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1. This is an individual assignment
2. Please find out write an essay entitle ‘IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICS IN DAILY LIFE’ (5 marks)
a) Your essay must be:
I. Typewritten in English
II. Not less than 200 words
III. Free from plagiarism. Offenders will get ZERO mark straightaway
IV. Relate your essay with civil engineering problem solving and job scope
V. Grammatically correct
VI. Font to be used – times new roman, size 12
b) At the end of your essay, please write your expected mark (example, 89/100)

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BFC 34303

SEMESTER 1 2017/2018

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT

NAME:

MATRIC NO:

SECTION:

DATE OF SUBMISSION:

THE IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICS IN DAILY LIFE

Firstly, I will explain the meaning of statistics and the importance that it brings in our

daily life. Statistics is a branch of mathematics that mostly deals with the analysis,

interpretation, collection, presentation of masses of numerical data and organ ization of

data.

In short, statistics means the study of data. There are two main methods on how

to use statistics; the first one is descriptive statistics. It is the tools and study of

methods for collecting data and the use of mathematical models to int erpret data. Next

is inferential statistics. It is a technique for making probability-based decisions and

accurate predictions.

There are many examples of how statistics can be used in our daily life, for

example in Predicting Disease. There are many statistics about a disease was reported

lots of times on the news reports but if the reporter only reports the number of people

who either have died from the disease or who might have the disease or it's an

interesting fact, it does not mean much. But when statistics become involved, we can

have a better idea of how that disease may affect us.

For example, studies have shown that 80 to 90 percent of lung cancers are

related to smoking. The statistics can tell us that almost all lung cancers disease are

related to smokers and if you want to avoid getting the lung cancer, you should not

smoke at all.

Here, I will give some examples where variation occurs and statistical method

could be applied in the field of civil engineering. These applications might b e useful

for analyzing and discussing the use of statistics in the practice of civil engineering.

four given soil sample from a certain soil and given the results of the lab oratory of

consolidation tests on each sample. These test results can be used to compute the

settlement that will occur if a certain load was placed on this soil. So we can use

statistics to find variations due to the sample locations assuming that the sam pling

method, testing, and analysis introduce no uncertainty and from there we can compute

the probability that the settlement will exceed some specified value.

flow records for the Klang River that flows through Kuala Lumpur. We can use

statistics to find the stream flow (〖ft〗^3/s) that corresponds to a particular recurrence

interval. Then, this flow can be used to design dams, levees, and others.

groundwater samples obtained at different locations with information about its depths

in an aquifer and the concentration of a certain chemical in each sample. Application

of statistics can be useful to find the probability of the concentration at any point in

the aquifer.

In a nutshell, without the use of statistics, we won’t know what worked and

what didn’t. It helps us to find balance and structure in our daily life. Statistics use

mathematical equations to analyze what is happening in the world around us. When

statistics were used correctly, it can tell us any trends of what happened in the past

and also useful in predicting what may happen in the future. We need to learn the

importance of statistics because it plays a vital role in our daily life activity. I hope I

can at least get 90/100 marks for this essay.

-585 words-

1. A supplier converts the weights on the cement packages she sends out from ounces to

kilograms (1kg = 35.27oz).

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑘𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠 =

35.27

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑘𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠 =

35.27

2. There are 15 numbers on a list, and the mean is 25. The smallest number on the list is

changed from 12.9 to 1.29.

much does it change?

Yes. If the mean is 25 then the sum of all the values is 15 × 25 = 375.

b. Is it possible to determine the value of the mean after the change? If so, what

is the value?

363.39

= 24.226

15

The change is 25 − 24.226 = 0.774 .

much does it change?

by how much does it change?

(𝟑𝟔𝟑. 𝟑𝟗)𝟐

𝟑𝟔𝟑. 𝟑𝟗𝟐 −

𝑺 = √[ 𝟏𝟓 ]

𝟏𝟓 − 𝟏

= 𝟗𝟑. 𝟖𝟐𝟕

3. For each of the following say whether it can be the graph of a cdf. If it can be, say

whether the variable is discrete or continuous.

i. DISCRETE

ii. DISCRETE

iii. DISCRETE

iv. DISCRETE

v. CONTINUOUS

vi. CONTINUOUS

vii. CONTINUOUS

viii. CONTINUOUS

4. Founder of modern probability and statistics theory Cardano asserted that if one

throws a die three times the chance that a given number will show at least once is 50

percent. This is now recognized as the wrong answer. What is a probability of at least

one dice showing 6?

Let 𝐴𝑖 𝑏𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦:

𝐴𝑖 = " 𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑙𝑦 𝑖 𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑤 6 "

𝑖 = 0, 1, 2, 3

Then,

𝑃(𝐴) = 𝑃( 𝐴 = 1) ∪ 𝑃( 𝐴 = 2) ∪ 𝑃( 𝐴 = 3) = 1 − 𝑃(𝐴 = 0)

5 5 5 125

𝑃(𝐴 = 0) = × × =

6 6 6 216

So that,

125 91

𝑃(𝐴) = 1 − = = 0.4213

216 216

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