# CBB 1052

Engineering Graphics

Students’ Manual

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1. Exercise 01
By the end of this session, student should be able to: Create drawing by using different method from AUTOCAD Apply different coordinate systems in drawing Type words in AUTOCAD drawing Draw the following object based on all THREE (3) coordinate systems.

Point From Pt. 1 To Pt. 2 To Pt. 3 To Pt. 4 To Pt. 5

Absolute Coordinate 0, 0 3, 0 4.5, 1.4 4.5, 3.4 Close

Relative Coordinate 0, 0 @3, 0 @1.5, 1.4 @0, 2 Close

Polar Coordinate 0, 0 @3<0 @2<43 @2<90 Close

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7<30 5. For slanting lines. student should be able to: Produce drawing by applying knowledge on snap.Specifying smaller of x-space and y-space on grid will allow the grid spacing becomes closer . Snap and Grid spacing can be specified from Drafting Setting toolbar .0. Exercise 02 By the end of this session. For horizontal and vertical lines click on ORTHO .5 4.Tools>Drafting Setting .2.Example: Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: <Polar on> @1.Linear.Example: Command: l LINE Specify first point: <Ortho on> <Snap on> <Grid on> Specify next point or [Undo]: @0. click on POLAR . ortho and polar status Produce dimensions on drawing .Dimensioning by using pull down menu or toolbar Click on the toolbar and choose the intended dimension Example: Linear dimension 3 . Dimensioning . ordinate Create polyline and hatched drawing Create the above drawing 1. aligned. Switch on Snap and Grid 2. grid.Specifying smaller values on x-space and y-space on snap will allow the cursor snaps at a shorter distance 3.angular.

6.Command: Layer or Pulldown-menu: Format>Layer - click for new Layer and define the specification to the layers Basic information to know about the layer properties manager 4 . Change the colour of the dimension text using layer manager .

hidden. - Follow the setting as above The outcome will be as follows: - Select dimension layer Redo the dimension as shown below: 5 . centreline etc.Name On/Off Freeze Color Linetype Define the name of the layer Ensure layer is active or inactive Freeze or unfreeze the layer To define the colour for the defined layer To define the layer type eg continuous.

x-coordinate will be given. if otherwise. Use dor command or dimordinate . having the object ready. y coordinate will be given 6 .Now.Example Command: dor DIMORDINATE Specify feature location: (select the point on screen) - Press Enter - If extend the line on x-axis. locate coordinate on specific point 1.

Now.0 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]:@1.0. click the object and compare between two of them.0 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @0.5. 7 .5 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: close 2.- Now.7<30 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @1. What can you see? A line is selected on pline represented the whole object while a line selected on using line command will only represent one single line 3. known as PLINE (Remember: Change the layer to initial black colour) 1. use polyline.-0. Enter pline in the command Command: pline Specify start point: (point at any point on the screen) Current line-width is 0. instead of using command line to produce the object.0000 Specify next point or [Arc/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @0.7<330 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @-0.5. try to use explode Command: explode Select objects: 1 found (select on the polyline’s object) Enter 4. Try to click on the object again.5 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @-0. Now.

5 total Select objects: 1 found. Now. Now the polyline is exploded into single separated lines 6. Leave the pattern and swatch as it is 8 . A window will pop-up as follows 3. 2 total Select objects: 1 found.5. Command: pedit Select polyline or [Multiple]: (Select any line on previous exploded polyline) Object selected is not a polyline Do you want to turn it into one? <Y> Y Enter an option [Close/Join/Width/Edit vertex/Fit/Spline/Decurve/Ltype gen/Undo]: Join Select objects: 1 found (Select all the lines previously exploded) Select objects: 1 found. do as follows: 1. 7 total Select objects: Enter 6 segments added to polyline Enter an option [Close/Join/Width/Edit vertex/Fit/Spline/Decurve/Ltype gen/Undo]: Enter 7. to create polyline again. click again on the polyline’s object and see the difference To create hatched boundary (purpose for sectional view). Next. Use bhatch command Command: bhatch 2. 6 total Select objects: 1 found. 3 total Select objects: 1 found. 4 total Select objects: 1 found.

Pick points and the object will appear as follows: 9 . Click the mouse until the dotted lines appear and enter 7. Object will appear as follows: 9. you can see an instruction: Select internal point: 5.In the command area. Click Pick Points button . change the PATTERN and SWATCH on pop-up windows of bhatch command 10. Select the internal point of the object as follows: 6. Click OK on the pop-up windows 8. To fill in the object with colours.4.

Exercise 03 By the end of this lecture. student should be able to Explain what is geometric drawing Draw circles at different conditions required Produce polygons on drawing Array object in polar or rectangular way Modify drawing by using chamfer and fillet method OFFSET COMMAND 1. Our objective is to offset the circle with another bigger circle at a distance from its circumference of 1 unit Command: offset @ select Specify offset distance or [Through] <Through>: 1 Select object to offset or <exit>: (pick the circle from the screen) Specify point on side to offset: (Select the any point outer part of the circle) 3. Further offset the circles to construct bigger circle at equidistance length of gap Select object to offset or <exit> : 10 . Construct a circle with diameter of 1 2.3. Finally. 4.

Select the outer circle. Now. Use 2P command Command: c CIRCLE Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: 2p Specify first end point of circle's diameter: tan to Specify second end point of circle's diameter: tan to 11 . instead of specifying the point outside/ outer part of the circle. and you wanted to produce another circle in between these two circles 2. and again Specify point on side to offset: (Select the any point outer part of the circle) 6. what can u see? CONSTRUCTING CIRCLES (2P) 1. Suppose that you have two circles as follows. try to specify inside the circle.5.

Suppose that you have three circles as follows and you wanted to create another circle touching all these three circles 2. Now see. the results CONSTRUCTING CIRCLES (3P) 1. Now. Use 2P command Command: c CIRCLE Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: 2p Specify first end point of circle's diameter: tan to Repeat the same procedure for every other circle 3.3. you can see the results CONSTRUCTING CIRCLES (TTR) 12 .

Now you see the circle TRIM THE OBJECT 1.0625>: 0.5 4. Suppose you have two circles with two lines connecting together 13 .5 3.1. Use TTR command Command: c CIRCLE Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: ttr Specify point on object for first tangent of circle: (Select the first line and left click) Specify point on object for second tangent of circle: (Select the second line and left click) Specify radius of circle <1. You wanted to locate a circle in between these two lines. which has radius of 0. Imagine you have these two lines connected to each other 2.

2 total circles on the object!! Select objects: 1 found.2. 4 total Select objects: ENTER Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: (Click the bigger circle arc internally) Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: (Click the smaller circle arc internally) Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: Enter 3. Select objects: 1 found Select all the lines and Select objects: 1 found.. Results as follows: 14 . Edge=None Select cutting edges .. Use TRIM command Command: trim Current settings: Projection=UCS. 3 total Select objects: 1 found.

25 3. and click one by one to eliminate the unwanted lines and arc) Further exercise Having these three circles. Eliminate where necessary CONSTRUCT POLYGON 15 . Give offset command to the circle of R0. Construct bigger circle which governs all these three circles using 3P command 2. Use TRIM command and select all the objects. try to produce this object Hint: 1.5 so that it will produce another circle with a radius of 0.Trim another object (HINT: Click on all of the lines and circle.

Use command polygon Command: polygon Command: polygon Enter number of sides <4>: 6 (for hexagon) Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: Enter an option [Inscribed in circle/Circumscribed about circle] <I>: Specify radius of circle: 5 3. suppose the 16 similar objects will appear on a specific arrangement 16 . The results as follows 4. Use array command Rectangular Array Command: array (array popup window will appear) Select rectangular array Specify number of rows for the object to be repeated Specify number of columns for the object to be repeated If let say there are 4 x 4.1. Suppose that you wanted to draw a hexagon 2. Suppose that there is a object that needs repetition in a systematic arrangement 2. What’s the different between inscribed in circle/circumscribed about circle? ARRAY 1.

at 4 unit distance. select objects (pick button Select Objects) Enter Click OK You will get this What are row offset and column offset made for? If you notice from the above arrangement. 17 . the gap from the similar point either horizontally or vertically is the same i.e.Now. This is similar as the above array popup window showing that the offset on both row and column are set at 4.

the hexagon Now the results as follows: 18 . select polar array You have this object Your aim is to array the hexagon around the circle Select centre point by clicking the button next to X and Y coordinate – Select the center of the circle Method: Select total number of items & angle to fill Select the number of items to be appeared around the circle Select the angle to fill Select the object i.e.Polar Array Command: array Now on the popup window.

0000 Select first line or [Polyline/Distance/Angle/Trim/Method/mUltiple]: Distance Specify first chamfer distance <0. Suppose you have this object 2. Dist2 = 0. At this moment. you’ll see this object appeared 19 .0000>: Enter Select first line or [Polyline/Distance/Angle/Trim/Method/mUltiple]: Pick line on A Select second line: Pick line on B 4.0000. You want it to be like this 3.0000>: 5 Specify second chamfer distance <5.There are 16 objects appeared as required. filling 360 degrees of the circle CHAMFER AND FILLET CHAMFER 1. Chamfer command Command: chamfer (TRIM mode) Current chamfer Dist1 = 0.

5. The results as follows: 4.0000>: 5 Select first object or [Polyline/Radius/Trim/mUltiple]: pick A Select second object: pick B 3. use fillet command Command: fillet Current settings: Mode = TRIM.0000 Select first object or [Polyline/Radius/Trim/mUltiple]: radius Specify fillet radius <0. proceed with other sides as well and try to get this object 20 . Now. proceed with other sides by using the same method as above FILLET 1. Now. Radius = 0. Now. Suppose you have the same object 2.

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move and copy Produce machinery drawing MIRROR Create the above drawing 7.g. 9. scale. rotate. Draw the first line HINT (Use FILLET. specify radius at 1. stretch.4. Exercise 04 By the end of this lecture. Draw a constructing line at the end of both points (any distance) at angle of 45 degree each. student should be able to: Use modify command e.5) 8. mirror. break. Use Mirror command 22 .

Repeat the same procedure again 23 . 2 total Select objects: 1 found. 5 total Select objects: ENTER Specify first point on mirror line Specify second point on mirror line Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: N ENTER 10.Command: mirror Select objects: 1 found Select objects: 1 found. 3 total Select objects: 1 found. 4 total Select objects: 1 found.

9 total Select objects: 1 found. 4 total Select objects: 1 found.Command: mirror Select objects: 1 found Select objects: 1 found. 6 total Select objects: 1 found. 2 total Select objects: 1 found. 7 total Select objects: 1 found. 3 total Select objects: 1 found. 5 total Select objects: 1 found. 10 total Select objects: ENTER Specify first point on mirror line Specify second point on mirror line Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: N ENTER 11. Delete the construction line where necessary 12. Object ready 24 . 8 total Select objects: 1 found.

ROTATE 1. Having the previous object ready. use rotate command to rotate them at 45 degree Command: rotate Current positive angle in UCS: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 22 found Select objects: ENTER Specify base point: (point at any edge) Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 45 ENTER 2. Now the results as follows: 25 .

The results as follows: 26 .SCALE 1. Suppose that the object to be scaled down to half than the original object 2. use scale command Command: scale Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 22 found Select objects: ENTER Specify base point: (pick any point) Specify scale factor or [Reference]: 0.5 3. Having the object ready.

Break Move and Copy To break a line into two separate lines Hint: Use command BREAK and follow the instruction in command window To relocate or to copy the object Use command MOVE and COPY 27 . bring that point to further stretch them and click on the specific location you wish for extension. click on the specific line required. The colour will change from blue to red Then. then click at the end point which needs stretching.OTHER COMMANDS Command Stretch Function To stretch line/circle Hint: For easier operation.

EXERCISE Draw the above object A tooth. ‘Grip’ the base and then stretch.5 unit each to the left and right. 28 . Explode the stretched rectangle. Draw a rectangle (width=1. Extend these two lines Erase the base line. height=2) Stretch the base by 0. The final object (a gear’s tooth) on the most right.

Trim the teeth around the circle with R5.0.Array (Polar) Angle to fill = 360 # of items = 14 The discs (circles) may be added by using the offset command. Note: %%p = ± 29 .