

[no] match access-group [access-group | Configures the match criterion for a class map on the basis of the
name access-group-name] specified ACL. The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] match [ip] dscp dscp-value1 [dscp- Identifies one or more DSCP values as match criteria for a class map.
value2....dscp-value8] The no form of this command removes the match criteria from the class
map.

[no] mls qos Enables or disable the QoS functionality globally.

[no] mls qos map cos-dscp Defines the ingress CoS-to-DSCP map for a trusted interface. The no
dscp1...dscp8 form of this command removes a prior entry.

[no] mls qos trust [cos | dscp | ip- Configures the port trust state. Ingress traffic can be trusted and
precedence | device [cisco-phone | cts | classification is performed by examining the packet DSCP, CoS, or IP
ip-camera | media-player]] precedence field. The command can also set a conditional trust
boundary by using the keyword device. The no form of this command
returns the port to an untrusted state.

[no] [permit | deny] [test-conditions] Creates ACL statements for a named ACL to permit or deny traffic
based on the test conditions. The no form of this command removes the
configuration.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to an interface.
The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] set dscp dscp-value Marks a packet by setting the DSCP value in the ToS byte. The no form
of this command removes a previously configured set value.

show class-map [class-map-name] Displays class maps and their matching criteria.

show mls qos interface interface-name Displays the queuing strategy and the weights that correspond to the
queueing queues.

show mls qos interface interface-name Displays statistics for sent and received DSCP and CoS values, the
statistics number of packets enqueue or dropped per egress queue, and the
number of in-profile and out-of-profile packets for each policer.

show mls qos maps [cos-dscp | cos- Displays the QoS mapping information. During classification, QoS uses
output-q | dscp-cos | dscp-mutation | the mapping tables to represent the priority of the traffic and to derive a
dscp-output-q | ip-prec-dscp | policed- corresponding CoS or DSCP value from the received CoS, DSCP, or IP
dscp] precedence values.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
 No additional job aids are required for this activity.
© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-101
Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_Campus_Classification_Marking.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_Campus_Classification_Marking.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_Campus_Classification_Marking.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-102 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure a Trust Boundary
You will configure a trust boundary on a Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch to trust only Cisco IP phones.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following step:

Step 1

Assume that there is a Cisco IP phone connected to the FasFastethernet Fastethernet 0/1 port of your
workgroup WGxS1 switch. Establish a trust boundary on the FastEthernet 0/1 interface of your WGxS1
switch by setting the interface to trust only CoS from the Cisco IP phone.

Note Because there is not a Cisco IP phone connected to your workgroup switch in the lab, all the incoming
frames will have the CoS value set to the default port CoS of 0 by your workgroup switch.

Step 2

Validate the MLS QoS configuration of the FastEthernet 0/1 interface by using the show mls qos
interface fastethernet 0/1 command.

Is QoS enabled on the switch?

Step 3

Globally enable QoS on the WGxS1 switch by using the mls qos command.

Step 4

Now that you have globally enabled QoS for the switch, validate the MLS QoS configuration of the
FasFastethernet Fastethernet 0/1 interface.

Is QoS enabled on the switch?

What is the trust mode for this interface?

Is the interface configured correctly to trust Cisco IP phones?

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-103


What is the trust state of this interface? Why?

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain these results:

Step 5

You validated the trust mode and trust device settings for the FastEthernet 0/1 interface.

WGxS1# show mls qos interface Fastethernet 0/1


Fastethernet0/1 trust
state: not trusted trust
mode: trust cos trust
enabled flag: dis COS
override: dis
default COS: 0
DSCP Mutation Map: Default DSCP Mutation Map
Trust device: cisco-phone
qos mode: port-based

L-104 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Configure CoS-to-DSCP Mapping
You will adjust the default CoS-to-DSCP mapping on a Catalyst 2960-S switch.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Display the default CoS-to-DSCP mapping on your workgroup WGxS1 switch by using the show mls qos
maps command.

By default, what DSCP value does CoS 5 map to?

What is the DSCP PHB represented by the default mapping of CoS 5 on the Catalyst 2960-S switch?

Step 1

On your WGxS1 switch, change the default CoS-to-DSCP mapping to map CoS 5 to DSCP 46, because the
downstream devices are expecting voice (CoS 5) traffic to be marked with DSCP 46 (EF). All other CoS-to-
DSCP mappings should remain at their default values.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 2

You verified the new CoS-to-DSCP mapping on WGxS1. Validate that CoS 5 is now being mapped to
DSCP 46.

WGxS1# show mls qos map cos-dscp


Cos-dscp map:
cos: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
--------------------------------
dscp: 0 8 16 24 32 46 48 56

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-105


Task 3: Configure Class-Based Marking
You will configure IP access lists to be used in a class-based marking policy on a Catalyst 2960-S switch.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

After discussions with all of the application administrators, you are able to confirm the ports that are used
by the key applications in use at the university. Assume that the Callgen routers (10.1.x.11 and 10.3.x.11)
are the voice gateways described earlier and they are not marking voice traffic with DSCP 46 (EF). Because
the Cisco IP phones are connected with a trust boundary, this traffic will already be marked DSCP EF.
Create an MQC classification and marking policy that uses the information in the table to mark traffic with
the correct DSCP values, based on the IP address or Layer 4 port information. Name the policy map Edge-
Marking and apply it in the inbound direction on the FastEthernet 0/1 interface of WGxS1.

Match Criteria

Class
Name Access List Name IP Addresses Protocol Ports PHB
(class-map
name)
VoIP- VoIP-Telephony Source address UDP 16,384 to 32,767 EF
Telephony of 10.1.x.11 or
10.3.x.11

Call-Signaling Call-Signaling Source address TCP 1720 CS 3


of 10.1.x.11 or
10.3.x.11

Mission-Critical Mission-Critical Any TCP 1521 AF31

Low-Latency- Low-Latency-Data Any TCP 1494 AF21


Data

High- High-Throughput- Any TCP 21 AF11


Throughput- Data
Data

class-default N/A N/A N/A N/A BE

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

You verified your access list configurations.

WGxS1# show access-list


Extended IP access list Call-Signaling
10 permit tcp host 10.1.1.11 any eq 1720
20 permit tcp host 10.3.1.11 any eq 1720
30 permit tcp host 10.1.1.11 eq 1720 any
40 permit tcp host 10.3.1.11 eq 1720 any
Extended IP access list High-Throughput-Data
10 permit tcp any any eq ftp
20 permit tcp any eq ftp any
Extended IP access list Low-Latency-Data

L-106 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


10 permit tcp any any eq 1494
20 permit tcp any eq 1494 any
Extended IP access list Mission-Critical
10 permit tcp any any eq 1521
20 permit tcp any eq 1521 any
Extended IP access list VoIP-Telephony
10 permit udp host 10.1.1.11 any range 16384 32767
20 permit udp host 10.3.1.11 any range 16384 32767

Step 2

You verified your class map configurations.

WGxS1# show class-map


Class Map match-any class-default (id 0)
Match any
Class Map match-all Low-Latency-Data (id 5)
Match access-group name Low-Latency-Data
Class Map match-all High-Throughput-Data (id 4)
Match access-group name High-Throughput-Data
Class Map match-all Mission-Critical (id 3)
Match access-group name Mission-Critical
Class Map match-all Call-Signaling (id 2)
Match access-group name Call-Signaling
Class Map match-all VoIP-Telephony (id 1)
Match access-group name VoIP-Telephony
Step 3

You verified the configuration of your class-based marking policy.


WGxS1# show policy-map Edge-Marking
Policy Map Edge-Marking
Class VoIP-Telephony
set dscp ef
Class Call-Signaling
set dscp cs3
Class Mission-Critical
set dscp af31
Class Low-Latency-Data
set dscp af21
Class High-Throughput-Data
set dscp af11
Class class-default
set dscp default
Step 4

You verified that your service policy is properly applied to the FastEthernet 0/1 interface in the inbound
direction, and you also verified the trust setting and default CoS value.
WGxS1# show mls qos interface fastethernet 0/1
Fastethernet0/1
Attached policy-map for Ingress: Edge-Marking
trust state: not trusted
trust mode: trust cos
trust enabled flag: dis
COS override: dis
default COS: 0
DSCP Mutation Map: Default DSCP Mutation Map
Trust device: cisco-phone
qos mode: port-based
© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-107
Task 4: Verify QoS Markings
You will verify the QoS marking from the workgroup switch.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Clear the MLS QoS statistics by using the clear mls qos interface statistics command.

Step 2
Knowing that all of the inbound traffic on interface FasFastethernet Fastethernet 0/1 is exiting the switch
via the interfaces FasFastethernet 0/2 and 0/3, view the MLS QoS interface statistics for those two
interfaces and validate the DSCP markings of the outbound traffic.

What are the DSCP values with outbound traffic?

Step 3

Display the MLS QoS statistics for the FasFastethernet Fastethernet 0/1

interface. What are the DSCP values with outbound traffic?

Is the traffic that is coming from the workgroup routers that has already been classified and marked with the
mark-nbar policy being trusted? Why?

Step 4

In order to improve the QoS on the switched network, configure the FasFastethernet 0/2 and 0/3 interfaces to
trust the DSCP markings of the traffic coming from the workgroup routers.

Step 5

Wait 1 minute and then display the MLS QoS statistics for the FasFastethernet Fastethernet 0/1 interface
now that the DSCP markings from the workgroup routers are trusted.

What are the DSCP values with outbound traffic?

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

L-108 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 6

You verified that the outbound traffic on the FasFastethernet Fastethernet 0/1 interface of WGxS1 is being
marked with the highlighted DSCP values.

WGxS1# show mls qos interface fasfastethernet Fastethernet 0/1 statistics


Fastethernet0/1 (All statistics are in packets)
dscp: incoming
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 2620558 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 0 0
10 - 14 : 0 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 0 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 171
25 - 29 : 0 1576 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 101053 0 4821 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
dscp: outgoing
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 2449582 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 8770 0
10 - 14 : 7677 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 22783 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 1197
25 - 29 : 0 6521 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 14978 0 31 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0

L-109 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 5: Adjust Router Classification and Marking
Policy
You will adjust the classification and marking policy on the workgroup routers to account for the markings
being done on the WGxS1 switch.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Update the mark-nbar policy on both workgroup routers so that the DSCP settings from the switch for
the five traffic classes you defined are included as match criteria in the appropriate class maps on the
workgroup routers.

Save your running configuration on the workgroup switch and the workgroup routers to the startup
configuration in NVRAM.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 2
You verified your class map configurations on both workgroup routers.

WGxR1# show class-map


Class Map match-any class-default (id 0)
Match any

Class Map match-all match-www (id 2)


Match access-group 102

Class Map match-any Low-Latency-Data (id 7)


Match protocol citrix
Match dscp af21 (18)

Class Map match-any High-Throughput-Data (id 5)


Match class-map Business-HTTP
Match protocol ftp
Match protocol exchange
Match dscp af11 (10)

Class Map match-all match-ftp (id 1)


Match access-group 101

Class Map match-any Mission-Critical (id 4)


Match protocol oracle-sqlnet
Match dscp af31 (26)

Class Map match-any Call-Signaling (id 6)


Match protocol h323
Match protocol rtcp
Match dscp cs3 (24)

Class Map match-any VoIP-Telephony (id 3)


Match protocol rtp audio

L-110 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Match dscp ef (46)

Class Map match-any Low-Priority-Data (id 8)


Match protocol gnutella
Match protocol skype

L-111 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


L-112 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Lab 4-1: Configuring
Fair Queuing
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure fair queuing on a router, measure the network performance, and adjust
the fair queuing configuration to measure changes in the network performance. After completing this
activity, you will be able to:
Configure fair queuing on an interface by applying an MQC policy with fair queuing enabled in the
class-default traffic class
Use Cisco IOS monitoring commands, IP SLA, and network connectivity tools (ping) to gather network
performance data and evaluate the effectiveness of a fair queuing policy
Adjust the dynamic queue settings for a fair queuing policy
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 4-1: Configuring Fair Queuing


Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

Provider
WGxR1
Backbone

Fair Queuing

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
Now that you have established your classification and marking policies, the next step in completing the E-
Commerce University QoS policy is to implement queuing mechanisms. To gain a better understanding of
the various queue mechanisms, you decide to compare FIFO and fair queuing on the leased-line connection
between the north campus and the south campus.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

Commands
Command Description

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

fair-queue [dynamic-queues] Specifies the number of queues to be reserved for use by a traffic class.

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

L-114 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Command Description

ping Uses ICMP echo requests and ICMP echo replies to determine whether
a remove host is reachable. Entering the command without a variable
enters the extended ping mode.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more
interface. The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

show interfaces interface-type interface- Displays information about the interfaces that are configured on the
number device.

show ip sla statistics [operation-number] Displays the operational statistics and status for all IP SLA operations or
[details] the specified IP SLA operation.

show policy-map interface type number Displays the statistics and configurations of the input and output policies
[input | output] [class class-name] that are attached to an interface.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-115


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_Fair_Queuing.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_Fair_Queuing.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_Fair_Queuing.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-116 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure Fair Queuing
You will enable fair queuing on the serial connection between the workgroup routers.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Examine the queuing parameters for the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both workgroup routers by using the show
interface command.

Which queuing strategy is enabled by default for the interface?

What are the current and max queue sizes?

Step 2

What are some disadvantages of using FIFO queuing for real-time and mission-critical traffic?
Step 3

On both workgroup routers, create a policy map that is named FairQueue that only uses the class-
default traffic class with fair queuing enabled for 16 dynamic conversation queues.

Step 4

Apply the FairQueue policy in the outbound direction on the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both workgroup
routers.

Step 5

Reexamine the queuing parameters for the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both workgroup routers after the
FairQueue policy has been applied.

Which queuing strategy is enabled?

What are the current and max queue sizes?

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-117


Step 6

Validate the policy configuration on both workgroup routers by using the show policy-map interface
command.

What is the maximum number of hashed queues?

What is the per-flow queue limit?

What is the maximum queue size for the class-default traffic class with these settings?

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:
Step 7

You verified the configuration for the service policy that is attached to the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both
workgroup routers.

WGxR1# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0


Serial0/0/0
Service-policy output: FairQueue
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
80537 packets, 10741706 bytes
30 second offered rate 673000 bps, drop rate 105000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops/flowdrops) 44/12089/0/12089
(pkts output/bytes output) 68461/9276993
Fair-queue: per-flow queue limit 16 packets
Maximum Number of Hashed Queues 16

L-118 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Measure Network Performance with Fair
Queuing
You will monitor network performance with fair queuing configured on the serial connection between the
workgroup routers.
Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Refer to the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline Measurement" lab and copy the ping RTT and success rate
values for the ping tests prior to traffic generation being enabled and after traffic generation was enabled to
the table at the end of this lab. Refer to the "Configuring QoS with Cisco AutoQoS" lab and copy the ping
RTT and success rate values for the ping tests after Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise was enabled.

Step 2

Perform an extended ping from WGxR1 to the 10.2.x.2 address of WGxR2 by using a repeat count of 50
and a size of 160 bytes. Record the results in the "WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at
the end of this lab.

WGxR1# ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 10.2.x.2
Repeat count [5]: 50
Datagram size [100]: 160
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 50, 160-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.x.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Success rate is 98 percent (49/50), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/84/1208 ms

Step 3

Repeat the extended ping two more times and record your results in the "WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline
Ping Results" table at the end of this lab.

Step 4

Perform the same extended ping three times from WGxR2 to the 10.2.x.1 address of WGxR1. Record the
results in the "WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at the end of this lab.

Step 5

In the “WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results” table at the end of this lab, record
the IP SLA MOS score that you received for the UDP jitter operation in the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
Baseline Measurement" lab before and after traffic generation began and record the IP SLA MOS score that
you received for the UDP jitter operation in the "Configuring QoS with Cisco AutoQoS" lab after Cisco
AutoQoS for the Enterprise was enabled.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-119


View the IP SLA statistics for the IP SLA UDP jitter operation by using the show ip sla statistics 10
command. Record the MOS score in the “WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results”
table at the end of this lab. View the IP SLA statistics three more times and record the values at the end of
the lab. Make sure that each score is from a distinct operation by validating that the operation start time is
different for each value you record.

WGxR1# show ip sla statistics 10


IPSLAs Latest Operation Statistics
IPSLA operation id: 10
Type of operation: udp-jitter
Latest RTT: 194 milliseconds
Latest operation start time: 13:17:52 UTC Mon Sep 2 2013
Latest operation return code: OK
RTT Values:
Number Of RTT: 882 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 7/194/605 milliseconds
Latency one-way time:
Number of Latency one-way Samples: 683
Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 8/82/381 milliseconds
Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 1/130/432 milliseconds
Jitter Time:
Number of SD Jitter Samples: 826
Number of DS Jitter Samples: 853
Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/17/166 milliseconds
Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/17/183 milliseconds
Packet Loss Values:
Loss Source to Destination: 50
Source to Destination Loss Periods Number: 48
Source to Destination Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/8
Source to Destination Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/592
Loss Destination to Source: 68
Destination to Source Loss Periods Number: 28
Destination to Source Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/8
Destination to Source Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
1/592 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0
Packet Late Arrival: 0 Packet Skipped: 768
Voice Score Values:
Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 27
MOS score: 3.40
Number of successes: 42
Number of failures: 0
Operation time to live: Forever

WGxR1# show ip sla statistics 10


IPSLAs Latest Operation Statistics
IPSLA operation id: 10
Type of operation: udp-jitter
Latest RTT: 212 milliseconds
Latest operation start time: 13:18:22 UTC Mon Sep 2 2013
Latest operation return code: OK
RTT Values:
Number Of RTT: 997 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 8/212/474 milliseconds
Latency one-way time:
Number of Latency one-way Samples: 872
Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 8/96/270 milliseconds
Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 0/130/350 milliseconds

L-120 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Jitter Time:
Number of SD Jitter Samples: 995
Number of DS Jitter Samples: 995
Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/20/154 milliseconds
Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/19/162 milliseconds
Packet Loss Values:
Loss Source to Destination: 0
Source to Destination Loss Periods Number: 0
Source to Destination Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Source to Destination Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Loss Destination to Source: 3
Destination to Source Loss Periods Number: 1
Destination to Source Loss Period Length Min/Max: 3/3
Destination to Source Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
205/792 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0
Packet Late Arrival: 0 Packet Skipped: 768
Voice Score Values:
Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 3
MOS score: 4.30
Number of successes: 43
Number of failures: 0
Operation time to live: Forever

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-121


Task 3: Adjust the Fair Queuing Configuration
You will adjust the fair queuing configuration on the workgroup routers.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Increase the number of dynamic conversation queues in the FairQueue policy on both workgroup routers
to 256.

Step 2

Validate the policy configuration on both workgroup routers by using the show policy-map interface
command.

What is the maximum number of hashed queues?

What is the per-flow queue limit?

What is the maximum queue size for the class-default traffic class with these settings?

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 3

You validated the policy map configuration by using the show policy-map interface command.

WGxR2# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0


Serial0/0/0
Service-policy output: FairQueue
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
2148158 packets, 283018502 bytes
30 second offered rate 689000 bps, drop rate 95000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops/flowdrops) 25/321370/0/322124
(pkts output/bytes output) 1821897/240136019
Fair-queue: per-flow queue limit 16 packets
Maximum Number of Hashed Queues 256

L-122 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 4: Measure Network Performance with Fair
Queuing Configured with 256 Dynamic Queues
You will monitor network performance with fair queuing configured for 256 dynamic queues on the serial
connection between the workgroup routers.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

Perform an extended ping from WGxR1 to the 10.2.x.2 address of WGxR2 by using a repeat count of 50
and a size of 160 bytes. Record the results in the "WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at
the end of this lab.

WGxR1# ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 10.2.x.2
Repeat count [5]: 50
Datagram size [100]: 160
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 50, 160-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.x.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (50/50), round-trip min/avg/max = 12/145/708 ms

Step 2

Repeat the extended ping two more times and record your results in the "WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline
Ping Results" table at the end of this lab.

Step 3

Perform the same extended ping three times from WGxR2 to the 10.2.x.1 address of WGxR1. Record the
results in the "WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at the end of this lab.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-123


Step
Step 4
124
View the IP SLA statistics for the IP SLA UDP jitter operation by using the show ip sla statistics 10
command. Record the MOS score in the “WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results"
table at the end of this lab. View the IP SLA statistics three more times and record the values at the end of
the lab. Make sure that each score is from a distinct operation by validating that the operation start time is
different for each value you record.

WGxR1# show ip sla statistics 10


IPSLAs Latest Operation Statistics
IPSLA operation id: 10
Type of operation: udp-jitter
Latest RTT: 584 milliseconds
Latest operation start time: 13:20:22 UTC Mon Sep 2 2013
Latest operation return code: OK
RTT Values:
Number Of RTT: 738 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 19/584/1196 milliseconds
Latency one-way time:
Number of Latency one-way Samples: 684
Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 8/314/684 milliseconds
Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 1/286/748 milliseconds
Jitter Time:
Number of SD Jitter Samples: 671
Number of DS Jitter Samples: 707
Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/28/274 milliseconds
Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/33/276 milliseconds
Packet Loss Values:
Loss Source to Destination: 112
Source to Destination Loss Periods Number: 50
Source to Destination Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/18
Source to Destination Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/146
Loss Destination to Source: 150
Destination to Source Loss Periods Number: 30
Destination to Source Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/17
Destination to Source Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
3/86 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0
Packet Late Arrival: 0 Packet Skipped: 768
Voice Score Values:
Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 46
MOS score: 2.50
Number of successes: 47
Number of failures: 0
Operation time to live: Forever

WGxR1# show ip sla statistics 10


IPSLAs Latest Operation Statistics
IPSLA operation id: 10
Type of operation: udp-jitter
Latest RTT: 561 milliseconds
Latest operation start time: 13:20:52 UTC Mon Sep 2 2013
Latest operation return code: OK
RTT Values:
Number Of RTT: 766 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 8/561/1116 milliseconds
Latency one-way time:
Number of Latency one-way Samples: 724
Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 8/296/729 milliseconds
Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 2/271/850 milliseconds

L-124 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Jitter Time:
Number of SD Jitter Samples: 696
Number of DS Jitter Samples: 733
Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/28/260 milliseconds
Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/32/296 milliseconds
Packet Loss Values:
Loss Source to Destination: 85
Source to Destination Loss Periods Number: 55
Source to Destination Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/12
Source to Destination Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/152
Loss Destination to Source: 149
Destination to Source Loss Periods Number: 32
Destination to Source Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/15
Destination to Source Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
3/92 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0
Packet Late Arrival: 0 Packet Skipped: 768
Voice Score Values:
Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 44
MOS score: 2.56
Number of successes: 48
Number of failures: 0
Operation time to live: Forever

Step 5

Why did increasing the number of dynamic conversation queues from 16 to 256 increase the success rate of
the pings?

Step 6

Why did increasing the number of dynamic conversation queues from 16 to 256 negatively impact the MOS
scores that the IP SLA operation measured?

Step 7

What are some advantages to using fair queuing over FIFO queuing?

What are some disadvantages of fair queuing for real-time and mission-critical traffic?

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-125


Save your running configurations of the workgroup routers and the workgroup switch to the startup
configuration in NVRAM.

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-126 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 5: QoS Measurement Lab Results
Activity Procedure
These three tables are used for recording the results of your lab testing in this exercise.
Step 1

Record your extended ping results.

WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Ping 1 RTT Ping 2 RTT Ping 3 RTT
Network Situation (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max)
Success % Success % , Success %

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO


Queuing)
(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
Baseline Measurement" lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing)


(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
Baseline Measurement" lab)

With AutoQoS for the Enterprise


(From the "Configuring QoS with Cisco
AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues

WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Ping 1 RTT Ping 2 RTT Ping 3 RTT
Network Situation (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max),
Success % Success % Success %

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO


Queuing)
(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
Baseline Measurement" lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing)


(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
Baseline Measurement" lab)

With AutoQoS for the Enterprise


(From the "Configuring QoS with Cisco
AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-127


Step 2
Step 2

Record your IP SLA statistics for WGxR1 in this table.

WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results


Network Situation MOS Score 1 MOS Score 2 MOS Score 3 MOS Score 4

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO N/A N/A N/A


Queuing)
(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
Baseline Measurement" lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing) N/A N/A N/A


(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
Baseline Measurement" lab)

With AutoQoS for the Enterprise N/A N/A N/A


(From the "Configuring QoS with Cisco
AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues

L-128 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 4-2: Configuring LLQ-
CBWFQ
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure CBWFQ with LLQ on a router in order to improve QoS. After
completing this activity, you will be able to:
Configure a CBWFQ QoS policy with LLQ by using MQC
Apply and validate the operation of a CBWFQ policy
Use Cisco IOS monitoring commands, IP SLA, and network connectivity tools (ping) to gather network
performance data and to evaluate the effectiveness of a CBWFQ policy
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 4-2: Configuring LLQ-CBWFQ


Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

Provider
WGxR1
Backbone

LLQ-CBWFQ

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
After reviewing the performance of FIFO and fair queuing, you determine that although fair queuing
improved the network performance it did not provide the required priority for the VoIP traffic or the hard
bandwidth guarantees for the key applications on the network. In order to achieve these two goals, you
decide to implement a CBWFQ policy with a low latency queue.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

Commands
Command Description

bandwidth remaining percent Specifies or modifies the bandwidth allocated to a traffic class belonging
percentage to a policy map as a relative percentage of the available bandwidth. The
no form of this command removes the bandwidth allocation.

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

L-130 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Command Description

[no] class-map [match-any | match-all] Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to a specified
class-name class and enters the QoS class map configuration mode. The no form
of this command removes the configuration.

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] match [ip] dscp dscp-value1 [dscp- Identifies one or more DSCP values as the match criteria for a class
value2....dscp-value8] map. The no form of this command removes the match criteria from the
class map.

ping Uses ICMP echo requests and ICMP echo replies to determine whether
a remove host is reachable. Entering the command without a variable
enters the extended ping mode.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more
interface. The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] priority {bandwidth-kbps | percent Allocates priority bandwidth to a class of traffic that belongs to a policy
percentage} [burst] map. The no form of this command removes a previously specified
priority.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

show ip sla statistics [operation-number] Displays operational statistics and status for all IP SLA operations or the
[details] specified IP SLA operation.

show policy-map interface type number Displays the statistics and configurations of the input and output policies
[input | output] [class class-name] that are attached to an interface.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-131


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_LLQ_CBWFQ.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_LLQ_CBWFQ.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_LLQ_CBWFQ.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-132 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure a CBWFQ Policy with LLQ
To provide bandwidth guarantees, you will configure a CBWFQ policy with a low latency queue on a Cisco
router.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Connect to your WGxR1 router and verify that the QoS policy map that is named mark-nbar is still
configured and applied to the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface in the inbound direction. If you do not have the
mark-nbar policy, refer to the "Using NBAR for Classification" lab.

Step 2

At this point, what is the expected impact on traffic flowing out of the Serial 0/0/0 interface when the
mark-nbar service policy is applied on the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface of WGxR1?

Step 3

Based on your previous classification and marking strategy, you decide to configure seven new class maps
on WGxR1 as described in this table. When matching ICMP and IP SLA traffic, use the previously defined
access lists named ICMP and IPSLA. In addition to providing bandwidth guarantees for the strategic
application traffic, you also decide to create a traffic class that will protect the OSPF routing protocol
traffic. You do not need to mark this traffic because the router will automatically use a DSCP marking of 48
for network control traffic.

Class Map Name Match Criteria

Network-Control DSCP CS 6

ef-traffic DSCP EF, access list ICMP, and access list IPSLA

cs3-traffic DSCP CS 3

af31-traffic DSCP AF31

af21-traffic DSCP AF21

af11-traffic DSCP AF11

cs1-traffic DSCP CS 1

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-133


Step 4

Configure a new policy map that is named llq-policy on WGxR1, in which each traffic class gets
bandwidth guarantees as described in the table.

Traffic Class Bandwidth Guarantee

Network-Control 5% of remaining bandwidth minimum

ef-traffic 261 kb/s maximum priority bandwidth

cs3-traffic 4% of remaining bandwidth minimum

af31-traffic 40% of remaining bandwidth minimum

af21-traffic 15% of remaining bandwidth minimum

af11-traffic 10% of remaining bandwidth minimum

cs1-traffic 1% of remaining bandwidth minimum

class-default 25% of remaining bandwidth minimum

Repeat Steps 3 and 4 on WGxR2.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain these results:

Step 5

You verified that the seven new class maps are configured on both workgroup routers.

Class Map match-all Network-Control (id 10)


Match dscp cs6 (48)

Class Map match-any ef-traffic (id 10)


Match dscp ef (46)
Match access-group name ICMP
Match access-group name IPSLA

Class Map match-all af21-traffic (id 13)


Match dscp af21 (18)

Class Map match-all af31-traffic (id 12)


Match dscp af31 (26)

Class Map match-all af11-traffic (id 14)


Match dscp af11 (10)

Class Map match-all cs1-traffic (id 15)


Match dscp cs1 (8)

Class Map match-all cs3-traffic (id 11)


Match dscp cs3 (24)

L-134 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


You verified the configuration of the llq-policy policy map on both workgroup routers..

Policy Map llq-policy


Class ef-traffic
priority 261 (kbps)
Class Network-Control
bandwidth remaining 5 (%)
Class cs3-traffic
bandwidth remaining 4 (%)
Class af31-traffic
bandwidth remaining 40 (%)
Class af21-traffic
bandwidth remaining 15 (%)
Class af11-traffic
bandwidth remaining 10 (%)
Class cs1-traffic
bandwidth remaining 1 (%)
Class class-default
bandwidth remaining 25 (%)

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-135


Task 2: Apply and Monitor CBWFQ with LLQ
Operation
You will apply the llq-policy policy map to the Serial 0/0/0 interface of the workgroup routers and use
show commands to monitor the policy.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Remove the FairQueue policy from the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both workgroup routers and apply the
new llq-policy policy on the Serial 0/0/0 interface in the outbound direction.

Step 2

Display the output service policy on the Serial 0/0/0 interface for the ef-traffic service class on
WGxR1.

What is the burst size for the priority command in this traffic class?

How many milliseconds of traffic will this burst size accommodate with the bandwidth configured?

L-136 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 3

Since you will test the performance of the low latency queue with pings, which do not send packets at
standard VoIP intervals, increase the burst size for the priority command in the ef-traffic traffic class
of WGxR1 and WGxR2 to support 300 milliseconds of traffic.

Step 4

Wait 1 minute and then display and verify the outbound service policy on the Serial 0/0/0 interfaces of your
workgroup routers by using the show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0 command.

For which traffic class or classes, if any, are there still drops?

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 5

You applied the llq-policy map in the outbound direction on the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both
workgroup routers, and you validated that the policy provides preferred service to the specified application
traffic classes.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-137


Task 3: Measure Network Performance with
CBWFQ
You will use Cisco IOS monitoring commands and network connectivity tools to gather network response-
time data.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Copy the QoS measurement values from the tables you filled out in the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab to
the tables at the end of this lab. Copy only one MOS score that you recorded for the IP SLA operation with
16 and 256 dynamic conversation queues configured.

Step 2

Perform an extended ping from WGxR1 to the 10.2.x.2 address of WGxR2 using a repeat count of 50 and a
size of 160 bytes. Record the results in the "WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at the end
of this lab.

WGxR1# ping 10.2.x.2 repeat 50 size 160


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 50, 160-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.x.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (50/50), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/8/24 ms

Step 3

Repeat the extended ping two more times and record your results in the "WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline
Ping Results" table at the end of this lab.

Step 4

Repeat Steps 1 and 2, but ping from WGxR2 to the 10.2.x.1 address of WGxR1. Record the response-time
results in the "WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results" table at the end of this lab.

L-138 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 5

View the traffic statistics for the IP SLA operation and record the highlighted results in the “WGxR1 QoS
Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results” table at the end of this lab.

WGxR1# show ip sla statistics 10


IPSLAs Latest Operation Statistics
IPSLA operation id: 10
Type of operation: udp-jitter
Latest RTT: 13 milliseconds
Latest operation start time: 03:53:00 UTC Fri Aug 9 2013
Latest operation return code: OK
RTT Values:
Number Of RTT: 1000 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 5/13/51 milliseconds
Latency one-way time:
Number of Latency one-way Samples: 32
Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 1/3/16 milliseconds
Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 22/26/42 milliseconds
Jitter Time:
Number of SD Jitter Samples: 999
Number of DS Jitter Samples: 999
Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/4/24 milliseconds
Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/5/23 milliseconds
Packet Loss Values:
Loss Source to Destination: 0
Source to Destination Loss Periods Number: 0
Source to Destination Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Source to Destination Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Loss Destination to Source: 0
Destination to Source Loss Periods Number: 0
Destination to Source Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Destination to Source Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
0/0 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0
Packet Late Arrival: 0 Packet Skipped: 0
Voice Score Values:
Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 1
MOS score: 4.34
Number of successes: 46
Number of failures: 0
Operation time to live: Forever

Step 6

Compare the ping and IP SLA results to the results from the previous lab exercises.

Comparing all the results, which QoS mechanism provided the best response time for VoIP packets? Why?

Step 7

Save your running configurations of the workgroup routers and the workgroup switch to the startup
configuration in NVRAM.

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-139


Task 4: QoS Measurement Lab Results
Activity Procedure
These three tables are used to record the results of your lab testing in this exercise.
Step 1

Record your extended ping results in these two tables.

WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Ping 1 RTT Ping 2 RTT Ping 3 RTT
Network Situation (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max)
Success % Success % , Success %

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO


Queuing)
(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline
Measurement" lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing)


(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline
Measurement" lab)

With Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise


(from the "Configuring QoS with Cisco
AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues


(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues


(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

CBWFQ-LLQ Results (from this lab)

WGxR2 to WGxR1 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Ping 1 RTT Ping 2 RTT Ping 3 RTT
Network Situation (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max),
Success % Success % Success %

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO


Queuing)
(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline
Measurement" lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing)


(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline
Measurement" lab)

With Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise


(from the "Configuring QoS with Cisco
AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues


(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues


(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

CBWFQ-LLQ Results (from this lab)

L-140 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 2

Record your IP SLA statistics for WGxR1 in this table.

WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results


Network Situation MOS Score

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing)


(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline Measurement"
lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing)


(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline Measurement"
lab)

With Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise


(from the "Configuring QoS with Cisco AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues


(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues


(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

CBWFQ-LLQ Results (from this lab)

L-141 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


L-142 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Lab 4-3: Configuring
Campus-Based Queuing
Mechanisms
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure queueing on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch. After completing
this activity, you will be able to:
Review the queuing capabilities and default settings for queuing on the Catalyst 2960-S switch
Configure and verify queue set buffer allocations and queue mappings to meet specified QoS
requirements
Configure SRR queuing in shared mode with a priority queuing on a Catalyst 2960-S switch interface to
meet specified QoS requirements
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 4-3: Configuring Campus-Based Queuing


Mechanisms
Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1
SRR

WGxR1 Provider
Backbone

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1
SRR

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2
© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Although the biggest point of congestion for the E-Commerce University network is the low-speed serial
connection between the north campus and south campus, you decide that it is still worthwhile to extend
your queuing policy into the switch network of the two university locations. This action will allow you to
maintain a high level of QoS during transient bursting or in the event of another security event such as the
previous worm attack.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

Commands
Command Description

clear mls qos interface [interface-type Clears the MLS aggregate-QoS statistics for all interfaces or the
interface-number] statistics specified interface.

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] mls qos queue-set output qset-id Allocates buffers to a queue set. The no form of this command returns
buffers allocation1....allocation4 to the default setting.

L-144 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Command Description

[no] mls qos srr-queue output cos-map Maps CoS values to an egress queue or maps CoS values to a queue
queue-id [cos1...cos8 | threshold threshold- and a threshold ID. The no form of this command returns to the default
id cos1...cos8] setting.

[no] mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map Maps DSCP values to an egress queue or maps DSCP values to a
queue-id [dscp1...dscp8 | threshold queue and a threshold ID. The no form of this command returns to the
threshold-id dscp1...dscp8] default setting.

[no] priority-queue out Enables the egress expedite queue on a port. The no form of this
command returns to the default setting.

queue-set qset-id Maps a port to a queue set.

show mls qos interface interface-name Displays statistics for sent and received DSCP and CoS values, the
statistics number of packets enqueue or dropped per egress queue, and the
number of in-profile and out-of-profile packets for each policer.

show mls qos interface interface-name Displays the queuing strategy and the weights that correspond to the
queueing queues.

show mls qos maps [cos-dscp | cos- Displays the QoS mapping information. During classification, QoS uses
output-q | dscp-cos | dscp-mutation | the mapping tables to represent the priority of the traffic and to derive a
dscp-output-q | ip-prec-dscp | policed- corresponding CoS or DSCP value from the received CoS, DSCP, or IP
dscp] precedence value.

show mls qos queue-set [qset-id] Displays the QoS settings for the egress queues.

srr-queue bandwidth share weight1 Assigns the shared weights and enables bandwidth sharing on the four
weight2 weight3 weight4 queues that are mapped to a port. The no form of this command returns
to the default settings.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-145


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_Campus_Queuing.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_Campus_Queuing.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_Campus_Queuing.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-146 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Review Egress Queuing Defaults
You will review the default queuing settings of the Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

Before you finalize your campus queuing strategy, you decide to investigate the queuing capabilities of the
Catalyst 2960-S switch. Review the default configurations of the queue sets by entering the show mls qos
queue-set command.

How many queue sets are available on WGxS1?

How many queues are available on WGxS1?

What is the default buffer allocation for each of the queues?

Step 2

View the default CoS-to-egress-queue mapping on WGxS1 by using the show mls qos maps cos-output-q
command.

Which queue is CoS 5 mapped to?

Step 3

View the default DSCP-to-egress-queue mapping on WGxS1 by using the show mls qos maps dscp-
output-q command.

Which queue is DSCP 46 mapped to?

Based on the default mapping of CoS 5 and DSCP 46, which queue is the priority queue on WGxS1?

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-147


Task 2: Configure Global Egress Queuing
Parameters
You will configure and monitor the global egress queueing parameters on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series
Switch.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

You decide to create a campus queuing policy as outlined in the following table. Queue 1 will be used as a
priority queue for the VoIP traffic and queues 2 through 4 will be used for the data traffic. Because the
priority queue is serviced whenever it has traffic, you are reducing the buffer space allocated to that queue
and increasing the buffer space to the data queues, which are more likely to need deeper traffic queues.
Because you expect the majority of the traffic to have a DSCP value of 0, you allocate a higher percentage
of the bandwidth to queue 3.

Bandwidth DSCP Values


Queue Number Buffer Allocation CoS Values Mapped
Allocation Mapped

Queue 1 (Priority) 15% Not applicable: 5 46 (EF)


serviced until empty

Queue 2 30% 35% of the remaining 2, 3, 6 48 (CS6), 26 (AF31),


bandwidth 24 (CS3), 18 (AF21)

Queue 3 30% 45% of the remaining 0 0 (Default)


bandwidth

Queue 4 25% 20% of the remaining 1 10 (AF11), 8 (CS1)


bandwidth

Step 2

You are going to use queue set 1 for all of the interfaces on WGxS1. Change the buffer settings for queue
set 1 so that they will match the values in the table from Step 1.

Step 3

Validate the configuration by using the show mls qos queue-set command.

Queueset: 1
Queue : 1 2 3 4
----------------------------------------------
buffers : 15 30 30 25
threshold1: 100 200 100 100
threshold2: 100 200 100 100
reserved : 50 50 50 50
maximum : 400 400 400 400

L-148 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 4

Use the mls qos srr-queue command to change the CoS-to-output queue map to match the settings in the
table from Step 1. Do not assign threshold values.

Step 5

Use the mls qos srr-queue command to change the DSCP-to-output queue map to match the settings in the
table from Step 1. Do not assign threshold values.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain these results:

Step 6

You validated the configuration by using the show mls qos maps cos-output-q command.

Cos-outputq-threshold map:
cos: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
------------------------------------
queue-threshold: 3-1 4-1 2-1 2-1 4-1 1-1 2-1 4-1

Step 7

You validated the configuration by using the show mls qos maps dscp-output-q command.

Dscp-outputq-threshold map:
d1 :d2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
------------------------------------------------------------
0 : 03-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 04-01 02-01
1 : 04-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 03-01 03-01 02-01 03-01
2 : 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01 02-01 03-01 02-01 03-01 03-01 03-01
3 : 03-01 03-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01
4 : 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 02-01 04-01
5 : 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01
6 : 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-149


Task 3: Configure and Monitor Egress Queuing
You will configure and monitor egress queueing on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Assign queue set 1 to the Fas Fastethernet 0/1 interface of WGxS1.


Step 2

Enable the egress priority queuing on the Fastethernet 0/1 interface of WGxS1.
Step 3

Configure queues 2, 3, and 4 on the Fastethernet 0/1 interface of WGxS1 in shared mode with the bandwidth
allocations from the table in Step 1 in the preceding task. Note that the value entered for queue 1 will be
ignored when determining the bandwidth ratios because priority queuing is enabled on this interface.
Step 4

Validate the egress queuing configuration for the Fastethernet 0/1 interface by using the show mls qos
interface Fastethernet 0/1 queueing command.

Fastethernet0/1
Egress Priority Queue : enabled
Shaped queue weights (absolute) : 25 0 0 0
Shared queue weights : 1 35 45 20
The port bandwidth limit : 100 (Operational Bandwidth:100.0)
The port is mapped to qset : 1

Step 5

Repeat Steps 1 through 4 for the Fastethernet 0/2 and 0/3 interfaces on WGxS1.

Step 6

Clear the MLS QoS interface statistics on WGxS1.

Step 7

Validate the operation of your campus queuing configuration by using the show mls qos interface
Fastethernet 0/1 statistics command. Note that the queue numbering in the output for this command is
queues 0 to 3 instead of queues 1 to 4.

How many packets have been queued to queue 0 and queue 2?

Have any queues had output drops?

L-150 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 8

Save your running configuration of the workgroup switch to the startup configuration in NVRAM.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 9

You verified that there is outbound traffic on all three GigabitEthernet interfaces in the four output queues.

WGxS1# show mls qos interface Fastethernet 0/1 statistics


.....Omitted.....
output queues enqueued:
queue: threshold1 threshold2 threshold3
-----------------------------------------------
queue 0: 8403 0 0
queue 1: 34673 0 3
queue 2: 20628 0 0
queue 3: 6719 0 0
......Omitted.....

L-151 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


L-152 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Case Study 5-1: WRED
Traffic Profiles
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will create the appropriate WRED traffic profile to properly implement a customer QoS
administrative policy. After completing this activity, you will be able to:
Given a network diagram and an administrative policy, create the appropriate WRED traffic profile to
properly implement the policy
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Case Study 5-1: WRED Traffic Profiles


Completely read the customer requirements that are provided.
Identify the service classes that are required to implement the
administrative QoS policy, based on the customer requirements.
Create the WRED traffic profiles that are required to properly
implement the administrative QoS policy.
After the instructor presents a solution to the case study, discuss
differences in your solution and the one presented by the instructor
with the class.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Case Study Scenario


This case study activity provides information regarding the QoS administrative policy requirements of a
small to midsized network. The customer has provided a list of requirements for your review. Your task is
to evaluate the QoS requirements and, based on these requirements, create WRED traffic profiles that you
can use to implement the required QoS administrative policy. You will discuss your solution with your
instructor and other classmates, and the instructor will present a solution for the case study to the class.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this case study exercise.

Case Study Background Information


This background information will assist you in completing the case study exercise.
Company Background
LCR Incorporated began making recumbent bicycles in the garage of its owner, Patrick Cagney, in 1984.
Since that time, the company has grown to be a global provider of recumbent bicycles. Headquartered in St.
Petersburg, Florida, LCR has two manufacturing facilities and five sales offices in the United States.
Each site uses dedicated 100-Mb switching to the desktop and contains a distributed server farm. Each site
connects over a private WAN connection to the corporate headquarters by using an IP-enabled MPLS
service from a global service provider. The WAN link speeds are all T1 (1.544 Mb/s).

L-154 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Customer Situation
LCR is currently experiencing application performance problems and has an urgent need to resolve them.
Internet usage at LCR is extremely high because most of the sales and customer contacts at the company
use the Internet. The company currently has redundant, 3-Mb/s Internet connections at its headquarters.
Much of the use of the Internet, however, is for nonbusiness-critical applications. Therefore, Internet
browsing and noncritical applications should be treated as the lowest priority.
Many of the applications at LCR, such as Oracle and Citrix, are distributed between sites because they
require collaboration between members of the LCR staff. The manufacturing and finance departments use
Oracle databases to manage inventory, shipping, order entry, and customer billing. These systems are
integrated across the company and reside in the main data center at the headquarters location. The Oracle
application is critical to the success of the corporation. Citrix is heavily used for quality assurance
monitoring of manufacturing and its automated systems. The LCR implementation of Citrix is highly
interactive because users send a high number of small packets as they respond to frequent changes in the
manufacturing systems.
LCR has deployed policers in the switched network that can mark down end units that exceed their
bandwidth allocation for both the Oracle and Citrix transactions. Traffic for both of these applications can
be marked to drop probability 2 or 3 and the WRED implementation should have a correspondingly lower
drop threshold for traffic that has been marked down.
Internet traffic should not interfere with Oracle or Citrix transactions.
Working with the network engineering staff at LCR and the service provider, you have been enlisted to
assist LCR by defining QoS requirements for its network. The first priority is to deploy active congestion
management mechanisms across the provider backbone to ease the congestion issues.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the case study activity.
The table contains relevant information for standards-based QoS service classes.

Note The WRED minimum threshold is abbreviated as minth and the WRED maximum threshold is
abbreviated as maxth.

QoS Service Classes


DSCP Intended Protocols Service Class and
PHB DSCP Service Class
Value and Applications Configuration

CS6 Class 6 110000 BGP, OSPF, and so Routing Queuing = Rate-based


on (Reserved)
Small guaranteed minimum rate
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth, but minth is
deep to minimize loss

EF EF 101110 Interactive voice Voice Bearer Admission control = RSVP


Queuing = Priority

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-155


DSCP Intended Protocols Service Class and
PHB DSCP Service Class
Value and Applications Configuration

AF4 AF41 100010 Interactive video and Interactive Admission control = RSVP
associated voice Video
AF42 100100 Queuing = Rate-based
AF43 100110 Active queue mgmt. = WRED
minth AF43 < maxth AF43 <=
minth AF42 < maxth AF42 <=
minth AF41 < maxth AF41

CS4 Class 4 100000 Often proprietary Streaming Admission control = RSVP


Video
Queuing = Rate-based
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth

AF3 AF31 011010 Locally defined Mission-Critical Queuing = Rate-


mission-critical based
AF32 011100
applications
Active queue mgmt. = WRED
AF33 011110
minth AF33 < maxth AF33
<= minth AF32 < maxth
AF32 <= minth AF31 <
CS3 Class 3 011000 SIP, H.323, and so on Voice Queuing = Rate-based
maxth AF31
Signaling
Small guaranteed minimum rate
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth, but minth is
deep to minimize loss

AF2 AF21 010010 Database access, Transactional Queuing = Rate-


transaction services, based
AF22 010100
interactive traffic,
Active queue mgmt. = WRED
AF23 010110 preferred data service
minth AF23 < maxth AF23
<= minth AF22 < maxth
AF22 <= minth AF21 <
AF1 AF11 001010 Intranet, general data Bulk Data Queuing = Rate-
maxth
based AF21
service
AF12 001100
Active queue mgmt. = WRED
AF13 001110
minth AF13 < maxth AF13
<= minth AF12 < maxth
AF12 <= minth AF11 <
maxth AF11

L-156 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


DSCP Intended Protocols Service Class and
PHB DSCP Service Class
Value and Applications Configuration

CS1 Class 1 001000 User-selected service, Less-than-Best Queuing = Rate-based


point-to-point Effort Data
No bandwidth guarantee
applications (Scavenger)
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth

Default Default 000000 Unspecified traffic, Best-Effort Queuing = Rate-based


(Best- email
Minimal bandwidth guarantee
Effort)
Active queue mgmt. or per-flow
Class 0
fair queuing
Active queue mgmt. = RED
minth < maxth

The next table contains the Cisco IOS default WRED profile values for DSCP-based WRED.

Cisco IOS Default WRED Profile Values


PHB Minimum Threshold Maximum Threshold Mark Probability

af11 32 40 1/10

af12 28 40 1/10

af13 24 40 1/10

af21 32 40 1/10

af22 28 40 1/10

af23 24 40 1/10

af31 32 40 1/10

af32 28 40 1/10

af33 24 40 1/10

af41 32 40 1/10

af42 28 40 1/10

af43 24 40 1/10

cs1 22 40 1/10

cs2 24 40 1/10

cs3 26 40 1/10

cs4 28 40 1/10

cs5 30 40 1/10

cs6 32 40 1/10

cs7 34 40 1/10

EF 36 40 1/10

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-157


PHB Minimum Threshold Maximum Threshold Mark Probability

RSVP 36 40 1/10

Default (BE) 20 40 1/10

Task 1: Create WRED Traffic Profiles


In this task you will analyze the customer requirements, identify the different traffic classes that are
required, and create WRED traffic profiles for the traffic classes.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Identify the different traffic classes that are required to implement the customer administrative QoS policy.
Use the "QoS Service Classes" table to help you with your answers. Write your answers in the following
table:

Customer Traffic PHB DSCP

Customer Traffic PHB DSCP

L-158 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 2

Create a WRED traffic profile for each of the service classes that were identified in the previous section.
Use the "Cisco IOS Default WRED Profile Values" table to assist you in creating your profiles. When
completing each profile, be sure to draw the traffic profile and include all information on the blank profile
graphic that is provided.

Traffic Class:

Traffic Profiles
Mark Probability
PHB Minimum Threshold Maximum Threshold
Denominator

100%

Drop
Probability

Average
Queue
Size

Traffic Class:

Traffic Profiles
Mark Probability
PHB Minimum Threshold Maximum Threshold
Denominator

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-159


100%

Drop
Probability

Average
Queue
Size

Traffic Class:

Traffic Profiles
Mark Probability
PHB Minimum Threshold Maximum Threshold
Denominator

100%

Drop
Probability

Average
Queue
Size

Step 3

Discuss the differences between your solution and the one presented by the instructor with the class.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when the instructor has verified your case study solution and you have
justified major deviations from the solution that is supplied by the instructor.

L-160 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 5-2: Configuring DSCP-
Based WRED
Activity Objective
In this activity, given a set of parameters, you will build a WRED traffic profile and configure DSCP-based
WRED with ECN support to match that traffic profile. After completing this activity, you will be able to:
Given a set of parameters, build a WRED traffic profile and configure DSCP-based WRED to match
that traffic profile
Monitor the operation of DSCP-based WRED
Enable DSCP-based WRED with ECN
Monitor the operation of DSCP-based WRED with ECN
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 5-2: Configuring DSCP-Based WRED


Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

WGxR1 Provider
Backbone

DSCP CBWRED
(ECN)

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
After LLQ was successfully implemented, the voice quality improved. But after monitoring the link
utilization on the low-speed, 768-kb/s link for a week, you determine that the average link utilization is low
and must be improved.
Global synchronization occurs as waves of congestion crest only to be followed by troughs, during which
the transmission link is not fully utilized. Global synchronization of TCP hosts can occur because packets
are dropped all at once. Global synchronization happens when multiple TCP hosts reduce their transmission
rates in response to packet dropping, and once congestion is reduced, the TCP hosts again increase their
transmission rates. The most important point is that the waves of transmission, known as global
synchronization, result in significant link underutilization.
In order to reduce TCP global synchronization to improve link utilization, CBWRED is required to
randomly drop packets before the software queue is full. In addition, DSCP-based CBWRED allows
different WRED (drop) profiles for different DSCP values.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

L-162 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Commands
Command Description

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

[no] class-map [match-any | match-all] Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to a specified
class-name class and enters QoS class map configuration mode. The no form of
this command removes the configuration.

clear counters interface-type interface- Clears counters on one or all interfaces.


number

[no] match access-group [access-group | Configures the match criterion for a class map on the basis of the
name access-group-name] specified ACL. The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to an interface.
The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] random-detect [dscp-based | prec- Enables WRED for a class in a policy map. The no form of this
based] command disables WRED.

[no] random-detect dscp dscp-value min- Changes the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the DSCP
threshold max-threshold [mark-probability- value in a policy map. The no form of this command returns the values
denominator] to the default.

[no] random-detect ecn Enables ECN in a policy map. The no form of this command disables
ECN.

show class-map [class-map-name] Displays class maps and their matching criteria.

show policy-map interface type number Displays the statistics and configurations of the input and output policies
[input | output] [class class-name] that are attached to an interface.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-163


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_DSCP_WRED.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_DSCP_WRED.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_DSCP_WRED.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-164 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure DSCP-Based WRED
You will build a WRED traffic profile based on a given a set of parameters, and you will configure DSCP-
based WRED.
Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

Modify the existing llq-policy policy map on the WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers and enable DSCP-
based WRED for the af11-traffic, af21-traffic, af31-traffic, cs1-traffic, and the
class-default traffic classes. Use the drop thresholds and drop probabilities in the table for each PHB.

PHB Minimum Threshold Maximum Threshold Mark Probability

af11 26 40 1/10

af21 30 40 1/10

af31 34 40 1/10

cs1 22 40 1/10

Default (BE) 20 40 1/10

Complete the graph of the traffic profile for all five WRED classes. Be sure to indicate each class and the
mark probability denominator.

Drop
Probability

100%

20 22 26 30 34 40
Average
Queue
Size

Based on the previous WRED profiles, which traffic class will drop packets first?

What does a mark probability of 1/10 mean?

Why would you not implement WRED for the ef-traffic class?

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-165


Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 2

You have displayed the llq-policy policy map to verify the WRED configurations on both workgroup
routers.

WGxR1# show policy-map llq-policy


Policy Map llq-policy
Class ef-traffic
priority 261 (kbps) 9788
Class Network-Control
bandwidth remaining 5 (%)
Class cs3-traffic
bandwidth remaining 4 (%)
Class af31-traffic
bandwidth remaining 40 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
af31 (26) 34 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10
Class af21-traffic
bandwidth remaining 15 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
af21 (18) 30 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10
Class af11-traffic
bandwidth remaining 10 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
af11 (10) 26 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10
Class cs1-traffic
bandwidth remaining 1 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
cs1 (8) 22 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10
Class class-default
bandwidth remaining 25 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
default (0) 20 40 1/10

L-166 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Monitor DSCP-Based WRED
You will display the policy map in order to monitor DSCP-based WRED.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Clear the counters on all interfaces on the WGxR1 router and then wait for the interface counters to
accumulate traffic statistics for at least 1 minute.

Step 2

Display the output service policy on the Serial 0/0/0 interface.

Do you see any drops from any of the traffic classes? If you do, record the name of each class here.

Fill out the table with the number of packets that are transmitted and dropped within each of the traffic
classes with DSCP-based WRED enabled on WGxR1.

Random-Dropped
Traffic Class Transmitted Packets Tail-Dropped Packets
Packets

af31-traffic

af21-traffic

af11-traffic

cs1-traffic

class-default (DSCP
default)

class-default (DSCP CS
6)

What is the ratio of random-dropped packets to tail-dropped packets in the class-default traffic class
for packets marked DSCP 0?

What is the mean queue depth for the class-default traffic class?

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-167


Task 3: Configure DSCP-Based CBWRED with
ECN
The default class has many dropped packets in it. Although WRED congestion avoidance has been applied
and is randomly dropping packets in this class, it may drop packets unnecessarily. Ideally, the router should
mark the traffic by using the ECN bits, then send traffic without dropping as the average queue size
increases. The ECN bits will notify the end station of congestion. The end station can signal the sender by
using TCP congestion mechanics to slow down the traffic rate of the sender.
You will configure DSCP-based CBWRED with ECN.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Enable WRED ECN for the class-default traffic class on the WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 2

You have displayed the llq-policy policy map to verify the ECN settings for the class-default
traffic class on both workgroup routers.

WGxR1# show policy-map llq-policy


......Omitted......
Class class-default
bandwidth remaining 25 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9 random-
detect ecn

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
default (0) 20 40 1/10

L-168 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 4: Monitor DSCP-Based WRED with ECN
You will display the policy map to monitor DSCP-based WRED with ECN.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Clear the interface counters on both workgroup routers and then wait for the interface counters to
accumulate traffic statistics for at least 1 minute.

Display the output service policy on the Serial 0/0/0 interface on both workgroup routers.

Is ECN enabled for the class-default traffic class?

What is the mean queue depth for the class-default traffic class?

No packets are marked ECN, yet there are random WRED drops in the default class. Explain this behavior.

Step 2

On WGxR1, remove the ICMP packets from the ef-traffic traffic class by removing the match
criterion for the ICMP access list.

Step 3
On WGxR1, display the class map for the ef-traffic traffic class and verify that the ICMP access
group has been removed as a match criterion.

Class Map match-any ef-traffic (id 10)


Match dscp ef (46)
Match access-group name IPSLA

Which traffic class will ICMP traffic belong to now that it has been removed from the EF service class?

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-169


Step 4

Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for WGxR2.

Step 5

Increase the maximum drop probability for traffic marked DSCP in the class-default traffic class on
both routers to 100 percent so that it is easier to generate ECN-marked traffic.
Step 6

Clear the interface counters on both of your workgroup routers.

Step 7

From WGxR1, perform an extended ping to the Serial 0/0/0 interface of WGxR2. For the extended ping,
use a repeat count of 50, a datagram size of 1000, and extended commands to set the ToS to 0x02.

WGxR1# ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 10.2.x.2
Repeat count [5]: 50
Datagram size [100]: 1000
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface:
Type of service [0]: 0x02
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]:
Validate reply data? [no]:
Data pattern [0xABCD]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 50, 1500-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.x.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!.!.!!!!!!!!!.!..!!..!.!!!!....!!!!!!..!.!!!!!!!
Success rate is 70 percent (35/50), round-trip min/avg/max = 32/175/1420 ms

What does setting the ToS byte to 0x02 achieve?

Step 8

Repeat this extended ping two more times in order to increase the amount of ECN-capable traffic.

Step 9

Display the output service policy on the Serial 0/0/0 interface for the class-default service class only.

Do you see any ECN-marked packets for class-default now?

L-170 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 10

Return ICMP traffic to the ef-traffic service class and reduce the maximum drop probability for the
DSCP 0 traffic in the class-default service class back to 10 percent on both workgroup routers.

Step 11

Display the class map for the ef-traffic service class on both workgroup routers and verify that the
ICMP traffic is now a member of the EF service class.

WGxR1# show class-map ef-traffic


Class Map match-any ef-traffic (id 10)
Match dscp ef (46)
Match access-group name IPSLA
Match access-group name ICMP

Step 12
Save your running configurations of the workgroup routers to the startup configuration in NVRAM.

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-171 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


L-172 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Lab 5-3: Configuring
WTD Thresholds
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure WTD queue thresholds on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch and
you will map CoS and DSCP values to the correct queues and thresholds. After completing this activity,
you will be able to:
Configure the threshold settings for a queue set and configure CoS and DSCP mapping to specific
queues and queue thresholds
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 5-3: Configuring WTD Thresholds


Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1
WTD

WGxR1 Provider
Backbone

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1
WTD

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
After implementing CBWRED on the Cisco routers, you decide to enhance the queuing deployment in your
campus WGxS1 switch by mapping traffic to different WTD thresholds.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

Commands
Command Description

clear mls qos interface [interface-type Clears the MLS aggregate-QoS statistics for all interfaces or the
interface-number] statistics specified interface.

[no] mls qos queue-set output qset-id Configures WTD thresholds, buffer availability, and the maximum
threshold queue-id drop-threshold1 drop- memory allocation to a queue set. The no form of this command returns
threshold2 reserved-threshold maximum- to the default setting.
threshold

[no] mls qos srr-queue output cos-map Maps CoS values to an egress queue or maps CoS values to a queue
queue-id [cos1...cos8 | threshold threshold- and a threshold ID. The no form of this command returns to the default
id cos1...cos8] setting.

L-174 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Command Description

[no] mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map Maps DSCP values to an egress queue or maps DSCP values to a
queue-id [dscp1...dscp8 | threshold queue and a threshold ID. The no form of this command returns to the
threshold-id dscp1...dscp8] default setting.

show mls qos interface interface-name Displays statistics for sent and received DSCP and CoS values, the
statistics number of packets enqueue or dropped per egress queue, and the
number of in-profile and out-of-profile packets for each policer.

show mls qos maps [cos-dscp | cos- Displays the QoS mapping information. During classification, QoS uses
output-q | dscp-cos | dscp-mutation | the mapping tables to represent the priority of the traffic and to derive a
dscp-output-q | ip-prec-dscp | policed- corresponding CoS or DSCP value from the received CoS, DSCP, or IP
dscp] precedence value.

show mls qos queue-set [qset-id] Displays the QoS settings for the egress queues.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-175


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_WTD_Thresholds.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_WTD_Thresholds.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_WTD_Thresholds.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-176 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure and Monitor Weighted Tail Drop
You will configure and monitor WTD on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

You have decided to update the queueing configurations to include WTD according to the table below.

DSCP Values
Queue Number Threshold Number Drop Threshold CoS Values Mapped
Mapped

1 1 100

1 2 100

1 3 Tail-drop 5 46 (EF)

2 1 70 2 26 (AF31), 18 (AF21)

2 2 90 3 24 (CS3)

2 3 Tail-drop 6 48 (CS6)

3 1 100

3 2 100

3 3 Tail-drop 0 0 (default)

4 1 60 8 (CS1)

4 2 100

4 3 Tail-drop 1 10 (AF11)

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-177


Step 2

Based on the default settings, which of the thresholds need to have the drop threshold value altered to match
the table?

Step 3

Adjust the drop threshold values for queue set 1 to match the table. Do not adjust reserved or maximum
buffer values for any of the queues.

Step 4

Validate the configuration by using the show mls qos queue-set command.

Queueset: 1
Queue : 1 2 3 4
----------------------------------------------
buffers : 15 30 30 25
threshold1: 100 70 100 60
threshold2: 100 90 100 100
reserved : 50 50 50 50
maximum : 400 400 400 400

Step 5

Alter the CoS-to-Output queue maps you set in the "Configuring Campus-Based Queuing Mechanisms" lab
to match the new settings that are specified in the table from Step 1.

Step 6

Validate the configuration by inspecting the cos-output-q map.

Cos-outputq-threshold map:
cos: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
------------------------------------
queue-threshold: 3-3 4-3 2-1 2-2 4-1 1-3 2-3 4-1

Step 7

Alter the DSCP-to-Output queue maps that you set in the "Configuring Campus-Based Queuing
Mechanisms" lab to match the new settings that are specified in the table from Step 1.

L-178 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 8

Validate the configuration by inspecting the dscp-output-q map.

Dscp-outputq-threshold map:
d1 :d2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
------------------------------------------------------------
0 : 03-03 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 04-01 02-01
1 : 04-03 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 03-01 03-01 02-01 03-01
2 : 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01 02-02 03-01 02-01 03-01 03-01 03-01
3 : 03-01 03-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01
4 : 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-03 01-01 02-03 04-01
5 : 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01
6 : 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01

Step 9

Clear the MLS QoS interface statistics on WGxS1.

Step 10

Validate the operation of your campus queuing configuration by using the show mls qos interface
Fastethernet 0/1 statistics command. Note that the queue numbering in the output for this command is
queue 0 to 3 instead of queue 1 to 4.

How many packets have been queued to Q1T2?

Have any queues had output drops?

Step 11

Save your running configuration of the workgroup switch to the startup configuration in NVRAM.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-179


Step 12

You have verified that there is outbound traffic in the configured queues and thresholds on all three
GigabitEthernet interfaces.

WGxS1# show mls qos interface Fastethernet 0/1 statistics


.....Omitted.....

output queues enqueued:


queue: threshold1 threshold2 threshold3
-----------------------------------------------
queue 0: 0 0 8222
queue 1: 39356 278 17
queue 2: 0 0 24957
queue 3: 3015 0 3742
....Omitted....

L-180 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 6-1: Configuring
Class- Based Policing
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure class-based policing to rate-limit packets on an interface. After
completing this activity, you will be able to:
Configure single token bucket class-based policing
Monitor the operation of single token bucket class-based policing
Configure dual token bucket class-based policing
Monitor the operation of dual token bucket class-based policing
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 6-1: Configuring Class-Based Policing


Pod X—North Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Backbone
Campus
WGxS1

CB-POLICING
Low-Priority-Data
Provider
WGxR1 Backbone

CB-POLICE
HTTP Traffic

SP-Core-Switch

WGxR2

CB-POLICE
Low-Priority-Data

WGxS1

Pod X—South Traffic Gen 2


Campus Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen-2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
Because wireless Internet access for students and faculty has been implemented, the file-sharing traffic
(particularly, Gnutella) is constantly increasing. Therefore, the Low-Priority-Data traffic class must
be policed by using class-based policing inbound to the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interfaces on the workgroup
routers.
For the Internet connection, most of the traffic from the E-Commerce University is HTTP traffic out to the
Internet. Policing of the HTTP traffic using class-based policing outbound to the GigabitEthernet 0/1
interface on the workgroup routers will be implemented to conserve bandwidth on the E-Commerce
University Internet connection.
This HTTP policing policy is not placed inbound to the GigabitEthernet interface on the workgroup routers
because intranet HTTP traffic will still be required to flow between the two E-Commerce University
campuses across the 768-kb/s leased-line connection (Serial 0/0/0).

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

L-182 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Commands
Command Description

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

[no] class-map [match-any | match-all] Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to a specified
class-name class and enters the QoS class map configuration mode. The no form
of this command removes the configuration.

clear counters interface-type interface- Clears counters on one or all interfaces.


number

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] match protocol protocol-name Configures the match criterion for a class map on the basis of a
specified protocol. The no form of this command removes the match
criterion from the class map.

[no] police bps [burst-normal] [burst-max] Configures traffic policing. The no form of this command removes the
conform-action action exceed-action traffic policing.
action [violate-action action]

[no] police cir percent percentage [burst- Configures traffic policing on the basis of a percentage of bandwidth
in-msec] [bc conform-burst-in-msec ms] that is available on an interface. The no form of this command removes
[be peak-burst-in-msec ms] [pir percent the traffic policing.
percentage] [conform-action action
[exceed-action action [violate-action
action]]]

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to an interface.
The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

show policy-map interface type number Displays the statistics and configurations of the input and output policies
[input | output] [class class-name] that are attached to an interface.

[no] shutdown Disables an interface. The no form of this command restarts a disabled
interface.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-183


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_Class_Policing.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_Class_Policing.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_Class_Policing.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-184 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure Single Token Bucket Class-
Based Policing
You will configure single token bucket class-based policing.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Modify the existing input service policy that is named mark-nbar on the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface of
the WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers to police the Low-Priority-Data traffic class to a maximum rate
limit of 8 kb/s. Configure the policy so that all conforming traffic is transmitted while all exceeding traffic
should be dropped.

In this case, do you need to implement a single or dual token bucket? Why?

Will this implementation have single- or dual-rate policing?

Step 2

Display the mark-nbar policy map on both workgroup routers and verify the correct policing
configuration.

WGxR1# show policy-map mark-nbar


Policy Map mark-nbar
Class VoIP-Telephony
set dscp ef
Class Call-Signaling
set dscp cs3
Class Mission-Critical
set dscp af31
Class Low-Latency-Data
set dscp af21
Class High-Throughput-Data
set dscp af11
Class Low-Priority-Data
set dscp cs1
police cir 8000 bc 1500
conform-action transmit
exceed-action drop
Class class-default
set dscp default

What is the default value of Bc in bytes?

How does the Cisco IOS Software calculate the default value of Bc?

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-185


Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

Task 2: Monitor Single Token Bucket Class-Based


Policing
You will monitor the operation of single token bucket class-based policing.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Clear the interface counters on both of your workgroup routers and wait at least 1 minute for the interface
counters to accumulate traffic statistics.

Step 2

Display the input service policy on the GigabitEthernet 0/0 interface of your workgroup routers for the
Low-Priority-Data class only.

How many packets have been dropped in the Low-Priority-Data traffic class?

What is the conformed bit rate for the Low-Priority-Data traffic?

What is the exceed bit rate for the Low-Priority-Data traffic?

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-186 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 3: Configure Dual Token Bucket Class-
Based Policing
You will configure dual token bucket class-based policing.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

On the WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers, configure a new class map that is named web-outbound and use
NBAR to classify all HTTP traffic into that traffic class.

Step 2

Display the newly configured class map and verify its configuration.

Class Map match-all web-outbound (id


16) Match protocol http

Step 3

On the WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers, configure a new policy map that is named http-police to police
the web traffic to a CIR of 10 percent of the link bandwidth (Cisco IOS Software will determine the Bc
and Be values). All conforming traffic should be transmitted and all exceeding traffic should be re-marked
to CS1, then transmitted. All violating traffic should be dropped.

In this case, do you need to implement a single or a dual token bucket? Why?

Step 4

Apply the http-police policy map to the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of the WGxR1 and WGxR2
routers in the outbound direction.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 5

You displayed the http-police policy map on both workgroup routers, and you verified the correct
policing configuration.

Policy Map http-police


Class web-outbound
police cir percent 10
conform-action transmit
exceed-action set-dscp-transmit cs1
violate-action drop

Task 4: Monitor Dual Token Bucket Class-Based


L-187 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Policing
You will monitor the operation of dual token bucket class-based policing.
Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

To test this lab, you must administratively disable (shut down) the Serial 0/0/0 interface on the WGxR1
router in order to force the Pagent HTTP traffic to flow via the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface.
Administratively disable the Serial 0/0/0 interface on WGxR1 and clear the interface counters on both
workgroup routers.
Step 2

Wait 1 minute and then display the outbound service policy on the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of your
workgroup routers.

Are there any violating HTTP packets being dropped?

Are there any exceeding HTTP packets being re-marked to CS 1, then sent?

Based on a CIR of 10 percent, what are the CIR (in b/s), Bc, and Be (in bytes) computed by the Cisco IOS
Software?

Step 3

Remove the http-police policy map from the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of the WGxR1 and
WGxR2 routers.
Step 4

Re-enable the Serial 0/0/0 interface on the WGxR1 router.

Step 5

Save your running configurations of the workgroup routers to the startup configuration in NVRAM.
Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-188 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 6-2: Configuring
Class- Based Shaping
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure class-based shaping to rate-limit outgoing packets on an interface, and
you will use hierarchical shaping to shape an interface rate to a contracted CIR. After completing this
activity, you will be able to:
Configure class-based average shaping to rate-limit outgoing packets on a router interface for a specific
traffic class
Configure and monitor the operation of hierarchical shaping to shape outbound traffic on an interface to
a specified subrate CIR
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 6-2: Configuring Class-Based Shaping


Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

Provider
WGxR1
Backbone

Class-Based
Shaping Class-Based
Shaping
Hierarchical
Shaping

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
The administration has negotiated with the service provider that provides the 1-Mb/s Internet connection to
convert the existing Ethernet link to an MPLS connection. This service offering will provide an MPLS VPN
between the north and south campuses and a path to the Internet as well. The connection will continue to be
1 Mb/s. The service provider will integrate with the OSPF routing protocol, and the P2P serial connection
will remain as a backup path in the network.
Because the policing of the Gnutella, Skype, and HTTP traffic to the Internet went so well, the IT manager
has asked whether you can do anything to limit the traffic rate of the FTP transfers and email application.
This work traffic is valid so packets should not be actively dropped, but the average rate for all of this
traffic should be kept to 64 kb/s.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

L-190 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Commands
Command Description

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

clear counters interface-type interface- Clears counters on one or all interfaces.


number

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] network ip-address wildcard-mask Defines the interfaces on which OSPF runs and defines the area ID for
area area-id those interfaces. The no form of this command disables OSPF for
interfaces that are defined with the ip-address wildcard-maskpair
options.

[no] passive-interface type number Disables sending routing updates on an interface. The no form of this
command re-enables the sending of routing updates.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to an interface.
The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] router ospf process-id [vrf vrf-name] Configures an OSPF routing process. The no form of this command
terminates an OSPF routing process.

[no] service-policy policy-map Attaches a policy map to a class. The no form of this command
removes the service policy from the class.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] shape {average | peak} cir [bc] [be] Specifies average or peak rate traffic shaping. The no form of this
command removes traffic shaping.

show ip ospf neighbor [interface-type Displays OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis.
interface-number ] [neighbor-id] [detail]
[fast-reroute]

show ip route Displays the contents of the routing table.

show policy-map [policy-map-name] Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy
[class class-name] map or of all classes for all existing policy maps.

show policy-map interface type number Displays the statistics and configurations of the input and output policies
[input | output] [class class-name] that are attached to an interface.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-191


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_Class_Shaping.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_Class_Shaping.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_Class_Shaping.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-192 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Migrate Traffic to the MPLS Service
You will migrate traffic to the MPLS service over the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

In preparation for the MPLS service for the north and south campuses, apply the llq-policy
policy map outbound on the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of both workgroup routers.

Step 2

The service provider has informed you that all you need to do to start utilizing the MPLS VPN is to
enable OSPF for the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface on both of the workgroup routers set the mtu-
ignore command and to include the network range for the MPLS connection in the OSPF process.

WGxR1(config)# router ospf 1


WGxR1(config-router)# network 10.4.x.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
WGxR1(config-router)# no passive-interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR1(config-router)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR1(config-if)# ip ospf mtu-ignore

WGxR2(config)# router ospf 1


WGxR2(config-router)# network 10.5.x.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
WGxR2(config-router)# no passive-interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR2(config-router)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR2(config-if)# ip ospf mtu-ignore

Step 3

Validate that the OSPF neighbor relationship has been established between the WGxR1 router and
the service provider switch by using the show ip ospf neighbor command.

WGxR1# show ip ospf neighbor


Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
10.5.x.100 1 FULL/DR 00:00:35 10.4.x.100 GigabitEthernet0/1
10.5.x.2 0 FULL/ - 00:00:30 10.2.x.2 Serial0/0/0

Step 4

Validate that the preferred path from the north campus to the south campus is now over the MPLS
network by running the show ip route 10.3.x.0 command on WGxR1.

WGxR1# show ip route 10.3.x.0


Routing entry for 10.3.x.0/24
Known via "ospf 1", distance 110, metric 102, type intra
area Last update from 10.4.x.100 on GigabitEthernet0/1,
19:59:02 ago Routing Descriptor Blocks:
* 10.4.x.100, from 10.5.1.2, 19:59:02 ago, via GigabitEthernet0/1
Route metric is 102, traffic share count is 1

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-193


Step 5

Validate that the preferred path from the south campus to the north campus is now over the MPLS network
by running the show ip route 10.1.x.0 command on WGxR2.

WGxR2# show ip route 10.1.x.0


Routing entry for 10.1.x.0/24
Known via "ospf 1", distance 110, metric 3, type intra area
Last update from 10.5.x.100 on GigabitEthernet0/1, 20:01:19 ago
Routing Descriptor Blocks:
* 10.5.x.100, from 10.4.x.1, 20:01:19 ago, via GigabitEthernet0/1
Route metric is 3, traffic share count is 1

Step 6

Clear the interface counters on both workgroup routers.

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-194 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Configure Class-Based Shaping
You will configure class-based shaping on the traffic class that contains the FTP traffic.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Verify the existing policy map that is named llq-policy on the WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers by
displaying only the AF11 traffic class. Recall from the "Using NBAR for Classification" lab that all FTP
traffic is marked with AF11.

WGxR1# show policy-map llq-policy class af11-traffic


Class af11-traffic
bandwidth remaining 10 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
af11 (10) 26 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10

This traffic class should be allocated 10 percent of the available remaining bandwidth and have packet-
based WRED configured for DSCP AF11.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-195


Step 2

On WGxR1 and WGxR2, modify the existing llq-policy policy map to shape the AF11 traffic class to
an average rate of 64 kb/s as requested by the IT manager. Allow the Cisco IOS Software to automatically
calculate the Bc and Be value.

List all the interfaces on which this configuration will shape the traffic that matches the af11-traffic
traffic class:

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain these results:

Step 3

You verified the existing llq-policy policy map and the shaping configuration on your workgroup
routers by displaying only the AF11 traffic class. You confirmed that the CIR for shaping is correctly set to
64 kb/s.

WGxR1# show policy-map llq-policy class af11-traffic


Class af11-traffic
bandwidth remaining 10 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
af11 (10) 26 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10
Average Rate Traffic Shaping
cir 64000 (bps)

L-196 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


You verified the shaping configuration on the existing output service policy map on the GigabitEthernet 0/1
interface of the workgroup routers by displaying only the AF11 traffic class.

GigabitEthernet0/1
Service-policy output: llq-policy
queue stats for all priority classes:
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 24989/5336734
Class-map: af11-traffic (match-all)
6991 packets, 481669 bytes
30 second offered rate 13000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp af11 (10)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 6991/481669
bandwidth remaining 10%
Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 0 packets
dscp Transmitted ECN Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark
pkts/bytes marked pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob

af11 6991/481669 0 0/0 0/0 26 40 1/10


shape (average) cir 64000, bc 256, be 256
target shape rate 64000

What is the Bc and Be value that is automatically determined by the Cisco IOS Software?

What is the Tc (time interval)?

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-197


Task 3: Configure Hierarchical Shaping
You will configure hierarchical traffic shaping.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

After moving traffic to the MPLS connection, you receive multiple complaints that the voice and critical
data applications are not working as well as they were on the P2P serial interface. Validate that the llq-
policy that is applied to the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of both workgroup routers is marking traffic in
all of the traffic classes.

WGxR1# show policy-map interface gigabitethernet 0/1


GigabitEthernet0/1
Service-policy output: llq-policy
queue stats for all priority classes:
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 43124/9209808
Class-map: ef-traffic (match-any)
43124 packets, 8834412 bytes
30 second offered rate 147000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp ef (46)
34186 packets, 7297076 bytes
30 second rate 110000 bps
Match: access-group name IPSLA
8938 packets, 1537336 bytes
30 second rate 37000 bps
Match: access-group name ICMP
0 packets, 0 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Priority: 261 kbps, burst bytes 9788, b/w exceed drops: 0

......Omitted....

Class-map: class-default (match-any)


113816 packets, 19337370 bytes
30 second offered rate 294000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 113816/19337748
bandwidth remaining 25%
Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 0 packets
dscp Transmitted ECN Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark
pkts/bytes marked pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob

default 113816/19337748 0 0/0 0/0 20 40 1/10

Is the class-default traffic class still dropping packets?

L-198 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 2
Clear the counters for all of your interfaces on both workgroup routers. Check the interface statistics for the
GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of both workgroup routers. Note that your values will vary from the example
based on the traffic patterns at the time you run the command.

WGxR1# show interfaces gigabitethernet 0/1


GigabitEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is CN Gigabit Ethernet, address is 30e4.db69.5111 (bia 30e4.db69.5111)
Description: to SP-Core-Switch
Internet address is 10.4.1.1/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1000 Kbit/sec, DLY 10 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 209/255, rxload 209/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Full Duplex, 1Gbps, media type is RJ45
output flow-control is unsupported, input flow-control is unsupported
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input 00:00:06, output 00:00:00, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:01:02
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
Queueing strategy: Class-based queueing
Output queue: 0/1000/0 (size/max total/drops)
30 second input rate 821000 bits/sec, 603 packets/sec
30 second output rate 820000 bits/sec, 609 packets/sec
37866 packets input, 6462634 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 7 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
0 watchdog, 7 multicast, 0 pause input
37935 packets output, 6397494 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 pause output
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

What is the 30-second output rate?

Do you have any output drops?

Note If you have output drops in the output for the show interfaces gigabitethernet 0/1 command, view the
show policy-map interface gigabit 0/1 command and validate that all output drops are a result of the
class-based shaping that is configured on the af11-traffic class earlier in this lab.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-199


Step 3

You contact the service provider and it confirms that it is policing traffic on the Gigabit Ethernet MPLS
service offering to a rate of 1 Mb/s. The service provider also sees policed traffic on the policers that are
applied to the MPLS connections for the north and south campuses.

Why is the llq-policy not having any drops in any traffic classes when it is applied to the
GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of the workgroup routers?

Why would your traffic be policed even though your 30-second output rate from Step 2 is below 1 Mb/s?

Step 4

In order to ensure that the llq-policy is engaged when traffic exceeds 1 Mb/s, you decide to configure a
shaper to ensure that the average traffic rate from the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface on both routers does not
exceed 1 Mb/s. Create a hierarchical policy map on both workgroup routers that is named Parent-
Shaper that shapes all traffic to 1 Mb/s and has the llq-policy as a child policy.

Step 5

Verify the configuration of the Parent-Shaper policy map on your workgroup routers. Confirm that the
configured CIR is 1 Mb/s and that the llq-policy is applied to the class-default traffic class.

WGxR1# show policy-map Parent-Shaper


Policy Map Parent-Shaper
Class class-default
Average Rate Traffic Shaping
cir 1000000 (bps)
service-policy llq-policy

Step 6

Remove the llq-policy from the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of both workgroup routers and apply the
newly configured Parent-Shaper policy in the outbound direction on the GigabitEthernet 0/1
interfaces.

L-200 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 7

Verify the shaping configuration on the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of the WGxR1 and WGxR2 routers
by displaying the applied policy map.

What is the target shape rate for the parent policy, Parent-Shaper?

What is the Bc and Be value that is automatically determined by the Cisco IOS Software for the parent
policy, Parent-Shaper?

What is the Tc?

Is the class-default traffic class for the llq-policy child policy dropping packets now?

Step 8

Save your running configurations of the workgroup routers to the startup configuration in NVRAM.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 9

You confirmed that the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface is dropping packets when the hierarchical policy is
applied.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-201


L-202 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Lab 7-1: Configuring Class-
Based Header
Compression
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure and monitor class-based RTP header compression. After completing this
activity, you will be able to:
Configure class-based RTP header compression
Monitor the operation of class-based RTP header compression
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 7-1: Configuring Class-Based Header


Compression
Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

WGxR1 Provider
Backbone

LLQ-CBWFQ
cRTP

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
Since switching to the MPLS service, the traffic load between the north campus and south campus has
increased. During a recent outage on the MPLS network, there were several complaints about network
performance when the traffic was using the backup leased line between the campuses (Serial 0/0/0). There
has been a recent increase in VoIP traffic and you realize that you might be able to increase the throughput
on the leased line by implementing class-based RTP header compression in order to reduce the size of the
packet headers and associated overhead on the ef-traffic traffic class.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

L-204 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Commands
Command Description

bandwidth remaining percent Specifies or modifies the bandwidth that is allocated to a traffic class
percentage belonging to a policy map as a relative percentage of the available
bandwidth. The no form of this command removes the bandwidth
allocation.

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

[no] compress header ip [rtp | tcp] Configures RTP or TCP IP header compression for a specific class. The
no form of this command removes the compression for a specific class.

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more
interface. The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] priority {bandwidth-kbps | percent Allocates priority bandwidth to a class of traffic that belongs to a policy
percentage} [burst] map. The no form of this command removes a previously specified
priority.

[no] random-detect [dscp-based | prec- Enables WRED for a class in a policy map. The no form of this
based] command disables WRED.

[no] random-detect dscp dscp-value min- Changes the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the DSCP
threshold max-threshold [mark-probability- value in a policy map. The no form of this command returns the values
denominator] to default.

[no] random-detect ecn Enables ECN in a policy map. The no form of this command disables
ECN.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] shape {average | peak} cir [bc] [be] Specifies average or peak rate traffic shaping. The no form of this
command removes traffic shaping.

show policy-map interface type number Displays the statistics and configurations of the input and output policies
[input | output] [class class-name] that are attached to an interface.

[no] shutdown Disables an interface. The no form of this command restarts a disabled
interface.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

L-205 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_Header_Compression.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_Header_Compression.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_Header_Compression.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-206 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure Class-Based Header
Compression
You will configure class-based RTP header compression on the P2P serial connection between the
workgroup routers.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

In order to reduce the bandwidth on the P2P serial connection during outages on the MPLS service, you
decide to enable RTP header compression. RTP traffic has a high amount of overhead and RTP header
compression greatly reduces the bandwidth requirement for VoIP.

Can you safely enable RTP header compression in the ef-traffic traffic class of the llq-policy
policy map?

Step 2

You contact your MPLS service provider and learn that the provider does not support RTP header
compression. In order to enable RTP header compression on the P2P serial interface, you need to configure
a new policy map. Create a new policy map that is named llq-policy-serial on both workgroup
routers. This policy map has the same configuration parameters as the existing llq-policy policy map.

Step 3

Modify the llq-policy-serial policy map on both workgroup routers to enable class-based RTP
header compression for the EF traffic class, ef-traffic.

Step 4

Remove the llq-policy policy map from the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both workgroup routers and apply
the llq-policy-serial policy map in the outbound direction on the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both
workgroup routers.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

Step 5

You displayed the llq-policy-serial policy map (just display the ef-traffic class), and you
verified the class-based RTP header compression configuration on the ef-traffic class.

WGxR1# show policy-map llq-policy-serial class ef-traffic


Class ef-traffic
priority 261 (kbps) 9788
compress:
header ip rtp

L-207 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Monitor Class-Based Header Compression
You will monitor the operation of class-based RTP header compression.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

You decide to test the RTP header compression during a change window. Shut down the GigabitEthernet
0/1 interface on both workgroup routers in order to force traffic between the north and south campuses over
the P2P serial connection.

Step 2

Clear the interface counters on both of your workgroup routers by using the clear counters command.

Step 3
Wait at least 1 minute for the interface counters to accumulate statistics and then display the output service
policy on the Serial 0/0/0 interface of both workgroup routers (show only the ef-traffic class).

How many RTP packets were sent?

How many RTP packets were compressed?

How many bytes were saved because of RTP header compression?

What is the efficiency improvement factor? How does this number relate to the fact that the voice traffic is
using the G.711 codec with a 160-byte payload?

Step 4

Now that you have confirmed the operation of RTP header compression on the P2P serial connection
between the workgroup routers, return the traffic flow to the MPLS connection by turning the
GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface on both workgroup routers back up.

Step 5

Save your running configurations of the workgroup routers to the startup configuration in NVRAM.Activity
Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-208 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 7-2: Configuring LFI
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will configure and monitor MLP with interleaving on a PPP link. After completing this
activity, you will be able to:
Configure LFI on PPP WAN links
Monitor the LFI operation
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 7-2: Configuring LFI


Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

WGxR1 Provider
Backbone

LLQ-CBWFQ
cRTP
MLP-LFI

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
After measuring voice packet delay and jitter over the backup leased line, the E-Commerce IT staff is
concerned that the jitter is too high. The IT manager asks you what can be done to reduce this jitter. You are
concerned that the jitter could be due to the VoIP packets being queued in the hardware FIFO queue behind
large packets that are waiting for transmission. You recommend LFI to reduce the delay and jitter that the
VoIP traffic experiences. By fragmenting the larger packets and allowing the VoIP packets to be
transmitted between the fragments, you can guarantee a maximum amount of delay.
Because there is no budget to upgrade the slow WAN link speed, you suggest implementing MLP with
interleaving to improve the jitter and delay.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

L-210 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Commands
Command Description

[no] bandwidth kbps Sets the intended bandwidth value for an interface. The no form of this
command restores the default settings.

clear counters interface-type interface- Clears counters on one or all interfaces.


number

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] ip address ip-address mask Sets an IP address for an interface. The no form of this command
removes an IP address.

ping Uses ICMP echo requests and ICMP echo replies to determine whether
a remove host is reachable. Entering the command without a variable
enters the extended ping mode.

[no] ppp multilink fragment delay Specifies the maximum time for the transmission of a packet fragment
milliseconds [microseconds] on an MLP bundle. The no form of this command returns the maximum
delay to the default value.

[no] ppp multilink group group-number Restricts a physical link to join only one designated multilink interface.
The no form of this command removes the assignment.

[no] ppp multilink interleave Enables interleaving of packets among the fragments of larger packets
on an MLP bundle. The no form of this command disables interleaving.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

show interfaces interface-type interface- Displays information about all interfaces or one interface on the device.
number

show ip ospf neighbor [ interface-type Displays OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis.
interface-number ] [neighbor-id] [detail]
[fast-reroute]

show ppp multilink [active | inactive | Displays bundle information for MLP bundles.
interface type number

show running-config interface-type Displays the contents of the current running configuration file for
interface-number the specified interface.

[no] shutdown Disables an interface. The no form of this command restarts a disabled
interface.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-211


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_LFI.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_LFI.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_LFI.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-212 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Configure LFI
You will configure LFI on PPP WAN links.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:
Step 1

Remove the IP address and the service policy named llq-policy-serial from the Serial 0/0/0
interface of the WGxR1 router.

Step 2

Create a multilink virtual interface (multilink 10) on the workgroup WGxR1 router. Set the bandwidth and
IP address on the WGxR1 multilink 10 interface as follows:

Parameter Value

IP address 10.2.x.1

Subnet mask 255.255.255.0

Bandwidth 768 kb/s

Step 3

Place the Serial 0/0/0 interface of WGxR1 into the multilink group 10.

Step 4

Repeat Steps 1 through 3 for WGxR2, using the information in this table for Step 2.

Parameter Value

IP address 10.2.x.2

Subnet mask 255.255.255.0

Bandwidth 768 kb/s

Step 5

Enable PPP multilink interleaving on the multilink 10 interface on both WGxR1 and WGxR2. Use a
fragment delay of 10.

What is the unit of the fragment delay?

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain these results:

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-213


Step 6

You validated the running configuration for the Serial 0/0/0 and the multilink 10 interfaces on both
workgroup routers to verify the MLP configuration.

Current configuration : 116 bytes


!
interface Multilink10
bandwidth 768
ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
ppp multilink
ppp multilink interleave
ppp multilink group 10
ppp multilink fragment delay 10
end

Current configuration : 216 bytes


!
interface Serial0/0/0
description to WG1R2
bandwidth 768
no ip address
encapsulation ppp
load-interval 30
ppp multilink
ppp multilink group 10
clock rate 768000
end

Step 7

You successfully pinged the multilink 10 interface of WGxR2 from WGxR1.

WGxR1# ping 10.2.x.2


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.x.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms

Step 8

You verified that an OSPF neighbor relationship is now formed over the multilink interface.

WGxR1# show ip ospf neighbor


Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
10.5.x.2 0 FULL/ - 00:00:32 10.2.x.2 Multilink10
10.5.x.100 1 FULL/DR 00:00:31 10.4.x.100 GigabitEthernet0/1

L-214 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Monitor LFI
You will monitor the LFI operation.
Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

In order to test the LFI configuration on the multilink 10 interface, force traffic to this connection by
shutting down the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface on both workgroup routers.

Step 2

Enable the llq-policy-serial policy on the multilink 10 interface in the outbound direction on
WGxR1 and WGxR2.

Step 3

Clear the interface counters on both of your workgroup routers for all interfaces.

Step 4

Wait at least 1 minute for the interface counters to accumulate traffic statistics and then display the
multilink interface and examine how many packets have been interleaved.

Multilink10 is up, line protocol is up


Hardware is multilink group interface
Internet address is 10.2.x.1/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 768 Kbit/sec, DLY 20000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 209/255, rxload 255/255
Encapsulation PPP, LCP Open, multilink Open
Open: IPCP, CDPCP, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
DTR is pulsed for 2 seconds on reset
Last input 00:00:00, output never, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:01:03
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 13628
Queueing strategy: Class-based queueing
Output queue: 41/1000/12532/194 (size/max total/drops/interleaves)
5 minute input rate 1241000 bits/sec, 1238 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 631000 bits/sec, 641 packets/sec
79964 packets input, 10026069 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
41046 packets output, 4994763 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
0 carrier transitions

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-215


Step 5

Use the show ppp multilink command to examine the fragment size in bytes (calculated by the Cisco IOS
Software based on the fragment delay of 10 milliseconds).

Multilink10
Bundle name: WGxR2
Remote Endpoint Discriminator: [1] WGxR2
Local Endpoint Discriminator: [1] WGxR1
Bundle up for 00:16:47, total bandwidth 768, load 211/255
Receive buffer limit 12000 bytes, frag timeout 1000 ms
Interleaving enabled
0/0 fragments/bytes in reassembly list
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered
0/0 discarded fragments/bytes, 0 lost received
0x4D5C0 received sequence, 0x4E705 sent sequence
Member links: 1 active, 0 inactive (max 255, min not set)
Se0/0/0, since 00:16:47, 960 weight, 952 frag size
No inactive multilink interfaces

Step 6

Now that you have confirmed the operation of LFI on the P2P serial connection between the workgroup
routers, return the traffic flow to the MPLS connection by turning the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface on both
workgroup routers back up.

Step 7

Save your running configurations of the workgroup routers to the startup configuration in NVRAM.

Activity Verification
No additional verification is needed in this task.

L-216 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 8-1: Mapping
Enterprise QoS Policy to the
Service Provider Policy
Activity Objective
In this activity, you will adjust the QoS markings of traffic at the service provider edge to map traffic to the
correct traffic classes in order to preserve end-to-end QoS. After completing this activity, you will be able
to:
Adjust outbound QoS markings to map enterprise traffic to a four-class service provider offering
Classify and re-mark inbound traffic from a service provider to return the QoS markings to the settings
that are required for a specific enterprise QoS policy
Visual Objective
The figure illustrates what you will accomplish in this activity.

Lab 8-1: Mapping Enterprise QoS Policy to the


Service Provider Policy
Pagent-1 Traffic Gen 1 Callgen-1
Pod X—North Campus Backbone

WGxS1

WGxR1 Provider
Backbone

Remark Outbound
and Inbound DSCP

SP-Core-Switch
WGxR2

WGxS1

Pod X—South Campus Traffic Gen 2


Pagent-2 Backbone Callgen -2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lab Scenario
Since moving to the MPLS connection, there have been complaints about the performance of certain
applications. Most notably, users of the VoIP system are having issues connecting calls or placing calls on
hold. There have also been complaints about the FTP and email performance. After a complete review of
the QoS settings on the switches and routers, the IT staff at the university suspects that there could be an
issue in the MPLS service provider network.

Required Resources
No additional resources are required for this lab.

Command List
The table describes the commands that are used in this activity. The commands are listed in alphabetical
order so that you can easily locate the information that you need. Refer to this list if you need configuration
command assistance during the lab activity.

Commands
Command Description

[no] class class-map-name Specifies a traffic classification for a policy to act on. The no form of this
command removes the configuration.

[no] class-map [match-any | match-all] Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to a specified
class-name class and enters the QoS class map configuration mode. The no form
of this command removes the configuration.

L-218 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Command Description

interface interface-type interface-number Enters the interface configuration mode for the specified interface.

[no] match class-map class-map-name Configures a traffic class as a match criterion in a class map. The no
form of this command removes the match criterion from the class map.

[no] match protocol protocol-name Configures the match criterion for a class map on the basis of a
specified protocol. The no form of this command removes the match
criterion from the class map.

[no] policy-map policy-map-name Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more
interface. The no form of this command deletes the policy map.

[no] service-policy [input | output] policy- Attaches a policy map to an input interface, a VC, or an output interface.
map-name The no form of this command removes the configuration.

[no] set dscp dscp-value Marks a packet by setting the DSCP value in the ToS byte. The no form
of this command removes a previously configured set value.

show class-map [class-map-name] Displays class maps and their matching criteria.

show policy-map [policy-map-name] Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy
[class class-name] map or of all classes for all existing policy maps.

Job Aids
These job aids are available to help you complete the lab activity.
No additional job aids are required for this activity.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-219


Task 0: Initialize the Network
You will setup network connectivity by using the appropriate Cisco IOS commands.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

Initialize the lab by erasing the present startup configuration and replacing it with the Baseline
configuration on both routers and the switch of your pod.

WGxR1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR1#copy flash:/config/WGxR1_INIT_Enterprise_SP_Mapping.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxR2# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxR2#copy flash:/config/WGxR2_INIT_Enterprise_SP_Mapping.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxR2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

WGxS1# wr er
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]<enter>
WGxS1#copy flash:/config/WGxS1_INIT_Enterprise_SP_Mapping.cfg start
Destination filename [startup-config]?<enter>
[OK]
1585 bytes copied in 2.912 secs (544 bytes/sec)

WGxS1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<enter>

L-220 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 1: Adjust QoS Markings to Match the Service
Provider QoS Policy
You will adjust the QoS policy for outbound traffic toward the service provider so that the DSCP markings
match the service provider offering.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

After speaking with the service provider, you have validated that the MPLS service uses a four-class policy
as shown in the table. Any traffic that is marked with a DSCP value that does not correspond to one of the
traffic classes will be treated as best-effort traffic. The service provider also confirmed that it does not alter
the DSCP marking of any traffic so your DSCP markings are preserved across the network. Network
control traffic, such as the OSPF routing protocol updates, is not propagated across the MPLS core.

Traffic Class DSCP Match Criteria Bandwidth

Real-Time Applications EF 40% priority bandwidth

Critical-Data 1 AF31 40% of remaining bandwidth

Critical-Data 2 AF21 30% of remaining bandwidth

Best Effort Default (and all other markings) 30% of remaining bandwidth

Based on this table, which traffic class in the llq-policy will be treated as best-effort traffic in the
service provider MPLS network?

Is it a requirement that the llq-policy that is used on the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of both
workgroup routers be changed to a four-class policy in order for your traffic to receive the proper end-to-
end QoS?

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-221


Step 2

After reviewing your options and the traffic patterns on the network, you decide to alter the llq-policy
so that traffic for each traffic class is marked according to the following table. You will keep an eight-class
policy in the outbound direction on the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of each workgroup router but the new
traffic settings will map the traffic to the correct traffic classes for the four-class policy of the service
provider.

Adjust the llq-policy on both workgroup routers to match the settings in the table. The Network-
Control traffic class will not be altered, but the DSCP marking for all other traffic classes is explicitly
set.

Enterprise Traffic Class


DSCP Marking Service Provider Traffic Class
(llq- policy)

ef-traffic EF Real-Time Applications

cs3-traffic EF Real-Time Applications

af31-traffic AF31 Critical-Data 1

af21-traffic AF21 Critical-Data 2

af11-traffic AF21 Critical-Data 2

cs1-traffic Default Best Effort

class-default Default Best Effort

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

L-222 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 3
You have validated your DSCP markings by viewing the llq-policy on both workgroup routers.

WGxR1# show policy-map llq-policy


Policy Map llq-policy
Class ef-traffic
priority 261 (kbps) 9788
set dscp ef
Class Network-Control
bandwidth remaining 5 (%)
Class cs3-traffic
bandwidth remaining 4 (%)
set dscp ef
Class af31-traffic
bandwidth remaining 40 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
af31 (26) 34 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10
set dscp af31
Class af21-traffic
bandwidth remaining 15 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
af21 (18) 30 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10
set dscp af21
Class af11-traffic
bandwidth remaining 10 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
af11 (10) 26 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10
Average Rate Traffic Shaping
cir 64000 (bps)
set dscp af21
Class cs1-traffic
bandwidth remaining 1 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
cs1 (8) 22 40 1/10
default (0) - - 1/10
set dscp default
Class class-default
bandwidth remaining 25 (%)
packet-based wred, exponential weight 9 random-
detect ecn

dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probablity


----------------------------------------------------------
default (0) 20 40 1/10
set dscp default

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-223


Task 2: Re-mark Inbound Traffic from the Service
Provider
You will create an inbound QoS policy to re-mark traffic coming from the service provider to match the
enterprise QoS policy.

Activity Procedure
Complete the following steps:

Step 1

After adjusting the DSCP markings of outbound traffic to the MPLS provider, the traffic performance has
improved dramatically. However, inbound traffic from the service provider no longer matches the eight-
class QoS policy that you created for the university.

Which traffic classes require re-marking of the inbound service provider traffic in order to correctly set the
DSCP marking back to the value used in the university QoS policy?

Step 2

Create three new traffic classes on both workgroup routers named cs3-remark, af11-remark, and
cs1-remark that will correctly classify the incoming traffic from the service provider that originally
matched the cs3-traffic, af11-traffic, and cs1-traffic.

Step 3

Validate your new class maps by using the show class-map command.

WGxR2# show class-map

Class Map match-any cs3-remark (id 20)


Match protocol h323
Match protocol rtcp

Class Map match-any cs1-remark (id 21)


Match protocol gnutella
Match protocol skype

Class Map match-any class-default (id 0)


Match any

Class Map match-any af11-remark (id 22)


Match protocol ftp
Match protocol exchange
Match class-map Business-HTTP

.....Omitted....

L-224 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 4

Create a new policy map on both workgroup routers that is named SP-Remark. The policy map uses the
three class maps defined in Step 2 and sets the DSCP for each traffic class to match the university QoS
policy.

Step 5

Validate your new policy map on both workgroup routers.

Policy Map SP-Remark


Class cs3-remark
set dscp cs3
Class af11-remark
set dscp af11
Class cs1-remark
set dscp cs1

Step 6

Apply the SP-Remark policy on the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface of both workgroup routers for all input
traffic.

Activity Verification
You have completed this task when you attain this result:

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-225


Step 7

You have validated that your policy is actively re-marking inbound traffic from the service provider on both
workgroup routers.

GigabitEthernet0/1
Service-policy input: SP-Remark Class-
map: cs3-remark (match-any)
67 packets, 7482 bytes
30 second offered rate 0000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol h323
48 packets, 5680 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Match: protocol rtcp
19 packets, 1802 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
QoS Set
dscp cs3
Packets marked 67
Class-map: af11-remark (match-any)
4040 packets, 345681 bytes
30 second offered rate 40000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol ftp
1876 packets, 128399 bytes
30 second rate 15000 bps
Match: protocol exchange
1080 packets, 104536 bytes
30 second rate 13000 bps
Match: class-map match-all Business-HTTP
1084 packets, 112746 bytes
30 second rate 13000 bps
Match: protocol http
Match: access-group name Business-HTTP
QoS Set
dscp af11
Packets marked 4040
Class-map: cs1-remark (match-any)
810 packets, 237948 bytes
30 second offered rate 19000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: protocol gnutella
495 packets, 170538 bytes
30 second rate 19000 bps
Match: protocol skype
315 packets, 67410 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
QoS Set
dscp cs1
Packets marked 811
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
39153 packets, 5490344 bytes
30 second offered rate 623000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: any

L-226 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab Answer Keys
Case Study 1-1: QoS Mechanisms
Task 1: Apply QoS Mechanisms
Step 1

Traffic Classification and Prioritization

Traffic Priority
Type of Traffic (Application)
(Rank from 1 to 5)

IP telephony Highest—1

ERP High—2

Patient information files Moderate—3

Patient graphic files Low—4

Browser traffic Low—4

Step 2

This table describes where classification and marking could be applied.

Classification on Classification on Marking on Marking on


Network Location
Input Output Input Output

IP phone—To workstation ✓

IP phone—To switch ✓ ✓ ✓1
Switch—To IP phone ✓ ✓ ✓1
Switch—To CE router ✓ ✓

CE router—To switch ✓ ✓ ✓2 ✓2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-227


Classification on Classification on Marking on Marking on
Network Location
Input Output Input Output

CE router—To WAN (PE ✓ ✓ ✓3 ✓3


router)

PE router—To CE router ✓ ✓ ✓4

1 The IP phone will normally be set to re-mark any traffic coming from its downstream workstation (the IP
phone connection to the workstation is "untrusted"). The switch will normally not re-mark traffic coming
from the IP phone (traffic from the IP phone is "trusted") but may perform classification and marking of the
traffic that comes from the workstation or other connected devices. Further explanation of "trusted" and
"untrusted" interfaces is provided in the "Implement and Monitor QoS" module of this course.
2 The CE router can be configured to mark any traffic that the switch is unable to identify, because either
the switch does not support marking or an advanced classification technique such as Cisco NBAR is
required. The CE router can also be configured to mark traffic towards the switch in instances where the
switch doesn't support the marking used on the WAN or if traffic needs to be re-marked to match the
enterprise QoS policy.
3 Marking at the CE router for traffic to and from the SP MPLS connection may be required if the QoS
policy for the enterprise consists of more traffic classes than the SP MPLS offering supports. Traffic from
the CE router to the SP router would be re-marked on egress to match the SP QOS policy and re-marked on
ingress from the SP router to match the enterprise QoS policy.
4 The service provider may re-mark the QoS settings for traffic that is exceeding the contracted traffic
profile or as a function of the SP QoS policy.

Step 3

This table describes where congestion management and congestion avoidance could be applied.

Congestion Congestion Congestion Congestion


Network Location Management on Management on Avoidance on Avoidance on
Input Output Input Output

Switch—To IP phone ✓ (when supported) ✓

Switch—To CE router ✓ (when supported) ✓ Possible

CE router—To switch ✓ Possible

CE router—To WAN ✓ ✓
(PE router)

PE router—To CE router ✓ ✓

Although it is available and useful on the LAN interfaces, congestion avoidance is recommended for any
interface where you expect congestion to occur. In this case, congestion is expected on the MPLS link due
to the low bandwidth and application performance symptoms that are provided.

L-228 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 4

This table describes where traffic policing and traffic shaping could be applied.
Traffic Policing Traffic Policing Traffic Shaping Traffic Shaping
Network Location
on Input on Output on Input on Output

Switch—To IP phone ✓

Switch—To CE router Possible

CE router—To switch ✓ Possible

CE router—To WAN (PE Possible ✓*


router)

PE router—To CE router ✓ Possible

* Traffic shaping should be implemented at the headquarters connection to the MPLS service because the
subscribed rate is below the line rate for this connection.

Step 5

This table describes where link efficiency mechanisms could be applied.


*Because it is an MPLS connection and link efficiency mechanisms are done on a P2P basis, the service
provider would have to agree to enable compression and LFI in order for either of these mechanisms to be
used in this case.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-229


Lab 2-1: IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline
Measurement
Task 1: Verify Network Connectivity

Step 1

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# shutdown

Step 2

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# no shutdown

L-230 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Create a Baseline Measurement of Network Traffic
Step 1

Enter this command on WGxR2:


WGxR2(config)# ip sla responder

Step 2

Enter these commands on WGxR1:


WGxR1(config)# ip sla 10
WGxR1(config-ip-sla)# udp-jitter 10.3.x.2 50000 codec g711ulaw source-ip 10.1.x.1
WG1R1(config-ip-sla-jitter)# frequency 30
WGxR1(config-ip-sla-jitter)# exit
WGxR1(config)# ip sla schedule 10 start-time now life forever

Step 3

The type of service parameter is set to 0x0.


The operation will run every 30 seconds.
A packet is sent every 20 milliseconds, and 1000 packets are sent each time the operation runs.
WGxR1# show ip sla configuration 10
IP SLAs Infrastructure Engine-III
Entry number: 10
Owner:
Tag:
Operation timeout (milliseconds): 5000
Type of operation to perform: udp-jitter
Target address/Source address: 10.3.1.2/10.1.1.1
Target port/Source port: 50000/0
Type Of Service parameter: 0x0
Codec Type: g711ulaw
Codec Number Of Packets: 1000
Codec Packet Size: 172
Codec Interval (milliseconds): 20
Advantage Factor: 0
Verify data: No
Vrf Name:
Control Packets: enabled
Schedule:
Operation frequency (seconds): 30 (not considered if randomly scheduled)
Next Scheduled Start Time: Start Time already passed
Group Scheduled : FALSE
Randomly Scheduled : FALSE
Life (seconds): Forever
Entry Ageout (seconds): never
Recurring (Starting Everyday): FALSE
Status of entry (SNMP RowStatus): Active
Threshold (milliseconds): 5000
Distribution Statistics:
Number of statistic hours kept: 2
Number of statistic distribution buckets kept: 1
Statistic distribution interval (milliseconds): 20
Enhanced History:

Step 4

Your values may vary slightly, based on the specific network state when the command was run.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-231


WG1R1# show ip sla statistics 10
IPSLAs Latest Operation Statistics
IPSLA operation id: 10
Type of operation: udp-jitter
Latest RTT: 5 milliseconds
Latest operation start time: 15:46:54 UTC Fri Aug 16 2013
Latest operation return code: OK
RTT Values:
Number Of RTT: 1000 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 5/5/7 milliseconds
Latency one-way time:
Number of Latency one-way Samples: 0
Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 0/0/0 milliseconds
Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 0/0/0 milliseconds
Jitter Time:
Number of SD Jitter Samples: 999
Number of DS Jitter Samples: 999
Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/1/1 milliseconds
Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/1/2 milliseconds
Packet Loss Values:
Loss Source to Destination: 0
Source to Destination Loss Periods Number: 0
Source to Destination Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Source to Destination Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Loss Destination to Source: 0
Destination to Source Loss Periods Number: 0
Destination to Source Loss Period Length Min/Max: 0/0
Destination to Source Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
0/0 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0
Packet Late Arrival: 0 Packet Skipped: 0
Voice Score Values:
Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 1
MOS score: 4.34
Number of successes: 11
Number of failures: 0
Operation time to live: Forever

Step 5

Enter this command on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# ntp master 3

Enter this command on WGxR2:

WGxR2(config)# ntp server 10.1.x.1

L-232 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 3: Measure the Network Performance under Traffic Load

Step 1

Your values may vary, based on the specific network state when the command was run.
WGxR1# show ip sla statistics 10
IPSLAs Latest Operation Statistics
IPSLA operation id: 10
Type of operation: udp-jitter
Latest RTT: 398 milliseconds
Latest operation start time: 13:30:19 UTC Thu Sep 12 2013
Latest operation return code: OK
RTT Values:
Number Of RTT: 866 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 5/398/1124 milliseconds
Latency one-way time:
Number of Latency one-way Samples: 865
Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 6/186/435 milliseconds
Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 13/212/867
milliseconds
Jitter Time:
Number of SD Jitter Samples: 787
Number of DS Jitter Samples: 838
Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/15/339 milliseconds
Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 0/13/649 milliseconds
Packet Loss Values:
Loss Source to Destination: 83
Source to Destination Loss Periods Number: 65
Source to Destination Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/8
Source to Destination Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
1/83 Loss Destination to Source: 51
Destination to Source Loss Periods Number: 27
Destination to Source Loss Period Length Min/Max: 1/6
Destination to Source Inter Loss Period Length Min/Max:
1/197 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0
Packet Late Arrival: 0 Packet Skipped: 0
Voice Score Values:
Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 34
MOS score: 3.05
Number of successes: 54
Number of failures: 0
Operation time to live: Forever

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-233


Task 4: QoS Measurement Lab Results
Step 1

When you complete this activity, your ping results will be similar to the following but may vary slightly
depending on the traffic pattern during your test.

Sample WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Packet Size Without Pagent and Callgen With Pagent and Callgen

160 bytes min/avg/max min/avg/max

Extended ping 1 1/3/4 4/142/568

Extended ping 2 1/3/4 24/352/608

Extended ping 3 1/3/4 140/393/628

success rate % success rate %

Extended ping 1 100% 96%

Packet Size Without Pagent and Callgen With Pagent and Callgen

Extended ping 2 100% 98%

Extended ping 3 100% 96%

Step 2

When you complete this activity, your values will be similar to the following, with differences that are
specific to the traffic pattern during your test.

Sample WGxR1 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results


Without Pagent and Callgen With Pagent and Callgen

Queuing Strategy FIFO FIFO

Reliability, Txload, Rxload 255, 1, 1 255, 234, 241

Total Output Drops 0 31456

Output Queue: Size/Max Total 0/40 39/40

Packets Output 372 236138

Drop % (Calculated as Total Output 0/372 = 0% 31456/236138 = 13.3%


Drop / Packets Output)

L-234 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 3

When you complete this activity, your values will be similar to the following, with differences that are
specific to the traffic pattern during your test.

Sample WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results


Without Pagent and Callgen With Pagent and Callgen

Min/Avg/Max RTT 5/5/7 5/398/1124

Min/Avg/Max Source-to-Destination 2/2/3 6/186/435


Latency

Min/Avg/Max Source-to-Destination Jitter 0/1/1 0/15/339

Source-to-Destination Packet Loss 0 83

MOS Score 4.34 3.05

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-235


Lab 2-2: Configuring QoS with Cisco AutoQoS
Task 1: Configure Cisco AutoQoS Classify on the Catalyst
2960-S Switch

Step 1

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1


WGxS1(config-if)# auto qos classify

Step 2

There is outbound traffic that is marked with DSCP 0 (default), 10 (AF11), 18 (AF21), and 34 (AF41).
The corresponding traffic classes are AUTOQOS_DEFAULT_CLASS, AUTOQOS_BULK_DATA_CLASS,
AUTOQOS_TRANSACTION_CLASS, and AUTOQOS_MULTIENHANCED_CONF_CLASS.

Step 3

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# ip access-list extended University_VoIP


WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp host 10.1.x.11 host 10.3.x.11 range 16384 32767
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp host 10.3.x.11 host 10.1.x.11 range 16384 32767

Step 4

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# class-map match-any University_VoIP


WGxS1(config-cmap)# match access-group name University_VoIP

Step 5

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1


WGxS1(config-if)# no service-policy input AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
WGxS1(config-if)# policy-map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
WGxS1(config-pmap)# class University_VoIP
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp ef
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# interface fastethernet 0/1
WGxS1(config-if)# service-policy input AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY

L-236 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


There is outbound traffic marked with DSCP 0 (default), 10 (AF11), 18 (AF21), and 34 (AF41).

Step 6

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:


WGxS1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1
WGxS1(config-if)# no service-policy input AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY

Step 7

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1


WGxS1(config-if)# no service-policy input AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY

Step 8

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# policy-map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY


WGxS1(config-pmap)# class University_VoIP
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp ef
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class AUTOQOS_MULTIENHANCED_CONF_CLASS
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af41
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class AUTOQOS_BULK_DATA_CLASS
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af11
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class AUTOQOS_TRANSACTION_CLASS
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af21
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class AUTOQOS_SCAVANGER_CLASS
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp cs1
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class AUTOQOS_SIGNALING_CLASS
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp cs3
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class AUTOQOS_DEFAULT_CLASS
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp default

Step 9

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1


WGxS1(config-if)# service-policy input AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY

Step 10

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1


WGxS1(config-if)# mls qos trust dscp

Step 11

There is outbound traffic marked with DSCP 0 (default), 10 (AF11), 18 (AF21), and 46 (EF).

L-238 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Configure Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise on Cisco
IOS Routers

Step 1

Enter the following commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# auto discovery qos trust

Step 2

The discovery process has identified traffic in the Voice, Transactional, Bulk, and Best Effort
traffic classes.
The suggested match criteria for the traffic class AutoQoS-Transactional-Trust are matches for
DSCP AF21, AF22, or AF23.

Step 3

Enter the following commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# auto qos

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-239


Task 3: Measure Network Performance with Cisco AutoQoS for
the Enterprise
Step 1

Enter the following commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# ip access-list extended ICMP


WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any any echo
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any any echo-reply
WGxR1(config)# ip access-list extended IPSLA
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp any any eq 50000
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# class-map match-any AutoQoS-Voice-Trust
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group name ICMP
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group name IPSLA

Step 2

Enter the following commands on WGxR2:

WGxR2(config)# ip access-list extended ICMP


WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any any echo
WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any any echo-reply
WGxR2(config)# ip access-list extended IPSLA
WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp any eq 50000 any
WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# class-map match-any AutoQoS-Voice-Trust
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match access-group name ICMP
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match access-group name IPSLA

Step 3

Enter the following commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map AutoQoS-Policy-Se0/0/0-Trust


WGXR1(config-pmap)# class AutoQoS-Voice-Trust
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# priority percent 40

Step 4

Yes, the ping response time is shorter with Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise because ping traffic was
moved into the Expedited Forwarding class with the VoIP traffic. The minimum time may be higher
because the traffic-generation tools generate traffic at different rates.
The drop rate should be slightly lower because Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise enables TCP and RTP
header compression, reducing the load on the serial interface.
The MOS score is higher because the IP SLA traffic was moved into the Expedited Forwarding class with
the VoIP traffic. The latency, jitter, and packet loss for the IP SLA traffic have all improved, which
increases the synthetic MOS score value.

L-240 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 5

Enter the following commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# class-map match-any AutoQoS-Voice-Trust


WGxR1(config-cmap)# no match access-group name ICMP

Step 6

Enter the following commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR2(config)# policy-map AutoQoS-Policy-Se0/0/0-Trust


WGxR2(config-pmap)# class AutoQoS-Transactional-Trust
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 17

The drop rate of these pings should be significantly better than when no QoS was applied but the packets
will still experience delay.
The response time is not as good as when the traffic was in the EF queue because it is no longer receiving
strict priority treatment. It shares the bandwidth reserved by the Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise feature
for the AutoQoS-Transactional-Trust traffic class.

WGxR1# ping 10.2.x.2 repeat 50 size 160 tos 0x48


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 50, 160-byte ICMP Echos to 10.2.x.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 10.2.x.1
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (50/50), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/358/692 ms

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-241


Step 7

Enter the following commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# no auto discovery qos trust
WGxR1(config-if)# no auto qos
% Cannot disable multilink on a multilink group interface
% The multilink group configuration will be removed from all the member links.
WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0
WGxR1(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

Step 8

Enter the following commands on WGxS1:


WGxS1(config)# interface Fastethernet 0/1
WGxS1(config-if)# no auto qos classify
WGxS1(config-if)# exit
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos map policed-dscp
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos map cos-dscp
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos srr-queue output cos-map
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos queue-set output 1 threshold
WGxS1(config)# no mls qos queue-set output 1 buffers
WGxS1(config)# no policy-map AUTOQOS-SRND4-CLASSIFY-POLICY
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_MULTIENHANCED_CONF_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_DEFAULT_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_TRANSACTION_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_SIGNALING_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_BULK_DATA_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-all AUTOQOS_SCAVANGER_CLASS
WGxS1(config)# no class-map match-any University_VoIP
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-BULK-DATA
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-DEFAULT
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-MULTIENHANCED-CONF
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-SCAVANGER
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-SIGNALING
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended AUTOQOS-ACL-TRANSACTIONAL-DATA
WGxS1(config)# no ip access-list extended University_VoIP

L-242 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 4: QoS Measurement Results
Step 1

When you complete this activity, your ping results will be similar to the following, with differences that are
specific to the traffic pattern during your test.

Sample WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results


Without Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
With Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
Packet Size (from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
(from This Lab)
Baseline Measurement" lab)

160 bytes min/avg/max min/avg/max

Extended ping 1 4/142/568 4/7/20

Extended ping 2 24/352/608 4/8/20

Extended ping 3 140/393/628 4/9/36

success rate % success rate %

Extended ping 1 96% 100%

Extended ping 2 98% 100%

Extended ping 3 96% 100%

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-243


Step 2

When you complete this activity, your values will be similar to the following, with differences that are
specific to the traffic pattern during your test.

Sample WGxR1 QoS Baseline show interfaces Command Results


Without Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
With Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
(from This Lab)
Baseline Measurement" lab)
show interfaces multilink
show interfaces S0/0/0

Queuing Strategy FIFO Class-based queueing

Reliability, Txload, Rxload 255, 234, 241 255, 158, 255

Total Output Drops 31456 7510

Output Queue: Size/Max Total 39/40 84/1000

Packets Output 236138 26399

Drop % (Calculated by You as Total 31456/236138 = 13.3% 7510/26399 = 9.5%


Output Drop / Packets Output)

Step 3

When you complete this activity, your values will be similar to the following, with differences that are
specific to the traffic pattern during your test.

Sample WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results


Without Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
With Cisco AutoQoS Enterprise
(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
(from This Lab)
Baseline Measurement" lab)

Min/Avg/Max RTT 5/398/1124 5/10/38

Min/Avg/Max Source to 6/186/435 1/3/9


Destination Latency

Min/Avg/Max Source to 0/15/339 0/3/16


Destination Jitter

Source to Destination Packet 83 0


Loss

MOS Score 3.05 4.34

L-244 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Case Study 3-1: Classification and Marking
Task 1: Classification and Marking
Step 1

Your results should be similar to this table.

Customer Traffic Service Class

OSPF Reserved

VoIP Voice Bearer

Voice signaling (Skinny, SIP) Voice Signaling

ERP (transactional database) Transactional Data

Email Best-Effort Data

Internet (browsing, messaging) Bulk Data

Backup, sync (FTP bulk transfer) Bulk Data

Step 2

Your results should be similar to this table.

Layer 3 Classification Layer 2 Classification


Service Class
DSCP PHB DSCP IP Precedence CoS MPLS EXP

Reserved CS6 48 (110 000) 6 6 6

Voice Bearer EF 46 (101 110) 5 5 5

Voice Signaling CS3 24 (011 000) 3 3 3

Transactional Data AF21 18 (010 010) 2 2 2

Bulk Data AF11 10 (001 010) 1 1 1

Best-Effort Data Default 0 (000 000) 0 0 0

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-245


Task 2: Identify Network Locations Where Classification and
Marking Should Be Applied
Step 1

Your results should be similar to this figure.

Trust
Boundary

Voice-Enabled Non-Voice
Wiring Closet Wiring Closet

Classification
Mark Layer 2 CoS/DSCP
Hosts Marked with MQC
Trust Voice Ports
Backbone
Classification
Optional Mark Server
Trust DSCP*
Boundary* Classification Classification
Mark DSCP

ERP Database, Email, and Service Provider


Regional Sales
Telephony Servers Classification MPLS Backbone
and
Distribution Extranet Internet
Centers CE Routers

* A trust boundary can be extended to the core servers but there is a risk that the servers will be incorrectly
configured to mark all server traffic with the assigned DSCP value instead of just marking the traffic for the
application that is intended to receive the enhanced QoS treatment in the network. For example, the ERP
database may mark the database traffic to AF21 but it may also mark backups, system updates, and logging
traffic to AF21. This action could result in poor performance for the actual database traffic.

L-246 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 2
Your results should be similar to this figure.

Corporate
Classification
Headquarters
Trust
Boundary Classification
Mark DSCP

128 kb/s PVC

Frame Relay
Network

Regional Regional
Office 1 Office N

Classification
Mark DSCP
Basic
Desktop Switch

Regional
Office 2

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-247


Lab 3-2: Classification and Marking Using MQC
Task 1: Configure an IP Extended Access List
Step 1

Enter the following commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# ip access-list extended 101


WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any eq ftp
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any eq ftp-data

Step 2

Enter the following commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# ip access-list extended 102


WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any eq www

Task 2: Configure MQC Classification


Step 1

Enter the following commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-all match-ftp


WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group 101
WGxR1(config-cmap)# exit
WGxR1(config)# class-map match-all match-www
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group 102

Task 3: Configure Class-Based Marking


Step 1

Enter the following commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map mark-apps


WGxR1(config-pmap)# class match-ftp
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af11
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class match-www
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp default

Step 2

Enter the following commands on WGxR1:


WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0
WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy input mark-apps

L-248 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 3

The values for packets that match the service policy and the values for packets that are marked by the
service policy will vary based on the traffic rate on your system during this lab and on the amount of time
between when the policy was applied and when it was viewed.

WGxR1# show policy-map interface gigabitethernet 0/0


GigabitEthernet0/0
Service-policy input: mark-apps Class-
map: match-ftp (match-all)
2531 packets, 158700 bytes
30 second offered rate 12000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: access-group 101
QoS Set
dscp af11
Packets marked 2531
Class-map: match-www (match-all)
2263 packets, 221220 bytes
30 second offered rate 15000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: access-group 102
QoS Set
dscp default
Packets marked 2263
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
66746 packets, 10807946 bytes
30 second offered rate 794000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: any

Step 4
Your values for packet matches will vary based on the traffic rate on your system during this lab and the
amount of time between when the policy was applied and when it was viewed.
2531 packets have matched the match-ftp traffic class.
2263 packets have matched the match-www traffic class.
66,746 packets have matched the class-default traffic class.
Step 5

Enter these commands on WGxR2:


WGxR2(config)# ip access-list extended 101
WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any eq ftp WGxR2(config-
ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any eq ftp-data WGxR2(config-ext-
nacl)# exit
WGxR2(config)# ip access-list extended 102 WGxR2(config-ext-
nacl)# permit tcp any any eq www WGxR2(config-ext-nacl)# exit
WGxR2(config-cmap)# class-map match-all match-ftp
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match access-group 101
WGxR2(config-cmap)# exit
WGxR2(config)# class-map match-all match-www
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match access-group 102
WGxR2(config)# policy-map mark-apps WGxR2(config-
pmap)# class match-ftp WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# set
dscp af11 WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# class match-www
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# set dscp default
WGxR2(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0
WGxR2(config-if)# service-policy input mark-apps

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-249


Lab 3-3: Using NBAR for Classification
Task 1: Upgrade the NBAR Protocol Pack

Step 1

Enter this command on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1# show ip nbar protocol-pack active


ACTIVE protocol pack:
Name: Advanced Protocol Pack
Version: 1.0
Publisher: Cisco Systems Inc.

The current version of the NBAR Protocol Pack is version 1.0.

Step 2

Enter the following command on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# ip nbar protocol-pack flash:pp-adv-isrg2-152-4.M1-13-6.0.0.pack

Step 3

Enter this command on both workgroup routers:


WGXR1# show ip nbar protocol-pack active
ACTIVE protocol pack:
Name: Advanced Protocol Pack
Version: 6.0
Publisher: Cisco Systems Inc.
File: flash:pp-adv-isrg2-152-4.M1-13-6.0.0.pack

The current version of the NBAR Protocol Pack is version 6.0.

L-250 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Discover Applications and Traffic by Using NBAR
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# no service-policy input mark-apps

Step 2

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# ip nbar protocol-discovery

Step 3

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1# clear ip nbar protocol-discovery


Clear all NBAR Protocol Discovery statistics? [yes]:
Cleared NBAR Protocol Discovery statistics on all interfaces.

Step 4

Your values for traffic statistics will vary from this sample output depending on the traffic rate when you
ran the command and the amount of time you waited after clearing the traffic statistics.
WGxR1# show ip nbar protocol-discovery
GigabitEthernet0/0
Last clearing of "show ip nbar protocol-discovery" counters 00:65:00
Input Output
----- ------
Protocol Packet Count Packet Count
Byte Count Byte Count
30sec Bit Rate (bps) 30sec Bit Rate (bps)
30sec Max Bit Rate (bps) 30sec Max Bit Rate (bps)
------------------------ ------------------------ ------------------------
ncube-lm 11740 10475
1192221 954594
110000 87000
110000 87000
rtp 2137 2070
457318 442980
38000 38000
38000 38000
skype 907 904
194098 193456
8000 8000
29000 29000
http 2108 1551
379034 251533
36000 24000
36000 24000
......<omitted>.....

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-251


Step 5

Your list of applications should be similar to this list but may vary slightly.

nCUBE-lm HTTP RTP

Second Life CIFS Citrix

Skype FTP Oracle SQL*Net

Gnutella Exchange Microsoft RPC

LDAP Audio over HTTP RTCP

ICMP H.323 OSPF

NNTP

L-252 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 3: Configure Classification with NBAR
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:


WGxR1(config)# ip access-list extended Business-HTTP
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp host 10.1.1.10 host 10.3.1.10 eq 80
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp host 10.3.1.10 host 10.1.1.10 eq 80
WGxR1(config-ext-nacl)# class-map match-all Business-HTTP
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol http
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group name Business-HTTP
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-any VoIP-Telephony
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol rtp audio
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-any Call-Signaling
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol h323
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol rtcp
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-any Mission-Critical
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol oracle-sqlnet
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-any Low-Latency-Data
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol citrix
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-any High-Throughput-Data
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol ftp
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol exchange
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match class Business-HTTP
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-any Low-Priority-Data
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol skype
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol gnutella
WGxR1(config-cmap)# policy-map mark-nbar
WGxR1(config-pmap)# class VoIP-Telephony
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp ef
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class Call-Signaling
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp cs3
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class Mission-Critical
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af31
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class Low-Latency-Data
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af21
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class High-Throughput-Data
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af11
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class Low-Priority-Data
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp cs1
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class class-default
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp default

Step 2

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# no ip nbar protocol-discovery

Step 3

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy input mark-nbar

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-253


Lab 3-4: Configuring QoS Preclassify
Task 1: Configure a GRE Tunnel

Step 1

Enter the following commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# interface Tunnel0


WGxR1(config-if)# ip unnumbered gigabitethernet 0/0
WGxR1(config-if)# tunnel source gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR1(config-if)# tunnel destination 10.5.x.2

Enter the following commands on WGxR2:

WGxR2(config)# interface Tunnel0


WGxR2(config-if)# ip unnumbered gigabitethernet 0/0
WGxR2(config-if)# tunnel source gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR2(config-if)# tunnel destination 10.4.x.1

Step 2

Enter the following command on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# ip route 10.3.x.0 255.255.255.0 Tunnel0

Enter the following command on WGxR2:

WGxR2(config)# ip route 10.1.x.0 255.255.255.0 Tunnel0

L-254 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Configure QoS Preclassify
Step 1

Enter these commands on both routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1


WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy output mark-apps

Step 2

Your traffic statistics for the class-default traffic class will vary based on the amount of traffic when
the command was run and the time that you waited between applying the policy and validating the policy.
WGxR2# show policy-map interface gigabitethernet 0/1
GigabitEthernet0/1
Service-policy output: mark-apps
Class-map: match-ftp (match-all)
0 packets, 0 bytes
30 second offered rate 0000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: access-group 101
QoS Set
dscp af11
Packets marked 0
Class-map: match-www (match-all)
0 packets, 0 bytes
30 second offered rate 0000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: access-group 102
QoS Set
dscp default
Packets marked 0
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
33367 packets, 5129486 bytes
30 second offered rate 670000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: any

No traffic matches the match-www or match-ftp traffic classes.


The GRE tunnel adds a new header to every packet that traverses it. Because all of the traffic has been
routed across the GRE tunnel between the sites, the original packet headers are not available for the QoS
policy to analyze and the traffic does not match the original access lists that are used as the match criteria
for the match-ftp and match-www traffic classes.

Step 3

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR2(config)# interface tunnel 0


WGxR2(config-if)# qos pre-classify

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-255


Step 4

Your traffic statistics will vary based on the traffic pattern when the command was run and the amount of
time since the qos preclassify command was entered on the tunnel interface.
WGxR2# show policy-map interface gigabitethernet 0/1
GigabitEthernet0/1

Service-policy output: mark-apps

Class-map: match-ftp (match-all)


677 packets, 56163 bytes
30 second offered rate 9000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: access-group 101
QoS Set
dscp af11
Packets marked 677

Class-map: match-www (match-all)


631 packets, 75570 bytes
30 second offered rate 12000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: access-group 102
QoS Set
dscp default
Packets marked 631

Class-map: class-default (match-any)


56702 packets, 9761794 bytes
30 second offered rate 796000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: any

Step 5

Enter these commands on the workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# no ip route 10.3.x.0 255.255.255.0 tunnel 0


WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR1(config-if)# no service-policy output mark-apps
WGxR1(config-if)# no interface tunnel 0

WGxR2(config)# no ip route 10.1.x.0 255.255.255.0 tunnel 0


WGxR2(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR2(config-if)# no service-policy output mark-apps
WGxR2(config-if)# no interface tunnel 0

L-256 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 3-5: Campus Classification and Marking Using
MQC
Task 1: Configure a Trust Boundary
Step 1

Enter these commands on WGxS1:


WGxS1(config)# interface Fastethernet 0/1
WGxS1(config-if)# mls qos trust device cisco-phone
WGxS1(config-if)# mls qos trust cos

Step 2

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1# show mls qos interface Fastethernet 0/1


Fastethernet0/1
QoS is disabled. When QoS is enabled, following settings will be applied
trust state: not trusted
trust mode: trust cos
trust enabled flag: dis
COS override: dis
default COS: 0
DSCP Mutation Map: Default DSCP Mutation Map
Trust device: cisco-phone
qos mode: port-based

Step 3

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# mls qos

Step 4

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1# show mls qos interface Fastethernet 0/1


Fastethernet0/1 trust
state: not trusted trust
mode: trust cos trust
enabled flag: dis COS
override: dis
default COS: 0
DSCP Mutation Map: Default DSCP Mutation Map
Trust device: cisco-phone
qos mode: port-based

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-257


QoS is globally enabled on the switch.
The trust mode for this interface is trust cos.
The trust device is correctly set to cisco-phone.
The interface is in the not trusted state. The configuration set up a conditional trust boundary in which the
switch will trust the interface only if the Cisco Discovery Protocol indicates that a Cisco IP phone is
connected. Because there is no phone connected, the interface will remain in the not trusted state until a
Cisco IP phone is connected.

L-258 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Configure CoS-to-DSCP Mapping
Step 1

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1# show mls qos maps cos-dscp


Cos-dscp map:
cos: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
--------------------------------
dscp: 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56

By default, CoS 5 maps to DSCP 40.


The default mapping for CoS 5 corresponds with DSCP PHB CS5.

Step 2

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# mls qos map cos-dscp 0 8 16 24 32 46 48 56

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-259


Task 3: Configure Class-Based Marking
Step 1

Enter these commands on WGxS1:


WGxS1(config)# ip access-list extended VoIP-Telephony
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp host 10.1.1.11 any range 16384 32767
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp host 10.3.1.11 any range 16384 32767
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# ip access-list extended Call-Signaling
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp host 10.1.1.11 any eq 1720
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp host 10.3.1.11 any eq 1720
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp host 10.1.1.11 eq 1720 any
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp host 10.3.1.11 eq 1720 any
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# ip access-list extended Mission-Critical
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any eq 1521
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any eq 1521 any
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# ip access-list extended Low-Latency-Data
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any eq 1494
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any eq 1494 any
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# ip access-list extended High-Throughput-Data
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any eq ftp
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any eq ftp any
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# class-map match-all VoIP-Telephony
WGxS1(config-cmap)# match access-group name VoIP-Telephony
WGxS1(config-cmap)# class-map match-all Call-Signaling
WGxS1(config-cmap)# match access-group name Call-Signaling
WGxS1(config-ext-nacl)# class-map match-all Mission-Critical
WGxS1(config-cmap)# match access-group name Mission-Critical
WGxS1(config-cmap)# class-map match-all High-Throughput-Data
WGxS1(config-cmap)# match access-group name High-Throughput-Data
WGxS1(config-cmap)# class-map match-all Low-Latency-Data
WGxS1(config-cmap)# match access-group name Low-Latency-Data
WGxS1(config-cmap)# policy-map Edge-Marking
WGxS1(config-pmap)# class VoIP-Telephony
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp ef
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class Call-Signaling
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp cs3
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class Mission-Critical
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af31
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class Low-Latency-Data
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af21
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class High-Throughput-Data
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af11
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# class class-default
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp default
WGxS1(config-pmap-c)# interface Fastethernet 0/1
WG1S1(config-if)# service-policy input Edge-Marking

L-260 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 4: Verify QoS Markings

Step 1

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1# show mls qos interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2 statistics


GigabitEthernet1/0/2 (All statistics are in packets)
dscp: incoming
-------------------------------
0 4 : 21821 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 1501 0
10 - 14 : 1243 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 3158 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 65
25 - 29 : 0 618 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 2913 0 6 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
dscp: outgoing
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 15410 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 0 0
10 - 14 : 1631 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 4596 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 48
25 - 29 : 0 12737 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 3764 0 0 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
......Omitted......

There is outbound traffic marked with DSCP 0, 10, 18, 24, 26, and 46.

Step 2

Enter this command on WGxS1:

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-261


WGxS1# show mls qos interface fastethernet
Fastethernet 0/1statistics
Fastethernet0/1 (All statistics are in packets)
dscp: incoming
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 1723267 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 0 0
10 - 14 : 0 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 0 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 0
25 - 29 : 0 1038 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 66425 0 3160 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
dscp: outgoing
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 1649728 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 0 0
10 - 14 : 0 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 0 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 0
25 - 29 : 0 0 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 0 0 0 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
....Omitted....

There is only DSCP 0 traffic in the outbound direction.


The Fastethernet 0/2 and 0/3 interfaces are not trusted. The workgroup switch will rewrite the DSCP
markings of traffic coming into any interface that is not trusted when QoS is globally enabled.

Step 4

Enter these commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# interface range fastethernet 0/2 - 3


WGxS1(config-if-range)# mls qos trust dscp

Step 5

Enter this command on WGxS1:

L-262 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


WGxS1# show mls qos interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1 statistics
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 (All statistics are in packets)
dscp: incoming
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 2620558 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 0 0
10 - 14 : 0 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 0 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 171
25 - 29 : 0 1576 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 101053 0 4821 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
dscp: outgoing
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 2449582 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 8770 0
10 - 14 : 7677 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 22783 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 1197
25 - 29 : 0 6521 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 14978 0 31 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0

There is outbound traffic for DSCP 0, 8, 10, 18, 24, 26, 46, and 48.

Task 5: Adjust Router Classification and Marking Policy


Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# class-map VoIP-Telephony


WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp ef
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map Call-Signaling
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp cs3
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map Mission-Critical
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp af31
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map High-Throughput-Data
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp af11
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map Low-Latency-Data
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp af21

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-263


Lab 4-1: Configuring Fair Queuing
Task 1: Configure Fair Queuing
Step 1

Enter this command on both workgroup routers:

WGxR2# show interface serial 0/0/0


Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial
Description: to WG1R1
Internet address is 10.2.1.2/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 768 Kbit/sec, DLY 20000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 173/255, rxload 179/255
Encapsulation PPP, LCP Open
Open: IPCP, CDPCP, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:07, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters 23:44:25
Input queue: 0/75/0/35 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 8709538
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 14/40 (size/max)
30 second input rate 540000 bits/sec, 549 packets/sec
30 second output rate 524000 bits/sec, 541 packets/sec
43717949 packets input, 1306386696 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
10 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 10 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
42975409 packets output, 1104855885 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
0 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up

The default queuing strategy on the interface is FIFO.


The current queue size is 14, and 40 is the maximum queue size. (Note: Your value for the current queue
size will vary depending on the traffic patterns when the show interface command is executed.)

Step 2

Smaller, real-time packets such as voice can suffer excessive delay and jitter in a FIFO queue waiting to be
transmitted behind larger data packets. Because packets are transmitted in the order they are received,
aggressive traffic flows can also starve other traffic flows of bandwidth.

Step 3

Enter these commands on WGxR1 and WGxR2:


WGxR1(config)# policy-map FairQueue
WGxR1(config-pmap)# class class-default
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# fair-queue 16

L-264 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 4

Enter these commands on WGxR1 and WGxR2:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy output FairQueue

Step 5

Enter this command on WGxR1 and WGxR2:

WGxR2# show interface s0/0/0


Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial
Description: to WG1R1
Internet address is 10.2.1.2/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 768 Kbit/sec, DLY 20000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 188/255, rxload 193/255
Encapsulation PPP, LCP Open
Open: IPCP, CDPCP, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:03, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters 23:52:21
Input queue: 0/75/0/35 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 8767843
Queueing strategy: Class-based queueing
Output queue: 50/1000/6856 (size/max total/drops)
30 second input rate 582000 bits/sec, 552 packets/sec
30 second output rate 567000 bits/sec, 546 packets/sec
43978099 packets input, 1340348567 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
1 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
11 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 10 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
43229917 packets output, 1135846309 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
2 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up

Class-based queueing is the queueing strategy on the interface now.


The current queue size is 60, and 1000 is the maximum queue size for the interface. (Note: Your value for
the current queue size will vary depending on the traffic patterns when the show interface command is
entered.)

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-265


Step 6

Enter this command on both workgroup routers:


WGxR1# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0
Serial0/0/0
Service-policy output: FairQueue
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
80537 packets, 10741706 bytes
30 second offered rate 673000 bps, drop rate 105000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops/flowdrops) 44/12089/0/12089
(pkts output/bytes output) 68461/9276993
Fair-queue: per-flow queue limit 16 packets
Maximum Number of Hashed Queues 16

The maximum number of hashed queues is 16.


The per-flow queue limit is 16.
The maximum queue size for the class-default traffic class with these settings is 256 (the number of
dynamic queues * per-flow queue limit = 16 * 16).

L-266 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 3: Adjust the Fair Queuing Configuration
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR2(config)# policy-map FairQueue


WGxR2(config-pmap)# class class-default
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# fair-queue 256

Step 2

Enter this command on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0


Serial0/0/0
Service-policy output: FairQueue
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
80537 packets, 10741706 bytes
30 second offered rate 673000 bps, drop rate 105000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops/flowdrops) 44/12089/0/12089
(pkts output/bytes output) 68461/9276993
Fair-queue: per-flow queue limit 16 packets
Maximum Number of Hashed Queues 256

The maximum number of hashed queues is 256.


The per-flow queue limit is 16.

The maximum queue size for the class-default traffic class with these settings is 1000, due to the
hold queue limit of 1000 on the Serial 0/0/0 interface. Based on the fair queue settings, the number of
dynamic queues * per-flow queue limit = 256 * 16 = 4096. Because this value exceeds the 1000 assigned to
the interface this policy is assigned to, the effective queue limit is 1000.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-267


Task 4: Measure Network Performance with Fair Queuing
Configured with 256 Dynamic Queues

Step 1

The probability that two distinct flows will be classified into the same dynamic queue was reduced when
the dynamic conversation queues were increased from 16 to 256. The traffic generators are creating enough
traffic flows so that the ping traffic was in a dynamic queue with other traffic. When the number of dynamic
queues was increased, the ping traffic has a higher probability of being assigned to a queue with no other
traffic. Because increasing the queue count also increases the overall queue size, it is possible that the
average response times for the pings increased when the dynamic queue size was increased.

Step 2

The IP SLA operation takes delay, jitter, and packet loss into consideration when calculating the MOS
score. Increasing the number of dynamic conversation queues also dramatically increases the overall size of
the queue on the interface to the maximum size available based on the hold queue settings of the serial
interface. This change in the queue size can increase the amount of delay and jitter experienced by each
packet during bursts because the amount of time waiting in the queue is increased. The IP SLA operation,
just like an actual VoIP call, does not wait for a response from the IP SLA responder before sending
subsequent packets like the ping operation does. This fact, combined with the potential for momentary
bursts reaching the queue limit of 1000, increases the likelihood that a packet will be dropped.

Step 3

FIFO queuing transmits packets as they are received, allowing aggressive traffic flows to get a higher
percentage of the available bandwidth. Fair queuing distributes bandwidth resources fairly across the
dynamic conversation queues.
Fair queuing does not provide strict priority queuing for real-time traffic or prioritization of mission-critical
traffic over other traffic flows.

L-268 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 5: QoS Measurement Lab Results
Step 1

When you complete this activity, your ping results will be similar to those in the following table but may
vary because of the traffic patterns during your tests and the variability of fair queuing. You should note
that the overall ping success rate and RTT numbers improve when you increase the number of dynamic
queues from 16 to 256.
WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results
Ping 1 RTT Ping 2 RTT Ping 3 RTT
Network Situation (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max), (min/avg/max)
Success % Success % , Success %

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO 1/3/4, 100% 1/3/4, 100% 1/3/4, 100%
Queuing)
(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline
Measurement" lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing) 4/142/568, 96% 24/352/608, 98% 140/393/628, 96%
(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline
Measurement" lab)

With AutoQoS for the Enterprise 4/7/20, 100% 4/8/20, 100% 4/9/36, 100%
(From the "Configuring QoS with Cisco
AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues 4/84/1208, 98% 4/60/772, 96% 4/144/904, 100%

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues 12/112/380, 100% 12/145/708, 100% 12/156/796, 100%

Step 2

When you complete this activity, your values will be similar to those in the following table, but you may
have large differences in the MOS score from one reading to the next because of the variability of fair
queuing for voice traffic. There will be high variability in the MOS score with 16 dynamic queues, and
MOS scores should become worse with 256 queues.

WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results


Network Situation MOS Score 1 MOS Score 2 MOS Score 3 MOS Score 4

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO 4.34 N/A N/A N/A


Queuing)
(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
Baseline Measurement" lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing) 3.05 N/A N/A N/A
(From the "IP SLA Setup and QoS
Baseline Measurement" lab)

With AutoQoS for the Enterprise 4.34 N/A N/A N/A


(From the "Configuring QoS with Cisco
AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues 3.4 3.4 4.3 3.88

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues 2.5 2.56 2.56 2.6

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-269


Lab 4-2: Configuring LLQ-CBWFQ
Task 1: Configure a CBWFQ Policy with LLQ

Step 1

The mark-nbar policy only performs classification and marking. There is no impact to the traffic flow
out of the Serial 0/0/0 interface other than that the outgoing traffic will retain the DSCP markings that are
set by the mark-nbar policy.

Step 2

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# class-map match-all Network-Control


WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp cs6
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-any ef-traffic
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp ef
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group name ICMP
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group name IPSLA
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map cs3-traffic
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp cs3
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map af31-traffic
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp af31
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map af21-traffic
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp af21
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map af11-traffic
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp af11
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map cs1-traffic
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match dscp cs1

Step 3

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map llq-policy


WGxR1(config-pmap)# class ef-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# priority 261
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class Network-Control
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 5
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class cs3-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 4
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af31-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 40
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af21-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 15
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af11-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 10
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class cs1-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 1
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class class-default
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 25

L-270 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 4

Enter these commands on WGxR2:

WGxR2(config)# class-map match-all Network-Control


WGxR2(config-cmap)# match dscp cs6
WGxR2(config-cmap)# class-map match-any ef-traffic
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match dscp ef
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match access-group name ICMP
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match access-group name IPSLA
WGxR2(config-cmap)# class-map cs3-traffic
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match dscp cs3
WGxR2(config-cmap)# class-map af31-traffic
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match dscp af31
WGxR2(config-cmap)# class-map af21-traffic
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match dscp af21
WGxR2(config-cmap)# class-map af11-traffic
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match dscp af11
WGxR2(config-cmap)# class-map cs1-traffic
WGxR2(config-cmap)# match dscp cs1
WGxR2(config-cmap)# policy-map llq-policy
WGxR2(config-pmap)# class ef-traffic
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# priority 261
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# class Network-Control
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 5
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# class cs3-traffic
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 4
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# class af31-traffic
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 40
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# class af21-traffic
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 15
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# class af11-traffic
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 10
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# class cs1-traffic
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 1
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# class class-default
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 25

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-271


Task 2: Apply and Monitor CBWFQ with LLQ Operation
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# no service-policy output FairQueue
WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy output llq-policy

Step 2

Enter this command on WGxR1:


WGxR1# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0 out class ef-traffic
Serial0/0/0

Service-policy output: llq-policy

queue stats for all priority classes:


Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 101823/20726636

Class-map: ef-traffic (match-any)


101823 packets, 19202860 bytes
30 second offered rate 91000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp ef (46)
54205 packets, 11012564 bytes
30 second rate 52000 bps
Match: access-group name ICMP
0 packets, 0 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Match: access-group name IPSLA
47618 packets, 8190296 bytes
30 second rate 38000 bps
Priority: 261 kbps, burst bytes 6500, b/w exceed drops: 0

The burst size for the priority command is 6500 B.


This burst size will accommodate approximately 200 ms of traffic at the configured bandwidth ((6500 * 8) /
261000 = .1992).

Step 3

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:


WGxR1(config)# policy-map llq-policy
WGxR1(config-pmap)# class ef-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# priority 261 9788

(261000 * .3) = 9787.5 B

Step 4

Your traffic statistics and traffic classes that experience packet drops will vary based on the traffic patterns
at the time that the show policy-map command was entered.

L-272 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


WGxR1# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0
Serial0/0/0
Service-policy output: llq-policy
queue stats for all priority classes:
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 5768/1174040
Class-map: ef-traffic (match-any)
5768 packets, 1130648 bytes
30 second offered rate 105000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp ef (46)
4412 packets, 897416 bytes
30 second rate 96000 bps
Match: access-group name ICMP
0 packets, 0 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Match: access-group name IPSLA
1356 packets, 233232 bytes
30 second rate 10000 bps
Priority: 261 kbps, burst bytes 9788, b/w exceed drops: 0

Class-map: Network-Control (match-all)


7 packets, 492 bytes
30 second offered rate 0000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp cs6 (48)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 7/588
bandwidth remaining 5%
Class-map: cs3-traffic (match-all)
52 packets, 5589 bytes
30 second offered rate 0000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp cs3 (24)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 52/5589
bandwidth remaining 4%
Class-map: af31-traffic (match-all)
14139 packets, 1203719 bytes
30 second offered rate 129000 bps, drop rate 15000 bps
Match: dscp af31 (26)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 9/1472/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 12667/1037450
bandwidth remaining 40%
Class-map: af21-traffic (match-all)
5379 packets, 361840 bytes
30 second offered rate 40000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp af21 (18)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/33/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 5346/359803
bandwidth remaining 15%
Class-map: af11-traffic (match-all)
1955 packets, 108927 bytes
30 second offered rate 12000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp af11 (10)

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-273


Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 1955/108927
bandwidth remaining 10%
Class-map: cs1-traffic (match-all)
1548 packets, 108329 bytes
30 second offered rate 12000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp cs1 (8)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 26/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 1548/108329
bandwidth remaining 1%
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
15818 packets, 2967235 bytes
30 second offered rate 321000 bps, drop rate 106000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 22/5347/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 10478/1834280
bandwidth remaining 25%

The class-default class should account for all or most of the packet drops on the interfaces. Other
traffic classes may have some packet drops from momentary traffic bursts by the applications that match
that class during times of congestion.

L-274 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 3: Measure Network Performance with CBWFQ

Step 1

Both the Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise and the LLQ-CBWFQ policy (which was configured in this lab)
provided comparable results for VoIP packets as measured by the ping tests and the IP SLA UDP jitter
operation. Both of these policies provide a strict priority queue for the VoIP packets but the LLQ-CBWFQ
policy also provides bandwidth guarantees configured specifically for the other traffic that is important to
the university.

Task 4: QoS Measurement Lab Results


Step 1

When you complete this activity, your ping results will be similar to those in the following table but may
vary slightly depending on the traffic pattern during your test.
WGxR1 to WGxR2 QoS Baseline Ping Results
Ping 1 RTT Ping 2 RTT Ping 3 RTT
Network Situation
(min/avg/max) (min/avg/max) (min/avg/max)

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO 1/3/4, 100% 1/3/4, 100% 1/3/4, 100%
Queuing)
(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline
Measurement" lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing) 4/142/568, 96% 24/352/608, 98% 140/393/628, 96%
(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline
Measurement" lab)

With Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise 4/7/20, 100% 4/8/20, 100% 4/9/36, 100%
(from the "Configuring QoS with Cisco
AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues 4/84/1208, 98% 4/60/772, 96% 4/144/904, 100%
(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues 12/112/380, 100% 12/145/708, 100% 12/156/796, 100%
(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

CBWFQ-LLQ Results (from this lab) 4/11/28, 100% 4/12/32, 100% 4/12/32, 100%

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-275


Step 2

When you complete this activity, your values will be similar to those in the following table, with differences
that are specific to the traffic pattern during your test.

WGxR1 QoS Baseline show ip sla statistics Command Results


Network Situation MOS Score

Without Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing) 4.34


(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline Measurement"
lab)

With Pagent and Callgen (FIFO Queuing) 3.05


(from the "IP SLA Setup and QoS Baseline Measurement"
lab)

With Cisco AutoQoS for the Enterprise 4.34


(from the "Configuring QoS with Cisco AutoQoS" lab)

Fair Queuing: 16 Dynamic Queues 3.4


(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

Fair Queuing: 256 Dynamic Queues 2.5


(from the "Configuring Fair Queuing" lab)

CBWFQ-LLQ Results (from this lab) 4.34

L-276 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 4-3: Configuring Campus-Based Queuing
Mechanisms
Task 1: Review Egress Queuing Defaults
Step 1

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1# show mls qos queue-set


Queueset: 1
Queue : 1 2 3 4
----------------------------------------------
buffers : 25 25 25 25
threshold1: 100 200 100 100
threshold2: 100 200 100 100
reserved : 50 50 50 50
maximum : 400 400 400 400
Queueset: 2
Queue : 1 2 3 4
----------------------------------------------
buffers : 25 25 25 25
threshold1: 100 200 100 100
threshold2: 100 200 100 100
reserved : 50 50 50 50
maximum : 400 400 400 400

Two queue sets are available on the Catalyst 2960-S switch. The two queue sets can be used to configure
two different global parameter configurations.
Four egress queues are available on each interface of the Catalyst 2960-S switch. The queue set applied to
the interface determines the global parameters applied to the four queues for that interface.
Each queue is allocated 25 percent of the buffer space by default.

Step 2

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1# show mls qos maps cos-output-q


Cos-outputq-threshold map:
cos: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
------------------------------------
queue-threshold: 2-1 2-1 3-1 3-1 4-1 1-1 4-1 4-1

CoS 5 is mapped to queue 1.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-277


Step 3

Enter this command on WGxS1:


WGxS1# show mls qos maps dscp-output-q
Dscp-outputq-threshold map:
d1 :d2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
------------------------------------------------------------
0 : 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01
1 : 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 02-01 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01
2 : 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01 03-01
3 : 03-01 03-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01
4 : 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 01-01 04-01 04-01
5 : 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01
6 : 04-01 04-01 04-01 04-01

DSCP 46 is mapped to queue 1.


Queue 1 is the priority queue on WGxS1.

L-278 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Configure Global Egress Queuing Parameters

Step 1

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# mls qos queue-set output 1 buffers 15 30 30 25

Step 2

Enter these commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 1 5


WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 2 2 3 6
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 3 0
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 4 1

Step 3

Enter these commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 1 46


WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 2 48 26 24 18
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 3 0
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 4 10 8

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-279


Task 3: Configure and Monitor Egress Queuing
Step 1

Enter these commands on WGxS1:


WGxS1(config)# interface Fastethernet 0/1
WGxS1(config-if)# queue-set 1

Step 2

Enter these commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# interface Fastethernet 0/1


WG1S1(config-if)# priority-queue out

Step 3

Enter these commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# interface Fastethernet 0/1


WGxS1(config-if)# srr-queue bandwidth share 1 35 45 20

Step 4

Enter these commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# interface range fastethernet 0/2 - 3


WGxS1(config-if-range)# queue-set 1
WGxS1(config-if-range)# priority-queue out
WGxS1(config-if-range)# srr-queue bandwidth share 1 35 45 20

Step 5

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1# clear mls qos interface statistics

L-280 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 6
Your values for traffic statistics will vary depending on the traffic pattern when the command was run and
the amount of time you waited to run the command after clearing the statistics.
WGxS1# show mls qos interface Fastethernet 0/1 statistics
Fastethernet0/1 (All statistics are in packets)
dscp: incoming
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 78602 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 0 0
10 - 14 : 0 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 0 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 0
25 - 29 : 0 68 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 4179 0 22 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
dscp: outgoing
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 20627 0 0 0 0
5 - 9 : 0 0 0 2997 0
10 - 14 : 3722 0 0 0 0
15 - 19 : 0 0 0 10395 0
20 - 24 : 0 0 0 0 245
25 - 29 : 0 24020 0 0 0
30 - 34 : 0 0 0 0 0
35 - 39 : 0 0 0 0 0
40 - 44 : 0 0 0 0 0
45 - 49 : 0 8403 0 13 0
50 - 54 : 0 0 0 0 0
55 - 59 : 0 0 0 0 0
60 - 64 : 0 0 0 0
cos: incoming
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 78605 0 0 68 0
5 - 7 : 4179 22 65
cos: outgoing
-------------------------------
0 - 4 : 20628 6719 10395 24265 0
5 - 7 : 8403 13 3
output queues enqueued:
queue: threshold1 threshold2 threshold3
-----------------------------------------------
queue 0: 8403 0 0
queue 1: 34673 0 3
queue 2: 20628 0 0
queue 3: 6719 0 0
output queues dropped:
queue: threshold1 threshold2 threshold3
-----------------------------------------------
queue 0: 0 0 0
queue 1: 0 0 0
queue 2: 0 0 0
queue 3: 0 0 0
Policer: Inprofile: 0 OutofProfile: 0

There have been 8403 packets sent out on queue 0 and 20,628 packets sent out on queue 2.
No queues have experienced output drops.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-281


Case Study 5-1: WRED Traffic Profiles
Task 1: Create WRED Traffic Profiles
Step 1

Your responses should match the values in the table.

Customer Traffic PHB DSCP

Oracle AF3 AF31 (26)

Citrix AF2 AF21 (18)

Internet Default (BE) 0

Step 2

Your values for PHB, threshold settings, and the mark probability denominator should match the values in
the tables for each traffic class. Your figures should be similar to the figures that are presented for each
traffic class with the appropriate WRED settings included.

Mark Probability
PHB Minimum Threshold Maximum Threshold
Denominator

AF31 32 40 10

AF32 28 40 10

AF33 24 40 10

No Drop Random Drop Tail Drop


100%

Drop
Probability

10%
Average
24 28 32 40 Queue
AF33 AF32 AF31 Size

Mark Probability
PHB Minimum Threshold Maximum Threshold
Denominator

AF21 32 40 10

AF22 28 40 10

AF23 24 40 10

L-282 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


No Drop Random Drop Tail Drop
100%

Drop
Probability

10%
Average
24 28 32 40 Queue
AF23 AF22 AF21 Size

Mark Probability
PHB Minimum Threshold Maximum Threshold
Denominator

Default 20 40 10

No Drop Random Drop Tail Drop


100%

Drop
Probability

10%
Average
20 40 Queue
Default Size

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-283


Lab 5-2: Configuring DSCP-Based WRED
Task 1: Configure DSCP-Based WRED
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map llq-policy


WGxR1(config-pmap)# class af31-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp af31 34 40 10
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af21-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp af21 30 40 10
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af11-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp af11 26 40 10
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class cs1-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp cs1 22 40 10
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class class-default
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 0 20 40 10
M inimum M aximum
Drop Threshold Threshold
Probability

L-284 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


100%

10% Mark
Probability

20 22 26 30 34 40
Average
Queue
Size

The default (best-effort) class will begin to drop packets first.


When the average queue size is at the maximum threshold, the router will drop one out of every ten packets.
Because the ef-traffic traffic class is being used for VoIP traffic, it is preferred that no packet
dropping occurs. Also, since the VoIP traffic is UDP, it will not slow down the transmission rate based on
packet loss.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-285


Task 2: Monitor DSCP-Based WRED
Step 1
Enter this command on WGxR1:
WGxR1# clear counters
Clear "show interface" counters on all interfaces [confirm]
WGxR1#

Step 2
Your values for traffic statistics will vary based on the traffic patterns and the amount of time you waited
before issuing the show policy-map interface command.
WGxR1# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0
Serial0/0/0
Service-policy output: llq-policy
queue stats for all priority classes:
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 5218/1062008
Class-map: ef-traffic (match-any)
5218 packets, 1030008 bytes
30 second offered rate 113000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp ef (46)
4218 packets, 858008 bytes
30 second rate 97000 bps
Match: access-group name ICMP
0 packets, 0 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Match: access-group name IPSLA
1000 packets, 172000 bytes
30 second rate 17000 bps
Priority: 261 kbps, burst bytes 9788, b/w exceed drops: 0

Class-map: Network-Control (match-all)


7 packets, 522 bytes
30 second offered rate 0000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp cs6 (48)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 7/588
bandwidth remaining 5%
Class-map: cs3-traffic (match-all)
53 packets, 6038 bytes
30 second offered rate 0000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp cs3 (24)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 53/6038
bandwidth remaining 4%
Class-map: af31-traffic (match-all)
15023 packets, 1226360 bytes
30 second offered rate 136000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp af31 (26)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/5/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 15018/1226009
bandwidth remaining 40%

L-286 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 0 packets
dscp Transmitted Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark
pkts/bytes pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob

af31 15018/1226009 5/351 0/0 34 40 1/10


Class- af21-traffic (match-all)
map:
5308 packets, 359904 bytes
30 second offered rate 40000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp af21 (18)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 5308/359904
bandwidth remaining 15%
Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 0 packets
dscp Transmitted Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark
pkts/bytes pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob

af21 5308/359904 0/0 0/0 30 40 1/10


Class-map: af11-traffic (match-all)
1870 packets, 104342 bytes
30 second offered rate 12000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp af11 (10)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 1870/104342
bandwidth remaining 10%
Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 0 packets
dscp Transmitted Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark
pkts/bytes pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob

af11 1870/104342 0/0 0/0 26 40 1/10


Class-map: cs1-traffic (match-all)
1474 packets, 104382 bytes
30 second offered rate 12000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp cs1 (8)
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 30/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 1474/104382
bandwidth remaining 1%
Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 0 packets
dscp Transmitted Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark
pkts/bytes pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob

cs1 1474/104382 0/0 0/0 22 40 1/10


Class-map: class-default (match-any)
17267 packets, 2952431 bytes
30 second offered 330000 bps, drop rate 108000 bps
rate Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 118/5899/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 11375/2037225
bandwidth remaining 25%
Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 64 packets
© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-287
dscp Transmitted Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark
pkts/bytes pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob

default 11375/2037225 202/31247 5700/885560 20 40 1/10

Both the af31-traffic and the class-default traffic classes have packet drops.
Random-Dropped
Traffic Class Transmitted Packets Tail-Dropped Packets
Packets

af31-traffic 15018 5 0

af21-traffic 5308 0 0

af11-traffic 1870 0 0

cs1-traffic 1474 0 0

class-default (DSCP 11375 202 5700


default)

The ratio of random-dropped packets to tail-dropped packets in the class-default traffic class is
equal to 202 / 5700 = 3.5 percent.
The mean queue depth for the class-default traffic class is 64 packets.

L-288 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 3: Configure DSCP-Based CBWRED with ECN
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map llq-policy


WGxR1(config-pmap)# class class-default
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect ecn

Task 4: Monitor DSCP-Based WRED with ECN


Step 1

Enter this command on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1# clear counters


Clear "show interface" counters on all interfaces [confirm]
WGxR1#

Step 2

Your values for traffic statistics will vary based on the traffic patterns and the amount of time you waited
before issuing the show policy-map interface command.
WGxR1# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0
Serial0/0/0
Service-policy output: llq-policy
queue stats for all priority classes:
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 525978/107299512
....Omitted.....
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
4826494 packets, 628816192 bytes
30 second offered rate 679000 bps, drop rate 268000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/1838748/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 2988480/390263362
bandwidth remaining 25%
Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 28 packets
dscp Transmitted ECN Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mar
pkts/bytes marked pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh k
prob
default 169878/30661688 0 2995/465011 78693/12121188 20 40 1/10

Yes, ECN is enabled for the class-default traffic class.


The mean queue depth for the class-default traffic class is 28 packets.
The router will only set ECN if the transiting packets are marked ECN-capable. Because no packets have
been marked ECN, the endpoints must not be indicating that they are ECN-capable.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-289


Step 3

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# class-map ef-traffic


WGxR1(config-cmap)# no match access-group name ICMP

Step 4

Because the ICMP traffic no longer matches any of the configured traffic classes for the llq-policy
policy map, it will default to the class-default service class.

Step 5

Enter these commands on WGxR2:

WGxR2(config)# class-map ef-traffic


WGxR2(config-cmap)# no match access-group name ICMP

Step 6

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR2(config)# policy-map llq-policy


WGxR2(config-pmap)# class class-default
WGxR2(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 0 20 40 1

Step 7

Enter this command on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1# clear counters


Clear "show interface" counters on all interfaces [confirm]
WGxR1#

Step 8

Setting the ToS byte to 0x02 indicates that the endpoint is ECN-capable. The ToS value of 0x02 is
00000010 in binary. Values of 00000010 or 00000001 indicate that the endpoint is ECN-capable.

L-290 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 9

You may not see ECN-marked packets for class-default because the WRED process requires the
mean-queue depth to exceed 20 packets.

WGxR1# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0 output class class-default


Serial0/0/0
Service-policy output: llq-policy
queue stats for all priority classes:
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 15254/3104792
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
47849 packets, 8495979 bytes
30 second offered rate 367000 bps, drop rate 127000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 142/17529/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 30339/5802008
bandwidth remaining 25%
Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 49 packets
dscp Transmitted ECN Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark
pkts/bytes marked pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob

default 30339/5802008 3 4294/612080 13235/2082723 20 40 1/1

Yes, three packets have been marked by ECN.

Step 10

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# class-map ef-traffic


WGxR1(config-cmap)# match access-group name ICMP
WGxR1(config-cmap)# policy-map llq-policy
WGxR1(config-pmap)# class class-default
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 0 20 40 10

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-291


Lab 5-3: Configuring WTD Thresholds
Task 1: Configure and Monitor Weighted Tail Drop

Step 1

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1# show mls qos queue-set 1


Queueset: 1
Queue : 1 2 3 4
----------------------------------------------
buffers : 15 30 30 25
threshold1: 100 200 100 100
threshold2: 100 200 100 100
reserved : 50 50 50 50
maximum : 400 400 400 400

The values for Q2T1, Q2T2, and Q4T1 need to be adjusted.

Step 2

Enter these commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# mls qos queue-set output 1 threshold 2 70 90 50 400


WGxS1(config)# mls qos queue-set output 1 threshold 4 60 100 50 400

Step 3

Enter these commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 1 threshold 3 5


WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 2 threshold 2 3
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 2 threshold 3 6
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 3 threshold 3 0
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output cos-map queue 4 threshold 3 1

L-292 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Step 4

Enter these commands on WGxS1:

WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 1 threshold 3 46


WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 2 threshold 2 24
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 2 threshold 3 48
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 3 threshold 3 0
WGxS1(config)# mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map queue 4 threshold 3 10

Step 5

Enter this command on WGxS1:

WGxS1# clear mls qos interface statistics

Step 6

Your values for traffic statistics will vary depending on the traffic pattern when the command was run and
the amount of time you waited to run the command after clearing the statistics.

WGxS1# show mls qos interface Fastethernet 0/1 statistics


.....Omitted.....

output queues enqueued:


queue: threshold1 threshold2 threshold3
-----------------------------------------------
queue 0: 0 0 8222
queue 1: 39356 278 17
queue 2: 0 0 24957
queue 3: 3015 0 3742
output queues dropped:
queue: threshold1 threshold2 threshold3
-----------------------------------------------
queue 0: 0 0 0
queue 1: 0 0 0
queue 2: 0 0 0
queue 3: 0 0 0
Policer: Inprofile: 0 OutofProfile: 0

There have been 278 packets sent out on Q1T2.


No queues have experienced output drops.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-293


Lab 6-1: Configuring Class-Based Policing
Task 1: Configure Single Token Bucket Class-Based Policing
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:


WGxR1(config)# policy-map mark-nbar
WGxR1(config-pmap)# class Low-Priority-Data
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# police 8000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop

Because there is no action required for violating traffic, a single token bucket will be configured.
It will be a single-rate policing implementation.

Step 2

The default value of Bc is 1500 bytes.


The default value of Bc is calculated based on CIR / 32 or 1500 bytes, whichever is larger. In this case,
8000 / 32 = 250 so the value of 1500 bytes is used.

L-294 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Monitor Single Token Bucket Class-Based Policing
Step 1

Enter this command on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1# clear counters


Clear "show interface" counters on all interfaces [confirm]
WGxR1#

Step 2

Your values for traffic statistics will vary based on the traffic pattern on the network when the show policy-
map command was entered.
WGxR1# show policy-map interface gigabitethernet 0/0 input class Low-Priority-Data
GigabitEthernet0/0
Service-policy input: mark-nbar
Class-map: Low-Priority-Data (match-any)
261 packets, 70546 bytes
30 second offered rate 7000 bps, drop rate 2000 bps
Match: protocol gnutella
261 packets, 70546 bytes
30 second rate 7000 bps
Match: protocol skype
0 packets, 0 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
QoS Set
dscp cs1
Packets marked 261
police:
cir 8000 bps, bc 1500 bytes
conformed 223 packets, 41500 bytes; actions:
transmit
exceeded 38 packets, 29046 bytes; actions:
drop
conformed 5000 bps, exceeded 2000 bps

The policer has dropped 38 packets in the Low-Priority-Data traffic class.


The conformed bit rate for the Low-Priority-Data traffic is 5000 b/s.
The exceed bit rate for the Low-Priority-Data traffic is 2000 b/s.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-295


Task 3: Configure Dual Token Bucket Class-Based Policing
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# class-map web-outbound


WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol http

Step 2

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map http-police


WGxR1(config-pmap)# class web-outbound
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# police cir percent 10 conform-action transmit exceed-action set-
dscp-transmit cs1 violate-action drop

A dual token bucket is required because a violate action is being specified.

Step 3

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:


WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy output http-police

L-296 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 4: Monitor Dual Token Bucket Class-Based Policing
Step 1

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# shut
WGxR1(config-if)# end
WGxR1# clear counters
Clear "show interface" counters on all interfaces [confirm]

Enter this command on WGxR2:

WGxR2# clear counters


Clear "show interface" counters on all interfaces [confirm]

Step 2

Your values for traffic statistics will vary based on the traffic pattern on the network when the show policy-
map command was entered.

WGxR1# show policy-map int gig 0/1


GigabitEthernet0/1
Service-policy output: http-police
Class-map: web-outbound (match-all)
2558 packets, 1212115 bytes
30 second offered rate 140000 bps, drop rate 62000 bps
Match: protocol http
police:
cir 10 %
cir 100000 bps, bc 3125 bytes, be 3125 bytes
conformed 1932 packets, 568354 bytes; actions:
transmit
exceeded 219 packets, 117589 bytes; actions:
set-dscp-transmit cs1
violated 407 packets, 526172 bytes; actions:
drop
conformed 65000 bps, exceeded 14000 bps, violated 62000 bps

Class-map: class-default (match-any)


32532 packets, 3880842 bytes
30 second offered rate 437000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: any

The number of packets that have violated the HTTP policer parameters and been dropped is 407.
The number of packets that have exceeded the policer parameters and been re-marked to CS 1 is 219.
Based on a CIR of 10 percent and the bandwidth 1000 statement, CIR = 1000000 * .10 = 100,000 b/s; Bc =
3125 bytes; and Be = 3125 bytes.

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-297


WGxR1(config-if)# no service-policy output http-police

Step 4

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# no shutdown

Lab 6-2: Configuring Class-Based Shaping


Task 1: Migrate Traffic to the MPLS Service
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1


WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy output llq-policy

Step 2

Enter the following commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# router ospf 1


WGxR1(config-router)# network 10.4.x.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
WGxR1(config-router)# no passive-interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR1(config-router)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR1(config-if)# ip ospf mtu-ignore

Enter the following commands on WGxR2:

WGxR2(config)# router ospf 1


WGxR2(config-router)# network 10.5.x.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
WGxR2(config-router)# no passive-interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR2(config-router)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1
WGxR2(config-if)# ip ospf mtu-ignore

Step 3

Enter this command on both workgroup routers:


WGxR1# clear counters
Clear "show interface" counters on all interfaces [confirm]
WGxR1#

L-298 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Configure Class-Based Shaping

Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map llq-policy


WGxR1(config-pmap)# class af11-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# shape average 64000

Because the llq-policy is now applied to the Serial 0/0/0 and the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interfaces, this
shaping configuration will apply to both of those interfaces.

Step 2

The value that is automatically determined by the Cisco IOS Software for Bc and Be is 256.
Tc = Bc / CIR = 256 / 64,000 = .004 or 4 msec.

Task 3: Configure Hierarchical Shaping

Step 1

Although the service offered over the GigabitEthernet 0/1 interface is a 1-Mb/s service and the interface has
a bandwidth statement of 1 Mb/s, the interface will transmit at 1 Gb/s. Because the hardware queue never
experiences congestion, the software queue that is configured by the llq-policy policy is never
engaged.
The workgroup routers connect to the MPLS service on a Gigabit Ethernet interface. Although your average
traffic rate over the long period of 30 seconds is below 1 Mb/s, the interface will transmit at a full 1-Gb/s
rate when traffic is present. During times of traffic bursts, the service provider policer will drop any traffic
that exceeds the traffic profile of 1 Mb/s.

Step 2

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map Parent-Shaper


WGxR1(config-pmap)# class class-default
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# shape average 1000000
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# service-policy llq-policy
WGxR1(config-if)# no service-policy output llq-policy
WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy output Parent-Shaper

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-299


Step 3
Your values for traffic statistics will vary from the example based on the traffic pattern at the time the show
policy-map command was entered.
WGxR2# show policy-map interface gigabitethernet 0/1
GigabitEthernet0/1
Service-policy output: Parent-Shaper
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
8026 packets, 1019381 bytes
30 second offered rate 231000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/299/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 7728/982698
shape (average) cir 1000000, bc 4000, be 4000
target shape rate 1000000
Service-policy : llq-policy
queue stats for all priority classes:
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 1274/272180

Class-map: ef-traffic (match-any)


1274 packets, 249374 bytes
30 second offered rate 55000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp ef (46)
731 packets, 155978 bytes
30 second rate 34000 bps
Match: access-group name IPSLA
543 packets, 93396 bytes
30 second rate 21000 bps
Match: access-group name ICMP
0 packets, 0 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Priority: 261 kbps, burst bytes 9788, b/w exceed drops: 0

.....Omitted.....

Class-map: class-default (match-any)


2959 packets, 435198 bytes
30 second offered rate 100000 bps, drop rate 13000 bps
Match: any
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/299/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 2660/375651
bandwidth remaining 25%
Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512)
Mean queue depth: 0 packets
dscp Transmitted ECN Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark
pkts/bytes marked pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob

default 2660/375651 0 38/7054 261/52493 20 40 1/10

The target shape rate is 1 Mb/s.


The value that is automatically determined by the Cisco IOS Software for Bc and Be is 4000 bits.
Tc = Bc / CIR = 4000 / 1,000,000 = .004 or 4 msec.
Yes, the class-default traffic class for the child policy, llq-policy, is dropping packets now.

L-300 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Lab 7-1: Configuring Class-Based Header
Compression
Task 1: Configure Class-Based Header Compression
Step 1

RTP header compression is performed on a link-by-link basis and the router on the other end of the
connection must be running RTP header compression as well. Because the llq-policy policy map is
applied to both the MPLS connection and the P2P connection, we can only enable RTP header compression
on this policy if the PE router in the MPLS network is also running RTP header compression.

Step 2

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map llq-policy-serial


WGxR1(config-pmap)# class ef-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# priority 261 9788
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class Network-Control
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 5
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class cs3-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 4
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af31-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 40
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based WGxR1(config-
pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 26 34 40 10 WGxR1(config-pmap-
c)# class af21-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 15
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based WGxR1(config-
pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 18 30 40 10 WGxR1(config-pmap-
c)# class af11-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 10
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based WGxR1(config-
pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 10 26 40 10 WGxR1(config-pmap-
c)# shape average 64000
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class cs1-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 1
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based WGxR1(config-
pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 8 22 40 10 WGxR1(config-pmap-c)#
class class-default
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth remaining percent 25
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based WGxR1(config-
pmap-c)# random-detect ecn
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 0 20 40 10

Step 3

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:


WGxR1(config)# policy-map llq-policy-serial
WGxR1(config-pmap)# class ef-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# compress header ip rtp

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-301


Step 4

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# no service-policy output llq-policy
WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy output llq-policy-serial

Task 2: Monitor Class-Based Header Compression


Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1


WGxR1(config-if)# shutdown

Step 2

Your values for the traffic statistics will vary based on the traffic pattern at the time the show policy-map
command was entered.
WGxR1# show policy-map interface serial 0/0/0 output class ef-traffic
Serial0/0/0
Service-policy output: llq-policy-serial
queue stats for all priority classes:
Queueing
queue limit 64 packets
(queue depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
(pkts output/bytes output) 4520/792879
Class-map: ef-traffic (match-any)
4520 packets, 890080 bytes
30 second offered rate 124000 bps, drop rate 0000 bps
Match: dscp ef (46)
3520 packets, 718080 bytes
30 second rate 86000 bps
Match: access-group name IPSLA
1000 packets, 172000 bytes
30 second rate 38000 bps
Match: access-group name ICMP
0 packets, 0 bytes
30 second rate 0 bps
Priority: 261 kbps, burst bytes 9788, b/w exceed drops: 0

compress:
header ip rtp
UDP/RTP (compression on, IPHC, RTP)
Sent: 3520 total, 3421 compressed,
129201 bytes saved, 574799 bytes sent
1.22 efficiency improvement factor
99% hit ratio, five minute miss rate 0 misses/sec, 0 max
rate 30000 bps

The number of sent RTP packets is 3520.


The number of compressed RTP packets is 3421.
The number of bytes saved is 129,201.

L-302 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


The efficiency improvement factor is 1.22 (122 percent) and represents the reduction of bytes sent due to the
cRTP operation. This improvement factor is related to the codec because the VoIP packet for a G.711 call
with default settings is 200 bytes (a 40-byte header and a 160-byte payload) and the VoIP packet with cRTP
is 162. The efficiency rating is calculated in this way: (200 B / 162 B) * .99 (hit ratio) = 1.22.

Step 3

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1


WGxR1(config-if)# no shutdown

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-303


Lab 7-2: Configuring LFI
Task 1: Configure LFI
Step 1

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# no ip address
WGxR1(config-if)# no service-policy output llq-policy-serial

Step 2

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config-if)# interface multilink 10


WGxR1(config-if)# ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
WGxR1(config-if)# bandwidth 768

Step 3

Enter these commands on WGxR1:

WGxR1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR1(config-if)# ppp multilink group 10

Step 4

Enter these commands on WGxR2:

WGxR2(config-if)# interface serial 0/0/0


WGxR2(config-if)# no ip address
WGxR2(config-if)# no service-policy output llq-policy-serial
WGxR2(config-if)# interface multilink 10
WGxR2(config-if)# ip address 10.2.1.2 255.255.255.0
WGxR2(config-if)# bandwidth 768
WGxR2(config-if)# interface serial 0/0/0
WGxR2(config-if)# ppp multilink group 10

Step 5

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface multilink 10


WGxR1(config-if)# ppp multilink interleave
WGxR1(config-if)# ppp multilink fragment delay 10
The fragment delay variable uses milliseconds or microseconds.

L-304 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Monitor LFI
Step 1

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1


WGxR1(config-if)# shutdown

Step 2

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface multilink 10


WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy output llq-policy-serial

Step 3

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1


WGxR1(config-if)# no shutdown

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-305


Lab 8-1: Mapping Enterprise QoS Policy to the
Service Provider Policy
Task 1: Adjust QoS Markings to Match the Service Provider
QoS Policy
Step 1

Traffic in the cs3-traffic, af11-traffic, cs1-traffic, and class-default traffic classes


will all receive best-effort treatment from the service provider QoS policy. Network-Control traffic is
not sent through the core of the MPLS network so it is not adversely impacted by the service provider
QoS policy.
The llq-policy can keep all eight classes and continue to provide the corresponding priority for
outbound traffic to the MPLS service provider. The DSCP marking for the traffic must be altered in order to
ensure that traffic is given preference within the service provider MPLS cloud. If the DSCP marking is not
altered, all of the traffic that is not marked EF, AF31, and AF21 will receive best-effort QoS treatment in
the provider backbone network.

Step 2

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# policy-map llq-policy


WGxR1(config-pmap)# class ef-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp ef
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class cs3-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp ef
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af31-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af31
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af21-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af21
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af11-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af21
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class cs1-traffic
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp 0
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class class-default
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp 0

L-306 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.


Task 2: Re-mark Inbound Traffic from the Service Provider
Step 1

Traffic that was originally in the cs3-traffic, af11-traffic, and cs1-traffic traffic classes
needs to have the DSCP setting adjusted in order to match the university QoS policy.

Step 2

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:


WGxR1(config)# class-map match-any cs3-remark
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol h323
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol rtcp
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-any af11-remark
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol ftp
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol exchange
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match class-map Business-HTTP
WGxR1(config-cmap)# class-map match-any cs1-remark
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol gnutella
WGxR1(config-cmap)# match protocol skype

Step 3

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:


WGxR1(config)# policy-map SP-Remark
WGxR1(config-pmap)# class cs3-remark
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp cs3
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class af11-remark
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp af11
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# class cs1-remark
WGxR1(config-pmap-c)# set dscp cs1

Step 4

Enter these commands on both workgroup routers:

WGxR1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1


WGxR1(config-if)# service-policy input SP-Remark

© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. Lab Guide L-307


L-308 Implementing Cisco Quality of Service © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc.