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Knowledge Management System
A. Project Title Knowledge Management System “Unleashed the Power of Knowledge Assets” B. Brief description on project background In the pre-knowledge economy, the business world tend to measure their business performance only with tangible assets (such as cash equipment, machinery or any physical inventory) due to the fact that knowledge assets are intangibles and are hard to measure in monetary term. As we move into knowledge driven economy, knowledge is one of crucial intellectual asset for any today business organization. For that reason, most of the organization today has began realized the importance of intellectual asset. In general, knowledge assets, intellectual property, intellectual assets, intellectual capital and intangible assets are basically refer to the same thing which was representing a collective of knowledge, creativity, skill, idea and innovative power of a company’s workforce. At this point, we might well be scratching our head and begin to start thinking of “What do you mean by knowledge? According to Ikujira Nonaka and H.Takeuchi, the author of The Knowledge Creating Company stated that knowledge is justified belief or it can be defined as one’s individual asset that contains of beliefs, ideas, facts, rules, strategies, approaches, or any other things of value that facilitate us for our day to day decision making. Besides, we frequently hear that “Knowledge is Power”. However, according to Dr. David J. Schwartz the author of The Magic of Thinking Big stated that this statement is only a half-truth because knowledge is power only when we put to use and use it constructively because knowledge is acquired and accumulated in the mind of individuals through experiences, learning, observation, experimenting and sharing. By owing to the lack of understanding of what knowledge is and the lack of systematic management approaches for its utilizations, knowledge always suffers from under management. For that reason, it is a vital resource that requires a proper management. But we might again start wondering “How can we actually manage our knowledge since it contained in our mind?” Generally, there are two types of knowledge which is tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is a knowledge that is implied which could be obtain through the process of socialization and gain from experience rather than through any formal education or training and one thing for sure there is no proper system for its storage. In other word, we can not manage tacit knowledge since it contained in one’s individual mind. In other side, explicit knowledge is a knowledge that is written down and easily to transfer and communicate to others since it expressed in words and numbers that preserve in the form of books, databases and documents (such as white papers). Clearly, the written documents facilitate the transfer of explicit knowledge to other people, thereby helping us experience
Appendix B - 1
as mention before knowledge need to manage. immediately our attention will always turns to how it can be manage and what sort of tools that will actually give us a hand to manage or to accomplish the task. by reusing and sharing knowledge. be share. and reusing the knowledge. Understandably. For that reason. increasing the knowledge exchange between individual and communication and as well as speeds up their learning curve. in today’s business climate. the proposed KM system implemented as generic one. one of the obvious benefits for the workers that can actually reduce the time it takes to gain information. By getting the most value from a business organisation intellectual assets.Final Year Project Knowledge Management System the experiences from the others indirectly and thus enriching our tacit knowledge. meaning that a system software that allow knowledge worker to collaboratively exchange or share information and ideas or documents or any other production and use. The truth for creating such KM System is actually allows the business organization to transforms ideas into business value. there is a need for managing the explicit knowledge. the key for collecting and reusing the knowledge is where a good KM system can help. but however when an organization collects. the organization cannot rely on the employees to transfer Appendix B . which is capable of storing. When employees change jobs often or even the organization itself by hiring new staff. With this. One example is the set-up and use of computerized files to keep track of customers’ preferences and inquiries aimed for improving customer relationships. When we are actually start thinking of management. For that reason. KM is aimed at creating a knowledge based organisation. Therefore. with the practice of using Knowledge Management System (KM System) brings to mind images of a massive repository system that made up of a vast collective of individual’s knowledge assets within a business organization. which is able to learn from experience-based knowledge and to transfer it into new knowledge in form of product or service innovations. Besides. and serve as the foundation for collaboration because knowledge by itself does not produce value. Why such a system should be implemented? One of the main objectives of implementing such KM system is to maximize return on organisation’s both tangible and intangible knowledge assets. where employees work mostly as a contract basis or change jobs much more frequently and it becomes an issue. KM system range from a simple web site to a fully integrated workflow environment. the organization can turn this knowledge into value. So. its serve as foundation would have the capability of fulfilling the basis of a KM system. retrieving information when needed.2 .
the propose KM system attempt to allow the knowledge worker to access the system through their own mobile devices since many organizations have a wide range of front-line staff . As a result. Helps the business organization for better decision making to become more innovative and increase profitability by producing more high quality products and customer services and to formidable their competitor in the market place. such as Mobile Phone . iii. the organization employees can actually reusing back the existing knowledge to assist them to solve the particular problem without the need of hiring any expertise people.” Rationale: The following has highlighted some of the most common benefits for organisation that adopting the KM system: i. iv. Smart Phone . and handheld devices like Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). there are also few mechanisms for sharing information between staff working in the same business area but different locations. transferring and managing of organisation’s knowledge asset will provide the company with new business opportunities. Facilitate the accessing organisation’s information through sophisticated KM processes. Appendix B . KM system can even transfer the organization knowledge to the others when staffs are actually retired. When the organization faces some critical technical issue and as well as economic issue with the practice of using KM system. With this additional functionality added to the current KM system clearly shown that it allow the knowledge worker by “Getting the Right Knowledge to the Right People at the Right Time.Final Year Project Knowledge Management System knowledge to the other because its took time and costs for training a new staff.3 . Typically. In addition. In large organizations. this leads to several obvious beneficial effects that change the use of KM system like removal time and space constraints for doing any knowledge work. the user does not need to access the information on site and as well as improved access to decision makers. these front-line staff that who interact with directly with customers or members of the public (especially the marketing sales staff or technical maintenance staff) are often very dispersed geographically. as a reward of using the KM system it saves the organization time and cost! Furthermore. With the use of all these mobile technologies clearly it provided an alternative way of accessing the KM system in remotely by comparing the traditional way of accessing the data and services through the current desktop PC since access mechanism of the mobile devices are so portable that can move with people. with limited communication channels to head office. By reusing. For that reason. To create learning business culture and accelerate learning in the business environment in order to helps employees to develop and maximizes their collective mind power. Clearly. by increasing use of mobile devices or “small-screen devices”. sharing. ii.
accessing. For example let say. and managing explicit knowledge (the knowledge that converting from one’s individual tacit knowledge in the form of written document like white paper. As we know. Since the KM system is about creating. advance search or taxonomy search or even ontology searching technique to filter out only the relevant information to the user. At last but not least. book or manual) of an organization. To address this risk. Besides. the mobile devices have a limited Appendix B . the probably best-known risk that associated with KM system is that the some employees of the organisation are so reluctant to share their knowledge to the others. the primary concern would be towards the component-based development as it is the basis in which the system develops upon to promote reusability. one of the challenges is some recognition or reward or rating approaches must be implementing in the KM system in order to attract and motivate the workers for actually using the system. Furthermore. this proposes KM system should maintain flexibility for the needs of amendment since the business needs or environment might change. The nature challenge for building such system: The main challenge for developing such system is to understand the basic concepts in knowledge management and as well as the essential key strategy for developing KM system in order to give us a solid foundation for developing such knowledge based system. the proposed KM system will be planning to provide an alternative way of accessing the system by using mobile devices. “Why should I bother to share the knowledge if I am the only the person who truly able to solve a particular technical issue? It will reduce my worth to the organization” may mean that the organisation can survive by using less skilled and hence less experience workers. for accessing and retrieving such a large of amount of information the proposed KM system should incorporated with an intelligent searching techniques like free text search . Their employee might view the KM system as a threat to them.Final Year Project Knowledge Management System v. by managing intangible or knowledge assets would be one of the major risks for implementing the KM system since knowledge value can become futile over some time especially in the IT World nowadays and it is incredibly difficult to measure the true value of knowledge assets. As a result. Encouraging and rewarding knowledge workers and seekers for their contribution and utilization of the knowledge maximize the knowledge capital. Drive people to work in as team by creating awareness on the importance of team-work through collaboration processes. Clearly. Besides. vi.4 .
Final Year Project Knowledge Management System memory storage space capacity with limited processing power and obviously the screen is small and obviously is hard to navigate. The Type of Target Audience / User who using the system. a reward points will be given to the each posted message for knowledge creator. graphically oriented user interface for such a small screen devices. So to speak. transferring and managing the organization knowledge asset the proposed KM systems should having a centralize knowledge base or a repository that capable of allowing the organization worker to deposit and harvesting knowledge in the collaborative manners to ease the knowledge worker reduce the time it takes to gain information and the most important things is allowing organization to retain employee knowledge to prevents it from leaving when an employee leaves.) Collaboration Module By having such collaboration module knowledge can be shared through the participation of users in the discussion forum. Brief description of project objectives. System Scope By having the idea of reusing. the proposed KM system is knowledge management platform that integrated only on handheld devices (PDA) with a limited functionality instead of the Mobile Phone with a different screen sizes. ideas. sharing. suggestions and as well as solving other’s queries on the discussion forum. It would be a challenge of developing a KM system with a highly usable. scope of proposal and deliverables) Project Objectives Basically the main objectives of this project to develop a centralize knowledge based system or a repository which to facilitate the knowledge worker in collaborative manner in term of sharing and transferring their knowledge to other’s in order to maximize return on organization both tangible and intangible assets.e. The primary target audiences of this propose system involve of two groups of users which are the knowledge creators and knowledge users that comprise of the entire knowledge worker from the business organization and as well as the front-line workers who own a handheld mobile devices to gain access to the system. The worker are allow to post their problem. in order to provide a highly acceptable KM solution the major components as highlighted as follows i. For that reason.5 . C. (i. ii) Document Management Module With this document management module is allow the worker to store or deposit their knowledge which in the form of written document (static knowledge) which can be shared and reused by other Appendix B . As a result.
iii) Knowledge Harvesting Module By having such a massive or large knowledge repository without an efficient searching capability would definitely one of the failure in KM systems. so a notification message send the user if the author have posted of any new document or any changes or updated made to information. based on my research and if I have the sufficient resources. Besides. Besides. project management and human computer interaction usability concept and principles and as well as components based development principles in order to produce highly reusable quality software on time. Appendix B . As a result. another major learning objectives would also including of performing thorough research and understand on the essential knowledge management development principles and techniques that require for building a such knowledge based system. Clearly without efficient and reliable searching mechanism will slowly result in lacking of user participation and shrinking the organization knowledge asset. for harvesting knowledge several efficient search techniques will be introduced to provide an alternate way to user to find valuable information through the system by having relevant knowledge asset filtered to them. Clearly.Final Year Project Knowledge Management System worker. an Ontology document searching technique and implement a mobile based knowledge management system with a limited functionality that can accessible through handheld devices. In this module. with the use subscribe service ensure the knowledge worker are constantly up-to-date on changes and as well as reduce their time in re-searching or revisiting back the same document. these are the several special features I am going to attempt to implement for the proposed system like incorporating Artificial Intelligent in Knowledge Management.6 . time and ability. having the intention of achieving a long term successful in usage of KM system is very much depends on user participation. Learning Objective: Throughout system development the primary learning objective would be learn and apply those software engineering. rating capabilities will be implemented as an additional features which allow the users to rate and give comment the document that posted by origin knowledge creator.At last. v) Feedback Module Basically. iv) Subscription and Notification Module With this subscription and notification module is basically allowing the user to subscribe to certain information regarding of what information that want to access the most such as subscribe to any specific authors or document. this module is allowing the user to evaluate and give comments about the effectiveness of the system.
For that reason. vi. Graphic Card: Intel Extreme Graphic with 64MB Printer: Any Standard Printer. the system is being developed as generic one which cater for any business organization used with the most common feature implemented whereby in order to fulfilled entire project requirement with such a given time duration. According to Susan Conway and Char Sligar the author of unlocking knowledge assets stated that “Culture can make or break a KM initiative and if the KM program or initiative does not fit into the existing culture. Web Browser: Any Standard Browser. The following are the list of those hardware resources that required for developing and running the system -: A. Assumption made: The successful adopting knowledge management is really much depending on what organization business culture. For that reason. CPU: Pentium IV with at least 1. ii. Handheld based Emulator: Microsoft Pocket PC 2003.6 MHz Hard Drive Space: At least 5GB Free space Memory: 256MB Monitor: Any Standard Monitor.Final Year Project Limitation of the system: Knowledge Management System The scope of developing such knowledge based management system is extremely wide since an effective KM solution is really much depending on what one’s business organization needs. group. D. For developing the system:i. B. an assumption has to be made whereby the organization worker should be comfortably working in way of contributive and co-operative manner. Brief description of the resources needed by the proposal. and organizational levels. v.” since knowledge is one’s individual assets people tend to feel insecurity by sharing their knowledge to other because it can weaken their expertise and reduce worth to the organization once the process is over. ii. Appendix B . For running the system: i. iii. resistance can emerge at the individual.7 . This might become very serious if the KM solution does not fit the current business culture may well result in the KM system can be called as “White Elephant” which mean by having such a system in organization but no one actually using it. iv.
ii. Interview Interview should be carried out in order to obtain opinion and the perspective from other’s whom who specialize in KM field (like Ms. For gathering information and user requirements. Research Research is one of the most important fact-finding techniques. reviewing journals.Final Year Project Knowledge Management System The following listed of software resources that I would most probably look into that used for developing the proposed system (but some of it still under my considerations): i. iii.8 . Software Development Tools: Microsoft Visual Studio . the user’s involvement is definitely required during preliminary research which involves of the interviewer those who fills in the questionnaires and as well as those who participate during system testing phase like beta or acceptance testing which must require the user’s involvement. Database Management System: Microsoft SQL Server 2000 v. These techniques are listed below: i. the following have highlighted the three factfinding techniques will consider to be use throughout the research stages. ix. Web Browser: Any standard web browser. After the domain and technical research. books or e-books and as well as any benchmarking the existing KM system that available on the current industry. Graphic Design Tools: Adobe Photoshop CS or Macromedia Fireworks MX. Operating System : Windows® XP Professional SP2 ii. The research includes of searching in World Wide Web (WWW). vi. Sanath) or even those who have experienced in implementing and using such KM system in order to allow the developer to further enhance and refine the system ideas and features of the current existing KM system and the propose system. Software Modeling Tools: Rational Rose Enterprise Edition / Visual Paradigm and Microsoft Visio.NET 2003 or Microsoft Visual Studio . Wan Rohaniah or Mr. Project Management Tools : Microsoft Project vii.NET 2005 iv. white paper. Web Server: Internet Information Services (IIS) with . x. System Documentation and Presentation Tools: Microsoft Office XP viii.NET Framework installed. Handheld based Emulator: Microsoft Pocket PC 2003. Appendix B .
Concepts of Web Design Usability and Mobile Web Design. Web-Based Intelligent E-Learning Systems : Technologies and Applications. ASP. Information System Management In Practice Seventh Edition . Information Science Publishing. Server-Side Scripting Language like ASP.9 . 2005. 2006. The Searching Strategies and Methods such as Free-Text Searching. techniques being learnt. Information Science Publishing Appendix B . An extensive research must be carried out in order to complete this project successfully. The following have listed the various techniques. Ma. 2005. Questionnaire Knowledge Management System The questionnaire is distributed mainly to those IT personnel who especially have the experience and insight into the development of such a KM system instead of interviewing all of them because it is time consuming.Sprague Kr. programming languages and research areas that need to be done:• • • • • • • Key Concepts and Strategy of developing Knowledge Management System. Prentice Hall Metcalfe and Amy Scott. journal and website that planning to be read and research on throughout the system development: Knowledge Management Concept Books • • • Barbara C. Data Mining and Data Warehousing Rewards and Recognitions Mechanisms. The following are the list of books title (some sources obtain from Staffordshire University – Ebrary System). Meta Searching. The main reason doing the questionnaire for this project was to seek and gather all the necessary information might beneficial for the development of proposed system such as “Do you agree that adopting such a KM system in your organization helping you on day to day decision making and improving your daily operational activity or what kind of additional feature you be expected for the system? E. Ontology Searching. Advance Searching. Human Computer Interaction Principles. Zongmin.NET.Final Year Project iii. Academic research being carried out and other information. PHP or JSP and as well as Client-Side Scripting Language like Java Script and VBScript. Taxonomy Searching.McNurlin and Ralph H. Knowledge Management and Higher Education: A Critical Analysis. and Content Searching.
Journal of Knowledge Management Practice.com/site/HTML/aboutkm_overview. 2001.Boyett. and Knowledge Platforms (2nd Edition). 2002.htm • Programming Language Books • Deitel & Deitel. The Knowledge Management Toolkit: Orchestrating IT. • Mohammad Nazir Ahmad Sharif.lpcube.University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil S. Windlinger / HSW . White Paper and Journal • L.Final Year Project • • • • Knowledge Management System Susan Conway and Char Sligar.The Semantic Web. Modeling a Corporate Information System to improve Knowledge Management . Melanie Gnasa2.html http://www. Balfanz / ZGDV. 2002. 2002 Web Site • An Innovation in Knowledge Management http://www. the Industrial Society. Nor Hidayati Zakaria . Prentice Hall Joseph H. Wiley.knowledgeboard. 2000. D. Microsoft Press Amrit Tiwana. 2005. Rene Tissen Daniel. and Karin Harbusch1. Prentice Hall • Byan Gladstone. C# for Experienced Programmers.html • Public based Knowledge Management http://www. Knowledge Management Unlocking Knowledge Assets Solution by Microsoft . Developing a knowledge management strategy. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Birgit Zimmermann1. Appendix B . Yaeger. Prentice Hall. Kim Hunter.Nieto.com. Listfied. Strategy. Low Soh Fung.com/kma/km_overview. • • • Miltiadis et al(Editor). The Guru Guide to the Knowledge Economy. Step Two Designs Pty Ltd. Andriessen and Frank Lekanne Deprez. Lim Shu Ching. 2000.providersedge. 2005. The Knowledge Dividend : Creating High Performance Companies through Value-based Knowledge Management . March 2005.com/index. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Facilitating Knowledge Sharing Through Lessons Learned System. 2004.kmresource. From Know-How to Knowledge – The Essential Guide to Understanding and Implementing Knowledge Management. Boyett and Jimmie T.kmworld. and Zlatkina. Mobile Knowledge Management.com The Knowledge Management Advantage http://www. http://www.10 . Information Society Technologies. 2003. Tazari.
RUP actually allows me to plan a little. Marco Bellinaso. McGraw Hill. Wrox Web Sites • ASP. which clearly allows the Appendix B . McGraw Hill. RUP is a heavyweight methodology which is more emphasized on the system documentation which will added value to my project on by letting the clients (supervisor and assessor or even for the interviewer during job interview) in better understanding of the propose system.Final Year Project • • • Knowledge Management System Brian Larson. Matthew MacDonald. Basically. 2002.NET: The Complete Reference. Kevin Hoffman. Rational Unified Process (RUP) would be the selected the software methodology throughout the system development.Solution. customer requirements will often change throughout software development. due to the fact that the customer do not get to see the product until it is largely complete. a suitable methodology needs to be selected before writing a plan because a software methodology provided a framework which we can manage software projects more efficiently. and code a little since it follows the iteration and incremental development approaches. However.net F: Brief description of the development plan for the proposed project Before starting to develop any project. C# Edition.Design .11 . Besides. 2004. With A suitable methodology will lead to success of a project since different software methodology cater for different project because each project will have its own characteristics and needs in regards to an appropriate process. Due to the requirement of the final year project documenting all the process throughout System development (not software development) is a must since we are not just developing the system prototype only.With such iteration will ends up with an executable release. By choosing RUP it is not a rigid methodology by comparing with the traditional waterfall model which does not allow revisiting backs the previous stages. To address the problem.NET Website Programming: Problem . 2002 . ASP. a plan serves as a blueprints or a map for us to finish the tasks on time.NET www. design a little. The whole idea for using this methodology is RUP provide a disciplined approach for most the software development and it allow the developer to build highquality software that meet the customer requirement and as well as deliver the final product on schedule and within budget.asp. At this point. Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Reporting Services. ASP. As a result. we need a proper development plan since we often told that “If we fail to plan we plan to fail”.
Although the spiral model is one of the iteration methodology and guarantee to develop a highly acceptable system in the end but this model basically very time consuming since it does not introduce an executable model right after each completion of the cycle. The four phases are. Elaboration Phase. However. This will include academic and secondary research regarding on development concept for the KM system and as well as any other relevant concept and implementation and as well as benchmarking any existing KM system available on the market. for this project I only utilize inception. In addition.12 .Final Year Project Knowledge Management System developer to correct the errors and managing the risks at the early stages by getting the user feedback. The duration for this first inception phase is estimated in three weeks (this includes of PSF preparation and PSF approval). Construction Phase and Transition Phase. elaboration and construction only because transition is not required as a phase of the FYP since deployment is no consequence. In addition RUP consists of four phases which can be altered to suit for my project development. Inception Phase. The following section is a brief description of my initial project development plan and as well as to show how I actually incorporate and configured the RUP methodology to suit for my system development: Inception Phase This would be the first phase in the RUP methodology and some research on the proposed system must be done in order to formulate the scope of the project such as what are the core features will be implemented and as well as identify the primary target user for the proposed system. After research has been done Appendix B . probability of each risk. This shall also include the initial risk assessment against the project implementation. Therefore. its impact on the development process and as well as the summary RMMM plan of each possible risks. After selecting the software methodology. some of the important tasks and activities will need to be identified as well as setting a start and finish date for each given task identified where the project timeline or Gantt chart actually taking place here by showing the estimated duration for completing the specific task and this will actually incorporate and configured the RUP methodology to suit for my system development. a risk management plan will be documented by given the appropriate categories of each risks identified. analyzing and designing the proposed system would be the major components for the elaboration phase in which to produce solutions for the identified problems domain. Elaboration Phase Requirement gathering. each of the identified tasks will be given a duration and showing in the Gantt Chart.
Generally. This document serves as propose of describing the propose KM system in terms of the functional requirements and non functional requirement. With this second iteration in elaboration phase will be probably taken about four to five weeks. There will be several iterations in this construction phase and for each iteration will be taking about two to three weeks and it really depend on the level of the difficulty of each module. in each and every iteration a review of the system design and an initial testing plan will be document before the actually start implementing the specific module. the system shall involve a tremendous amount of evaluation or testing need to be done by various people (such as the person that the developer who planning to interview) throughout the system development. a highly acceptance error-free system. if there is a module require a short time to implement there will be a possibly combination of two module to be develop at same time such as Log In module and Feedback Module.Final Year Project Knowledge Management System primary research such as interview and questionnaire session will be conducted. After critically evaluate the outcome of the research. For further information regarding of the testing approaches chooses are described in the following next section. The result of the interview and data summaries from the questionnaire will be documented and followed by critical analysis. the objective of software testing is to ensure that all the functionality of the module in the system will be function and the performance of the system will achieve optimal result that met the expectation of the user and is also know as the process of verification and validation of the system requirements. However. Besides. Next. a good testing should follow a few important principles and it should be carefully planned.13 . Clearly. the entire design model for the proposed system will be completed and ready for implementing the system. system requirement specification plan will be documented. system hierarchical diagram. After successfully implementing the system. The primary uses for all these are to facilitate in design activities and to seek feedback from the client (Supervisor) at the early stages to eliminate any changes in future. This iteration will be probably taken about six to eight weeks. G. Appendix B . the system will be extensively tested with provided in earlier test cases. entity-relationship diagram and so on. Brief description of the evaluation and test plan for the proposed project In order to deliver a fully functional. Construction Phase In the construction phase. during the design stages will be involve of designing the system by using appropriate UML diagrams and applying the HCI concept in the interface design in term of the usability in the web development. Furthermore. a visually based modeling of the user’s requirement will be documented such as use cases.
Basically. this shall slowly progress into a larger scale of testing where integration testing will take place whereby the top-down approach will be follows with begin with testing the highest program module. first the testing shall commence by undergoing unit testing for each modules or function identified. The tester itself will be presented with real data used. modules integrated by moving down through program structure. not simulated data to examine the inputs and outputs of the system and as well as commenting the user’s friendliness of the system. On next level of testing the propose system shall be mainly focusing towards achieving functional requirements and non-functional requirements of the system that stated in the requirement specification. Unit testing ensures each module and function works properly. Basically. the system tester test the system based on the functional specification those we given to him / her. Understandably. In fact. Next testing then shall proceed towards system testing where the software will be subjected to compatibility. the system developer itself will be tester to perform the unit testing. Appendix B . I have decided to follow the concept of black-box testing (also called behavioral testing or functional testing) because this testing technique mainly focused on tested the functional requirement of the software. the system tester does not require to having detailed functional knowledge about the system and as well as how the program actually arrives at those results. As a result. It will test if user whether can enter the main page by entering the URL of the main page before actually log in to the system. security and performance testing. At last. the final level of the system testing will be the benchmark testing or so-called alpha testing where the functional requirements would be evaluated to know whether the system is acceptable by a potential end-user. The system will also be tested for viewing compatibility in other browser such as Mozilla Firefox and as well as other general data retrieval performance. After the completing of functional testing. Some of the questions are:• • Do you find any difficulty of using the system or is the system ease to use? Does the system meet your user’s requirement? The entire user’s feedback or the comment given by the tester will be well-documented for further enhancement of the system. This can be done with questionnaires given to users that test the system.Final Year Project Knowledge Management System As software testing process. the black-box testing approach treats the system as black box or close box whereby the system tester will only know the formal inputs and projected results.14 .