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1 TITLE: A project on Study of Buffer allocation system and visualization of waste through Value stream mapping in Heat Treatment Department. 1.2 OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: • Visualizing the waste caused due to buffer allocation system using VSM. Secondary objective: • Revisit the current buffer allocation system and find out method to allocate buffer which will reduce the waste. • Study the flow of the process and preparing dedicated flows for the concerned channels, which will help in implementation of kanban. • Study the communication between process stations. 1.3 SCOPE: • Project work is limited to shared operations area as far as VSM is concerned. • Communication, buffer allocation systems are scoped to heat treatment department. • Components for channels T2 & T3 are under the scope of the project (Customers: Tata Motors Ltd, John Deere, Escort, Volvo, Swaraj Mazda, Spicer). 1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is a process of investigation, an examination of a subject from different points of view. In this project we will be using Value Stream mapping as our research methodology. Value Stream Mapping is simply mapping on paper (often in pencil) the various information and processing steps to get a product from idea or raw material to finished product and to the customer. Data Collection Method Used is observations. Observation involves recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects and events in a systematic manner. 1.5 FINDINGS: After collecting Data and mapping the value stream, the non value added times and buffer times came in front. Reasons behind these Non Value Added Times are also digged out. After care full study of allocation system, two proposals for buffer allocation have been made. (i.e. channel wise & Furnace Wise) Study of flow of components in the department resulted into a suggestion of creating dedicated flow for family of products which will help in implementing kan ban & single piece flow.
1.6 CONCLUSION: Value stream mapping proved to be a power full tool in identifying and eliminating wastes in the current system. After drawing and building current state VSM, we have to build Future State VSM. It is this Future State which highlights the waste in the 'system' that can be eliminated or reduced. By seeing the amount of 'waste' the team can identify opportunities to improve. The next step is to develop the 'Future State Implementation Plan'. Designing a Future State requires more art, engineering and strategy than Present State mapping. 1.7 LIMITATION: The study is limited to components of channel T2 & T3. Generalization should be done to apply the flow throughout the entire range of products.
2. OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE 2.1 AIM: To study the current system of buffer placing, communication and flow of the process in the shared operations. 2.2 OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: • Visualizing the waste caused due to buffer allocation system using VSM. Secondary objective: • Revisit the current buffer allocation system and find out method to allocate buffer which will reduce the waste. • Study the flow of the process and preparing dedicated flows for the concerned channels, which will help in implementation of kanban. • Study the communication between process stations.
2.3 SCOPE: • Project work is limited to shared operations area as far as VSM is concerned. • Communication, buffer allocation systems are scoped to heat treatment department. • Components for channels T2 & T3 are under the scope of the project (Customers: Tata Motors Ltd, John Deere, Escort, Volvo, Swaraj Mazda, Spicer).
Supplier 1 Supplier 2 Supplier 3 Supplier 4 Supplier 5 Receiving & Inspection Washing Heat Treatment
Scope of the project
Face & OD Grinding
Fig 1: scope of the project work
3. COMPANY PROFILE
3.1 The SKF Group Svenska Kullager Fabriken i.e. SKF was founded by Sven Wingquist in 1907 when he got the patent for self aligning bearing in Sweden. This was followed by patent in 12 other countries. By the year 1910 company had a base in United Kingdom with employee strength of 325 and manufacturing operations in multiple countries (around 32).By the time it when it was 1927 the company began its trading operations in India at Kolkata with East India Company. By the dawn of the year 1965 it started a manufacturing factory at Pune. In the year 1989 a factory at Bangalore was established with a purpose of manufacture of SDGBB.A decade later SKF India decided it was time to diversify so in 1999 it entered into manufacturing seals, Half a decade later it felt a need to change its name and thus was renamed as “SKF India”. SKF Group is the leading global supplier of products, solutions and services within rolling bearings, seals, mechatronics, services and lubrication systems. Services include technical support, maintenance services, condition monitoring and training. Vision:To equip the world with SKF knowledge Mission:To be the preferred company... For customers, distributors and suppliers: delivering industry-leading, high value products, services and knowledge- engineered solutions; For employees: creating a satisfying work environment where efforts are recognized, ideas valued, and individual rights respected; For shareholders: delivering shareholder value through sustainable earnings growth. Values:The values that company stresses on while achieving its vision are High Ethics, Empowerment of people and company, Openness and most important thing is teamwork. Five technology platforms SKF groups its technologies in five platforms: Bearings and units, Seals, Mechatronics, Services, and Lubrication Systems. By utilizing capabilities from all or some of the platforms, SKF develops tailor-made offers for each customer segment, helping customers improve 5
The Group's efforts in research and development have resulted in numerous innovations. 6 . the number of first filings of patent applications was 218. quality and marketing have been in focus at SKF since the very start.performance. forming bases for new standards. whereof examples include cars and light trucks. servicing industrial original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and aftermarket customers respectively. railway. annual sales growth in local currencies of 6-8% and a return on capital employed of 24%. Three divisions. and Automotive Division. medical. servicing automotive OEMs and aftermarket customers. SKF operates in around 40 customer segments. products and solutions in the bearing world. food and beverage and paper industries. reduce energy use and lower total costs. machine tool. 40 segments SKF does business mainly through three divisions: Industrial Division and Service Division. Financial targets SKF's long-term financial targets are to have an operating margin level of 12%. In 2009. wind energy. Research and development Technical development. while bringing increased added value to SKF.
2 Certification The Group has global certification to IS0 14001 (environmental management systems) and OHSAS 18001 (health and safety) standards. Employee Care and Community Care. Beyond Zero goes beyond traditional practice of reducing negative impact 7 . AS9100 (aviation) or IRIS (railway) for quality management systems.3 SKF Care SKF defines sustainability as SKF Care. Its operations are also certified to either ISO 9001 or applicable customer industry standards. stating that SKF is to realize business objectives in such a way that negative environmental impact is minimized. Beyond Zero Beyond Zero is a commitment. e.SKF governance structure 3. key focus areas and targets are defined to drive continuous performance improvement. while positive impact is enhanced. ISO/TS 16949 (automotive). comprising Business Care. 3. launched in 2005. Environmental Care.g. Within each of these four cornerstones.
Six Sigma on variation and quality – the result is better quality faster. Transactional Six Sigma Focuses on people processes such as service. In 2009. Lean Six Sigma A methodology which combines tools from both Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma.1% in 2008 and 2. the reduction was 18%. sales and distribution. irrespective of production volume. Design for Six Sigma (DfSS) A methodology which focuses on developing new products and services to the market With optimal performance levels.4 Six sigma SKF Six Sigma is a continuous improvement program within SKF that targets waste and defects in all business processes. The foundations for SKF Six Sigma improvements are that they are fact based and sustainable and contribute to the business objectives. Within the SKF Six Sigma program are a number of tools and methodologies ranging from traditional DMAIC and Design for Six Sigma to Lean and other waste reducing methodologies. sales and human resources. Six Sigma for Growth A customer focused approach and targets improvements in the growth areas such as marketing. Beyond Zero influences SKF's development of products and solutions. where Black Belts are required to run two projects a year and Green Belts one project a year. Therefore. the Group has set a target to reduce CO2 emissions by a minimum of 5% annually.by striving for an overall positive environmental impact. SKF Six Sigma projects are run by extensively trained Black Belts and Green Belts.2% in 2007. 8 . 3. CO2 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is by far the most significant greenhouse gas generated as a result of SKF's operations. compared with reduction of 9. Lean focuses on speed and waste.
130 crore. Company installed an electronic machine reliability inspection system called `Marlin'.4 million numbers of ball and roller bearings per annum. Pune. 9 . • 2004-Company acquired Vibration Engineer and Consultants-a private limited company.Company’s Chinchwad unit received a license to manufacture 22. • 1965-Company commenced production of its first factory located at Chinchwad. • 1997-Company commenced up gradation of Pune plant with capital outlay of Rs. • 1987-Company has rechristened as SKF Bearing India. • 2002.A.5 Products • Mechatronics • Power Transmission Products • Seals Product • SKF Lubrication Systems • Bearing Housing and Accessories • Condition Monitoring Products • Hydraulic Seals • Industrial Shaft Seals • Maintenance and Lubrication Products • Plain Bearings • Rolling Bearings 3. of ball bearings at Bommasandra in Karnataka. SKF of Sweden was the technical collaborators of the project. Argentina etc. Company proposed to set up a new manufacturing unit for manufacture of 9.SKF became the first bearing company in India to obtain ISO/TS-16949 for the Automotive Business Unit. Singapore. Italy. Company established SKF Center for learning.S.6 Milestones • 1961-Company was incorporated under the name 'Associated Bearing Company'. • 1995-Company forayed international markets namely U. • 1990.. Company inaugurated SKF Application Development Center. France. • 1999-SKF Bearings India inked an agreement with Telco to supply hub bearings for its latest model Tata Indica.3. The name of the company was changed to 'SKF India'.35 million numbers of ball and roller bearings per annum.0 million nos. to monitor the condition of bearings in industrial processes. • 1989-Company set up manufacturing unit for SDGBB in Bangalore. Its Bommasandra unit was licensed to manufacture 26.
Sweden.3. offers customers complete sealing solutions based on our leading edge technology 10 . Uttarkhand to manufacture bearings.7 Awards and recognition • SKF India was awarded CNBC Asia’s ‘India Business Leader Award for Talent Management’. • Company bagged Six Sigma Award at CII 5th National Convention on ‘Achieving Business Excellence for Global Competitiveness’.500 million and will have a manufacturing capacity of 48 million bearings. 1. Ltd.8 Future plans In Future. 3. • Company was honored with ‘Lean & Six Sigma Excellence Award’ by Symbiosis Centre for Management & Human Resource Development. SKF India plans to increase capacity of its Haridwar. SKF Technologies (India) Pvt. SKF India's associate company. The total capital investment of this plant will be around Rs. a wholly owned subsidiary of AB SKF. The new facility will strengthen Company’s leadership position in the domestic bearing market. • Company received Regional Quality Circle competition award held by Toyota Kirloskar Suppliers’ Association. The plant is expected to become operational by first the quarter of 2010.
Maharashtra Management Details Chairperson: . Vartan Vartanian Business Operation: Bearings Background SKF India incorporated in 1961 is engaged in manufacturing bearings.779 ( USD in Millions ) Market Cap: 24573. 15972. Henrik Lange.3. it owns 103 factories across 24 countries and has a workforce of 40.Rs.9 SNAPSHOT: Date of Establishment: 1961 Revenue: 356. Mumbai 400002. Company manufactures ball and roller bearing components Financials Total Income: . Pradeep Bhandari. Rakesh Makhija. seals.5 Million ( year ending Dec 2009) Company Secretary: . 942.1 Million (year ending Dec 2009) Net Profit: . Tryggve Sthen. Giuseppe Donato.Netaji Subhash Road.Rakesh Makhija Directors :. Phil Knights.Rs. Kamlesh C Mehra. in Millions ) Corporate Address: Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Building. R Makhija. Sweden.000 employees. Shishir Joshipura.Kamlesh C Mehra Managing director:. The group was founded in 1907 and has presence 130 countries. Narendra J Jhaveri. solutions and other related products for a wide range of industry application.362708 ( Rs.Darius C Shroff. The company is a subsidiary of SKF Group.Pradeep Bhandari Auditors BSR & Associates 11 .
00 95.71 196.11 0.24 7976. Deccan Bearings Asian Bearing Sales Current Change P/E (Rs.34 4.40 148.85 21.60 29.36 1338.3.com Fig2 : segment wise net sales5 12 .58 0.63 332.73 816.68 17.99 4.60 1190.70 1.23 1013.10 Market share of SKF India Ltd: Company SKF India Timken India FAG Bearings NRB Bearings ABC Bearings Bimetal Bearings Austin Engg.90 565.50 0.72 -1.19 9490.33 467.04 -0.45 123.12 9396.45 89.30 6.69 46.05 265.21 142.86 1421.31 12.00 Table1 19.24 4334.38 -1.76 6.Million) Price (%) Ratio 15709.30 3191.48 64.99 26.92 11.90 2907.45 -1.(Rs.81 504/230 156/72 680/401 102/41 129/35 298/146 116/43 30/16 0/0 Source: shine.Million) High/Low 24647.49 -1.00 Market 52-Week Cap.
13 . Only 8 furnaces are there to cater the requirements of the 18 channels producing bearings. therefore shared operations should have more capacity than needed for serving the involved channels.11 SHARED OPERATIONS: For a component. which is done in heat treatment dept.) Shared operations should never be allowed to become a bottleneck. each containing inner & outer Rings. which are further divided into channels to produce bearings of certain range of bore and strength. Factory manufactures 183 types of bearings in this plant. Channels contain operations like groove grinding. ball filling. greasing. All this components require hardening. • Buffer after shared operations. Factory is divided into 2 sections DGBB (Deep Groove Ball Bearing) & TRB (Taper Roller Bearing). It involves heat treatment and the Face & OD Grinding processes for the components.(in some cases F&OD is also done at channels. Shared operations sequence prioritization is based on • Sequence list from all involved channels • All the involved channels previous operations buffers. inspection etc. The analysis of the buffer status is visual (preferably in webcam mode if needed) and done by the persons in charge of physical flow for shared operations (forklift drivers).3. For good visualization buffers for next operations in the involved channels shall be located where the shared operations are located. shared operations are the very first step in the factory. washing.
14 Fig 3: Entire supply chain and Shared operations as a vital part of it .
Killick. Aichelin. Shoei. Each & every type of components has to undergo hardening before it goes through further steps of manufacturing. which is very important considering the life and strength of the product. Super-cooling Unit FIG 4: HARDENING PROCESS AT FURNACE.3. Each furnace has zones like: heating zone. Birlec.12 HEAT TREATMENT: Heat treatment is a hardening operation. HT has 8 furnaces (Shaker.6 15 . Roller. quenching conveyor. tempering zone. washing conveyor. Each component is suitable to go to specific furnace according to dimension and other technical constraints. and Simplicity). Castlink.
Research can be defined as the search for knowledge or any systematic investigation to establish facts. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth. choosing the areas that interest you and following up on them. including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. but need not do so. It is getting to know a subject by reading up on it. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It makes practical applications possible. an examination of a subject from different points of view. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.4. It’s not just a trip to the library to pick up a stack of materials. reflecting. Research is the way you educate yourself.1 Research Research is a process of investigation. also seen as 'practice-based research'. Artistic research. The term research is also used to describe an entire collection of information about a particular subject 16 . a harnessing of curiosity. Research can use the scientific method. and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. interpreting. playing with the ideas. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering. Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method. Scientific research is funded by public authorities. or picking the first five hits from a computer search. Research is a hunt for the truth. by charitable organizations and by private groups.
Describing it as the "bedrock source of human knowledge" about the "social and natural world. observation seems to have no specific beginning. when anthropologists starting "collecting data firsthand. the father of sociology.Fig 5: research process.3 As an ethnographic research method." Adler and Adler (1994) stated that Aristotle used observational techniques botanical studies on tile Island of Lesbos and that Auguste Comte. While some researchers found indications of its use in ancient times. listed observation as one of the "four core research methods" 17 . others have pointed to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
data is collected to provide information regarding a specific topic In primary data collection.4. we have used observation as method of data collection. you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and. no one else has access to it.2 Data collection: Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collecting data . In this project.for example as part of a process improvement or similar project. to make decisions about important issues. The purpose of data collection is to obtain information to keep on record. 18 . Primarily. until you publish. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include: • • • • • • • • questionnaires interviews focus group interviews observation case-studies diaries critical incidents Portfolios. to pass information on to others.
Researcher as an explicit role. however.Other authors define observation within the broader context of ethnography or the narrower one of participation observation. Choice of roles The role adopted depends on the following: • • • • Purpose of the research: Does the research require continued longitudinal involvement (long period of time).4. There are different ways of classifying the role: • • • • Researcher as employee. or will in-depth interviews. Observation involves recording the behavioral patterns of people.1 Observation Definitions of observation per se are difficult to find in the literature. for example. What is consistent in the definitions. Interrupted involvement.2.4 Roles of Observer The role of the participant observer is not simple. objects and events in a systematic manner. Gorman and Clayton define observation studies as those that "involve the systematic recording of observable phenomena or behavior in a natural setting" . Observation alone. Observational methods may be: • • • • • • • structured or unstructured disguised or undisguised natural or contrived personal mechanical non-participant Participant. with the participant taking a number of different roles. will he or she also feel able to develop the type of trusting relationships that are important? What are the ethical issues? 19 . 4. The extent to which the researcher would be comfortable in the role: If the researcher intends to keep his identity concealed. and may take time. is the need to study and understand people within their natural environment. conducted over time give the type of insights required? Cost of the research: To what extent can the researcher afford to be committed for extended periods of time? Are there additional costs such as training? The extent to which access can be gained: Gaining access where the role of the researcher is either explicit or covert can be difficult.
Value stream mapping is a helpful method that can be used in Lean environments to identify opportunities for improvement in lead time. it is also used in logistics. Value stream mapping is a lean manufacturing technique used to analyze the flow of materials and information currently required to bring a product or service to a consumer.5 Research methodology in this project: In this project. value stream mapping is used as research tool. service related industries. software development.It can be used in any process that needs an improvement. supply chain. it is known as "material and information flow mapping" . where the technique originated. If time is a problem alternate approaches will have to be sought 4. At Toyota. and product development Seven value stream mapping tools are: • • • • • • • Process Activity Mapping Supply chain responsiveness matrix Product Variety Funnel Quality filter mapping Forrester effect mapping Decision point analysis Overall Structure Maps 20 .• The amount of time the researcher has at his disposal: Some methods involve a considerable amount of time. Although value stream mapping is often associated with manufacturing. healthcare.
and money. Even system which has implemented lean manufacturing principles can be improved. Value Stream Maps should focus on the product itself. Another example is more movement of product than necessary. One small example of this is documentation that takes time to complete but goes nowhere.4 Value Stream Mapping is simply mapping on paper (often in pencil) the various information and processing steps to get a product from idea or raw material to finished product and to the customer. inventory.4. 21 . space. people. Every system has some form of waste. following it from beginning to end and including the information that needs to flow to various departments as the products moves through the process. Lean Manufacturing is "A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the demand of the customer.5 VALUE STREAM MAPPING Lean is about doing more with less: Less time. Lean is about speed and getting it right the first time. a overview." Fig 6: ‘lean manufacturing’. Placing all of this on paper in front of you enables you to see where the waste is.
It is important after developing the value stream map to involve many employees. between those who develop a concept and those who have to implement it is in general counterproductive.The Value Stream Mapping enables seeing where the long lead times come from when the value added time is often a few minutes or hours. Again. Innovation is not thought about in a vacuum. both management and workers. traditions and cultures. For example. waste elimination approach.1 22 . to eliminate the non value added activities. Changes in values in the environment in which the work system in the innovation domain is embedded are sensed and transformed into new products. The VSM module is one of the first in the Lean Manufacturing course as the “big picture” must be seen first before attempting to develop a new Value Stream with less waste. but the actual time it takes to produce the product is 28 minutes. Innovation is by definition action-research. The work system is involved in the discovery and the creation of the added-value of the future. if the lead time to produce a product and deliver to the customer is 7 days. The value systems domain is involved in the permanent creation of a new culture by creating new languages and new descriptions and prescriptions about the world through a permanent debate between carriers of different world views. VSM will enable seeing the picture of the non value time. Fig 7: ‘Value stream’. the split between thinking and doing. services and processes.
including: • 5S / Workplace Organization • Quick Changeover • Cellular / Flow Manufacturing • Pull / Kanban Systems • Total Productive Maintenance This approach maintains the momentum and excitement of the team.”2 The key to creating an excellent current state VSM is to document what you actually see with your own eyes. then immediately select and implement one or more Kaizen Events. Through Value Stream Mapping. Channel T2 & T3 components as a limited scope are observed while they are in the concerned area and getting processed.5. The Future State often represents a significant change compared to the way the company currently operates. We are not interested in how the process is supposed to work. The most urgent needs will be addressed first. the team members that developed the Value Stream Maps are utilized for the implementation of the Kaizen Event(s). or was designed to work. there is a value stream. cutting lead times. Material movement charts is the tool used for visualising the Non Value Added Material Movements and the effect of it on the complexity of the process. and can typically be accomplished in a very short time frame with the appropriate resources applied. Typically. thereby streamlining work processes. 23 . reducing costs and increasing quality. The Value Stream Mapping Event will identify opportunities to remove waste. I used VSM as a research methodology. The challenge lies in seeing it. Throughout this project. and develop a future state vision to act as a blueprint for Lean activities. Value Stream Mapping enables a company to identify and eliminate waste. as well as ensures buy-in to the future state plan. both value-added and non-value-added. The Value Stream Mapping Team will develop the implementation plan. DATA PRESENTATION 5.1 MAPPING THE CURRENT STATE: “Whenever there is a product for a customer. Observation and continuous noting of facts helped a lot to map the current state & visualise the waste in the shared operations area. a team of employees can map the current state from customer back to raw material including all steps. The VSM team will develop an implementation strategy to make the Future State a reality.
: Change-over time. C.Benefits of Value Stream Mapping • “See the flow” of your value stream and wastes in the flow • View all products from a system perspective • Understanding both material and information flows of your value stream • Draw a blueprint for Lean transformation—the Future State Map • Prioritize activities needed to achieve the Future State Symbols used: 2 : Inventory accumulated : Process / operation : Transport. C/O : Cycle time. : Information Flow.T. 24 .
26 Fig 8: CURRENT STATE FOR 382-OUTER (CHANNEL-T3) .
27 Fig 9: CURRENT STATE FOR 387-INNER (CHANNEL-T3) .
28 Fig 10: CURRENT STATE OF 30207.INNER (CHANNELT2) .
29 Fig 11: CURRENT STATE FOR 30207-OUTER (CHANNEL T2) .
30 Fig 12: MATERIAL MOVEMENT CHART FOR 382-INNER (CHANNEL T3) .
31 Fig 13: MATERIAL MOVEMENT CHART FOR 387-OUTER (CHANNEL T3) .
32 Fig 14: FISHBONE DIAGRAM FOR LONG LEAD TIME IN SHARED OPERATIONS .
it is centrally planned and instructions given to operators. No material movement in third shift. OBSERVATIONS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Traceability of soft material is a problem. Accountability of the material movement is problem.(for change over and maintenance) Out put of furnaces is accumulated near the furnace till end of shift. 33 . waiting time of it increases.e. some body should be wholly responsible for the movement. Information does not flow operation wise. Space in F&OD is not distributed channel wise. lot is broken for some reason and hence the waiting time of the material is increasing.6. same material is handled twice to clear up the space. i. The entire soft buffer for the type is not located at same place. Material is moved to next station at end of shift hence the lot gets separated. Allocation of soft and hard buffers for some channels is not sufficient. Heat treatment and grinding operations are not done continuously when taken. i.e. Planning of furnaces and Face and OD machines is done daily. hence material handler has to decide where to keep the buffer. Operators don’t know where the whole lot of soft buffer is placed. Buffers are taken daily in the morning. No communication channel is there to check the run time status of the furnace and the material arrived from the receiving inspection. hence large material to be moved in the morning creates confusion. Unnecessary movement of pallets happens in F&OD. hence the buffer arrived in the day is realised in the next morning. Frequent and large stop times for F&OD machines.
For example say that. the buffer requirements will automatically reduce and space can be easily distributed. • Supplier capacity. cleaning. science. in a month. • Lead time (process time + waiting time + stop time + queue time). So. It is to ask how something does what it does or why it is as it is. We will check the effect of reduced loop lot size on output. Consider a month of 30 days=90 shifts. As a challenge to this assumption of keeping 2 days buffer. time taken for settings in a month= 60 hrs. 1 setting= 4 hours. and social science domains. Analysis is the kind of thinking you will most often be asked to do in your work life and in other parts of life. Etc.7. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches. It is in fact one of the most common of our mental activities. (for 100% channel efficiency) That means. it is suggestible to try out and evaluate other options of lesser loop lot size. 34 . • Set up times. and supporting decision making. ANALYSIS To analyze something is to ask what that something means. Current loop lot size= 2 days= 6 shifts. suggesting conclusions. encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names. in different business. Analysis of data is a process of inspecting. transforming.1 Revisit Space allocation for soft buffer and loop lot size: Currently the shared operations dept keeps 2 days buffer to cater the channels. As we can easily determine the factors governing loop lot size and buffer requirements: • Optimum batch size (order size). and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information. If loop lot size reduces. 7. Value added time in a month= (90x8)-60 =660 hr. it is not the rarefied and exclusive province of scholars and intellectuals. the type changes 15 times on a channel.
it is required to store 2 days channel output. To analyze this fact. On the other hand if setting time is reduced. and the current allocation of space to the buffer. 7. same loop lot size gives better output. 35 . It can be clearly seen that there is gap between the current and required space allocation. The following table shows the required and currently allocated space in number of pallets. the space in HT dept is not sufficient to store 2 days soft buffer for all channels. It calls for rearrangement of space channel wise. I collected the data about output of all channels. Due to which the entire lot of soft buffer can’t be stored at one place and thus creates the separation of same type leading to high lead time in shared operations area.Now consider following cases: Case no 1 2 2 4 Loop lot size(shifts) 6 4 6 4 No of settings in month 15 22 15 22 Time for setting (hr) 4 4 2 2 VA time in a month(hr) 660 632 690 676 It is clear from the table that reducing loop lot size has negative impact on out put.2 Revisit of the current allocation of space to buffer: It has been noted in current state VSM that. As discussed earlier. So it is not advisable to reduce loop lot size until setting time is reduced.
And this is the reason why operator can’t find all soft buffers for heat treatment. It shows that allocation of space for some channels is not sufficient. Total requirement of space is 476 pallets in HT. IR Channel T1(S + R) T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 HUB CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6 CH7 TOTAL Current 6 8 16 16 16 6 8 10 16 16 3 3 124 Required 9 11 16 22 24 11 17 7 4 6 7 14 12 5 1 166 Current 8 15 10 16 16 16 8 10 16 15 15 3 3 151 OR Required 16 16 28 35 36 17 22 17 7 15 19 35 36 9 2 310 Table 2: review of space allocation This is the first hand data collected about the space allocation.Following table shows the required and allotted space for soft buffers of all channels. 36 . As a result the batch gets separated and the NVA time increases increasing setting time in F&OD dept.
3 Revisit of the flow of the components through shared operations: Aichelin S 40 Castlink Gard 1601 Birlec Gard 1016 Roller 709-1186 Killick DDS 544 Shoei SLDP 166 Simplicity OD cell 1 OD cell 2 CL3BG 168 170 Cl3BG 169 Cl46 1600 Shaker 30207 Outer 30207 inner 382 outer 387 inner Fig 15: Review of flow of components 37 .7.
Currently channel downtime is 2. there is no such message passed to shared operations about issue of the material.4 Revisit of communication system: Currently communication takes place orally and through telephone. it will be a independent system and can be practiced for all the channels.8% due to short supply from shared operations. When soft buffer arrived from Receiving & Inspection. Daily planning gives rise to centralized communication and sometimes channel stoppage due to miss planning. Currently production system is Push at some places and Pull at some places. Furnaces and machines have some technical constraints for the types to grind or heat treat. Communication in heat treatment dept is person dependent.Figure shows the flow of components through shared operations from stage to stage. It is noted that although there are constraints to the rings for some machines and furnace. It quite noticeable that there should be some visual communication system which will bring ease to the parties involved and any unavailability will be noticed very fast. Once the flows will be fixed and dedicated. Furnace operators write daily log book but it is not used for the real-time reference. Priority of the types is affected by various factors. on daily basis plans the furnaces and machines for the types to be taken in coming three shifts. Centralized MRP & Production planning issues monthly schedule. 7. there is no signal passed from there. Planning is manual & scheduling dependent upon individual judgment. Material remains unnoticed until stack is taken physically next morning. Shared operations dept. So it calls for the through out Pull System which will give base for JIT and kanban. the flow for a type is not fixed. The new interaction system should build a platform for kanban and pull system. When material comes from R&I . 38 . That is the reason why each morning we have to take the stock physically and prepare daily buffer status. it is dependent upon the availability of the concerned machine at that time and the criticality of the requirement. each dept plans there activities accordingly but no internal official communication about the issue of material happens. This person dependent system adds to buffer time.
There is need to look for more space and locations to store the pallets.1 Allocation of soft buffer in the available space in HT Dept. so that the movement of material will be the minimum and traffic of pallets will be smooth lined. Considering the 2 days requirements of channels and soft buffer quantity required to be stored in heat treatment dept. 39 .8. All channels are provided with sufficient space in HT for soft buffer. channel wise. 8. This gives the worst case requirement for that channel. The no of pallets are decided considering the highest output in terms of no of boxes from a channel for a type. Currently these spaces are being used but they are not marked. so material handler has to take his own decision about where to put what. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 8. there are two proposals to store the buffer.1. Space behind aichelin should be marked for hard buffer. Figure shows a allocation plan of soft buffer. In the plan the space is allocated channel wise and considering the maximum requirements of the channels. Channel wise allocation of soft buffer calls for the space near simplicity and shoei furnace to be marked for some channels. The preferred furnaces are also considered in this plan.1 Channel wise allocation of soft buffer: Requirements of buffer quantity show that it is not possible to store the pallets on marked space only.
Fig 16: proposed allocation of soft buffer. channel wise. 40 .
the material is allocated near to furnace and only shoei furnace is provided with the space at a reasonable distance. it s his job to get it done. Inventory to be stored gets reduced by 100 pallets using this layout 41 .2 Furnace wise allocation of soft buffer: Another option to store soft buffer is to allocate it furnace wise.8. To resolve this issue. All material which will go on a furnace will be stored same space. All types were checked for the preferred furnaces and alternatives available for it. it stimulates a signal to the supervisor to call next material. If material is available there. Figure shows the detailed placing of buffers furnace wise. So such types from all channels are considered for the preferred furnaces. And if the area is empty. All the types furnaces are provided with preferred loading types and the proposal is prepared to store the buffer so that operator has to see to one region only for the work to be done. The challenge in this task is to arrange the buffer in such a way that the movement will be the minimum.1. Suppose 6305 from DGBB channel 2 is the type which is having maximum output in terms of number of boxes per day. Preference list is decided depending upon the output of furnace for each type and the maximum output type from each channel is proffered to go on which furnace for heat treatment. Marked space can be easily allocated furnace wise.
If we decide the flow of material for a channel and dedicate the furnaces and machines to particular types or channels. Shoie Aichelin Aichelin Castlink . there will be ease in information flow and communication. Rings. Daily planning and central controlling of shared operations gives rise to channel stoppage and disturbances. 8. Simplicity Shaker.2 Flow of material in shared operations: As we have seen that. Supplier. Birlec Aichelin . It will be a platform to implement kanban if the dedicated flow of information In the reverse direction happens. Killick Roller Castlink . Following are the charts showing the preferred components on each machine and furnace. Killick Specified Furnace 43 . although there are constraints for components to go on furnaces and machines. Taper Inner rings OD > 42mm to 72 mm Taper & DGBB Inner rings OD < 42mm All HBU Outers ( Due to size & Shape ) Taper Inner rings OD > 42mm to 72 mm Taper & DGBB Inner rings OD > 72mm Thin wall Outer types above 80mm OD ( D/t more than 13 ) Outer rings OD > 80mm Outer rings OD < 80mm to 47 mm Outer rings OD < 47mm Customer Specific requirements .Fig 17: furnace wise allocation of soft buffer. Accountability of the process will increase and the flow will be smooth lined. The operator will have to look for the buffer at a certain location only and he will have to keep the out put at certain out put only. Birlec Shaker. still the flow of material is not smooth and predefined. Table 3: Furnace allocation Furnace Roller .customer chain will be built inside the department and “no mans land “will be covered. Visual mapping will be easy and any shortages will be communicated very fast.
Ch01 Outers. T4.T4.Rings Channel T3. T2 components HUB1T. Ch03. DDS CELL AICHELIN 1 OD CELL 44 . T5.07 all components Table 4: Grinding Machine Allocation OD Machine OD Cell 1 OD Cell 2 CL 46 170 CL 46 1600 CL3BG Depending upon this. T2 & up to 100mm OD Outers of Ch05 HUB1T. Ch05 Outers T7.07 components Face Machine DDS Cell DDS 544 Old Gardner New Gardner S-40 SLDP Rings Channel T3. there can be cells build and information can flow between these cells rather than centrally.T6 & Ch05 Outers HBU.HBU & Specified IR of T2 & T6 Ch01 Outer.T5 & T6 components Channel T1-S. T1-R & T7 Outers Ch06.Ch03. Kanban cards can be implemented if such cells are implemented.HUB1T-IR. T2 IR T1-S.T1-R. Ch01 (62mm) Outers & Ch05 IR HBU. Ch06.
Empty Boxes return.Boxes in From previous Stage.(for 382 IR) . Rack 45 Fig 18: Rack system implementing kanban cards and smooth flow between dedicated cells. Example of rack system using kanban cards.
46 .e.( i. So this will be first step towards the single piece flow and JIT. For this. loading mechanisms on machines & furnaces etc) Ultimate aim of the production system is one piece flow. This will help in streamlining the flow of material and information. Communication will be straight forward & trigger will pass if any empty spaces will be there in the racks. Once the flow is decided & Racks are implemented the operator of a furnace or machine will have to look for raw material in one particular rack only without confusion. Further there are some up gradations required before going for racks as pre requisites. for that the flows for product family should be decided and followed in a dedicated way.In our case such racks can be implemented only when the two parties on each side of rack are fixed. shared operations can be divided into cells and communication will happen only among those cells in reverse direction. replace tote boxes by blue containers.
color codes can be used to decide the preference of material to process.8. Only ends of the boxes need to be color coded.2. Example: 9.1 Color coding of boxes in racks : While the boxes are being interchanged through racks or any way. FIFO can be easily practiced through color coding. CONCLUSION 47 .
It requires significant knowledge of Core Disciplines and other specific topics. If not eliminate we must try to minimize the buffer states and idle runs. a Future State Map looks six months or more down the road at what the organization can achieve. This FSVSM will play a role of benchmark to the planners and executers as they plan their future improvement activities and schedules. Once the current state VSM is mapped. engineering and strategy than Present State mapping. It is this Future State which highlights the waste in the 'system' that can be eliminated or reduced. there is a value stream. The ultimate aim of system is single piece flow & it can be achieved through the approach of continuous improvement by visualizing and eliminating wastes in the systems. Challenge lies in seeing it. After having the picture of current system as it is now through VSM. we plotted the current state VSM and identified the wastes. In this era of zero defect and six sigma. VSM proves to be a powerful too to visualize the non value added activities in the system. We also tried to suggest some ways to minimize those wastes.Whenever there is a product for a customer. Next step is identifying the NVAs and attack them to have shorter path towards the final product. In our case of shared operations area. By seeing the amount of 'waste' the team can identify opportunities to improve. 48 . After finishing Current State Value Stream Map. Future State Value Stream Map helps with the larger process of developing your Lean Manufacturing Strategy. It proves very useful in seeing the bottleneck from perspective of waste elimination. The next step is to develop the 'Future State Implementation Plan'. clear picture of the chain of activities in the stream is visualized. it is important to plot the Future State VSM to have goal in our eyes. Designing a Future State requires more art. no production system can afford to have NVA in there value stream.
49 .FIG 19: Future State Value stream Map.
R. C. Delhi. Kothari. Research Methodology. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 4.skf. 2009 6. Lean Enterprise Institute. Learning To See. http://www. 2.annual report. Shaker Furnace Catalogue. Total Quality management. New Age International. 50 .org 5. edition-2. 2008. Mike Rother and John Shook. ISBN: 0-9667843-0-8 3.com .lean. Inc. http://www. Tata McGraw Hill. N Gupta. B Valarmathi.10.
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