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A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WORLD

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK

ATLANTA
LONDON

BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN &

,

CO., Limited

BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE
CO. OF TORONTO

THE MACMILLAN

CANADA,

Ltd.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF

THE WORLD
With Especial Reference to Social and Economic Conditions
BV

GEORGE WILLIS BOTSFORD
PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY; AUTHOR OF " A HISTORY OF GREECE," " A HISTORY OF ROME," " A HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT WORLD," " A SOURCE BOOK OF ANCIENT HISTORY," ETC.

JAY BARRETT BOTSFORD, A.M.

Netn gorfe

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1917

AU

rights rsstrved

A,32t?n

Copyright, 1917,

By
Set

the MACMILLAN COMPANY.
electrotyped.

up and

Published August, 1917.

y^
3.

WottoooS ^xms S. Cuahing Co. Berwick & Smith Co. Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

PREFACE
This volume aims to provide a course of study for schools which give but a year to European history or which desire a general survey as a basis for more detailed work. The increasing interest in social and economic history has led the authors to emphasize these features. In this book, accordingly, military history is reduced to a minimum the treatment of government and administration keeps in view their effect on the welfare of the people and the condition and customs of the various social classes are given great prominence. In these respects the book .opens to secondary schools a field of historical study quite new to them. The volume has purposely been made brief in order that pupils may have the more time for collateral reading. The "Topics for Reading," caUing attention to representative books, should serve merely as examples. It will be an easy matter for the instructor to make up other topics from the available works. The "Review" is mainly to direct the pupil's attention to the more important facts given in the text. Ability to discriminate between the relevant and the irrelevant, to speak or write without digression on the subject in hand, should be one of the The "Additional Studies" call for chief aims of education. some degree of original thought in combining facts, drawing With discriminative power inferences, and expressing opinions. should be associated, as a most valuable object of education, the abiUty to construct, to gather facts from various sources and combine them in a unity of thought. For the cultivation of these powers history affords an especially productive field. Great labor and pains have been devoted to the collection
; ;

material for illustrations appropriate to the text. The authors gladly acknowledge their obligations to the volumes
of

vi

Preface

that have ^ided in this work, and especially to Traill's "Spcial

England" and Parmentier's "Album historique" for their books and of collections. Professor C. J. H. Hayes of Columbia University has read the part of the volume beginning with the nineteenth chapter, and various improvements are due to him. The authors thank
citation of illustrated

him
he
is

sincerely for his aid, while they wish to
in

make

it

clear that

no way responsible

for

any statement

of fact or opinion

contained in the book.

They

wish, too, to acknowledge the

courteous help of Miss Adele

Mudge

of

M. Erb and Miss Isadore G. Columbia University Library in facilitating the use

of books for the preparation of this volume.

THE AUTHORS.
MoDNT Vernon, New York,
June
II, 1917.

CONTENTS
BOOK
CHAPTER
I.

I

ANCIENT HISTORY
7AGE

Beginnings

I

II.

The Orient
Early Greece
Religion and Intelligence in Greece

lO
31

III.

rv.
V.
VT.
VII.

46
54
1i

Athens in the Age of Pericles

The Later Progress

of

Greek Civilization

The Growth The Growth The
The Decline

of the of

VIII.

Roman Empire Roman Civilization
Monarchy

87
103

IX.

Principate and the
of the

112
13 s

X.
XI.-

Roman Empire

The Germans
Christianity
.

XII.

....
BOOK
II

146

IS4

THE MIDDLE AQES
XIII.

The Prankish Kingdom and
Feudalism

the Empire of Charlemagne

165

XIV.

175
the

XV.
XVI.

The Papacy and
Life in

New

States
.

Country and Town

....

182

202

. . Discoveries and Explorations.392 409 423 452 Growth XXIX. . Spain 269 286 XX. XXVI. 339 XXIV. XXIII. . The Age The of Despots The French Revolution and Napoleon Industrial Revolution of Nationality . The Renaissance Economic Changes Years' in the Period of the 234 Hundred 253 War the XIX. 481 epo Useful Books Index 504 ..327 . XXVII. .VIU (contents BOOK III THE MODERN -WORLD CHAPTER PAGE XVII. . . The Protestant Revolt on the Continent Social Life in France . England under Henry VIII and Elizabeth England in the Seventeenth . The Struggle for World Empire . . . 309 . XXI. Supremacy • of . .356 377 XXV. XXII. XVIII. Century . XXVIII. . Reform and General Progress . Recent Imperialism Social XXX. ..

1648 Central and Western Europe about 1900 after the 307 427 441 Expansion of the United States Colonial Possessions of the European Powers. . Spanish Empire under Charles V Napoleonic Empire. 1400-1600 ...MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS FULL-PAGE AND DOUBLE-PAGE MAPS PAGE The Orient Greece in the Age of Pericles before 7 73 The Roman Empire at its Greatest Extent 91 I S3 Europe in the Middle Ages Western Europe about 1400 Discoveries. 1914 4S3 MAPS IN THE TEXT The World according to Hecatasus The Three-field System Italy in the Renaissance S2 207 235 282 • . 18 10 Southeastern Europe about 1914 404 433 ILLUSTRATIONS Cave Dwellers .. 217 269 297 Religions of Central Europe about 1555 Europe Peace of Westphalia. .

.74 -..48 . . . • . . .'' . ... g2 . . . .. . . . .•' An Athletic Girl of Sparta 34 40 47 Heavy-armed Warrior Apollo with a Cithara Prophetess of Apollo Wrestlers .X Temple of Illustrations Ammon Mummy of The Temple at Thebes Rameses II .80 gj The Hermes of Praxiteles The Satyr of Praxiteles Alexander..- ... . .. An Athenian Trireme of the . . ' 49 56 58 60 61 The Acropolis .J . . i8 20 21 23 27 . . . . ..00 .- 31 32 . Egyptian Writing Babylonian Writing of Jehovah A Phoenician Shf]^ of War and Trade Ancestors of Some of the Letters of our Alphabet . . . "Bezel of a Gold Ring . . Sophocles Pericles 64 66 .... . -Roman Soldiers Marching . '4-1 . . Athenian Peasants Going to Market A Doric Woman A School . . .. . .. .. . Pediment Athena Parthenos The Parthenon Country Dwelling Socrates 68 .. . ' .. " ". . . . -32 33 Warriors . . .67 . i' 66 68 A Metope Parthenon . . 69 y6 yg of a Wealthy Greek . " : . . . Mycenaean Wall . 8s gJ Apollo Belvedere . 28 28 Minoan Women :A Minoan Dagger -. ..- A A Greek Pipe Organ Greek Steam Boiler .

and Minerva The Basilica Julia . 176 178 179 183 A . . .. Emperor . Old Basilica of St.Illustrations xi ?AGE A A Catapult gi Fisherman Cicero Julius Cassar g^ qg 97 104 .. ... . Juno. . ViUa. . 161 i .... 184 192 193 A Byzantine House of at Cairo • • • Omar A Mohammedan School The Mosque Crusaders Marching 194 19S . . . 138 143 146 149 150 154 158 160 . .. . .. of the A German VUlage German Women German Soldier The Good Shepherd ... . A A A Prankish Chief Saracen 166 167 Army on the March Prankish Villa Ship 168 171 173 Priest Norman (Northman) A Donjon Charlemagne as a Feudal Lord Knight The Pope as a Feudal Lord ' . .. A Youth Reading Temple to Jupiter. .'110 114 The Genius Augustus A Street in Pompeii The Claudian Aqueduct of 120 121 122 123 The Peristyle A Roman Bath A Grain Mill A Gold Coin of the Empire A Country House. ... Peter St. 128 Late Empire . 108 112 Octavianus . . . Jerome Chastising the Lion A Benedictine Abbot . .

229 230 236 238 239 240 242 Venetian Coin A Florentine Woman A Florentine Magistrate The Cathedral of Florence The Old Palace.225 226 228 Venice in the Fifteenth Century Doge (Duke) of Venice . . .. . Oxford City Hall at Ypres.. 209 210 213 Christ Church College..xii Illustrations PAGE Church of the Holy Sepulchre 196 198 202 203 Mediaeval Coiners Mediaeval Cooks A Castle A Noble Strolling Musicians . . . 204 205' A Manor House A Dominican Friar Cloisters 206 . . ... Belgium 214 215 216 217 Cologne Cathedral Milan Cathedral A Mediaeval Armorer A Country Fair Old English Bridge A Genoese Merchant Kublai Khan 220 222 . Florence A Sculptor's Studio Sistine The Madonna 244 245 246 246 247 Raphael Christ David Tower • ^ of Pisa Gutenberg's Printing Press 249 A Squire and a Crossbowman 254 255 256 257 258 Joan Cannons in Action of Arc Captured City The Estates General Pillage of a . . ....

. • -317 318 Parisian Types Potter at Work 3^9 320 321 3^3 French Tavern Governess and Pupil Patient and A Two Physicians 324 329 Queen Elizabeth Silk Winding A Peasant's House Rich Man and Poor Elizabethan Coin 33° 33^ Man Armada 332 333 33 S The Battle with Raleigh's House the at Youghal A A A Nonconformist Minister Rural Scene Coffee-House . . German Peasants on the Estate of a Count German Peasants in Holiday Attire University of Erfurt 289 291 292 A Papal Bull Printing Office 293 A A A A A A A A A Dilapidated Home 294 310 313 Swineherd and his Flock Schoolroom Poor Man and Boy Bourgeois Marriage Contract Street in Paris 31S 316 . San Jose Mission Negro Miners Nuremberg 281 288 .•• 33^ 34° 34S 347 Newswoman 34^ .Illustrations xiii PAGE Manor House and A Labor Flemish Warping Machine Field 261 262 271 Calicut Portuguese Governor of India 272 Court of the Lions Magellan's Ship Spaniards Battling with Aztecs 274 277 278 280 . .. . .. ...

. 419 436 .xiv IlkisPraUons PAGE A Lady of the Court A Woman of the Middle A Stage John Milton 35° Class 35° 3SI 3S2 SS3 The Returning Christian A Schoohoom HyderAliKhan Poultry Seller 3S4 360 361 362 363 Chimney Sweeps A Colonial Mansion The Founding of a Colony A Nosegay Macaroni The Bird of Paradise A Minute Man . . 1 . . . . The Constitution The Cotton Gin Cowboy and Steer Japanese Artists 439 442 443 447 470 . . . 365 368 . . . .369 374 379 387 399 400 402 Versailles Russian Peasants Queen Marie Antoinette The Taking of the Bastille A Guillotine By the Fireside Arkwright's Spinning Jenny Cartwright's 409 410 411 Power Loom A Digester Newcomen's Engine A Watt Engine An Old Method of Transportation Telford's Bridge 412 413 414 416 417 417 The Rocket Bridgewater Canal 418 419 The Clermont The Aquitania A Peon Ploughing A Continental .

.gi A Mine Worker A Motor Lifeboat The First Airplane A .yg .. 492 405 404 -ge Steam Plough The Mixing Room in Ward's Bakery An Observation Car 496 4^^ ..Illustrations \ xv PAGE An Old Examination Hall Panama Canal Concourse in the Pennsylvania Station 472 .. . . .....' . .

.

— The : complexity of world astonishes us when once we begin to enumerate the various elements . for example. order to The Use of History. We read and study know how the world came to be what it — history in is to-day. the modem . If by some great misfortune we were to be deprived of all knowledge of the past. Introduction 1.of our civilization for example. took place yesterday and the days before that. Yet such knowledge is a part of . is history for the people now living. Our abihty to supply ourselves with the necessities of life is dependent upon our experience. and our experience is history. For what we do to-day and are going to do to-morrow is based on what our ancestors have done before us. If. 2. The Complexity of Modern Life. We cannot live without a knowledge of the past. history. our knowledge of the steam-engine and its uses were taken away from us.A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WORLD BOOK I ANCIENT HISTORY CHAPTER I BEGINNINGS I. we should feel almost helpless. we should be like What a ship at sea without a rudder or a compass.

brief. the protection of the community by the police and courts. The Past Explains the Present. the army of occupied in caring for the health and genLife in the country. lived through — Some of us actually know by having member tions did not always exist. society. the processes of manufacture. as contrasted with that of the city. communication across the ocean was possible in no other way than by ship. the differences in social standing and in wealth. Even there we must 'take into account various forms government officials eral welfare of the people. some of which is intricate in design. we find ourselves drawn farther and farther into the past. for the great essentials of civil- . in order to be intelligent. can be made sufficiently clear by a study of the past two or three centuries: For such topics as the simpler sciences. answer nowhere but in the study of history. and state. the more common society. government. years that present condiThere are persons living who re- many the time when. the breeding of stock. and the growing of carried on fruit. as well as in poUtical rights. — in useful arts.the paving of roads. has merely the appearance of being more simple. are all subjects for which the citizen of to-day. StiU more wonderful are the means of transportation and communication between peoples located in aU quarters of the globe. such as family. 3. the raising of grain. The growth of large cities. the presence of schools. must seek an explanation in the his- How any of these things — • — tory of the past. the methods of building. of landholding. religion. property. As we begin thus to go back gradually for the explanation of first one thing and then another. before the laying of the Atlantic cable. came to be what they are is a query which finds an. The whole agricultural industry is now by machinery. the repair and clea. Many features of modern life. the fine arts. the spread of news by frequent editions of newspapers from rotary printing presses. especially the improvements due to scientific invention and the political and commercial relations of countries to one another.ning of them. the existence of handsome churches. and even those things which we take for granted because they seem so necessary.

closely resembles that of Another is the excavation of places which have been occupied by villages or cities through thousands of years. The Beginnings of Civilized Life word civilimankind beyond the condition of savages. This variety is owing to the fact that some nations improve faster than others. the soimdest morals. used above. If we wish to know what progress mankind has achieved from the beginning. and government. the survivors built their new dwellings on the early mankind. the most advanced science and art. So little attention was paid to street-cleaning in most ancient settlements that in the course of a few generations. 4. has reference to the progress of Why Nations Differ in Civilization. as scholars believe. II. How through the labor of thousands of years they have created the Ufe of to-day will be told in this book.The Study ized of Civilization 3 life. Belgium. to central AustraUa or central Africa. In looking zation. . France. Those nations are most civilized which have the best homes. Naturally we think of America. and for examples of savages we look 5. we must first try to discover the earUest condition of the How We Learn of the Remote Past. the purest religion. and that the progressive nations do not all develop in the same direction. and some other European countries as the most advanced in the modern world. we must pass immeasurably farther back. One help in our search is the study of the barbarous and savage peoples of the present and near past. and how the various peoples of history have aided this development. or at most few centuries. — The over the present world we find the people of diSerent countries varying greatly in their manner of living. Improvements along these lines are made by nations as well as by persons in no other way than through well-directed effort. Their manner of life. search for beginnings leads us finally to the remote age — Our when men were savage. and the brightest minds. . England. a village or city literally buried itself in and whenever a fire happened to destroy all or nearly refuse all the houses. — human race. society. laws.

we may come to a fairly definite 6. better than animals. skirt The one in full view of the Indians along the made of an animal's hide. From an examination homes. and to domesticate animals. a few Grad- .^ >^ /fg who followed them. Greece. clothing. -r- Doubtless there was a time when men Uved no life. and a comparison with the non-progressive races of the present. has evidently come in from . lowest settlements were occupied by people whose life was scarcely man. methods still in use among time men learned to make barbarous tribes. Not knowing how to make a fire. In the history of the world there has been no greater family discovery than dle how to kin- Peimitive Fiee-kihdling and to use a fire. human labor. j^ Ji f^ / n Ay ^\l>^ M. knowledge of the infancy of mankind. They had no no society or government. they lived on wild fruit. and raw meat. to build huts. rude stone weapons and vegetables tools. The more advanced than that Reconstructed from sdentific From Smithsonian The women wears a are at work. and other works of these earliest-known ancients.a hunt. Atlantic coast in the coloof the nial period. and other The deeper explorers dig. The report. nuts. The tfees and caves were their only shelter. to raise and a little grain. or tools. In recent years many scholars have busied themselves with excavating the those sites of ancient cities in countries. Egypt.Beginnings debris. In By friction . Earliest Condition of Mankind. wearing a beast's hide about the waist. the more crude they find the products of Cave Dwellers Old stone data. In this way some of the works of their the people of each successive age left hands buried beneath the dwellings of \a \a f ''*v ^ ^. age. tombs. no homes. Babylonia.

^"'""'^'^ University. 11 is called the stone age. The more favorable is the environment. This period before any of the metals . and joining in one stream before we see the Nile flowing .First Steps in Civilization 5 ually. whose crude stone tools. which they surrounded with walls as a protection from wild beasts and 7. and they gathered in villages. whereas others have made varying degrees of progress. Okott Collection. primitive hut ^. Beginnings of Government and Society. in the region w}iich hes about of the three great rivers. . we shall find a great part of the answer in the surroundings of each people.. too. . f<"L">^ ^shes f° of the dead. No other place in the world has been so well situated in this respect as the valleys phra'tes. and the Tigris and Euphrates flowing in a south-easterly direction. the Tigris. Meantime the relato be regulated tions between one person and another came by customs which gradually grew up. Such customs are the habits of a community formed uiiconsciously person. the Nile. we mquire why the inhabitants of certain p^rts of the earth — age of Etruria and Latium. centuries must have passed in this development from the creation of man to the village life. . and sometimes introduced new Countless rules. they developed the family and home hfe. . . and the Euthe eastern end of the Mediterranean. which were called laws. Early iron When Two Pioneers of Civilization. human enemies.^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ door. in that They made him their chief or king. the greater the opportunity for progress. like the habits of a The chief or king saw that they were obeyed. On the reference map of the Orient northward into the Mediterranean. "f ". handmade pottery. here represented had come mto use 8. — of leadership (§11). in a single valley. and way government was estabUshed. still remain in a crude condition of life. . In the earhest times of which we have knowledge human beings tended to cling together in groups and hke cattle or sheep they instinctively followed that one among them who displayed the qualities . and rough walls have been unearthed by explorers in various parts of the world.

is the . are remarkably productive. The inhabitants of the . Tigris is Babylonia. they continually acquired a higher standard of living. The climate is as pleasant as any in the world. The sea is sprinkled with islands and both coasts are well provided with harbors. This region of coasts and islands is far less fertile than Egypt but the little plains at the mouths of rivers. To these valleys we niust add a third region whose population deserves equal credit as a pioneer of civilization. As the population increased through the natural growth of families and the immigration of strangers. the harbors and islands tempted the people to trade by sea. so that it is wonderfully productive. In their warm climate was required to obtain clothing and to build suitThe ease with which they could raise grain and vegetables tempted them to farming. moist earth. while in the case of Egypt the surrounding deserts and mountains helped protect the inhabitants from enemies. From earhest times. On the European side of the Mediterranean. for every year the rivers overflow the plain on both sides.^gean region during a long period of their A — . into the Persian Gulf. and far more stimulating than that of Egypt. The valley of the Nile is Egypt that of the lower Euphrates . Beginnings emptying. it became necessary to produce more food and clothing and to build more houses and of larger size. These valleys are alike in important respects. The rivers formed a ready means of trade between one town and another. Third Pioneer. little efiort hard for mere existence. it leaves the land fertilized with a rich coat of fresh. northwest of Egypt. ' — words. These conditions are favorable to improvement. too. The people in these countries never had to struggle as do those of cold or barren regions. When the flood returns to its channel. 6 . who came from all quarters to enjoy the good country. The soil is always well-watered.^Egean sea. The climate is mild.. formed of mud brought down by the water. which separates the peninsula of Greece from Asia Minor. At the same time the people in social intercourse and trade developed a taste for better and more beautiful things in other able houses. and 9.

.

^° Lonirttiiaa t .

60° .

.

C. They built towns and cities. it signifies a condition somewhat more advanced than that of savages. In the fourth millennium (40003000) B.tvtnzanon 7 early history (about 3000-1200 Mi'nos. . which they divided into twelve months. and a moral religion (§ 22). a mythical king of that age. Life in each of the three was of native growth. They irrigated their fields by means of canals. society. Which "Was the Earliest of the Three Pioneers? Although scholars still differ as to whether Egypt or Babylonia preceded in civihzation. has Their astronomers discovered that the year consists of three hundred and sixty-five days. They now had families.) emerge from barbarism. they were employing copper in the useful arts.C. counted along with the we call Mi-no'ans..C. after The Minoans must be Egyptians and the Babylonians as one B." In general the term . When a people have acquired a knowledge of metals and have adopted a system of writing.. the weight of evidence incUnes in favor of the Nile vaUey. They had — invented writing. As early at least as 3500 b. government. of the three earliest peoples to called barbarians. and not long afterward names of kings and some knowledge come down to us. There is no certain evidence of valleys." however.(Egean region a few centuries in the rear. c. Even from the stone age there was some interchange of wares between the ^Egean but the native elements of Minoan life far area and Egypt outweigh all foreign influence. ing the From that time written material. contain- of the people. 10. we have used the means a want of civiUzation as distinguished from " savagery. the Egyptians had made noteworthy progress in various directions. commerce between the two great . they can no longer be Several times in the paragraphs above word " barbarism. The Minoans adopted the use of copper about 3000 B. Scholars who thus consider Egypt to have been the earUest in the field of civiUzation place Babylonia and the . 1 nree rtoneers oj L. regions they invented a system of writing.

In'what ways do we learn of the remote. The Races. Review I. Haddon. Childhood of the World. History of Anthropology. IV. viii-xvi III. ii Keene. 8. Keene. Duckworth. of ancient history continually increase? 4. The Destiny pt. Describe the earliest connot. i. History of Anthropology. Where is the ^Egean sea? What advantages did the people of the iEgean area derive from their surroundings? Define civilization. Clodd. 7. Story of Primitive Man. iii Fiske. study them from written records? What are customs and laws? What is the origin dition of mankind. vi. Why have not all peoples progressed equally and in the same direction (§ 4) ? 3. past? Why do we 6. v. iv. ch. viii. Ethnology. Clodd. Prehistoric Man (chiefly Keene. chs. Ethnology. viii . though intended for children. ch. The Mental Growth of Man. What diflEerences dp we discover in present among the peoples of the earth? To what are these differences due? S. entire work. will be found exceedingly interesting and These two* books may easily be read instructive also to older people. of Man. ch. II. Tylor. iii. chs. 3. In what ways does our knowledge I. and country which make our civilization for an explanation of these things? Setting out from the present. Antiquity of Man. i. What all is lost knowledge the value of history to us? What of the past? life What is should we do 2. — . and especially Childhood of the World. iv. Haddon.. How do the discoveries . Additional Studies Which is the more useful. viii. iii. history? if we Enumerate the features of complex.Beginnings Topics for Reading Clodd. chs. — • ch. Story of Primitive Man. The Stone Ages. . which classifies men according to existing remains of their skeletons. especially ch. especially ch. entire. iv . ch. what course do we take to reach the in city Where shall we go life beginnings of history? 4. iv. Anthropology. Story -of Primitive Man. The Mind of Primitive Man. II (Man the Thinker) Boaz. ch. Ethnology. Qodd. Childhood of the World. . . Keene. chs. — — . Define the stone age. Tylor. Clodd. ix. I. and why? What conditions aid the growth of civilization? 9. a narrative of -wars or a history of the progress of mankind? 2. ch. ch. Ethnology. iv. The World's Peoples. Childhood of the World.' prehistoric See further Keith. What parts of the earth of government? were the first to become civilized. Ancient Types of Man. on the primitive stone age and its antecedents) vi .

Studies 9 and inventions mentioned in § 6 compare in value with the progress of the past hundred years? Give reasons for your opinion. Why were these three peoples in advance of all others? 8. and Minoans respectively. but ascertain the facts and present them in your own language. Babylonians. making use of at least two books. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics given above. 6. in or out of school. Do not copy sentences or even phrases from the books. 5. Attend carefully to spelling. . Who becomes the leader or chief of a •primitive community ? In any association of people of your neighborhood. punctuation. and the simple rules of rhetoric. what sort of person generally takes the lead? Compare these two kinds of leadership in origin and character. Describe from the map the location of the Egyptians. 7.

and military skill naturally takes the lead of his fellows. To be a leader a man must be self-confident. Among a rehgious people like the Egyptians (§§ 22. He bequeaths his property and influence if who. hve so near one another as to form a community. the man who has bravery. where continual disputes about the boundaries of fields had to be settled by mountains and . Among them there is usually one who excels. and fight to win glory and booty for Hence he acquires great wealth. Where wars of defense or aggression enterprising. are in add power. they are men of ability. 11. Egypt Whenever a number of Leadership and Nobility. bold. 24) knowledge of the ceremonies used for securing the help of the gods is the The people labor for their greatest aid to gaining power. riches. leader in time of peace him in war. and. this 12. are common. Becomes Absolute. it always happens that the few wiser and more energetic persons make the improvements. however rude and barbarous. but in the great plains of Egypt and Babylonia. — people. as has been explained above (§ 7). tional aid to to his sons. way noble families arise above the general level. and clever.CHAPTER II THE ORIENT I. where all had to cooperate in digging canals for drainage and irrigation. which they teach to the rest. which is an addipower. — On and where a man can make a living for himself and his family without the help of neighbors. he learns to love freedom and can easily maintain it. physical strength. a position to In hills Oriental Leadership in forests. and reputation to their inheritance. and assumes the leadership.

remained a peace-loving people. religion..C. his Empire. We can see the daily himself with a large of officials. community. the country between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates river (§ 36). At first each small district. came to be united by conquest in one state under a king. 14. became absolute. The subject coxmtry was their empire. Thus it happened that the ruler of every little community along the Nile got absolute power over his subjects. placed garrisons in some of the cities. As the nobles in the various districts had taken the priesthoods. Social Classes it is clear that the government of Egypt was conducted chiefly in the interest of the king and his friends. Pharaoh appointed a governor over it. who held all the valuable oflSces and priesthoods (§ 24). and was worshipped by his subjects with much ceremony and flattery. extending through a length of seven hundred miles. too. and compelled the native king of each city to pay an annual tribute. From what has been said the Poor. others to supervise the erection and care of the pubhc works. or to collect and manage the revenue. His power. occupied by a 13. warlike Pharaohs conquered Syria. but before 3000 B.C. Each district had its local government and oflScials For thousands of years the Eg5rptians subject to Pharaoh. with its king and his oflScials. taxes. . whose title was Pha'raoh. and chief priesthood. : number — . Pharaoh. that they might enjoy the influence and wealth belonging to these oflSces. The highest noble had to prostrate himself on his face in the presence of this awe-inspir- — ing man-god. His Officials . or to make the biennial census and assessment of property throughout the kingdom. the leader of a community was allowed great authority for dispensing justice and for compelling every man to do his share of the cooperative work. 15. its army. the lower valley of the Nile. Pharaoh became the chief priest of all the nation. was a state in itself. content with defending their own country from enemies but from about 1600 B.Government 1 1 some competent power. In fact he was himself regarded as a god on earth. — Pharaoh surrounded some to administer justice. a fine of able.

sun- he toiled excepting an hour at noon. The officers of the king. If a man was a farmer. made the family clothing. wove. too. and a' few pots and pans. Those who grew to manhood and womanhood were usually well and strong. were liable to be beaten by their superiors. butter. A . cheap image stood against the wall. As the climate was mild and as a generation often their - passed without rain. father might be at his set All day long till. She had many children. and the hnen she had woven. Its furniture was a few stools. All below Pharaoh. While he was away at his work. From the produce he had to pay the king a fixed number of measures for every acre. a bin of hard clay for the provisions. the poor man had but one wife. however great their rank and wealth. two fiat stones for grinding grain. went to market to sell her eggs. Although the law allowed polygamy. A family of the lowest class of freemen hved in a mud house thinly roofed with palm leaves. such a building lasted long and afforded It contained nO more sufficient shelter for the inhabitants.12 lives The Orient not only of these great people but of all classes pictxired on monuments. She carried water. the overseer drove him to his task with a stick. she was busy with her' household duties. watched over him closely to see that he worked faithfully and concealed nothing that should go to the government or to religion. than one or two rooms. Poor people had httle clothing. when he ate the bread and onions he had brought with him for luncheon and took a short nap in the shade. he rented a piece of ground from Pharaoh. A small. In case he was working for the government. An opening in the roof above the hearth let out the smoke. and few magistrates even could boast of having escaped corporal punishment. Most of them were poor. ready to receive the family worship. A Life of Toil. — The family arose at daybreak that the work at sunrise. a chest for clothing. who owned all the land in Egypt. some of whom were sure to die young through lack of medicine and care. mats to sleep on. and lagged through weariness or iUness. The gods. required their share. spim. i6.

Home and Toil 13 man wore a short pair of cotton trousers his wife a simple. Tradesmen. was simple. The Egyptian Market Scenes A woman with I. 17. A man bartering the contents of a jar for a necklace. They were larger and There were many trades. a woman. something in a box to trade for fish. and coppersmiths near coppersmiths. — . wife managed the household. As the food. poor were crowded The houses of the tradesmen were in another quarter. the other with a fan and a fire ventilator. has come to buy. . and so of the goldsmiths. controlled the children. A woman bringing two jars of perfumes to barter for wares. crooked lanes. . bakers. IV. and was the equal of her husband. box in hand. low-necked frock which reached the ankles. weavers. A man with wheat and onions in a basket two purchasers one with necklaces in hand. In the market-place provisions were kept for sale in large baskets resting on the ground. and all the others. She went freely about the town and talked with whomsoever she pleased. HI. shoemakers. too. and people brought various . retailed their own produce. penters Uved near carpenters. n. Carbetter made and furnished. The man on his knees seems to be selUng bracelets and necklaces. A man selling fish-hooks. These workmen generally confectioners. — The huts of the closely together along narrow. . it cost little to bring up a large family and children were actually profitable as they began work at an early age.

for they Near the provision market was the bazaar. These metal pieces served poorly as money. silver. glass ware and beautiful pottery. varied in weight and purity. There were embroideries. Often. Though no law compelled it. fine linens. The Character of the Working Classes. jewellery. in which were displayed for sale all kinds of manufactured wares both native and imported from Nubia. to Some brought barter for grain. coral and amber. the repair of roads. Men of the poor and middle classes were generally as sober as they were industrious but on holidays many sought the " beer-house. vegerings of copper. Syria. but they came as additions to lesser labors which the government required every year of all workmen. The Egyptians had a lively imagination. scented woods and gums. . These period19. good-naturedly submitting to . and meat. They had bound- reverence for the gods and especially for the god Pharaoh. they were so oppressed by the taxcollectors and their taskmasters that they quit work in a body. floggings less and obedient to their superiors." and drank to intoxication.14 articles usually of their The Orient tables. too. the transportation of Pharaoh's share of the crops from the farms embankments along the . they felt it a grievous' affliction. and strong social inclinations. and the islands of the ^gean Sea. Often the workmen squandered their month's wages in a fortnight and were driven by starvation to strike. the buildNile. ical tasks ing of included the digging of canals for irrigation. Their wise men severely condemned drinking.. of the father. own make. Babylon. fish. — . These extraordinary tasks alone would not have been unendurable. i8. They were a patient people. When left to themthey were moderately happy but when Pharaoh chose the strongest and best men to toil for him without pay in building a pyramid or a temple. A fresh supply of provisions and the faintest promise of redress of their wrongs quieted them and sent them back to their work. — selves. Task Work and Military Service. a ready wit. Arabia. the son usually learned the trade or gold. Under these circumstances no other government than absolute monarchy was ever dreamed of.

ain. These labors exhausted the strength of the population and left httle energy either for recreation or for thought. shields. spears. When preparations were the peasants were forced into the made for such an expedition. the Army 15 to the Nile and thence down the river to his capital. Greece. army by flogging. To keep them in the country Pharaoh rented out to them farms on reasonable terms. Such troops were mercenaries. A native writer compares the typical soldier to a trembhng bird. As the natives were so poor material for the army. Still harder was miUtary service. amid the tears and waiUng of their kinsfolk. but early in the second millennium (2000-1000) B. Italy. Probably no other nation in history has been more unwarlike. Thereafter a part of Pharaoh's military force consisted of horses and chariots. they were brought in from Syria. His native troops he had to equip with bows and arrows. Libya.Forced Labor. the king hired many soldiers from Egyptian Bsickmakers Working under an overseer. described in the text. For htmdreds of years there were no horses in Egypt. and other foreign lands. and even to Brit- . From the Orient the use of the war chariot extended westward to Greece. Notice the men's dress. Usually they brought their armor and weapons with them. The people shrank from the vast loss of life attending invasions of Nubia or Syria. and other weapons and armor from his own arsenals.C. who sits stick in liand.

" apprentice under an official. I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen. we are told. and he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had and they cried before him. where he learned the professional duties of the scribe. Thou . Bow the knee and Genesis xli. his parents might be sufficiently self-sacrificing to send him to school and pay his tuition.into my ear. — People Usually continued in the condition v which they were born. he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt. A man thus addresses his former teacher "I was with thee since a child. by Joseph the Hebrew. — : Pharaoh's officers could be found not only in the king's court but in every nook and corner of the country. and -with genius and industry he might rise to a place next to that of Pharaoh. We cannot understand the Egyptian without making ourselves acquainted with his religion. See. and children remainfed in that But it was possible through education to of their parents. he was placed as an . 21. And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand. If a boy showed remarkable talent and rise in the world.didst beat my back and thy instruction went After learning to write well. he studied a little arithmetic and much writing. He was then sure of employment by a noble or priest or by the government.6 1 The Orient 20. higher and still in wealth and comfort the merchants and traders higher the officials and priests. Religion. whereas the priests will be further considered below in our study of the religion. 41-43. 22. was held for a time . ambition. The latter office. each one of which lived in a of hfe in : — . Generally the same men filled both offices and priesthoods. above were the professional Soldiers. Many were the grades of officials from the humblest scribe to the Prime Minister of Pharaoh. He believed in a countless number of good and evil spirits. and put a gold chain about his neck. Education. — Below the common free laborers were the slaves." . and put it upon Joseph's hand. which controlled his thoughts and actions. Their part in the government has already been mentioned (§ 14). " And Pharaoh said unto Joseph. Entering as a mere child. Grades of Society.

crocodiles. stolen. fishes. whose back produced their grain. put them together with such skill and magic as to bring him to life again. or river.^ From this story and in many other ways we learn that the Egyptians believed in a future life and — — in the ultimate triumph of justice. wife of the deceased. In some districts the people thought of the sky as an immense cow. ruled kindly over the human race. cats. once in the form of a great and good king. the moon. The favor of the gods was expensive. I 'sis. The Temple. they attained the maximum of size and splendor. six great commandments as valid to-day as they were in thousand years ago.C. . At It encouraged justice. and other virtues. and cattle. spring. His deities had the forms not only of men and women.' Society. The chapel for the image fiye 23. as the soul lives in the body. a star. a tree. the judgment seat of Osiris each soul before admission to eternal happiness was required to declare that he had not murHere are Egypt dered. the temples were built larger and larger. however. admitting none but the good to eternal happiness. But he was killed and cut in pieces by his brother Set. he henceforth judged all souls that came thither from earth. an evil god. or ill-treated his parents. gathering up the parts of the body. the smi. other features of their reUgion excite our admiration. Although their worship of animals seems to us repulsive and degrading. but also of birds. honesty. tUl in the second millennium (2000-1000) B. given false testimony. As the wealth of the king and the influence of the priests grew. and cattle. in others as a sea over which the sun-god daily rowed his bark from East to West. — * This is one version of a myth that appears in many forms. but passing to the spirit world. Religion 17 mountain or rock. blasphemed the gods. coveted the property of others. In their beUef the god 0-si'ris. vegetables. purity. dogs. The Valley of the Nile to them the whole world was thought to be a huge giant outstretched. Only the greater and more powerful of these Spirits he looked upon as gods. Education. or some other object. He did not resume his place among men. Each deity lived in his temple even more sumptuously than the ruler in his palace.

they preferred columns and piers for support. jewels. public worship. ornaments of gold and silver. The god demanded not only a goodly dwelling but also food. too. The desire to give the gods the best that human knowledge and training could produce . vessels. in that period the capital was the work of a succession of kings. of Am'mon at Thebes. The manufacture of all these things required a large number of industries and a great variety of skill. and tools for his worship.i8 of the The Orient god was flanked by smaller chambers for his wife and son. Travelers still wonder at the grand ruins. nades. quainted with the arch. and straight beams for the roof. Within both hall and court were gigantic colonfor the storage of furniture. The building contained rooms. Described in the text. fine clothing. The artists had to decorate the walls and columns with paintings and inscriptions. When finished it was the most stupendous temple the world has known. and in front of. furniture. and sacred tools and In front of these apartments was an immense hall for vessels. Though ac- Temple of Ammon at Thebes Restoiation. were surpassed by the Greeks. and to chisel images of the gods and the king. They were in fact the best architects of the world till they. Through these means they were able to combine strength with simpUcity. The architects who planned such works were masters of their art. to which they added considerable beauty and finish.' that a great court partly open to the sky. The temple of Egypt. of both them deities. treasures.

37. a priest. Belief in a Future Life. The priests were themThey dressed selves of many ranks. and were free from taxes and military There is no wonder. 20 is pictured the mummy of one of their greatest Pharaohs. The poor had to satisfy themselves with simple graves but every noble and every king built as strong and great a intricate so that they alone . enjoy good things not a few. then. who had under him as assistants a large number of ofiicials of various grades. as has 25. controlled the favor of their deity. including a host of slaves who tilled The estate was managed by his fields and tended his cattle. for its preservation was necessary to the life of the soul. but have sacred bread baked for them. but the priests made it continually more — were acquainted with it they alone and through it gained power To each great god was assigned a large tract for themselves. now preserved in the museum of Cairo. Egypt. was worshipped with music. and other ceremonies. the god's chief priest.. On p. dancing. Although they imagined a world of departed spirits beneath the earth. Religion 19 was throughout ancient history the strongest force at work for the advancement of civilization. bathed twice each day and twice in the night." They lived in the sacred buildings. to keep themselves A Greek historian ^ tells us that " they as clean as possible. or in the sky. the highest being Pharaoh. and entire bodies. in fine linen. and shaved their heads. they took great care to preserve the dead body. The embalmed body is called a mummy. Belief in a future life. At first the service was so simple that anyorie could perform it. They embalmed it that it might never decay. The god 24. formed a prominent part of the religion of the Egyptians. that everyone longed to be service. for they do not consume or spend any of their own substance. of land and other wealth. drew their support from the temple revenues. and they each have a great quantity of beef and geese coming in to them every day and also wine of grapes is given them. . been intimated (§ 22). How the Priests Gained Power and Wealth. faces. sacrifice. — ' Herodotus ii. or in the West.

The greatest and was originally about four hundred and eighty feet high. the growth of the astronomical and the mathematical influence helped cutting. all and conveying the stones. Of the many kinds tombs the largest and most enduring are by certain early kings — the pyramids. poUshing. they were called — . The ruling class were content to live in relatively modest dwellings in order that the immortal gods and also their own everlasting mummies. Religion encouraged. Tombs and temples were therefore their greatest buildings.20 The Orient tomb as he could afford. A Religion was the motive which led to the work. of The Pyramids. Gradually they simplified the old system in such a way as to form a " running hand " for business and everyday affairs. however. knowledge needed in planning create the skill it. Hidden far within and difficult of access is the chamber in which was placed the covers thirteen acres mummy of the builder. We are astonished not only at the immensity of the work as a whole. but also Mummy oJ Rameses II at the delicate accuracy of its construction. eack with its spirit. too. was represented by a picture. the practical engineering used in In the oldest system of writing each object 27. erected to receive their own bodies. 26. As the earlier characters continued to be used by priests for religious purposes. f amoiis Pharaoh of the thirteenth century Cairo Museum. indestructible homes. and the building. and set aside a considerable part of his wealth to maintain there the worship 'of his soul. but as they continued to mix their old picture signs with their new characters for sounds. B. Not content with this rude beginning. they fell far short of creating a phonetic alphabet.C. Writing. The same iii in organizing labor. the Eg5rptians also adopted signs for single sounds. and at the size and weight of the limestone blocks which compose it. might dwell in grand.

and — > Relatively it little but increases in volume as time goes writing belonging to the fifth millennium B. has been found on. kept the — paper. Though we use a different name papyrus.' The Egj^tians. Their paper they — — made the of pa-py'rus. Most o'f this written material has perished much remains to be discovered but enough has been found to give us a clear knowledge of the life and achievements of these people through a period of more than four thousand years.C. and moral proverbs and precepts. and obelisks. There were great Osiris (§22) they numbers of business letters and documents. Writing and Literature hieroglyphs 21 especially appropriate for sacred inscriptions carving on walls. and wealthy comD moners. 28. or on the walls of tombs. and continues under the Roman empire down into the Christian era. and songs and stories of m D love. intelligent. nobles. according to their means. and poems and hymns. which was acted before the public. . — The and wrote on papyrus the ^1 n shepherds. . There were also simple songs of the Literature. and who were once able to inventive. who were so 29. skilful. columns. religious and other classes of laborers. the threshers. merely giving grew abundantly along material. took pleasvure in having their achievements and virtues 'I Si recorded on temple columns. tales of adventure for entertainment. . In time they began to write stories for teaching some useful or moral lesson. Kings. a reed which Nile. The myth of ^1 worked into a drama. The Mind is Dwarfed. we have it an English form Egyptians inscribed on monuments chief events of each year. works on medicine.. religious texts.

or heard the thunder. Meantime the wealth of the people had gone to the gods to be enjoyed by the godking and the priests no land or other property was left to the common people. So it was with the Egyptians. though lively. Excessive Conservatism. all progress had ceased. they are sure soon to stop growing and then fall to decay. About two centuries after Alexander their kings be- came subjects of Rome. weakened both mind and body. Gradually this respect for the wisdom of past generations grew on them till they absolutely refused to learn anything new. but stunted as they are in reason. He beheld nothing about him but a narrow plain bordered by gray stone hills. so that future artists merely imitated . he never thought of creating beauty for its own sake his study of science was through no love of the subject but for its practical results. In the same way they regulated the arts and sciences. from which no one dared depart. remained small. as will now be explained. Although he liked to see beautiful objects. and ideals. 30. It led him but a little by way beyond material as the material things of life — beyond his food. His aim was always the useful. imposed on the intellect. then by Persia (552).22 The Orient conquer and rule over others."The reason is internal decay. ' First by Assyria (670 b. These defects of character made them from the beginning a conservative people. who insisted oh preserving the customs of their ancestors. and sleep. and the prescriptions of physicians strictly conformed to the written word. dwarfed. clothing. This slavery.c). then by the Macedonians under Alexander the Great (332).C. Persons and nations who care only for the useful may prosper for a while in material things. To him the future world was as this. It must first be noticed that the mind of the Egyptian was narrowly limited by his surroundings. the rainfall. were at last conquered and ruled others. There were too — . Before 1500 B. He rarely saw a cloud in the sky. who were now virtually serfs. — existing models. or felt In this endless monotony his imagination. spirituality. drink. . They made the king and the high magistrates the slaves of ceremony. The priests had reduced the minutest details of worship to fixed forms.

not to treat all ages and all countries with equal fulbut to present merely leading types of life. for example. instead of paper for writing. . they built their These works. writing material explains why their letters are all wedge-shaped hence called cu'ne-i-form (from Latin cuneus. were so of this volume. . described in the foregoing section. 31. and Persians the Egyptians. walls. In most ways the Babylonians. by this volume is. Babylonians. much more of i%^^J4^^H^^ . once grand. . . Thus Egyptian life. Descnbed in the text. palaces. The people used brick too. crumbled after a generation or two. National decay and death resulted Egypt became a mummy. . In some — however. respects. . The Babylonians Compared with — In the brief sketch of ancient civilization offered the aim ness. . . and are now heaps of ruins. — II. They many gods. But as bricks are far more durable than papyrus. and temples of brick.• almost no stone in their _ ^ Cuneiform. as did the Egyptians. To the world they were useful if only in illustrating how extensively brick could be employed for building. country. inscribing The kind of their characters with a triangular instrument. a wedge). may be taken as typical of Oriental civilization. Having plenty of clay but Babylonian Weiting .Asiatic Peoples 23 many priests and officials excessive government overburdened and crushed the lives of all but the rulers themselves. . like the Egjfptians as not to require separate treatment within the limits They had about an be- the same classes of society and they lieved in lived under absolute king. and which at the same time are important in the history of mankind. their life was very different from that of the Nile valley. . Assyrians... Only those features of other Oriental peoples will be noticed which are distinct from the Egyptian. .

Another long religious epic gives an account of the creation of the world by one of their gods. Literature and Law. One of these poems includes an account of the great flood and the building of the ship in which one human family alone was saved. Science and the Useful Arts. We use the decimal for most purposes but keep the other wherever it has come down to us in connection with weights and measures. Babylonian life — — / progress was a code of laws. of the country. All who wish to make themselves acquainted with the history of legislation should include a study of these laws. This system of reckoning time the Hebrews borrowed from them and bequeathed to us. In literature they created the 32. For many centuries this code continued in force in Babylonia and As-syr'i-a. who ruled about 2000 B. They contrived a system of weights and measures which the Greeks and Romans adopted and handed down in a modified form to us. They divided the day into hours.24 the Babylonian writings The Orient — in fact many a library — has been we are better acquainted with preserved. The stone on which his laws are engraved has been found by explorers. and linen. their science. For measuring time the Babylonians invented the sun-dial and the water-clock. and the metals.C. of the greatest contributions of One — vanced beyond the Egjrptians in science. The decimal and sexagesimal (10 X 6) systems of numbers are also their invention. Their merchandise they sent abroad oyer the whole civilized world. till many nations clay. and the hour into sixty minutes. These tales are somewhat like the Biblical stories of the same events. The Babylonians ad33. but their most famous wares were tapestries. and their useful arts. In some of the skilled industries they excelled the Egyptians. The lunar month they divided into four weeks of seven days each. epic a stately poem of considerable length which celebrates in narrative form the deeds of real or mythical heroes. Babylonia to the world's This was the work of Ham-mura'bi. They were expert workers in glass. The . learned their ideas. king. with the result that and literature than with the Eg3^tian. muslin.

). All of tribute-paying states under native kings. and it reached even to Europe. his district. administer justice. 35. which we may call provinces. north of Babylonia. Darius. had begun to use coins. and oversee the collection of the annual tribute. The Persian Empire. The organization into provinces was borrowed from Assyria and improved. no advantage to the governed and gave ho promise of lasting long. estabUshed a system of gold and silver coins for his and to give them the advancommerce with one another. ready to revolt at every opportunity.C. soHd roads for the use of his armies and his messengers and for inland trade. who enjoyed far less power and independence than had those of earlier empires. king of the Persians (522485 B. The Greeks who Uved in western Asia Minor and who were now his subjects. 'This empire was — . and included all Egypt. them were formed of These rulers were So loose a system was The first great state to devote itself to war. ing states Babylonia created an empire earlier than that of Egypt (§ 14). Their great improvement was the division of the subject country into districts. up an empire which extended nearly to the Caspian sea on the northeast and included part of Egypt in the opposite direction. conquest. and oppressive. deeply influenced Asia Minor. Under him were the native kings. Empires. Shortly after the fall of Assyria. The Assyrian king and failed to protect these subject countries from foreign invasion tages of justice of peaceful His rule was wholly selfish at its height from about 900 to 600 b.Babylonia and Persia civilization it 25 of Babylon prevailed throughout western Asia. By conquering some of the small neighbor34. Persia created through conquest a far greater empire. The Persian king built broad.c. each ruled by a governor appointed by the AssyThe governor's duty was to command the army of rian king. It extended from the Indus River in India westward to the borders of Greece in Europe. From time to time various other small empires — in southwestern Asia rose and fell. and built government on large The Assyrians scale was Assyria.

and narrow valleys. aided the advancement of civilization. grew out of the old. Further improvements were made by two little nations of Syria. a great religious teacher. the inhabitants at first made slower progress in useful knowledge and in the arts. does not come from Persia. Although people bought and sold for thousands of years before they had coined money. More than a thousand years afterward Christianity. however. After many years of wandering in the desert. is a land of hUls. but from the Romans. 37. hardy. As hfe is more difficult there. they emerged into Syria about 1400 B. Syria There were still other Oriental peoples The Country. Our knowledge of money. who loves goodness and punishes the wicked. of The Hebrews. — The country was divided into several Hebrews. where they were held in slavery by the Pharaohs four hundred years. They conquered and settled the southern part which is now known as Palestine. This country. — . It was a great advantage to trade. or made them an exceedingly Their greatest achievement was the development of a religion of one all-powerful and all wise God Jehovah. 36. To free them from bondage. Moses.C. who learned the art of coining money from the Greeks. Some' of this knowledge came from Egypt but the greater part from Babylonia.26 The Orient empire. Their suffering in Eg5rpt and small kingdoms. — who which lies along the east coast of the Mediterranean between Egypt and Babylonia. One Israelites. the new lays greater their wanderings in the wilderness virile people. it has proved so useful that we can hardly imagine how we could do without it. III. The old religion commanded strict observance of ceremony. as the purchaser no longer needed to weigh the precious metal which he gave in exchange for merchandise or other property. them in the south was that of the Their writers tell us that the children of Israel in their earlier wanderings had visited Egypt. a new form of the same faith. mountains. led them forth from Egypt against the wiU of Pharaoh.

Bible is the national hterature of the Hebrews. and prophecy. The Bible has been read by more persons than any other book. composed before the birth of The Temple to Jehovah At Jerusalem. and an Inmost Enclosure. This temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 a. Hfe. It contains legends. an Inner. Christianity has become the rehgion of the Europeans and of their colonies throughout the world. Though its aim is rehgious and moral instruction.Hebrews 27 emphasis on forgiveness and love. Those then the literary lanment were written afterward vp. Babylonian influence is evident in the plan.d. it is a. Christ. and missionaries are carrying it to all other peoples. — of the New Testa- valuable source for the study of ancient . It was on the summit of a hill and was approached by the ascent indicated in the foreground. are in the national language. Greek guage of the Orient. history. It conTo the last-named the sisted of an Outer. hymns. priests alone were admitted. proverbs. exhortations. The The books of the Old Testament.

. . They were manufacturers and merchants. have handed it down to us. In the Phoenician alphabet the characters represent sounds it was in fact the first phonetic system devised by man. and manufacturing.' • the shores of that sea. business. From them the natives learned much that was useful in navigaPhoewiciah tion.. lived north of them along the eastern ' — * coast of the Mediterragreatest of nean. As to its origin little is known. Egypt and Babylon • to all quit6. adopting it from the Greeks with further changes. . but scholars are now inclined to beUeve that it was derived from the Minoan script by a process of selection. Some of their cities are mentioned as early as 1500 B. and we are sure A Phcenicun Ship op military character shields. audits inhabitants.C. Their most valuable gift to the Greeks was the alphabet. their The cities was Tyre. among which were Carthage in Africa and Cadiz (Ga'des) in Spain. The Phoenicians.28 The Orient 38. that soon after- ward they were the great War and Trade traders of the Mediterrais indicated by the Notice the crude method of representing the two rows of oarsmen. As planted many commercial stations they colonies. 'Anti- The row of round They carried their own wares and those of nean. the sea. From Malet. The Phoe-ni'ci-ans. The Greeks modified it to serve their own purposes and the Romans. neighbors and kinsmen of the Hebrews.

v-vii Goodspeed. and the labors of a poor man and his wife. ch. III. ch. chs. — Maspero. What tradesmen were there in Egypt? Describe the market and the wares. Egyptian Warfare. ch.yce. Social and Private Life in Assyria. 92-g. ch. ch. § 7). How did they dress ? What was the condition of the children? 7. ch. What did the Egyptian the grades of officials the prime minister. Source-hook. Botsford. i Steindorff Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. x. Erman. ii. ch. 10. Erman. — — nian. V. Religion. 34-98. Botsford. 40 f. and furnishings.2. History of Babylonia and Assyria. 75-63 Sayce. Life. Science. Commerce. History of the Hebrew People. Li/e in Ancient Egypt and Assyria. — — — . 6. Thebes). Babylonian Captivity of the Hebrews. and Architecture of the Babylonians. Describe boy study in school? How did he learn his prof ession ? the religion of the Egyptians. Maspero. Describe the officials of Pharaoh. Give an account of the growth of the temple. Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt. VI. . . Botsford. Dawn of Civilization. and how did he govern it? 5. 4. History of the Jewish People during the Babylomortality. Persian. II. chs. Smith. of military service. How did Egypt come to be' united under one king ? How did he acquire an empire. Winckler. vi. . Social Life. xii. Religions . Old Testament History.. What were the character and economic condition of the laboring class? What was their relation to their superiors and to Pharaoh? Give an account 9. xiv. xviii. 310-26. ii. iv (Amen. In their opinion what became of the . Maspero. the Great God of Erman. Studies Topics for Reading 29 Business and Industry in Egypt. Describe 11. Kent. of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia. chs. Sa. 131-64 Maspero. xix. Social Life among the Assyrians and Babylonians. . and Greek Periods. i-iv. i. ch. Life in Ancient Egypt. Review Explain the origin of kingship and nobility (c/. chs. 12. ch. What was become a powerful class? its artistic merit ? 14. 8. Source-Book of Ancient I. Dawn of Civilization. Maspero. xv. VII. Social and Religious Condition of the Hebrews before the Exile. xii Sayce. Source-Book. of the different kinds of task work. History of the Babylonians and Assyrians. 22-5. What was there in the physical features of Egypt that contributed to absolute monarchy ? 3. Dawn of Civilization. Reisner. Where did they think the gods were? What were the moral aspects of their religion? Tell the story of Osiris. Kent. 8-10. Egyptian Conception of Im- Breasted. How did the priests 15. Life. I. xx. Life. especially lects. Describe its plan 13. Describe the homes of the poor. ii.. — History. IV.

and answer the questions on p. lonians with the Egyptians in building. ii. as described p. Source-Book. Give an account of the Hebrews. 25 f. and the useful arts? 22. I. Describe their system of writing.30 soul after death? ^ The Orient i6. Describe the Assyrian empire. as to the commerce of the Egyptians? Why did the Egyptians 3. 21.2. 5. What Describe their treatment of the body. For what are they especially was a pyramid? How famous? Additional Studies were a great majority of the Egyptians poor? Was the country so unproductive as not to afiEord all a comfortable living ? Why are there many poor people in every civilized country today? Is it a duty of government to pay any attention to the welfare of the poor? From the various articles of sale in the bazaar what may we infer . Read Botsford. Why were the states of Syria smaller than either Egypt or Babylonia? What effect had the Syrian hills and mountains on the character of the people ? Would such a country produce a higher type of civilization than one like Egypt? Give reasons for your opinion. How did the Persian empire differ from the Assyrian? 24. What were the contributions of Babylon to law. science. 23. ch. Compare the Baby19. of their literature? 20. Source-Book. worship animals? Is there any reason why a people with many gods should imagine them all to have human form? 4. 18. Why did the civilization of the Babylonians affect surrounding nations more than that of the Egyptians? 6. What were the various departments. question 8. or fields. iii-v and answer the 8. chs. was it built? 17. What did they contribute to religion? 26. Distinguish between hieroglyphs and the running hand. 7. • Why . the Reading Topics given above. Describe Syria. writing. and literature. Enumerate the causes of th^r decline. Read Botsford. Describe the situation of the Phoenicians. Write an essay on one of questions at the close of these chapters. 25. 9.

Athens. It contained double-axe above is the military attribute of the a great central court. Clearly. — and not far behind Egypt. were quite as early 39. It was stated above (§ 10) that the people who inhabited the islands and coasts of the iEgean sea. they ring. in emerging from the stone age and in developing a higher civilization. and My-ce'nae in the peninsula of Greece. as Babylonia. Among the most famous centres of culture in the Minoan period were Cnos'sus in Crete. The two women and the are worshipers. Troy in northwestern Asia Minor near the coast. Bezel of a gold National Muas yet can read. long corridors. the Great Mother. girl The stood at least four stories high. however. In another part of the palace lay the industrial quarter in which hundreds of hands were kept busy with manufacturing — 31 . the brilliant life of these cities has been revealed to us. are accounts of taxes and rents due the king from his subjects and other such matters of business. was a palace which covered five acres and under the fig tree is probably a goddess. At Cnossus. the Youthful tablets engraved with a script which no one Zeus. Minoan Women The woman seated Through excavations. beginning about 1870. seum. the Earliest Times to 479 B. and a goddess. for example. General Political Development The Minoan Age (3000-1200). In one room were man in the background hundreds of clay to our left is doubtless stored the archives her son.C. The young multitude of rooms.CHAPTER III EARLY GREECE From I. and whom we call Minoans.

short trousers The skill of and are equipped with spears and the large oval the artist is most admirable. There were wars for supremacy among them. Mycense. for in intelligence and in artistic taste the Minoans were far superior to Eg3^tians and Babylonians. the creation of the innumerable objects of use and of luxury demanded by a highly civUized — people. which has never since been excelled. the fabrication and painting of vases of beautiful form and brilliant colors in brief. The king of Mycen. Found at Mycense. from in the large earthen-ware jars to and wine and their storage the cutting and engraving of gems. the dehcate fashioning of ornamental gold-work. Trades were specialized as among the Orientals . who like Pharaoh used all his absolute power for Bezel or a Goid Ring gathering wealth and luxury for himself and Showing a combat of warriors. Because bronze was the common metal in the useful arts. and iron was almost unknown. The kings of these cities were politically ambitious. Each city was ruled by a king. and doubtless in death he was to . the adornment of the walls with frescoes. Found Minoan at their energy throughout his reign to the construction of his enormous "bee-hive" tomb in the hillside below his palace. A MiNOAN Dagger The bronze blade is inlaid with gold figures representing a lion hunt. shield his friends. The huntsshield of men wear that age.32 everything pressing of Early Greece necessary olive oil for the royal household. Gold was more plentiful than silver. where be placed with the treasures accumulated by oppression. life was more varied and brilliant. the nobles. the period is called the Bronze Age.ae his subjects to devote — one of the two of Notice the must have compelled types the shield.

The Hellenes. leaving .^gean area might have been thought of as a part of the Orient. however. They. . Though less civilized than the Minoans.The Minoans fiercer struggles to 33 maintain their freedom against the less civilto press upon them from the North. stage of culture. or in looking at a map of it. a fresh virile race. Warriors Late Minoan or early epic (Homeric). The language of the invaders prevailed. gradually died. in these cities was so like that along the Nile however. and their country Hellas. and many of the customs and institutions of the brilliant Minoan age had passed away. who finally sue. the art. condition the state was The few who The artisan lost his skill. therefore. 40. Internal For centuries life Decay and the Coming of the Northerners. In travelling through Greece. came to an end. ruled became fewer and less capable. had to begin their historical career from a far lower of the called themselves Hel-len'es. this the masses of — and the Euphrates that the . they were .- ceeded in overrunning the entire penin'''"" and then the coasts and islands f^^ '^f loimd at Mycenffi. The civilization of these people.. greaves. Equippient: helmet with nigh crest and plume. and spear. 41. and which still excite the wonder of ized tribes who began travellers. The wealth. ^Tt^^ tures. Hence arose the mighty walls which surrounded Mycenae and other cities of that time.' Oppression robbed their vitality and their spirit. began to enter Greece (about 2000). Under these circumstances tribes from the North. pouring down through the Balkan peninsula.. ^ound shield notched below. Contrast .. and the wealth of exhausted in luxury or poured into the graves. once so brilliant. T two races are known to us as Greeks. and the people who sprang from the union sula. we see that the country is mountainous. — A glance at their coimtry will help us understand their character and mode of life. Ridges so high as to be almost impassable divide the peninsula into narrow valleys. In time. Vase of the Mgean sea. and the artist his genius. Greece and the Greeks. . .

too. vases. and brave — ready these mountains made and to fight home and little of freedom. iron. fit only for grazing. Their slight means taught them self-restraint and moderation. Mycen-ean Wall A part of the wall which surrounded Mycenae. and Babylonia. . stone fitted closely together. 42. The people of each valley. die for among the Greeks hardy.34 Early Greece Life here and there a Uttle plain. Most of the land is stony. silver. Industry. vigorous. — The soil is poor excepting in the little plains at the mouths of streams. and is It is composed of huge polygon^ of therefore described as polygonal. the mountains prevented the growth of large states like Egypt seeing their neighbors. the enjoyment of complete independence. were content to live alone in In other words. and Colonization. To add something to their little property they manufactured weapons. and . Commerce. wine. and gold but no one of these metals was abundant. To make a living the people had to be industrious and intelligent. There were a few mines of copper. From a photograph.

which extended as well over the whole area of the state. cestors. 73). to admit strangers to their association. We cannot understand the Greeks without a clear conception of the difference between their state and ours. and the combined to religious character of these societies produce in . goveriunent for the country and another for the city there was merely a city government. of the present day. Its members believed themselves to be of one kin. a it was also essentially a city. A modern state is a country whose inhabitants. who enjoyed political rights in the country The smallness. shorfes of the They founded ^gean Sea. Cities 35 other wares. they did not seek wealth for its own make 43. small. excepting a few transients. in Sicily riches they long kept their old habits of moderation. Trade with the natives in all these regions extended their civilization and added to their wealth. Living in a beautiful country. too. Attica and Athens (see map before p. on the other citizens under one government. are fellowThe Greek state. were occupied exclusively by city-states. they aimed chiefly to life beautiful. But even after acquiring considerable colonies. There was not. except in the rarest cases. though hundreds of independent states. which they exported in their own ships to foreign lands. PolitiAll the incally Athens was a state which included all Attica. As an illustration we may take . Colonization. had no superiors In the beginning Greece. on islands and along the and southern Italy.Commerce. In intelligence and good taste they have in all history. the exclusiveness. Unlike many sake. as with us. habitants of Attica were Athenians. hand. and inmore distant parts of the Mediterranean world. Geographically Attica was a country in which Athens was situated. as the coasts and the islands. The state was not only a large family and religioils society. ranging from a few square mUes to a few hundred square miles in area. The City-State. and their religion to have been handed down for their sole benefit by their anHence they were unwilhng. was a society which possessed a definite country. rather. In time they became a great industrial and commercial people. comprised The — more progressive parts of Greece.

It was cusmeet in a council for the purpose of advising him on all important public matters and to keep their good will and support he generally found it necessary When the king wished to begin a war to follow their advice. oppressed by the nobles. In the more progressive ' . They approved it by acclamation or rejected it by silence. 44. states. Athens and some other Greek states passed from kingship to aristocracy about 750 B.C. 621 B.36 Early Greece the members a devotion to country and an efficiency of body and mind found nowhere else in history. he summoned the freemen to an assembly to hear his plan. or other undertaking which concerned the whole people. see Botsford. Government beginning the hundreds of little states which occupied Greece were all kingdoms. in keenest rivalry with one another and favorably influenced the by theif surroundings. These regulations make up the constitution a thing which the Orientals had never thought of. Soon afterward (594 B.) the law^ of Draco were revised and many others added by Solon. The council of nobles. ' ernment. p.C. The change brought a great adv^ince in govof the Orient and of early Crete tomary for the leading nobles to . In brief. the city-states. . The common people of Athens. began a — struggle for social and political rights. by appointment from the ruling class. But the king was not absolute like those — and Mycenae. which was now supreme. Such a government by nobles is called an aristocracy. created the Greek civilization — most brilliant in the world's history. When several persons take part in ruling a state. 46 ff. and after a time they devised a way of repealing those which they found unsuitable and of making new and better laws. In this conflict they forced the government to appoint one of the citizens ^ to writd the laws in a code.C. In other words the government developed a legislative function. created new offices and filled them annually. In some of the states the nobles grew so strong that they degraded the office of king to a mere priesthood. History of Greece. as the common people grew This was Draco. : In the from Kingship to Democracy. the duties and rights of each must be carefully defined in order to prevent friction.

taking the former as an example of aristocracy. said it is clear that the states developed and that some progressed farther than others in government as well as in general culture. and than formerly to protect themselves. but in time she conquered the others and held them in subjection. she extended her sway over the entire breadth of southern Peloponnese. they insisted on taking a more active part in the government. wealth. broad peninsula named Pel-o-pon-nese'. Sparta.' ' More precisely the state was Lac-e-dae mon. II. the latter of democracy. The state thus formed is generally known by the name of the conquering city. Their struggle for power they carried on in their assembly. From what has been along different lines.Sparta in inteUigence. In this gathering they gradually limited the till power their of the council and of the magistrates. . the dty Sparta. All eastern and southern Peloponnese became Dorian. Such a government is a democracy. 37 and influence. Within the latter is La-co'ni-a. to Pericles. to bring about they had made — — this change. — As the inhabitants gradually were less able lost their skill and energy. This country lay in the area of the Minoan civilization. and had/ subjected the council and the magistrates to it. 461 b. Beginnings. . From the mingling of these invaders with the earlier inhabitants sprang the Dorians. assembly supreme. Originally Sparta was but one of several Dorian city-states in Laconia. the and still later. In our study of the Greek city-state we shall limit ourselves to Sparta and Athens.c. a new people from the north invaded the country. by annexing a strip country west of Laconia of territory along the east coast. Afterward she subdued Mes-se'ni-a. Spahta Greece terminates on the south in a 45. who formed one of the branches of the Greek race. At Athens it required about a century and a half from Solon. a river basin between two parallel mountain ranges. 594.

Inferior to the perioeci were the people 47. 38 Early Greece The inhabitants of the conquered towns 46. and many were set free by the state on account of valiant conduct. were a part of the conquered population but they had fared worse than the perioeci. and goaded them to rebellion at every favorable opportunity. manufacturing. Their condition. to restrict their freedom more and more as the centuries passed. Their lord had no right to free them or to sell them to foreigners. It was the policy of Sparta. and tables. however. they cultivated the fields of the individual Spartans. and whenever these watchers suspected a helot of disaffection toward the government. was far from happy. The Helots." Although they enjoyed no share in the central government of the state at Sparta. In time of war they served as light troops. the Spartans feared them. Ill these activities the protection they received from Sparta was a great advantage. the more he was suspected of treachery toward the government. however. . Perioeci. Living jh the country. were called per-i-ce'ci. too. each paying his lord a fixed amount of produce and keeping the rest for himself. Many grew wealthy and prosperous and on the whole they remained for ages satisfied with their condition and ready to defend Sparta against every attack made upon her. They. Accordingly a secret police force of young Spartans was formed to go about the' country and spy upon the serfs. In peace the perioeci busied themselves and their slaves with agriculture. Their principal duty toward Sparta was military service in the wars she chose to wage. drinking cups. Among their exports were armor. They were the property of the state. They furnished heavy infantry for the army. beds. and commerce. they had in their own towns self-government in local matters. for the Spartans had reduced them to serfdom. mining iron. couches. termed he'lots. The braver and more intelligent a helot was.. . " dwellers around. As they formed a great majority of the population. in single families or in small villages. Thus they could acquire property of their own. We must distinguish them from the slaves mentioned above. This cruel treatment made the serfs dislike Sparta all the more. they lost no time in assassinating him. — — .

Every year the boys had to submit to a whipping before the altar of the goddess Artemis. they had to maintain their superior position. and he was the hero who could endure the flogging longest. and loyal soldier. From birth upward to the sixtieth year the Spartan was trained and exercised solely with a view to making and keeping him a strong. The latter were inhabit- ants of the city of Sparta. who taught him not to be sensitive as to quality of food. he was given for a time in charge of his mother. wore light clothing even in winter. They ate together in the barracks. but wholly to the state. To make them dexterous in body and mind. The themselves a standing principle ruled that the individual belonged neither to himself por to his family. . nor peevish and fretful. ef&cient. and enrolled in a company of his own age under an older man distinguished for his bravery and high character. which increased in severity year by year. They ruled as conquerors over the and helots they alone conducted the central government. Spartan Education.Social Classes 48. they found necessary to make of army and devote their whole lives to military drill. 39 have been first The Spartans. If healthy. — The subject classes described in order that we may appreciate the influence they had on the character periceci . decided on peace and war. and hunted game. the proper authorities and if they found him weak or deformed. They exercised in the gymnasia. They — . military force. Too proud and exclusive to share political and social equality with the conquered class. while the subjects many times that number. took miUtary drill. Every child was examined by 49. . they ordered him to be exposed to death in the mountains near by. and entered into alliance with other states. Under his supervision the boys began their miUtary training. went barefoot. and made their beds of reeds which they gathered along the river. of the Spartans. At the age of seven the boy was taken from his mother. As they at no time by numbered more than nine counted it or ten thousand men of military age. nor afraid of the dark. especially against the helots. they were practiced in stealing food from the but any one caught tables of the men and from the gardens was punished for clumsiness.

girded with a broad belt. A marble copy a bronze original of the fifth century. to marry. Girls passed through a gymnastic training like that of the boys though less The state encouraged them severe. privileged to take part in the government and life.. The statue is a memorial of her victory. as it considered the athletic education of women necessary to the physical perfection of the race. 50. he continued till his sixtieth year to live in the barracks. For 'tis not the rule at Sparta. and to eat with his '" mess. and a adverse ballot was enough to by the palm on the prop. An Athletic Girl of Sparta When a vacancy occurred they bal- Wearing a short tunic (chiton). Sparing not your life in battle. 40 Early Greece learned reading and writing. sons of Sparta. . She stands ready to start in the foot-race. The arms are modern. — Rich in men." They had no mental culture except in music and poetry. All the older Spartans regarded the younger as their children. as indicated leaf loted with bread-crumbs on the ad- mission of a single new member. At thirty he became a fuU citizen. " To the front. Through his entire however. Hurl your lance with daring spirit. Vatican Museum. of debar the candidate. — At the age of twenty the young man was ready for service in actual war. Men and Women." This was a group of about fifteen persons. which the is used to sing as they engaged in battle. A man could not claim his family as his own. of f reeborn fathers With your left hand press your shield forth. They committed to memory the One of these songs. as follows . and the young were taught to respect and obey any of the elders as much as their own fathers. soldiers warlike melodies of their country. to such exercise.

poor defensive arms. They were mostly bronze. brave. Bronze of B. greaves for the legs. whereas the swords and lance points were iron. return with his shield or upon it. began about . men 'with Uttle organization. SI. To the Spartan it was the greatest disgrace to throw away' and run from the enemy. but an honor to be carried home dead upon it. a certain mother commanded him to. who moved as a Museum. helmet. common useful metal. first Heavy-aemed Waeeior' Showing helmet. of warriors with strong defensive armor and long spears. To the Spartans belongs the credit of estabUshing the well-organized. if thou do not leave him and go " In this way she saved her ! father's honor. in time they acquired two-fifths of the land in the state. a coat of mail for the body. exclaimed. In sending her son forth to battle. Military Life . The Army.41 The only control were the members of the community who were free from women. " Father. The rank and file of the early Greek armies were scarcely better it was only the kings and lords who could afford good equipments. during which iron has been the 1300 B. and intelligent. line. The main part of was the phalanx —a the force rass. they held before the eyes of husbands and sons the high Spartan standard of courage and duty.' The growth of this miUtary systei^ was favored by the circumstances that the Spartans were a class of > The Iron Age. the sixth century British deep. a mere his shield child. his daughter Gorgo. several ranks statuette.Education. — The of armies of the Orient were crowds training. and no .C. well-equipped. and well- trained army. Once when an ambassador of another state came to Sparta and offered a bribe to the king. They Uved at home in luxury.C. the stranger wUl corrupt thee. and a shield. cuiand greaves. Loyal. The arms of defence were the unit to the sound of music.

42.
lords with

Early Greece

of equipping themselves efficiently, and with thorough training. Their mines suppUed iron, and the necessity of controlling their subjects incited them tadevise the system. The phalanx and arms were adopted by the other Greeks and by the Romans. We must therefore regard the Spartans as the greatest military inventors in the ancient world. Throughout Greece the men who formed 52. Government. the efiective miUtary power controlled the state. In Sparta, therefore, the government was vested in the whole body of freemen, who formed the phalanx. In the exercise of poUtical "power they met together and voted in an assembly. They had two kings, who were originally the chief magistrates but in time they lost the headship of the state and came to be Uttle more than gen'erals, handing down their office from father to son. As chief magistrates the assembly elected annually five " overseers." It gave these officers large authority ephors that the state might be strongly centralized, and able thus to act with great promptness and energy in the face of danger. The kings had been assisted by a council of twenty-eight elders, drawn from certain noble families among the Spartans. But while in other Greek states the council gained at the expense of the king, and finally usurped the government, in Sparta it declined along with the kings, leaving most of the power to the assembly and the ephors. These changes brought remarkable Though a kingship in name, Sparta was really a results.
leisure for

means

;

republic, as strongly centralized

monarchy.
world, only
53.

In

this respect it

and as efficient in action as a was surpassed, in the ancient

Naturally the great miliSparta inspired her neighbors with respect. Fearing attack and conquest at her hands, many were willing to enter into permanent alliance with her. In this way the Peloponnesian League was formed. It comprised all the states
tary power of

by Rome. The Peloponnesian League.

Argos and a part of A-chae'a. Each had a separate treaty with Sparta, which regulated the relations between the two. A congress of deputies from all the states met occasionally at Sparta or Corinth to consider
of Peloponnese excepting

state

Peloponnesian League
questions of war, peace, and alliance.

43
states paid

The

no

trib-

ute to Sparta, but

all

furnished mihtary forces

when

required.

the whole admirable; the states enjoyed a large degree of freedom, and the union protected them from foreign enemies. When the Persians attempted to "conquer Greece, Athens and the Peloponnesian League were the two powers that bravely met them in several battles and repelled their greatly superior forces.^ That these few Greeks were able to withstand the mighty Persian empire is one of the most remarkable facts of history. In our study of the Orient we have had to 54. Summary. do solely with monarchies in Greece republics appear for the first time in history. It was the achievement of the Spartans to create a republic with a government strong enough to protect life and property from foreign and domestic enemies. They had a well-regulated state at a time when the other Greek repubUcs were full of confusion and strife. In other words,

The arrangement was on

;

their state

was the

first

successful republic

known
:

to history.

Though
that of

and social life was a great advance beyond the Orient, it was defective in two respects (i) a small
their public

fraction of the population enjoyed the benefits of the system,
(2) the severe discipline stopped the growth of intelligence and hence prevented the full development of the Spartans as individuals and as a state. They were aristocratic, narrow, con-

servative,

and therefore stunted

in their growth.

It

was the

task of other states, notably of Athens, to liiake further advances in government and to develop art and intelligence to the

by the human race. Before coming to Athens, however, it is necessary to consider some of the general features of Greek life.
highest point thus far reached

Topics for Reading

I.

ch. vi

;

Botsford, History of the Ancient World, Geography of Greece. Zimmern, Greek Commonwealth, pt. i Myres, Greek llands and
;

' Athens defeated the Persians at Marathon in 490 B.C. Ten years later the combined forces of the Greeks defeated them in the naval battle of Salamis (480), and afterward In the land battles at Plataea and Mycale (479).
'

44

Early Greece
Geography; Shepherd, Atlas of An-

the Greek People; Tozer, Classical

cient History.
II.

chs. vi, vii;

Excursions in Attica. Mahaffy, Rambles and Studies in Greece, Richardson, Vacation Days in Greece, 111-18. III. Soldn. Botsford, History of the Ancient World, 130-35; Development of the Athenian Constitution, ch. ix Source-Book of Ancient History, 125-30; Bury, History of Greece, iv, § 4. SourceIV. Cleisthenes. Botsford, Ancient World, 138-41 Book, 137-9; Zimmern, Greek Commonwealth, 139-57; Greenidge,

;

;

Hand-Book
V.

of Greek Constitutional History, 157-62.

Spartan Society and Education. Botsford, History of Greece, 51-61; Source-Book of Ancient History, 112-16; Fling, Source-Book of Greek History, 56-77; Bury, History of Greece, ch. iii. § 3; Curtius, History of Greece, I. 211-22 (Scribner, 1899). Botsford, HisVI. The Great War between Greece and Persia. tory of Greece, 115-39; Source-Book, ch. xvi; Fling, Source-Book, 98143; Bury, History of Greece, ch. vii; Holm, History of Greece, 11. chs. i-v; Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, 572-86.

Review
I. Describe from the map the location of the chief centres of Minoan What were the distinguishing features of this civilization? civilization. 2. Why did the Minoan civilization decline? Describe the government. Of what races were the Hellenes composed? 3. Describe the physical Wh9,t effect had they on the people? Compare features of Greece. Greece with Egypt and Syria. 4. Why did the Greeks become a trading and colonizing people? '$. Define city-state. Contrast it with the modern state. 6. Trace the development of government

from kingship to democracy. 7. Explain the, beginnings of legislation. 8. Describe from the map the location of Peloponnese, Laconia, Sparta, and Messenia. 9. Give an account of the perioeci, helots, and Spartans respectively (§§ 46-8), stating the condition of each and their relation 10. Describe the education of Spartan children. to one another. 11. Give an account of the occupations of Spartan men and women. 12. What was the relation of the government to the army? Name and describe the institutions of government one by one. Was the government an aristocracy or a~democracy? 13. Explain the composition and the organization of the Peloponnesian League.
,

Additional Studies
is

1.

Which European country
2.

nearest to the Orient?

How

does

the situation help explain

come civilized? make over the

why this part of Europe was the first to beWhat advances in government did the Greeks
3.

Orientals?

Read

Botsford,

Source-Book,

chs.

studies
t

45

and answer the questions at the close of these chapters. do the lower classes in Laconia conipare with those of Egypt? 5. Was the condition of a Spartan more or less desirable than that of a perioecus, and why ? 6. In what respects, if in any, was Spartan education superior to our own? What were its defects? 7. What is a republic (see dictionary) ? What is a league of states ? In what respect is a republic better than a monarchy? 8. What did Sparta contribute to civilization? g. Read Botsford, Source-Book, ch. xii, and answer the questions at the close. 10. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics above, as directed on p. 9, question 8.
vii-xi, xiii,
4.

How

CHAPTER

IV

RELIGION AND INTELLIGENCE IN GREECE
In Greece, as in the Orient, religion was a 55. Religion. powerful motive to progress. Like the Egyptians, the Greeks worshipped the dead. At first they, believed that the soul of the deceased lived in the tomb, where he received on appointed

days food and drink offerings from his living kinsfolk. In time they began to imagine a place beneath the earth, whither all souls departed in death to lead a shadowy, joyless existence. This region was the kingdom of the god Ha'des. Like the Orientals, too, the Greeks originally worshipped the powers of nature. But soon outgrowing this primitive

came to think of all their deities as possessand character of men and women they differed from human beings only in their greater strength, stature, and beauty, and in their immortality. The poet Homer declares: " Yea, and the gods in the likeness of strangers from far countries put on all manner of shapes, and wander through the cities, beholding the violence and the righteousness of men." These deities had the bad as well as the good traits of human character, and therefore influenced men for both good and evU. The greatest of deities was Zeus, " father of gods and men." He'ra, protecting goddess of women, was his wife. Po-sei'don, a brother, ruled over the sea Hades, another brother, over the region beneath the earth. A-pol'lo was the ideal of manly .beauty, god of music and of the healing art; A-the'na, sprung full-grown and armed from the head of her father Zeus, was patron of war and of skilled handiwork. There were countless other deities. Homer pictures Zeus and the twelve greater
stage of religion, they
ing the form
; ;

46

Gods and Oracles
divinities living

47

sitting in council'

on the top of snow-capped 0-lym'pus (Thessaly), on the destiny of men, quarrelling, scheming,
of Apollo at Delphi.

and enjoying themselves.
56.

The Oracle

that Zeus revealed his will to
flight of birds,

The people believed mankind through dreams, the

and other omens. In cermethod of learning the divine will was established. Such means of revelation was called an oracle. The same word denoted the utterance of the god. The most famous oracle was
tain places

a

definite

that of Apollo at Delphi.

In a valley high

up on the
his shrine.

side of Par-nas'sus,

amid the

wild grandeur of the bare mountains, stood

Therein sat the prophetess,

who muttered something in answer to inquiries. The priests wrote out the answer usually in poetic form, and gave it to the inquirer as the word of Zeus delivered through his son Apollo. Men sought his advice on difficult moral and religious
questions on the advisability of goiiig to war or planting a colony. The priests, who as a rule were intelligent and well;

APOILO WITH A CiTHARA

The dthara is a stringed instrument, like a lyre but

gave sound advice. heavier. Apollo holds it Sometimes, however, they were bribed to near the left side, while in his right hand is a plectake the side of one party or state against trum, with which he asked whether a war or touches the keys. His another. When other enterprise would result successfully, dress is a long, sleeved tunic (chiton) of fine texthey aimed to make their replies vague or ture and a wrap (himaFrom a vase double-meaning, so as to be right in any tion). painting. event. A certain king in Asia Minor was told that if he went to war, he would destroy a great state. Accepting the oracle as favorable, he began war -but destroyed Though the institution was defective, it tended, his own state. as the central shrine of Hellas, to unite the Greeks by a religious and moral bond.
informed,
usually

48
57.

Religion and Intelligence in Greece
Athletics

Games. The smaller a more highly it must value the individual citizens as soldiers and defenders, and the more must these citizens strive to perfect their bodies and minds for public service. All the Greek states trained their boys and youths in athletics; their military drill was as necessary, though not so severe and prolonged, as that of Sparta. The aim of training was to make the body strong and supple and the mind alert, so as to produce the best pos;

the Great National the

sovereign state

is,

sible soldier-citizens.

The contests were
the
struggle
for

a,lways

competitive;

mastery stimulated effort and quickened the mind. These competitions were held not only in the gymnasia of every citystate, but also in many of its religious festivals. The most promising winners vere sent to compete in the great national games. All Greeks had a right to take part. The Olympic games, held every fourth year, were the most splendid. Here gathered a vast number of Greeks from all the shores of the MediProphetess op Apollo
'

.

On

the

tripod

— three-

sits

legged seat, on which she while prophesying. She

terranean to see the competitions. Merchants displayed their wares, artists their statues and paintings poets read their
;

wears the usual lady's dress, a tunic (chiton), and over it a wrap (epiblema). From a vase painting.

compositions; heralds proclaimed treaties recently formed. In the absence of

newspapers and printed books the
val served as a

festi-

means

of interchanging

ideas, of diffusing

knowledge, and of creating a bond of feeling
to be Greeks of

among the Hellenes who attended. The competitors in the games had
character and Teligious standing
ing.

good

and

of sufficient athletic train-

There were contests

in running,

jumping, discus-throw-

ing, spear-hurling, wrestling, boxing,

chariots.

At Olympia

of horses and the prize was a simple wreath of wild

and racing

Athletics, Literature
olive, of

49
it

no money value, and
;

in

games elsewhere

was some-

thing similar

for those

above wealth.

The

devised the competitions set honor games not only brought the Greeks to-

who

gether in friendship, and stimulated physical culture, but also encouraged art; for the sculptors found their best models among the competitors and a strong inspiration in making
statues to immortalize the individual victors.

thing the Greeks had began with Homer, whom later ages imagined a blind old poet, wandering about and singing
58.
:

Literature

Homer.

— Another
It

in

common was

Uterature.

his lays at the courts of kings

and

nobles

and

at

festive

gatherings of the people.

In a song ascribed to him the poet is
represented as thus referring to
himself,

the

sweetest
blind

of
is

all

singers

:

"

A

man

he,

and he dwells
his songs shall
tery, ay, in all

in rocky Chios;

have the mas-

time to come." The prophecy has come true. No other epic poem* equals the two he composed the Il'i-ad

Wkestlers
Well-developed
bodies engaged in a

and the
tells

Od'ys-sey.

The

Iliad

a story connected with the common athletic .exercise. Marble, UfiSzi, Florence. siege of Troy by the Greeks; the Odyssey describes the wanderings of the hero 0-dys'seus on his way home after the capture and destruction of Troy. The
incidents of these stories are
ners, customs,
all

or nearly

all

mythical.

and ideas the poet

people and of his own age

— that

describes are those of his
of the

The manown

is,

Greek colonists in Asia

Minor about 1000-750 b.c.^ The poems are simple, graceful, and spirited; they touch the life of the time on all its varied
1 '

See

§ 32.

There can be no doubt that Homer used the myths that earlier minstrels had handed down for generations but he was as much the creator of his poems as Shakespeare of the dramas attributed to him. Works of art, as these poems are, prove
;

the existence of the artist.

50
sides;

Religion and Intelligekce in Greece
to the student of history they reveal

an early stage

of

the wonderful civilization of Greece.
SQ.

Lyric Poetry

:

Pindar.

— Homer

lived under the

monrevo-

archy, in an age of political and social quiet.
political

Then came

lutions transforming the monarchies into aristocracies.

Further

upheavals destroyed the aristocracies and set up

despotisms, governments of the wealthy, and finally in
states democracies (§ 44).

some

The

times were

made more

stirring

states, and by a vast colonial expansion which extended the settlements of the Greeks to nearly all parts of the Mediterranean world, from Egypt to Marseilles and from south Russia to the African desert. These conditions produced an intense mental activity which the world had never seen before. The period from Homer to the end of the war with Persia (750-479 B.C.) was a great age of intellectual awakening. The new spirit expressed itself in literature. Abandoning the simple epic style of Homer, poets created elaborate measures to express the complexities of the new life. They no longer limited themselves to story telling, but attacked vigorously the hard problems of society, government, human existence, morals, and the relation of the gods to men. The highest form of poetry in this age was the lyric the song accompanied by the lyre. Some lyrics were sung by in-

by frequent wars among the

at social gatherings. Others, more complex and were presented at public festivals by a chorus of men, youths, or girls, appropriately dressed and trained for the purpose, who accompanied the music with a dance. Such a poem was a choral ode. Its production involved expense, Usually defrayed by the state. We are far less sensitive than were the Greeks to the influence of music hence we cannot appreciate how powerful a force it was for moulding character.
dividuals
stately,
;

all lyric poets was Pindar. He was intensely and intensely aristocratic. Next in value to religion he esteemed manly strength and achievement in the games, and the splendor of riches generously spent by the great on art, festivals, and song. Most of his poems still preserved are
'

The

greatest of

religious

choral odes in honor of victors at the national games.

In a

;

Poetry and Philosophy

51

poem

mention of the victory, myth connected with the family or city of the winner, to shed the glory of his song on what he believed to be the noblest achievement of inherited virtue. In splendor and power he has no superior. 60. The Beginnings of Science ; Philosophy. The lyric poets thought deeply on the problems of nature, man, and God. Their reason, however, was controlled by religion. In seeking the cause of anything they always went back to the supernatural. For instance, they explained the alternation of winter and summer by the myth of De-me'ter, goddess of the earth and of agriculture. She had a daughter Per-seph'o-ne, whom Hades carried off by force to be his wife and queen in the lower world. Demeter was sad, and the earth became cold and barren but when after a time her daughter was restored, the mother's joy warmed the earth and made it fruitful. Thenceforth Persephone remained with her mother during the summer months and with Hades through the winter. As long as thinkers were satisfied with such myths, true science remained imnarrates in his

of the kind Pindar, with brief

own

majestic style some

'

possible.

Progress beyond this childlike view of nature was made by One of them, Tha'les by name, sought in nature itself a first cause of all things. Everything, he declared, is
the lonians.

formed from water. In choosing water as the cause and substance of things he was wholly wrong but in seeking a natural rather than a supernatural cause he laid the foundation of Greek philosophy. The word philosophy, as used by the
;

Greeks, included science as well as the deeper delving into the ultimate nature of things. In this early period the Greeks were

already making progress in mathematics, astronomy, geography, and other useful sciences, though as yet they had not separated
these fields of knowledge from one another or arranged their
facts in a definite system.

have now sketched the progress of mankind from the For a true appreciation of this ,to about 480 b.c. period it is necessary to keep in mind the fact that nearly the whole world was still barbarous, either remaining in the stone
stone age

We

52

Religion and Intelligence in Greece

age or but little advanced in the use of metals. The progress with which we have thus far been concerned was limited tp Egypt, southwestern Asia, and the Greeks. It is true that
,

India and China had
°'
'

^-==-^'"''"-

civilizations

of

their

own, but
these

till

recently

countries
little

have

had

connection

with the general progress of the world.

The

Greeks not only occupied the country now called Greece, but had
colonized

many

islands
of

and long

stretches

coast of the Mediter-

The Woeio
According to the geographer Hecatseus, about sob B.C.

ranean Sea and its tributary waters. In the western Mediterranean Phoenician colonies rivalled

those

of

the
these

Greeks.
peoples,

From

and especially from the

latter,

the natLves were learning
;

but as yet these improvements had not extended" far from the coasts. The accompanying map presents the view of the world held by the most learned geographer of the age. To the North and the South, in fact, it includes an area stretching far beyond the
limits of civilization.

the industries, the fine arts, and the alphabet

Topics for Reading
I.

Future Life.

— Fairbanks,

viii;

Handbook of Creek

Mythology of Greece and Rome, ch. Religion, 168-88; Hardie, Lectures on Classical

Subjects, 36-70;
II.

The Mysteries.
;

151

f.

Botsford, Source-Book of Ancient History, 89-94. Botsford, History of the Ancient World, Fairbanks, Mythology of Greece and Rome, 171-83 (including

myth

of

Demeter and Persephone)

III.

Games and

Festivals.

— Botsford,

;

Greek Religion, 128-37. Source-Book, 189-91 (char-

and Studies in Greece. 8g)? 4.Studies iot race). and what did he write about ? 6. xi. Perhaps the best available book is Fairbanks. • Read any chapters or the entire book. I. — Review Describe the worship of the dead as practiced by the Greeks. discover? . What benefit. Myths of Greece and Rome. did the Greeks derive from the oracle of Apollo ? Why 3. IV. For what special reason did the Greeks cultivate athletics? scribe their exercises. p. S3 of Greece. How did the Greeks originally explain the changes in nature? What new explanation did Thales introduce? What is its importance ? Define philosophy in the Greek sense. Fling. p. Additional Studies In what respects was the Greek religion superior to the Egyptian? if any. Gardiner. lyric poetry. What were the effects of the games on literature and art? 4. What were the early Greek philosophers aiming to 7. In what scientific directions were the Greeks now making progress ? I. 9. Source-Book. is Guerber. §§ 5. Greek Athletic Sports I. 2. they are beautiful stories. Mahaffy. reference could be made to but one or two myths. Why should a history of the Greeks include an account of their literature? Why in Greece was poetry written earlier than 5. Although not history. Define epic poetry. What change took place in their idea of the future life? What form of religion developed from their nature worship ? Name some of the gods with their respective attributes. did the Greeks picture Apollo in this way (Botsford. Give an example of an English epic poem. Myths. Holm. iii. History of Greece. Describe the Olympic games. prose? 6. and partly because of their great influence on art and literature. Mythology of Greece and Rome. ch. Another book in a pleasing style. In the brief account of early Greece given above. xix. De3. Describe the Delphic oracle. ch. History ch. of an English lyric poem. 2. 47-53.. What brought about the change from one form to the other? 5. though not recommended for accuracy. 47. Describe the instrument held by Apollo in the picture. What was the choral ode? Who was Pindar. Bury. Rambles and Festivals (see Contents). Source-Book of Greek History. and are valuable partly because they throw light on the working of the Greek mind.

000 people in Attica. Syria. 40. CHAPTER V ATHENS IN THE AGE OF PERICLES 461-431 B.. from Asia Minor. About 170. and from 100.000 were citizens. Some were born in the country. These facts show at once that. 61. including the Voters and their families.000 to 150. justice. As a rule captives in war were reduced to slavery. fits of 62.C. for in the democracy a greater percentage of the inhabitants shared in the government. The democracy was so — and other benegovernment to a larger. literature. and when traders could find .proportion of the population than had been possible under any earlier system. and general culture while yet in a partially developed stage. the government of this city-state changed to an aristocracy.000 were alien residents. however far advanced Athens was beyond Egypt or even Sparta. task of Athens to receive from the other Greeks the elements of art. ^ 54 ' . not in color. and then by slow stages to a democracy as indicated above (§ 44). constituted as to guarantee protection. but simply in nationality. and more distant lands. were from 300. but most of them were imported from the parts of Europe northeast of Greece. The Population In the age of Pericles there Slaves.. her people had not yet adopted the idea of political equality for all men. Introductory. and to bring them to the highest degree of perfection.000 to 350. The slaves differed from the freemen. Thus Athens developed politically farther than Sparta.000 were slaves. Originally a kiiigship. It is necessary therefore to view this political advance as a forward step in the improvement of the human race. It was the.

It often happened that one who had learned a trade was allowed his own time. but Above the slaves in rank were Some were from Asia Minor and the — were from other Greek states. Orient. Appreciating this fact. his freedom. by manufacturing and trade. Families of moderate wealth had at least one or two slaves. too. The Advantages and the Evils of Slavery.Slaves and Aliens 55 none of this class to buy up. master's business. in vain. it must be admitted that the institution is cruel and inhuman. Thereafter an aUen family might reside many generations in Attica without acquiring a right to the . and we hear of a certain rich man who owned a thousand. Some were overseers in charge of other slaves a few were well enough educated to manage their . wealthy persons who owned slaves. and beautiful. A law of Solon (594 B. We are told that they dressed like the free laborers and that none of them would think of stepping aside on the street to let a citizen pass. in the mines and shops. the resident ahens. but as the Athenians grew more exclusive they accepted none but those who had done some most of the class They came to enrich themselves great service in behalf of the state.) required the state to admit all such persons to the citizenship. on condition of paying periodically to his master a specified amount from his earnings. It is true. that the slaves at Athens were treated well better perhaps than anywhere else in the history of the world. its aboUtion. Slaves did all kinds of work in the house and field. With industry such a slave could in time purchase Yet after all has been said in favor of slavery. they often resorted to kidnapping. had the means and the leisure to devote themselves to the cultivation of the of — mind and the taste and to devising ways making Ufe more comfortable. Resident Foreigners. and then only by special vote of the assembly. The poorer Athenians. had no slaves but depended for support on the work of their ovra hands. refined. whom he let out to work for hire in the silver mines of the country. The few 63. and were supported by their labor. some of the more enlightened Greeks — demanded. but 64. probably the majority of citizens.C.

was a writer of speeches for others to deliver in their own behalf (§ 7s). All however were on a social level with the Athenians according to in the ranks with their personal fitness. the other a waist cloth. courts He was the of ablest master natural oratory in Greece. it was natural that the number shepherds. one of their number. and daygrew more complex. The vase painting. Some Athenian Peasants Going to Maekei and probably vegetables. Athens in In the Age of Pericles Athens was far different from a a poll tax for the privilege of residing in the country and a heavier war tax than that imposed on the citizens. mechanics. sailors. They shared in the religious festivals. As life of persons incompetent to earn a Uving for themselves should continually increase. The latter may be a slave.S6 citizenship. Lysias. city of the labor 6s. About a third of the citizens may be was the most famous industrial and commercial greatness was due largely to the — described as "poor." were self-sustaining. tors. Under an aristocracy such people would . From a in of these aUens Uved Athens but most of With pigs man on our left them in Pei-rae'us. The Citizens. shopkeepers. Its and the wealth of these resident aliens. have been left to starve or would have fallen into slavery but . They were required to serve in the army when the country was in danger of invasion. Greek world. in the lawsimple. or to pay the same taxes as the Athenians. The wears a cap of felt or skin and a small wrap (himation). and greater demands were made on the"inteUigence. The aliens paid country. The great majority even of this class They were the smallest landed-proprie- laborers. or to serve them rather than in a separate division. and their boys enjoyed the same education. It was a great honor to an aUen to be allowed as a special favor to buy land in the this respect modern state. a port town about four and a half latter miles distant.

It was chiefly their taste and their patronage that brought literature.Citizens 57 humane democracy faced the problem of submerged class to the plane of respectable citizenship. and architecture to a high stage of perfection. Many owned farms. They furnished the cavalry. who were entirely free from the need or the desire of state aid. The highest social class was made up of wealthy families. and paid most of the war taxes. which brought fair prices in the markets of Athens and Peiraeus. Above the " poor " were the still more numerous middle class. which they cultivated with the help of the family or of a slave or two. The tunic (Greek chiton) was worn next to the body. In the plain they raised grain and vegetables. By these means the state was able for a long time to eliminate pauperism from the community. of a . On the stony mountain side they pastured their sheep and goats. filled the more important priesthoods and oflSces. they had their olive orchards. which yielded them a great abundance of oil. This was the class which furnished the state with her heavy-armed infantry. and the tunic woman differed in style from that of a man. the broader and more From the export of this product they derived a large income. The outer garment (Greek himation). and was well adapted to the mild climate. The clothing of the Athenians and of other Greeks was distinguished for simplicity and grace. numbering altogether 7000 or 8000 souls. Thus the farming class grew prosperous. worn out-of-doors. As a rule it was sleeveless. and the edges were joined together either by sewing or by pins. Their estates were well stocked. was a wrap usually of oblong shape. lifting this . the usual laborer's garment and the in-door dress of all. the most substantial branch of h^r mihtary force. sculpture. and their dweUings and barns were better than in any other part of HeUas. Some were sent off as colonists others were engaged in naval service or employed on pubUc works. There. The length varied according to -circumstances and the taste of the wearer. furnished money for the religious festivals and the entertainment of the citizens. too. draped gracefully about the body.

This function was attended to by the society known as the brotherhood (phratry). 68. made par- ' more humane in their treatment of children and bound the members of the family together in the closest ties of affection and of mutual helpfulness. As' the families which made up a brother- . fastened at the shoulders with large pins and f alUng double over the waist. They wore. Every citizen family belonged to such an association. it was necessary that he should be publicly recognized while still an infant. The material was linen. His own happiness in the next world was secure in case oply that A Doric Woman he had children to bury him and In a Doric tunic (chiton). too. hats. In order that a person might be known as a citizen. or oftener woollen. 66. and various personal adornments. if he did not wish to bring them up. In this way ancestor worship ents Athena Farthenos. which ranged from coarse homespun to finely woven and beautifully dyed textiles made by skilled weavers. p. whereas the wraps of women assumed a great variety of shapes and colors. but a profusion of jewellery was evidence of bad taste. From a vase painting. The custom began in barbarous times and was not abolished by so highly civilized a state as Athens. sandals. see the to sacrifice at his tomb according to the hereditary family rites. S8 Athens in of the Age of Pericles That a young man in the cavalry took the form of a circular cape. For a more beautiful type of dress.. The Children and the In nearly Brotherhood. shoes. — all ancient states the father right to kill his chil- had a dren at their birth. rings. • But the Athenian father rarely for made use of his right he needed children to continue his family and its worship after him. boots.

kept by a master who was remunerated by the parents of the children whom he instructed. who accompanied the boy wherever he went and saw that the rules of training were strictly obeyed. — At. If the brotherhood accepted him on this evidence. They foster. he was brought up as an Athenian. The literature he studied was poetry The poems of Homer encourage chiefly that of Homer (§ 58) the reader to bravery. Literature and Music. dress. Great care was taken in school and at home to teach the boy good morals and manners. -Girls and boys aUke were received in this way. school little the boy learned — geometry and asstylus he practiced tronomy. Naturally some boys and some gov- — — ernors 68. walk.— Children and Education 59 hood considered themselves related to one another in blood. generally an old man. At this festival the kinsmen of a child born within the past year presented him to the brotherhood. 67. too. testifying under oath that he was truly the child of parents who were both Athenians and who were legally married. learned to read and write. he placed over the boy as governor pae-da^go-gos. . Pleasures were good. and eat. and he was kept away from bad company. The School. He had to learn the proper way to sit. the meeting of the society every autunan for religious worship and friendly intercourse had the character of a family reunion. But the boy at that age was sent to school. With a sharp iron instrument writing on a tablet covered with wax. He was not to see or hear anything vulgar or debasing. patriotism. fell short of the high ideal here described. he was told. but nothing should be done to excess. He learned modesty. — After the age of seven the girl continued as before under the care of her mother and received a purely domestic education. arithmetic. His books were rolls of Egyptian papyrus (§ 27). and the other virtues with which the author endows his heroes. " boy-leader " a slave. If the father could afford it. All boys. and the other virtues which the Athenians cultivated. Most of all he was taught selfrestraint and moderation. respect for his parents and elders. a sympathy for all the varied activities of men. and a — . love for his country. however poor. writing. from the work of the reading.

competitions at the festiIt was only the well- developed boy who in life. Meantime the boy ground — pal-aes'tra — for the or youth regularly attended the wrestling practice of gymnastics under a There he was trained in the usual Greek exercises. standing before him. any of A Well-rounded Edit is A One School ucation.''going out only to call on friends or to attend religious festivals. could hope for success the activities of 69. The homes of the Athenians were uncomfortably small. not blurred by mist as they are in many other countries. and they awaken a love tion. In that brilliantly clear atmosphere he could see objects near or far just as they were. and it was unfortunate that women and girls were kept closely indoors. so that he could describe objects and actions just as they were. is probably singing. His sur- . been said above tha!t the education of the and truth. intelr lectual. and prepared for vals. This instruction was given by a special master. for the manifold beauties of nature. Care was taken that the youth should hear and practice those melodies only which cultivated the nobler feelings. Men and boys. and passed nearly all the day in the open air. The aim was not to prepare him for business or a profession. artistic. From a vase painting. He kept his own mind as clear. however. professional teacher.6o potter or Athens in the Age of Pericles plowman to the public orations of kings . with perfect naturalness pupil is playing the double pipe . and moral. the youth came to understand it better than we do. Living close to nature. On the wall a lyre is suspended. Lessons at school were by no means the whole of an educaEvery boy who was to have a place in respectable society had to learn to sing and to play on the lyre. The bearded man is evidently the teacher. A third is writing with a stylus on a wax tablet. another. — From what has clear youth was physical. merely ate and slept at home. but to make of him the best possible man and citizen. Meantime all his surroundings helped in this direction.

The Acropolis 6i .

In these forms of art ihountains and agination led . Though he might never have handled the chisel or the brush. — . In this way he became a discoverer of new truth. ^ and hills. he was by nature an artist. to stand loyally by their comrades in to give a public exhibition of their skill. XVIII. — At the other Greeks. see Bryant. Long before the age of had . the summit of which was sacred to Athena.^ Higher Education. and to protect their country and its After their two years of drill and garrison duty they citizen-soldiers. Thales (§ 6p) had been followed by other thinkers who had made important advances in mathematics and astronomy. From eighteen to twenty he was in military training. Frpm its the A-crop'o-lis of Athens he looked across the plain to border of mountains. and had continually brought forward new views rePericles the Greeks 1 A hill in the centre of the city. if the state. On this occasion the young men took an oath to honor the sacred arms thus granted them. satisfied. Festivals. whose taste was satisfied with nothing short of perfection in sculpture. 79. to uphold the laws. slopes. be called on for service till their sixtieth year. . At the end of the first year the young soldiers had Military Training.made a beginning of science and philosophy. and Uterature. became a man." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. seas. the Athenians excelled 70. "Boyhood in Athens. rehgion. an inventor in science or in art. probably it was of the same general nature as a hundred years later. all the age of eighteen the youth His name was then enrolled in the register of his father's township and he was liable to service in his country's defence. though less thorough and systematic. beyond which he saw other still others farther and farther away. 'Although the sources give the briefest references to military training in this period.62 Athens in the Age of Pericles Foundings encouraged the growth about him an endless variety of of his imagination. The account here given is of the later and betterknown period. liable to remained 71. He saw islands. war. and the authorities of presented each with a spear and shield. architecture. Formerly it had been the citadel. plains. His imhim to these distant places it tempted his mind to pass from the known to the unknown on mental voyages of exploration.

. Among the most powerful instruments of education^ for rich and poor alike. too. and races of war galleys. food was served at the expense of the state to those who wished it. 63 Little attention but the theory and practice of m'edicine had reached a noteworthy stage of efficiency. A grand procession of all the Athenians and resident foreigners. varied attire through the city and up the Acropolis through its splendid portal. Next in importance to the Panathenaea were the dramatic festivals held in the theatre. for the dramas embodied of the ideals of their greatest thinkers and inspired the hearers to generation of Pericles was Soph'o-cles. in brief all classes of the free population moved in their bright. the recitation ' of Homer's poems. In every festival of this kind three poets competed each with four plays. The religious object of the procession was the presentation of a robe to Athena. miUtary dances. the magistrates and priests in their official robes. with baskets containing the sacrifice. citizens received their best religious and moral instruction rise to these ideals. Teachers of science. the knights with their horses. and rhetoric were called sophists. the victorious athletes wearing their wreaths. The most eminent dramatic poet The lessons the in the fundamental principles of religion and morality conveyed by and their mighty inspiration for mankind to make the best of its capabilities are as much needed to-day as they were in the century in which they were written. girls ^ — The occasion was religious. and finally to the temple of Athena the Parthenon. and was studied as a preparation for oratory and statesmanship. philosophy. Their fees excluded the poor from higher education. his dramas. The Pan-ath-e-nae'a a festival of all the Athenians in honor of Athena included to the natural sciences. had recently come into existence. and attendance an act of worship. Rhetoric. That the poor as well as rich might attend and enjoy such festivals. There the . After completing their elementary education many young men of the wealthier classes studied one or more of the subjects here mentioned. Festivals garding the nature and the origin of the world. were the festivals. the theatre a sacred building. had been given — — musical as well as athletic competitions.Higher Education.

attending the meetings and in filling the offices the townsmen gained an experience and a feeling of responsibility which prepared them for' the more serious duty of helping govern the state of Athens. several a treasury. and a pubUc worship In of the heroes or gods of the place. eran Museum. ' An exception was made in favor of the Council of Five Hundred. — Only a few great facts regarding The State Government.' Among the magistrates were the ten generals. man of did physique and great intelIncidentally it illustrates the as they wished. There were a thousand or more all serving annually. A few of the more important magistrates were officials. not be repeated. PxJBLic Life is equally important that we should 72. made shortly after his death. each with a local government . The people did not leave the The Popular Assembly. though not in consecutive years. — It — a town meeting officers. but the places filled by manner of wearing Lat- the wrap (himation). of the voters. . The people could lot could reelect a man as often It represents a ligence. but insisted on They met in assembly takirlg an active part in it themselves. management of the affairs of peace as well as of war. The Township.. 64 Athens in the Age of Pericles II. and the rest were appointed by lot. to which they all belonged. Sophocles Marble copy of a statue splen- elected by the people in their assembly. study the public life of the Athenians for they developed the art of self-government more highly than any other Greek state. cials. Offi- the state government can be mentioned here. — whole work of government to these officials. Attica (§ 43) was divided into more than a hundred townships (demes). 73. who had once been exclusively military officers but had come to be the chief execu- tives with the 74. the members of which could serve twice.

76. 461-431 B. the conduct of officials .Democracy 65 forty times a year on fixed days. was to receive from the citizens proposals for new laws. mentioned but also for the trial of cases at law. who in this legislative capacity were termed " law-makers. he held the office of general by annual election. but handed them over for decision to a large body of sworn jurors. their government was a pure democracy. Another function of the assembly. the odd number was to prevent a tie. filled annually by lot from the citizens above thirty years of age. As the people exer(§ 44). peace. There were six thousand taken annually by lot. could not guide the in other words. however. the court conprocedure or instruct the jury Every person involved sisted of a large jury without a judge. limited to a single stated meeting of each year. having no special knowledge of the law. There were professional writers of speeches for such occasions but no real lawyers. though often smaller and occasionally larger. Each panel was presided over by a magistrate who. Though but one among ten equal magistrates. Athens was at her best in the Age of Pericles. The assembly did not vote on these bills. in a trial as prosecutor or defendant had to plead his own case. As a majority decided. The Athenians considered these popular — — courts a necessary protection of the liberty of citizens the common from the oppression of the nobles and the wealthy They served this purpose well. and judicial functions." Jurors served not only for the purpose here 75. and in special sessions as often as seemed necessary. Pericles. They were divided into panels normally of five hundred and one. executive. his superior ability and character gave him the first place on the board. During this period. He was a man of noble — .C. with few interruptions. The Courts. cised personally and directly the legislative. and the erection of expensive public buildings. In some of these meetings they reviewed with the object of punishing any who might prove unfaithful servants of the state in others they voted on such questions as those of war. All resolutions coming before them had previously been drawn up by the Council of Five Hundred. colonization. from the citizens above thirty years of age.

At near view the three tiers of benches for the oarsmen are visible. The weight of his words. operated by about Restoration from an ancient relief. The helmet had a good market for their the wearer a Museum. an able commanjier in war. for they were the of chief carriers goods throughout all the region from the Black Sea and Syria to Italy and Sicily. in which they exported wine. and a great orator. carefully Athens in the Age of Pericles educated in literature and music. Paris. a student of philosophy. olive toilet and perfumes. The types artist of this rather of age represents than individuals. so as to look at everything clearly and calmly. period wear indicates general. but also with three banks of oars. beautiful vases. products. this better condition than ever before. His statesmanship was distinguished for prudence rather than for boldness or originality. MaMuseum. the majesty of his person. It Pericles was his aim to increase the of his main terial prosperity country. however. cutlery. their was derived from commerce. use and greater and armor for home for export. of industry. An Athenian Trireme rine ^ This commerce they proThe tected with the most powerful navy tfeh in existence. He encouraged the growth The Athenians made oil. Like every true orator Pericles felt deeply the emotions which he knew how to stir in others but he kept his feelings strictly under the control . — . a vessel furnished not only normal battleship was a trireme with sails. Their shops produced household furniture. of his intelligence. British Under him the farmers were as they AH men beards. carried and the confidence which his character inspired conviction to his hearers.66 birth. Far income.

The sculptures of the east pediment (gable) exhibit in the midst of a group of deities the contests between 1 Before the great war between Greece and Persia (402-479 B. and which had to do with the the city. Afterward by making the allies subject to herself Athens gradually converted the confederacy into an empire. formed with Athens a union for defence against Persia. a Thessalian people. . British Museum. It is known as the Delian Confederacy because it centred in the island of Delos.C.Public Works 67 two hundred rowers.) the Greeks who occupied the eastern coast of the /Egean Sea and the neighboring islands were under Persian rule (§ 35). in combat with Centaurs. Under Pericles Athens had four hundred ships of this description. Pheidias also superintended the making of the other sculptures which adorned the temple. violent monsters Civilization against — Barbarism. who are savage. the larger contained the image of the goddess Athena made the greatest time. While engaged in providing Athens with fleets and in organizing a maritime empire' under her control. They represent monsters. After the war the Greek states which had thus been set free. The most famous the is — the Pa. of all sculptor statue The was a wooden frame covered with ivory and gold. included : two principal apartments the smaller served as a treasury.rthenon. Pericles supervised the erection of temples. together with many others on the coasts and islands of the Mgea.n. but also Kberated those already in subjection. That war not only saved the European Greeks from Persian conquest. The artist was a master of athletic sculpture. 77. and are probably intended to convey an idea of the lawless time which preceded the orderly rule of Athena. on It Acropolis. by Phei'di-as. A Metope A of the Parthenon religious history of group of Parthenon metopes repre- The metopes reliefs ^ are a series of on the surrounding the temple outside above the sents Lapiths. columns. The Parthenon. ' Reliefs are figures projecting from the surface of the stone on which they are men and chiseled.

by human hands. The a continuous band of surrounding the temple within the colonnade. shield The helmet and show her military The tunic character. She wins and beof frieze is comes the guardian Described in the city. — The Greek temple was not home of the deity. The skill in execution. common type w. the grace. The snake. attends to fertilizing the soil. the form of architecture which prevailed in European Greece. whereas the Ionic belonged originally to the Greeks of Asia Minor. cathedrals of mediaeval but in the skilful finish of all its parts. size with the temples of Egypt or with < in height.west pediment Athena contends with Poseidon. Most of those which still exist were brought to England early in the nineteenth century and are now in the British Museum. worshipped along with Athena. The beauty of the Doric style is severe and chaste. Athens. of essentially a place of worship but rather the of religion Most of the cere- monies were performed out of doors. is The material of the building marble from the quarries of Mount The style Pen-tel'i-cus near Marathon.68 birth of Athens in the Age of Pericles of Zeus. for the possession of Athens. is Doric. In her right hand she holds a winged Victory life-sized. reliefs the text. in the absolute balance of dignity and grace ture ever created 78.oman's dress. it is the most nearly perfect piece of architec- Religion. It represents the preparation for the Panathenaic festival in honor of the protecting goddess (§71). Athena full-grown and armed from the head In the . Fen sketch. that of the Ionic is characterized Athena Parthenos by greater A colossal statue 30 feet freedom and more abundant ornatnentaThe Parthenon cannot compare in tion. victory the Pediment West pediment of the Parthenon. and consisted . National Museum. and the finish of these sculptures have never been rivalled. in the beauty of the whole. (chiton) is a the Christian tinie . From a small marble copy. the sea god.

sacrifices. Christianity. however. and Christians. and philosophy. Notwithstanding beautiful and noble features. Mohammedans. The door in this end opens into the Treasure-Room. View from the northwest. science. as Soc'ra-tes. This conclusion The Parthenon Restored. In their opinion the real basis of the relation between gods and men was fellowship.The Temple 69 of festivals. was with them a philosophic as it is . 79. Athenian Character. of art. a city of Attica. and not the essenwith the Hebrews. reasoned that there must be one all-powerful and all-wise God. — The Athenians were not only more intensely reUgious than the other Greeks. but they devoted . but a superstition which should be banished. Thoughtful men considered fear no true element of religion. and prayer. A sacrifice was a feast in which the deity and his worshippers took part. gave the initiated hope of eternal happiness. From the unity and order of nature some of then: great thinkers. idea. . The Greeks had always believed in a future life and the mysteries connected with the worship of De-me'ter at El-eu'sis. in its spiritual and moral aspects Greek religion was inferior to tial fact of religion. The pediment in sight represents the contest between Poseidon and Athena for the possession of Athens. This fact: goes far toward explaining the fearlessness of the Greeks in working out the problems of government and society.

' 70 Athens in the. . 35-46.." His Funeral Oration. themselves with greater earnestness and force to political. . . whereas other men are courageous from ignorance but hesitate on reflection." The mentality and the physical energy of the Athenians were in his time " We have the peculiar power of thinking before we intense. Age of Pericles tic. which though harmless are unpleasant.nk and fearless spirit. the ideas are those of Pericles. No enemy who comes against her is indignant at the reverses which he sustains at the hands of such a city no subject complains that his masters are unworthy of him. The language is largely that . frk. In the hour of trial Athens alone among her contemporaries is superior to the report of her.. We are not suspicious of one another. . ii. . He calls attention also to their social liberality is and kindliness. nor angry with our neighbor if he does what he likes we do not put on sour looks at him. in Thu-cyd'i-des of the historian . " There no exclusiveness ." he asserts. in fostering literature and a many-sided education. and of acting. but on kindness and generosity. His act." The Periclean Ideal. "^To sum up. was to make of the Athenians a people superior in mind and heart to the rest of the Greeks a people whom none would be ashamed to acknowledge as teachers — or rulers. such as he was pursuing.. and that the individual Athenian in his own person seems to have the power of adapting himself to the most varied forms of action with the utmost versatility and grace. I say that Athens is the school of Greece. in our private intercourse." A great foreign policy. "We alone do good to our neighbors not upon a calculation of interest but in a 80. We have not forgotten to provide our weary spirits with many relaxations from toil we have regular games and sacrifices throughout the year at home the style of our life is refined and the delight which we daily feel in all these things helps banish sadness. artisand intellectual life. . had to be based not on ignprant selfishness. he includes equality before the laws In his definition ' of democracy and offices for the qualified. " — object in building the Parartists to thenon and other temples. in encouraging produce the best possible painting and sculpture. too. . The best interpreter of their public is character Pericles himself.

The middle obligation property and occupations functions. morals and manners music and athletics . religious protection .. wealthy: number. 71 Population of Attica. Military training. 2. 1. science. 5 ch. : (c) council. military c. vii Blumner. ch. mental . social 3. and obligations occupations : . religious. (6) festival. II. rights. {. 222-79. the " governor " a well-rounded edu- 4. and oratory.g. rhetoric. to- b. Religion: (o) the temple (e. government' attitude . (6) popular assembly. class . Athenian character : social. ix. admission . Education. Source-Booh of Ancient History. ir. origin. vi. occupations elimination of poverty. 145 . Bury. xvii. condition idea of abolition. character. The general condition. ch. Social Day of an Athenian. (d) courts. §§ 2. . public intellectual leadership. 2. v. 151-3.. 5. social. Foreign residents number. and : intellectual condition. Citizens. of father . Democracy: place in human progress (§ 61). History of Greece. Home Life of the Greeks. Topics for Reading Botsford. Industry. Life in Ancient Athens. Life of the Ancient Greeks. and Business. 338-43. (a) magistrates. : 4. The Delian Confederacy and the Athenian Empire. 1. HandI. ch. III. f. Slaves number. 3. Greek Com- — . Studies Syllabus of the Age of Pericles I. xviii. 6. : . Gulick. to brotherhood. occupations. Higher education Festivals life. 157-9. moral. chs. Schools : private elementary studies cation. 2. The poor ward . — History of Greece. 169-72. 189-204. Zimmem.d) mysteries and future happiPericles ness. . . oratory. : . in power . (c) relation between gods and men.. : : philosophy. xvii. III. — monwealth. Public 1. 5. Life. Tucker. number. the Periclean ideal. hook of Greek Constitutional History. and literary features. State government : . 5. Agriculture. chs. Children:. Source-Book of Greek History. Blumner. Fling. viii. Township character and institutions civic training. Parthenon). . . a. vi. § 5 Greenidge. xiv. chs. 148-51.

Source-Book. Would it be advantageous to us to make our education more " practical " than it is now. 10. following directions given on p.5. 4. 6. Why do you state derive from the fine arts did Pericles take of this matter ? What were the advantages and the disadvantages of large juries? 7. g. Compare the condition of the ordinary slave in Attica with that of the poor man of to-day. How did the Greek state differ in principle from our own? Could a large state be built up on the basis of kinship? . comment on each topic in order. xviii. or more like that of the Greeks? I. who works in a factory and lives in a crowded tenement. Compare and contrast the government of Athens with that of Egypt. Additional Studies suppose the Americans devote themselves to moneymaking to a greater degree than did the Greeks? In what ways could we profit by adopting their good qualities ? 2. Which on the whole seems the better form of government and society. Which condition seems to be the better? 3. question 8. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics above. Read Botsford. 8. chs.72 . our own or that of Athens in the time of Pericles ? 9.Athens in the Age of Pericles Review With the syllabus of the chapter before you. What benefits did the citizens ? and the and the religious festivals What view . and answer the questions at the close of these chapters.' xvii.

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). who remained the most enlightened and progressive of all the Greeks. This. Macedon came to the front. The latter ruled for a time over a great part of the Greek peninsula and over the islands of the iEgean Sea (404-371). From Pericles to Alexander About 430-330 B. Peloponnesian War a long struggle between Athens and Sparta and their respective allies (431-404 B. They were thinking more of their own pleasures and comforts. 73 . The Athenians. During all this period wars were going on among the city-states. increasing love of peace went citizens exist for the . for example. — The • ' principle that the good of the state had prevailed at Athens in the Age of Pericles and was still enforced by Sparta but the Greeks were generally outgrowing it. After Thebes dechned. Growth of Individualism. Yet the Greeks were taking more and more interest in other things than in war and poUtics.CHAPTER VI THE LATER PROGRESS OF GREEK CIVILIZATION I. Athens was — — finally defeated. were ready to defend their city when attacked but they were no longer willing to undergo hardships and risk their lives in trying to gain the supremacy over others. frescoed the interior walls with pictures.C. came to be for a few years the leading power in Greece (371-362). and paid more attention to their cooking. . and acknowledge Sparta as leader in war. 82.C. Political Sketch. a city of Bceotia. After the age of Pericles came the 8i. They built better dwellings. She was then overthrown in battle. She had to give up her empire. whereupon Thebes. bought better furniture and food.

too. .74 From in Pericles to Alexander hand with a gentler. Through the age of Pericles and for a few years afterward lived He-rod'o-tus. Without hesitation hp wrote down whatever he heard. Tlirough the front door we pass into an open court and thence into the main From Malet. We notice. . A longing to know what the people of past ages had achieved brought History into being. mere enu- hand ment of strangers — CouNiRY Dwelling of a Wealthy Greek Restoration.' building. an increasing desire for 83. inquiry. the " Father of History. History. Yet the anecdotes and even the myths. but Herodotus was the first to write real which joins events in a narrative and treats of their causes and effects and of the character of persons and cations. as he relates them. more humane spirit in the treatand inferiors. knowledge of various kinds. including the events leading up Much of his information he got by travel and personal to it. . 'Antiquity. The home in the country is larger and more comfortable than in the dty. throw merations of events history." Thousands of years earher the Orientals had begun to write chronicles. His History gives a detailed account of the great war between the Greeks and the Persians. including many fictions hence we call him uncritical.

public life. he stalked like a pehcan through the streets. In beliefs 85. The author took great pains to ascertain the truth historian. The spirit of the entire class was sceptical toward all existing and customs. The evils of sophistry were comSocrates (469-399). Their chief aim was to prepare young men for statesmanship. phonetics. of historians. The Sophists. Big-bodied and bandy-legged. ethics. In it the political and military details of this war are minutely narrated for the instruction of statesmen and generals. the criticism of literature. Grammar. For these reasons he is less attractive to the majority of readers. . however. a man whose thoughts and character have left a deep impression upon the world for all time. morals. Others were mere jugglers with words who taught " to make the worse cause appear the better. about a generation after Herodotus. that we must consider him one of the truest." With his enormously large bald head. The would combine the critical spirit of Thucydides with the breadth of sympathy of Herodotus. a class of men. Slowly the idea arose that useful knowledge could be imparted through Uterature. .History and Philosophy 75 such light upon the character of the people of whom he writes." and thus gave to the term sophist the bad meaning which it still retains. For a long time science and especially 84. con- scientious men. and' pohtical science originated with them. arose who professed to teach in these fields only such things as were useful. tus. bated by Soc'ra-tes. But beneath this ugly nose. flat and thick lips. wrote his History of the Peloponnesian War. protruding eyes. In addition to oratory they gave instruction in language. we consider him therefore the first distinctly critical Though more profound and accurate than Herodohe was not so broad-minded or so human and sympathetic. he resembled the satyr masks in the shop windows at Athens. — personal appearance he was " the ughest of the sons of men. Some were able. In the age of Pericles. as he is certainly the most charming. and various other subjects. It was with this object that Thu-cyd'i-des. termed Sophists. ideal historian — philosophy were studied for the pure love of knowledge.

From an examination of concrete facts he formed precise definitions of these and other . it is pleasing to God. but also because ance. he taught. was brought to trial on the charge of having corrupted the youth and of haying acted impiously toward the gods. is called induction — the in- ference of a general truth from partic- Thus Socrates furnished intelligence continues. cause he likes that very conduct which In this way he reconciled is most to our own advantage. Socrates. not only because Notably ugly in appearvirtue is useful to us. Man. at the age of seventy.. After a life of useful teaching. he crowned a useful life with the death of a saint and martyr. This genius he devoted to a search for truth through conversation with anyone he chanced to meet. Rome. Marble. 76 exterior From Pericles to Alexander was a mind of extraordinary power. God is good beCapitoline Museum. he proceeded to found a true scientific method. The "jury condemned him to death. Inspired by his wonderful personality. While laying bare the false logic of the majority of sophists. tific The scien- method of reasoning which he thus estabUshed ular facts. He would ask pointed questions requiring specific answers. subjects under consideration. and here represented with great fidelity. knowledge with faith. he believed in the rule one Supreme Being. In fact he had done the opposite. SOCEATES We should be virtuous. ethics with a foundation that will endure as long as human Though he acknowledged the existence many gods. must have reUgion as well as philosophy. his disciples scattered throughout the Greek world. even when unjustly administered. In this task he limited himself wholly to moral duties. inquiring for instance what was just and what unjust what was bravery and what cowardice what a state was. he considered it the duty of a good citizen to obey the laws. and what the character of a statesman. Though he might have escaped from the country. to found schools of philosophy of of . By his cheerful submission to the law.

From Thales (§ 60) to Plato scientific knowledge had been increasing. a pubUc garden at Athens and this place gave its name to the school of thought he founded. composed of " workers " and '' guardians. Aristotle 77 . and the same rights and duties. and above aU. views in They are not dry. In his works on Logic he treats elaborately . It was the idealized Spartan system." The workers were to do all the labor. mous Plato (427-347). The most fapupil of Socrates was Plato. The guardians comprised the soldiers and the governing class. one of the greatest philoso- — phers of all time. but in individual suggestions for the improvement of society and in the moral tone and inspiration of the work. thinker but a brilliantly gifted poet and a man of the noblest moral aims. ideas are the sole realities they are eternal and unchangeable. According to his view. which was altogether impracticable. forms. The greatest of his works is the Republic. It was an aristocracy. abstract discussions but are personal incidents. 86. Through them Socrates has influenced the thought of the world even to the present day. the most illustrious of Plato's pupils. by his own research added vastly to the contents of science. interesting touches of character. While engaged Dialogues.Socrates. in which he sets forth his ideal state. It was his achievement also to organize existing knowledge into departments. His Metaphysics deals with the abstruse problems of philosophy. The latter were all philosophers. Plato. . poetic beauty. mechanical and agricultural. His teaching centred about his doctrine of ideas. which with modifications and enlargements remain to the present day. Practically they were serfs. Aristotle. Aristotle (384-322). and exist only in heaven the things which we see in this world are mere copies of these heavenly . full of in teaching.based on his teachings. Plato embodied his . Among the guardians women were to have the same training as men. He taught in his house near the Academy. The value of this Dialogue lies not in the system as a whole. He was not only a profound . At the same time by emphasizing induction (§ 85) he greatly improved the method of scientific inquiry.

Greece. Assisted by his pupils. His prodigious achievements and the vast influence of his work on after time have made his name the greatest in the intelZoology. the greater part of a Hermes by Praxiteles. for instance took no account of individual peculiar- but aimed to express the type. and Botany (now lost). ever. His Ethics is a treatment of conduct on a purely scienHis tific basis. mostly of Greek states. on the including Physics. On the basis of the facts thus gathered he set forth in the Politics the principles of government. Pericles. however. of individuaUty. Astronomy. Meteorology. have been outgrown by modern progress. The artist aimed equally to eliminate emotion of every kind and to exhibit the person as perfectly calm ideal art. These are the qualities of In the course of the fourth century. though a great advance beyond his predecessors.. Sculpture. This tendency expressed itself not only in social and public life but also in art. Thus the bust of Pericles^ represents not so much the real Pericles as the typical Athe- nian statesman and general. His sculptures were less severe and dignified but freer and more graceful. with the growth the artist strove to express emotions. the sculptor ities In representing a man. his art became more realistic. and self-controlled. wholly disconnected with religious sa. Pericles to Alexander Closely related are his Rhetoric and Art^ oj. the most famous » p.nctions. In other words. other hand. lectual history of the world. Age has been stated above that after the importance at the expense of the state.78 of From reasoning. 66. — It of Pericles the individual gained severe and restrained. enumerated remain among the highest authoriHis studies of nature. Most of the statues now collected in the museums of the world are late. . imperfect copies of the masterpieces. In his time sculpture was 87. connection with his method of research may be illustrated in Politics. in the We have how- museum statue of the god at Olympia. works thus ties in far the fields they represent. he first composed a history and description of a hundred and fifty-eight constitutions. The Poetry.

Sculpture sculptor of the period 79 This artist stands he combines a high degree of strength and dignity with perfect grace of form and posture. and in this respect he of grief was a true child of his age. Greece. is rather the ideal Athenian youth a physically perfect — athlete. — and pain to others. life The states were still free . does not howseem to us to be a god he . Praxiteles can best well-known be seen from a copy of his Satyr now in Rome Leaving subjects to readers of Hawthorne's Marble Faun. graceful curves and a statue by Marble statue. and in spite of petty wars was in general more quiet. pleasant. we now midway between the extremes above mentioned . and happy than it had ever been before in Greece. and shoulThe person represented. ders. neck. this artist preferred to express the sunny features of human nature. Museum of Olympia. . pose of The The Hermes of Praxiteles Described in the text. The picthe wonderful treatment of the this shows and at the same time the natusurface ralness of the head. ever. and he adds a deUcacy in the treatment of are studying. the surface which no ture one in else had text equalled.

splendid efforts of the orator and statesman imperialism tri- umphed. Devoted to the affairs of peace. Greeks gradually lost their martial enand as they would not unite in one strong state.8o The Alexandrian Age II. They were peasants. and Greece became subject 89. they were doomed to become the prey of a more warlike and more powerful neighbor. Rome. the Athenians and the other 88. the best example of a Greek democracy. the most Museum. kingdom the neighboring Greek states ° ° ° and to entangle those more distant m the web of his intrigue. — of Greece. and the adjacent parts of Asia. the best material for the making of soldiers. The man who stood forth boldly in behalf of freedom was De-mos'the-nes of Athens. of the fourth century this country came under The Satyr of Praxiteles the rule of Philip. sculpture. and a community which has excelled all others in literature. rough and hardy. The Macedonian Empire and the Alexandrian Age Macedon. he began of human form but with the rapidly by f orce or fraud to annex to his ears and tail of a goat. and huntsmen.) in a series of brilliant campaigns subdued Egypt. the Persian empire. ^^' ° "* eminent orator the world has known. Demosthenes and Philip represented two great principles in conflict. shepherds. ergy. In this satyr the goat features are scarcely visible. atten- dant on the god Dionysus. — His to Philip. Mac'e-don.C. It was the largest country thus Alexander. was inhabited by a people closely related to the Greeks. son Alexander (336-323 B. but far less advanced in civilization. local freedom strugIn spite of all the gling to maintain itself against imperiaUsm. About the middle B. . We have now reviewed the greatest age During that time Athens was the most brilliant of many famous Greek cities. An able commander A satyr is a mythical being and a clever diplomatist. and architecture. the conquering state here referred to.C.

and many centres of intellectual development. obtained Egypt as his realm. philosophers.C. Alexandee Idealized. Egypt. . Every Greek settlement in the Orient engaged in manufacturing and under one government. which continued under his descendants. Capitoline . composing mosaics.). arid weaving tapestries and other rich Science : that of Apollo. For progress in mechanics a thorough knowledge of mathe' The SeleucidEe were the descendants of Seleucus. Her trade routes reached eastward to India and westward over aU the shores of the Mediterranean. Museum. artists. of this conquest — . Mathematics and Mechanics. G . The most famous of the colonies founded by Alexander was Alexandria. ointments and drugs. blowing glass. till the Roman con- quest (31 B. extending from the death of the great conqueror to the Roman conquest of Greece. In the socalled Alexandrian Age. another general..Supremacy far united of Macedon 8i The most important result was the extension of Greek civilization over Egypt and western Asia and the chief means to this end was the planting of Greek colonies in various parts of the empire. the Ptolemies. scholars. Ptolemy. chief of these Alexandria became the life. Her people busied themselves with making paper (§ 27). ancient science and scholarship reached their highest point of scientists. 90.C. 323-146 B. Soon after Alexander's death his empire divided into three kingdoms Macedon. a general under Alexander who made himself king of this region. Alexandria soon became the industrial and commercial centre of the known world. textiles. the face is emotional and the hair resembles preparing toilet perfumes and incense. and in Asia the realm of the Seleu'ci-dae ^ but the pohcy of encouraging Greek civilization continued. — In every Greek city lived not only business men but also poets. Eg)^t. More favorably situated than any other. conmierce.

He covered. and other objects plex or of comform. whose field included both pure and apphed mathematics. cone. with which his countrymen long defended their city against the besieging Romans the helix for launching ships and mov. and logical that it forms the basis of every modeirn work on the subject. More inventive was Ar-chi-me'des of Syracuse. the dredge.i Though acquainted with the principle of the steam water-mills water pressure. the jack for hoisting weights. _ and a pumping engine. and who drew a part of his material from earlier writers. pipe organs operated by hand or by fire engines for throwing a jet of water by compressed air. the endless ropeway or chain. a means of computing specific gravity and of measuring the area of the circle and the contents of the sphere. great weights. His work shows Elements. and other mechanical engineers of his time em- ployed water pressure (hydromechanics) and air pressure (pneumatics) for various purposes. He was a Greels of Heron's 'Pneumatics. . a. too. clear. From the MS.' scientist who Kved in Alexandria. and the fire squirt. treatise an acquaintance with certain principles of higher algebra of and dis- calculus. irregular his Among inventions mechanical were engines for hurling great missiles. He A Geeek Pipe Organ Operated by water pressure. ' To this list might be added the siphon. perhaps about lob A. and sprinklers for purifying the body before entering a temple.D.. This want was partly supplied by Eu'clid's on geometry so precise. Among the machines in use were and windmills.82 matics is The Alexandrian Age necessary. ing other.

the geog- rapher. which represents the the sun. they 83 In fact Greek invenbut applied mechanical toys for the made no practical use of it. Many of these . earth as the centre of the universe. Greek scientists had long believed the to explore other regions known. Science: Geography. and perhaps even more the lack of a desire among most Greeks (ch. computed circumference is about 28. for will respectively. and Medicine.000 miles. It was found that the sun is many times as large as the earth. and that India could be reached by saiUng A Greek Steam Boiler west across the Atlantic. tors neglected the production of labor-saving devices their talent rather to the creation of entertainment of the public.of Alexander greatly enlarged the bounds of geographical knowledge and stimulated in had abounded — uSil men then uninformation thus gathered was published in geographies. xxvii). Astronomy. and its in the age we are at now reviewing Er-a-tos'the-nes. He discovered. of Heron's 'Pneumatics. and that the nerves are of two kinds. remarkably that He believed.The Sciences engine. conveying the feeling and the too. by most scientists in favor of the view afterward known as the Ptol-e-ma'ic system. too. Meanwhile is in physiology He-roph'i-lus found that the brain the seat of the mind. if to accumulate large fortunes. substantially the circulation of the blood. the opposite side of the earth was inhabited. 91. Or we may try well imagine the Greeks bringing about the Industrial Revolution only their coun- good mineral coal. after the astronomer Ptolemy. however. The campaigns . The new earth to be round . which cheapened labor. were it possible Similar adto make so long a voyage.' and that the earth revolves on its axis and around This truth was rejected. The reason is in part slavery. which near the truth. The ball is kept in space by the pressure of steam issuing from a boiling cauldron. From the MS. vances were made in astronomy.

including a dining-hall. The Zoological Park. and lectures. as a healing god he seems to be warding off plied devotion to the Muses. rather than this ofScial. tists museum were defrayed from the royal In the museum and the library scienScholarship. It served not only as an attraction to visitors but as an incencovered in recent years. — tive to the study of natu^-e. devoted themselves to the discovery of new" truth and . For. and the Museum. cine . conversation. One of the kings of Egypt founded a zoological park. sive . including amounted to 500. and treasury. 92. fuller Schol- and more accurate works on zoology and botany. to be redis- In the same age the practice of medibecame more scientific than before.000. The librarian. A volume (roll) was not an entire work but a large division (book) of duplicates. the Library. The Museum was an of scholars. In this period the number of volumes.84 The Alexandrian Age truths were rejected at the time or soon forgotten. a pleasant garden with seats. The pestilence. in which the kings gathered ars could now write the largest collection of books in the ancient world. in which he and his successors gathered many varieties of animals from all the known parts of the earth. the History by Herodotus contains nine association such books. school of research under a president appointed It was a by the king. — . was generally the most eniinent scholar in the world. king granted the society quarters in the palace. and porticoes for walking. Hellenistic age. All the expenses of maintaining the park. anaesthetics were used and surgeons acquired great skill. and in this sense it im- His attitude is defenVatican. written Apollo Belvedere Marble statue. The postiure is theatHcal and the long hair is elaborately arranged. example. A -greater institution was the Library. 93. library. a work.

Review Greek history from Pericles to Demosthenes. . The fine arts were an imitation. ch.Scholarship 85 scholars were equally busy with systematizing existing knowledge. I. — Botsford and Sihler. The Spartan Supremacy. They wrote commentaries on the language and style of these works. . ch. ch. xxii. for instance. II. Sankey. chs. i-xi. Define individualism. but lacks the naturalness and the strength which we find in the sculpture of the best period. chs. their changed home-life and its influence on their Who was patriotism. 174-239 Holm. 4. the first historian? write? Compare him with Herodotus. and achievements). What were his principles? What method of reasoning did he follow? I. How did the writing of history originate? What did Thucydides Describe his history. Fling. i-viii. — zation. Topics for Reading Botsford. and works on philosophy. Ancient World. Who were the sophists? What did they teach ? 5. Holm. The is Apollo Belvedere. x. Botsford. chs. Outside the field of science the Greeks had nearly ceased to create. Give a brief sketch of . political histories. xxi-xxiv. Social Conditions after 337 B. xix. less however from inspiration than for the display of their learning and skill. V.C. Hellenic CiviliIV. xxviii Bury. or at best an elaTjoration. xx Fling. Spartan and Theban Supremacies. Source-Book of Greek History. Science and Inventions. chs. xxii. xi. History of the Ancient World. 250-76. Others produced biographies. The Pelopoflnesian War. Literature was scholarly but not original. xix. II. chs. ch. History of Greece. Many wrote poetry. — — . 3. ii. 159-282 Wheeler. Philip and Alexander of Macedon. and composed histories of the various departments of literature. Alexander. Botsford and Sihler. . xix. chs. Alexander the Great. graceful and delicately finished. . 2. xx Source-Book of Ancient History. of earlier models. iii (boyhood and education) xxii (his great battles) xxxi (death. xviii. chs. III. — . Explain the changed character of the Athenians. They compared and criticised the manuscripts of earlier authors with a view to preparing correct texts. III. Hogarth. Describe the personal appearance of Socrates. a statue chiselled in this period. character. Source-Book. . xxvii. History of Greece.

Read Botsford. 2. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics above. chs. Who was Aristotle? How did he differ from Plato? 7. the Museum. Describe the Library at Alexandria. and answer the questions at the close of these chapters. 9. ? 9. Name and describe his chief works. and surgery? 14.iflict with Demosthenes. Inedicine. Why did Philip succeed in conquering the Greeks ? Did the Greeks gain or lose by the change of condition? 6. Give an account of Philip's career . What progress did the Greeks make in physiology.86 6. With what did scholars busy themselves? What was Plato? did he write? Additional Studies Who Are the fourth-century conditions described in § 82 an improveof Pericles? Give reasons for your opinion. Write a syllabus of this chapter like the one on p. size. ment on the Age What does the sculpture of the fourth century teach us in regard to the changing character of the Greeks ? 4. Source-Book. of his co. ib. Why should we study Socrates and Plato in connection with Greek history? Why is it that what people think may be more important than what they do? 5.C. the Zoological Park. Describe the social system contained in his Republic. and movement ? What was the Ptolemaic system? 13. and what were his achievements? 11. What was his influence on after time ? 8. Describe from the map the situation of Macedon. last question. p. For what were Euclid and Archimedes respectively famous? What did the Greeks accomplish in mathematics and mechanics? 12. 71. Who was Praxiteles ? Name and describe some of his works. Who was Alexander. following the directions given on 11. Athens in the age of Pericles or Alexandria in the third century B. Which had the higher civilization. 10. xix-xxvii. Besides the ancient historians what sources of knowledge have we concerning the Greeks? Are statues and buildings sources of knowledge? I. In what respects does the Alexandrian age seem like our own? 8. WaS Alexander's empire an improvement on the Persian? 7. How much of the earth's surf ace were they acquainted with ? What did they know of its form. How did he differ from Pheidias? 9. . The Alexandrian Age What school did he found? Explain his ideas. 15. 3.

For more than two cen87 — . the Romans were an unimaginative people. literature. — The — free- and act as we choose under the laws which we and our fathers have established. to 27 B. degree of local independence with imperial strength. Greece and Rome in the World's Progress. was originally created by the Greeks.c. our education. The Greek states failed because they were too small and enjoy. Ruled at first by nally a city-state like Athens or Sparta.CHAPTER VII THE GROWTH OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE From about 750 94. our love of the beautiful in nature and art in brief. who were very slow to appreciate education. This Rome to the world's progress will now be ex- Rome was origiOccupations of the Early Romans. however. speak. nearly everything which makes life worth living.000 men. and art. In contrast with the Greeks. most of these contributions were lost to the world. it became a republic in 509 b. kings. women. as ancient civilization declined. during a long period. It was left to Rome to combine. They have been regained by the moderns partly through the revival of ancient studies (§§ 244-268) and partly through their own labors and experiences during the period extending from the Middle Ages to the present time. and the inhabitants numbered -about 60. the right to think. and children.C. a high contribution of plained. In time. dom we now weak to maintain their liberties against neighboring powers. At this time the amount of land included in the state was about three hundred and fifty square miles. 95. oiu: interest in athletic and intellectual competitions.

They carried on a small trade with the E-trus'can's across the Tiber. if Even the son should the father had a right to flog . In others the tradesmen plied their vocations and offered their . The habit of obedience. was exercised. This paternal. He raised grain and vegetables and his cattle or sheep. These people were the commons (ple-bei'ans. were allowed to graze on the public pasture. including shoes. him or to sell him into slavery. bronze and iron wares. — as long as he lived. and in row-boats up and down the river. gr. for many a peasant had to tUl his farm with a hoe. The son remained in subjection till his father's death. was so thoroughly implanted in the young that it became a part of their nature. and other weapons. Extending along the sides were the wooden booths in which the people could buy their meat. of subjection to authority. As the Romans 96.andchildren. thought only of the affairs of everyday life. helmets. shields. The Romans produced almost nothing to give in exchange for these imports. they did not feel the need of individual freedom. and few therefore could read and write. however. On a piece of low ground near the centre was the Forum -rparketplace. A few articles of luxury came in from the Greek colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. — wares for sale. as did the Greeks. plebs). was absolute master of his children and At her marriage the daughter passed from the authority of the father to that of her husband. so that she never became free. pottery. and silver and gold trinkets. Most of them were farmers. if he had any. not' capriciously. Subjection to Authority in the Family. He was fortunate who had turies after the a yoke of oxen for ploughing.88 The Growth oj the Roman Empire founding of the republic they had no schools whatever. There were a few nobles (pa-tri'ci-ans) who owned larger farms. The father. vegetables. but in their frequent wars they took many prisoners whom they could sell as slaves. swords. and bread. become a magistrate. The city was situated on a group of seven hills on the left bank of the Tiber river about fourteen miles from its mouth. The average citizen had a field of no more than perhaps two or three acres. but in accordance with customs that were handed down through the generations.power.

and made the proposal and the people without debate voted to accept or to reject the motion. the most important political event in ancient history is the growth of the Roman empire. The Romans. to watch over . made better soldiers than could be found in Greece. and many were sold into slavery for debts. Rome brought under her power a belt of countries extending entirely round the Mediterranean. — Next to the free city-state of the Greeks. and the population was growing so rapidly. their prosaic nature. With the help of the senate. In the next hundred and thirty years (264133 B. that on the slightest pretext they went to war and seized hungrily the lands of their neighbors. through a new series of wars.Subjection 97. Thus far the first step only had been taken. east by the Euphrates Further wars were required to reduce . they called the citizens together. made up of about three hundred influential citizens. and their habit of obedience. termed tribunes of the plebs. they carried with them into year all civic life the habit of subordination to the authorities of the state.C. the citizens Once a to pass met in assembly to elect their chief magisthese officers trates. the people had no thought of curing the evil by making the government more democratic. commons and to protect them from oppresthe founding of 98. To their commands the people yielded the strictest obedience. with their limited intelligence. the welfare of the sion. Their laborious lives. to Authority 89 Subjection to Authority in the State. The Growth of the Empire.C.). When it came about that the poorer class were oppressed. they merely instituted ten new officers. When a new law or to begin a war. Hence it was that from the small beginnings described above Rome rapidly extended her supremacy over all the peninsular part of Italy (about 400-264 B. At the same time their means of living were so scant. too. — When wanted the sons grew to manhood. rendered them hardy and enduring. bounded on the west by the Atlantic and on the river. the two consuls.). the consuls ruled with far greater power than is allowed to the President of the United States or to the king of Great Britain to-day.

of the allied states of this region to the condition of sub- and some new conquests were afterward made. to win control of so great a territory by brute strength alone. Among the causes of Causes of Roman Greatness. Soidiers Marching shields. In the territory ruled by Carthage and throughout the Orient had no interest whatever in defending their country. The freemen were either methe masses chanics and shopkeepers. breastplates and lances. whose spirits had been crushed by centuries of grinding labor. who lacked the physical endurance .' half-hearted resistance under their authority. who were never cast down by defeat and never over-elated by victory. From Schreiber. many others offered but a a few only. persevering character of the Romans. They were slaves. and they the less civilized peoples of Europe. however. or at best serfs. this wonderful expansion of power was the solid.90 The Growth of the Roman Empire some jects. In fact many communities came 99. fought desperately in defence of their libwillingly . erties. 'Atlas of Classical Antiquities. — Roman Showing the military emblems. It would have been impossible for them.

.

THE ROMAN EMPIRE at its GREATEST EXTENT 27 B. SCALE OF MILES 100 *^M^^*Boundary at Death Beyond this the Italic. appear in the places indicated.D. after Marcus Aurelius.- of A. Barbarian races which. . later additions.^.G-3C5 A.ugustus.

.

;

Warfare

91

necessary to military life, or the rich, who would rather submit to a foreign yoke than give up their ease and their luxuries.

Like the Athenians in the age of Philip and Alexander, they were in no condition to withstand a virile, military power. It often happened, too, that the smaller or weaker communities looked to Rome for protection from their stronger neighbors. In addition to these advantages the Romans had an eflScient military system. Adopting the phalanx from the Greeks (§51), they divided it into small companies with a view to lightness

and

flexibility.

The

de-

fensive

armor was about the same as the Greek but for offence they depended greatly upon the
javelin, a short spear for

hurling.

Coming near

to

the enemy, the front line
of the

Romans threw

their

javelins into the opposing

ranks,

and then with drawn swords charged upon the confused foemen.

A

Catapult

Many a victory they gained in this way. Like they had the Greeks,
heavy and
light infantry,

Restoration. For throwing darts,- wliereas the ballista hurled stones. These two macliines, with the battering ram, were the principal siege engines.

cavalry, machines for throwing stones
for battering the gates of besieged cities.
100.

and

darts,

and rams

The Romans found, too, in Local Self-government. of government a help in building up their power. their The small city and territory which they originally occupied
method
assembly, senate, and needed but a few simple institutions While engaged in for its government. a few magistrates gaining control of other states, they rarely created a new office or changed the nature of an old institution to meet new condi-

tions.

of

Lacking the means of administering the internal affairs annexed communities, they allowed each to carry on its own

92

The Growth of

the

Roman Empire

government with little or no interference on their part. The empire in the first century b.c. was accordingly not one vast state, but rather a loose collection of states, which varied greatly in population, in custoihs and laws, in government, and in degree of independence. In general they were (i) the alhes of Rome, whether kingships or republics, which paid no tribute but helped with military forces and supplies in war, (2) the subject states, which paid an annual tribute. 101. The Provinces. A group of subject states occupying a definite country, as Sicily or Syria, was organized as a province. Each province was governed by an officer sent out from Rome. It is to be noticed that during the republic and for a long time under the principate (§ 1 20) the governor hmited himself mostly to maintaining peace in his province, and to general supervision over the relations of the communities to one another and to Rome. With their internal affairs he had little to do. The privilege of collecting the tributes was let out by auction In some instances this auctioning took to the highest bidders.

place at
of their

Rome,

in others in the provinces.

In the latter case

the provincial cities had an opportunity to bid for the collection

own tributes, and they were glad to do this in order to keep foreign tax-collectors from their territories. The provinces of Rome, together with her dependent allies, constituted her empire. She retained her republican government for a long time after she began to acquire provinces and for this period accordingly we may describe her as an imperial republic, like the United States since the acquisition of the
;

Philippine Islands.
102.

Abuses

of

Government.

— It

is

important to 'study

new conditions on both the subjects and the governing people. The Romans looked upon the provincials as an inferior class, to whom they owed little or no duty. The
the effect of these
best the subjects could expect of a governor

was

strict justice

devoid of sympathy. Generally officials and private speculators found in the provinces merely a means of enriching themselves at the expense of the inhabitants. By restricting their
trade,

by

extortion

and oppression, the Romans got into

their

The Need of Reform

93

hands a great part of the wealth of the subject countries. Everywhere they acquired vast estates worked by slaves, or by tenants who were on the verge of serfdom. This policy was ruinous to the provincials, and soon compelled them to regret
their subjection to
Its evil efiects

Rome.
felt also in Italy

made themselves

and Rome.

The system
free

of great estates displaced the little farms of the

ItaUan peasants and reduced them to beggary. Unable to compete with Rome, the once prosperous towns of Italy fell to ruins. The impoverished peasants and traders flocked to the capital. As most labor, skilled and unskilled, was done by slaves, it was impossible for so many free people to find a livelihood in the great city. Thus grew up a mob of idlers, dependent on the charity of wealthy patrons, who received their votes in exchange for gifts of food and exhibitions of gladiatorial fights. The chasm between the very rich and the very

poor kept widening. The population rapidly declined. The army, recruited from the peasant class, so weakened as to cause alarm for the safety of the empire. Amid the corruption and the 103. Tiberius Gracchus. self-seeking of the time a few men could be found of pure character and patriotic aims. Most noteworthy were the brothers Tiberius and Gains Gracchus. They were yoimg men of the noblest birth and of excellent education. Had they wished 'to cast their lot with their own social class, they might have passed their Hves in easy enjoyment. But they preferred to devote themselves to the cause of the poor and to the best

interests of the state. of the plebs in 133 b.c.

Tiberius, the elder,

became a tribune

Before this time the tribunes by vari-

ous means had come to be more. powerful even than the consuls. Tiberius interested himself chiefly in the land question. By conquest and in other ways the Roman state had acquired
vast tracts of land in Italy and the provinces. Most of it was used by the rich, who ought legally to have paid rents on it to
trates,

the government, but who, through the negligence of the magishad long avoided payment and had come to regard the

land as their own.

As

tribvuie Tiberius

proposed a law that

94
all this

The Growth of
pubKc
land, over

the

Roman Empire

family, should be taken from the present holders

and above 500-1000 acres ^ to the and distrib-

uted in lots of not more than thirty acres
.it

among

the needy.

His bill was adopted and tended to restore the peasantry.
;

in so far as it

was carried into efiect, Meantime Tiberius be-

came candidate

for the tribuneship for a second year.

When

the people

came together

to vote in the election, a
of senators dispersed them, and mur-

mob

dered
act

Tiberius.

This

was the beginning of a revolution which was to end a hundred
years later in the over-

— Ten
death

throw of the republic. 104. Gaius Gracchus.
years
of
after the his

Tiberius,

brother Gaius held the

same

office.

As a

relief

to the poor,

who were

threatened with starva-

A

Fisherman

tion,

he carried through

Seated on a stump, and holding his rod and

the assembly a law which

ornament a fountain. After Alexander the Greeks began to take an artistic interest in homely subjects, such as this one, and the Romans
fishbasket ; probably designed as an
for

required the government
to
sell

to

each

citizen

family a specified quantity of grain

inherited the taste.

Bronze, National

Museum

every month

at Naples.

at about half the average

Naturally this measure brought him supporters, him to a second term. His chief aim was to continue the. work of his brother. He had laws enacted for planting colonies in Italy and the provinces, to restore to these

market

price.

who

elected

'

ours.

The Roman acre (jugerunt) is here meant it was hardly two-thirds the size of The head of the family reserved 500 acres for himself and 250 for each son,
;

not exceeding two.

Tribune and General
countries the prosperity which

95

Roman

misrule had destroyed.
too narrow-minded

The

voters at

Rome, however, were

and

selfish to

appreciate his statesmanlike views.

When

therefore

he proposed to grant the Roman citizenship to the Italians, they defeated the measure and soon afterward Gaius, too, was murdered. Thereupon the nobles proceeded to undo his good work, but allowed the grain law to remain in force. The repubUc continued therefore to decline. An achievement of the Gracchi was to point the direction in which reforms should be made, and in the midst of a corrupt generation to furnish examples of unselfish devotion to the cause of human rights. Henceforth progress was made along the hues they had drawn. Notably the citizenship was extended, till all the ItaUans became Romans (88 B.C.). As a rule the magistrates 105. Marius and the New Army. were now thoroughly incompetent in the affairs of peace and in the command of armies. Barbarian tribes from the North
;

defeated five Roman armies in quick succession (i 13-105 B.C.), ravaged Gaul and Spain, and threatened to invade Italy. Rome seenied helpless. It happened at this time, however, that one of the consuls was Marius, a man of the people, who by miUtary abihty had made his way up to the highest office. He raised an army of volunteers from the poorest class. After carefully organizing and training these new troops, he led them against the enemy. In two battles he defeated the invading hordes with great slaughter, thus removing for many years the danger that threatened the civilized world from the North. ' The victory, however, was won at a great cost to the repubhc. Formerly the armies had been composed of peasant proprietors, who through their lands and families were attached loyally This class, however, had disappeared, and the to the state. attempt of the Gracchi to restore it had been foiled. From the time of Marius, therefore, the armies had to be made up of
volunteers from the poorest class who found a Uvelihood in war and
of their

of

professional

soldiers

who esteemed

the interest

commander more highly than

that of their country.

Marius was loyal

to the constitution;

but he was followed

96

The Growth
generals

of the

Roman Empire
poUtical supremin the streets of

by

acy.

who used their armies for gaining They fought against one another even Rome. There were civil wars and massacres
was at the mercy
io6. of the generals,

the government and lacked the strength neces;

sary for enforcing law and order.

The homeless poor increased Cicero and Catiline. and the discontented became continually more in numbers,
violent.

They found a champion

in Cat'i-line, a

member

of

an old patrician family and a man of great ability. Loaded down with debt's which he could never pay, he conceived
sulship

the desperate plan of winning the confor himself that he might
divide

abohsh debts and confiscate the property of the rich in order to
it

among
ClCEEO

the poor.

The

ears,

breast,

of the nose are
rations.

and half modern resto-

The forehead is high

In these times of violence there lived Cipero. He one great man of. peace was born in a small town of Italy, in a family of moderate wealth. While he was still young his parents took up

and broad, and the expression
is

thoughtful.

The

short

their residence in

Rome,

to give their

neck seems due to a wrong restoration. Marble, Vatican

Museum.

son a good education. After finishing the elementary branches (§ 112) Cicero

studied law, Ustened eagerly to the eminent orators of the time, took lessons in Greek and Latin rhetoric, and finally went to Rhodes to complete his preparation as an orator under the greatest instructors of the age. Thi^
possible education,

was the usual course followed by students who desired the best and who could afford the expense. Returning to Rome, Cicero began pleading in the law-courts and gradually entered upon a statesman's career. His success was due td conscientiousness, industry, ability, and eloquence. At the earhest legal age he had filled all the bfiices below the consulship in due order. When accordingly Catiline began his campaign for the consulship, the

party of the, nobility looked to Cicero to oppose

;

Cicero and Casar

97

him. Cicero was elected consul for the year 63 B.C. Catiline then plotted to murder the consuls and leading nobles, to seize the government, and to carry out his radical measures by force.

The

conspiracy, centring in

of Italy.

It included the raising of a rebel

Rome, extended over a great part army in the country

some distance from Rome. The vigilance and energy of Cicero, however, detected and overcame the plot. On this occasion he deUvered in succession
his four Orations against Catiline,
their fiery eloquence.

CatiUne

fled to his

which are stiU admired for army, but was killed

in battle,

and

his

Several accompUces,

were arrested, tried senate, and put to the time being Cicero had saved the repubhc. We should not forget, however, that the republic existed for the profit of a few aristocrats

army was overthrown. remaining in Rome, and condemned by the death by Cicero. For

and

,

of the

Roman

populace,

who
^

Julius

c^sae
sil-

received free grain from the government

On

a denarius, a
''°'^"»

and
1

sold their votes to
-..-ii.
/•

buy. Milhons of throughout the empire, but httle better than slaves, were cultivatmg the estates of the aristocrats and paying heavy rents and
taxes, to feed the populace

any who wished to men, women, and children
1

^^^ <=""

^^out
always
*"'

1

•!

1

twenty
^n.

cents. Portraits

coins

are

genuine, whereas busts and statues "" °''"" ^""^ ^'^'"'=

misnamed.

extravagance.
107.

and to enable their lords to live in Neither Cicero nor Catiline seems to have given the slightest thought to these toilers.
Julius Caesar.

— In

the

conflict

among

the generals

for the mastery of

one of them was sure to win in the end and to make himself an absolute ruler. This was to be the achievement of Juhus Caesar, a young patrician of briUiant

Rome

mind and tmbounded ambition.
became
consul.
to this time the

As champion
oflSces

of the

commons
he

he gradually rose through the usual

till,

in 59 B.C.,

Down

government had owned large

tracts
(§ 104)

' Gaius Gracchus had provided the Roman populace with cheap grain some time afterward they began to receive it free.

H

98

The Growtfi of

the

Roman Empire

of land in Italy,

Caesar proposed

which it leased out to tenants. As consul and carried a law for the distribution of all

In this respect this land in small freeholds among the needy. he was following in the footsteps of the Gracchi. It was the beginning of a much-needed reform. The government possessed far larger tracts in aU the provinces, which likewise should have been distributed but we do not know that Caesar thought A great part of his energy of proceeding so far with his reforms. during his consulship was given to rewarding political friends, fighting opponents, and laying plans for building up for him;

self

a great military power.

108.

The Conquest

of Gaul.

— After

the expiration of his

consulship Caesar began the conquest of Gaul, a semi-civilized

modern France with Belgium and HolIn this work he showed himself a brilliant military genius. He had not only to conquer, but afterward to crush fierce rebellions among his subjects. In the year 50 B.C. the task was
country, approximately
land.

completed.

wars had spread desolation and death over the end his just and humane settlement of affairs attached the subjects loyally to him. The Gauls retained a large degree of self-government. The more warlike of the inhabitants took service in the Roman armies the rest settled down to agriculture, mining, industry, and commerce. From these activities the country derived great wealth. Gaul was an important source of strength to Rome in solIt helped protect the diers, in food supplies, and in taxes. Rhine frontier from the barbarous Germans. It rapidly adopted the language and customs of the Rbmans. The conquest began a new policy the opening of northwestern and central

Although

his

entire country, in the

;

Europe

to

Roman

civilization.

Caesar was now a mili109. The Civil War (49-45 B.C.). tary potentate, with a large, well-trained army devoted to himself.

who placed

Naturally he was hated and feared by the aristocrats, all their hopes in Pompey, another general who had gained great success in war. Civil war broke out between Caesar and the aristocratic party. In the social history of

;

Casar

99

Rome

war is interesting as a conflict between seasoned on the one hand, and raw levies of peasants, on the other. The great lords began by making up legions from the tenants on their estates in Italy; but not finding enough material there, they resorted to Macedonia and the Orient, where the system of great estates had been established long before the Roman conquest. Not only in Asia Minor and Syria, but in Africa and Spain the vast farms of the aristocrats were nearly denuded of peasants to swell the armies. The result might easily have been foreseen. Farmers, when free and when they have a cause to fight for, may be trained into excellent soldiers but these people were scarcely half-free they had no interest in the struggle, and were wholly lacking in miUtary drill. They
this

troops,

;

were
in

They were fewer more to rebuild the houses and barns that the enemy had burned, and to repair the damages to the fields. Many lords were }cilled; and in that case the land went to the government or became the property
number, and they had to
toil all

mown down by Caesar's veterans. The war made their condition far harder.
the

of Caesar.

Many
affected

estates were

confiscated, but the

tenants

by the change of masters. The power of the aristocracy was broken. Most of those who survived were either reduced to poverty or saw their incomes so diminished that they could no longer play an influential part in the affairs
were
little

of the state.

In the beno. The Dictatorship of Caesar (49-44 B.C.). ginning of the war Caesar gained control of Italy, and thereafter he rapidly extended his authority tiU he became master of the empire. As dictator he enjoyed absolute power. In Rome he erected pubUc buildings and he planned great improvements for Italy. CarefuUy supervising the governors of the provinces, he guarded against their extorting money from the subjects and against other forms of oppression. The worst evil
in the

Roman

administration was the method of leasing the

collection of taxes to contractors (§ loi).

The men who

se-

cured these leases piUaged the subjects unmercifully. In certain parts of the empire, as in the province of Asia and probably

loo
in Sicily,

The Growth of

the

Roman Empire

he abolished the contract system and handed over Had he lived, he might cities. have extended this benefit to the entire empire. His good will toward the subjects is shown, too, in his grant of the Roman The advantage that citizenship to many provincial cities. came from the acquisition of citizenship lay in its protection from mistreatment at the hands of officials. Caesar's chief aim, however, seems to have been power and military glory. Hence
the collection of taxes to the
instead of devoting his whole en,ergy to the welfare of his empire,

that of Parthia. he planned the conquest of another empire Great as he was, Caesar had no thought of giving the empire a constitution, under which the people could protect and govern themselves. He was satisfied to establish a paternal despotism, which unfits the subjects for self-government and affords no guarantee for the continuance of justice and good will on the

Had Caesar's government conwould hardly have remained a permanent and xmmixed blessing to the empire. His assassination (44 B.C.) by a band of republican conspirators, however, was a great mistake, as it plunged the Roman world again into civil war. After a long, hard struggle, his nephew and heir, Oc-ta-vi-a'nus gained the mastery. At the point of time when Octavianus began to organize his government (27 B.C.), we may say that the republic came to an end.
part of the ruler or his heirs.
tinued,
it

Syllabus of the Growth of
I.

Rome

Place of

Rome

in the world's history

;

contrasts with Greece.

II.

Early
1. 2.

social

and

political condition.

Situation of

Rome;

Occupations:

extent of territory; population. farming, grazing, few industries, and slight

commerce.
3.

The family: strong
:

4.

rule of the father; lack of individuality; obedience and discipline. Government assembly, senate, and magistrates subjection of the individual to authority; lack -of democratic feeling.
;

III.

Extension of power. 1. Warlike population; comparison with the Greeks. 2. Expansion over Italy; over the Mediterranean basin.

ch. Marius and the military reform political effect. . Classes of dependents (o) allies. Story of Rome. period (i) with the Spartans. s. (c) taxes. a few great capitalists impoverishment and degradation of the masses. . ch. Local self-government. The Gracchi: 3. II. Botsford. III. Ancient World. Botsford. (a) composition. Abbott. Story of Pelham. growth . ch. ch. Abbott. 4. vi. Abuses 1. 1. 22-9 Abbott. (ft) governor. 2. 158-98. : . of the republic. Frank. — ' — . results. Organization of her empire. . Outlines of Roman History. . 63-80. Conspiracy of Catiline suppressed by Cicero lack pathy with the provincials. . From § . World. of great estates 2. ii. The province : : V. 88-91 . XXV Source-Book. . of sym- VII. Rise of military potentates. ii . Attempts at reform. a virtual monarchy reforms and plan of further conquest. Topics for Reading I. 2. 1. Ancient World. aims. defects in his statesmanship. What were the chief general course of the world's civilization? Compare the Romans of this traits of early Roman character? 3. ch. Roman . Pelham. (2) with the Athenians. xix. The Early Roman £^gship. Why should foreign communities willingly submit to I. . and measures. ch. of slavery. . Was the Give reasons for your opinearly republic aristocratic or democratic? ion. Rome. History of the Ancient Source-Book of Ancient History. restrictions on trade . 3. IV. VI. Roman Imperialism. . depopulation. (6) subjects. Government during the Wars of Conquest. 376 f. Additional Studies 94 do you infer that the world has made steady progress from early Greek times to the present? What seems to have been the 2. ch. their character. of government. Do we have any institution corresponding to the popular assembly? 6. Effect on Italy and Rome .. . : . ch. 2. Studies 3. — Political Institutions. loi Causes of expansion Roman courage and virility poor military quality of her opponents their love of peace. End 1. family and politics consulship Julius Cassar conquest of Gaul civil war conflict of peasants with trained soldiers dictatorship. The Province. Oppression of subjects . vi. xxix. xxv. Botsford.

In what does the greatness of Cicero lie? 12. . Botsford. What evidences of Cassar's statesmanship are given by the. Read 13. V. of the Roman Empire Rome? Why 8. chs.With the Syllabus before you. Balance the advantages against the disadvantages of Roman rule. xxxvi. Why should we say that the work of Marius was monarchical in tendency? 11. xxxvii or Story of Rome. comment on its successive topics. vii. and answer the questions at the close of these chapters. text? 14. IS. did not the is conditions? What Romans readily adapt themselves to new an empire (Dictionary)? 9. xxxi. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics.I02 The Growth 7. iii. viii. chs. Which were the weightier? 10. Source-Book.

509-300 B. the Twelve Tables. a young Greek was brought to Rome as a war captive. In this field. The alphabet itself was a gift of Greece to the Romans. Early in the third century B. he began to teach for a living. of Rome on Greece. we discover strong Greek influence. — We are not surprised therefore to discover that the Roman school-system hkewise came from Greece. to 27 B. In the earhest Roman law code. the Roman mihtary system was originally Greek. This man was Liv'i-us An-dro-ni'cus. Schools. For example. and in the later development of law in the direction of fairness and equahty for all classes Greek philosophy had an important part. 112. founder of the first Roman school. Some years afterward. but was changed to meet the conditions of warfare in Italy. In an earlier paramention was made of the lack of systematic education during the first two centuries of the repubhc. who changed it somewhat to make it more suitable to their own language.CHAPTER VIII THE GROWTH OF ROMAN CIVILIZATION About 750 III.C.C. they adapted to their own use whatever they borrowed from Dependence — graph (§ 9s) others. when set free. First came the 103 . and reduced to slavery according to the custom of the time. especially from the Greeks who lived in colonies near them. however. It soon came about that the schools were divided into two grades. they borrowed most of the elements of their civilization from other peoples. the Romans ultimately advanced far beyond the Greeks. As the Romans were not remarkably intellectual or inventive. In fact the Romans did not merely adopt.C.

them after they had grown up.I04 The Growth of Roman Civilization primary school. From Schreiber. tive literature Latin for After a na- A Youth Reading tence. writing. . their ready knowledge of the law proved valuable to . on the lower is a bowl. the world. In the wealthier families the children generally received instruction at home. probably for paint. All schools were private. in which the pupils studied literature. or who desired a good education for its own sake. had to learn Greek. In their earlier lessons they read and copied moral maxims and they were compelled Although to commit to memory the laws of the Twelve Tables. For the more difficult problems they used a reckoning board (ab'a-cus). and arithmetic. Every Roman who wished to engage in business or in poHtical life. sarcophagus. history. the pupils studied the had come into exisworks as well as those His chair has a curved back and curved legs. and the teachers . Andronicus Odyssey (§§ translated 58. As there was in the beginning no Latin literature. and philosophy in. either slaves or freedmen. The teachers of both grades were usually Greeks. ReKef on a late Roman of their own poets of the Greeks. His book is a roll of papyrus. On the upper shelf is a pile of books. for it was the only means of com'Atlas of Classical Antiquities. At the top of this bookcase is a writing desk with a tablet. whose master taught reading. either from a slave or from a paid teacher.' munication among the nations of the Mediterranean basin and of coming into touch with the best poetry. 68) into Homer's the use of his pupils. For this reason the study of Greek occupied a large place in the grammar school. In their writing lessons the pupils used wax tablets as did the Greek boys (§ 68) and in arithmetic they made calculations on their fingers. whereas the children of the less wealthy attended schools. this exercise was extremely dry and repellent. science. Above the primary grade was the grammar school. as it is too flat for ink.

). stay the scourge."^ 1 13.). of Literature (70-27 B.C. " ! O Huzza Huzza ! Huzza This poem shows no evidence of artistic taste. while entertaining us by their light humor. beginning of a native Uterature. fragments. see § 130. together • in civil rights. Summon Help us. haste upon the multitude. and with the stirring political and military events. ye Lares. in customs." whose duty was the blessings of the gods for the crops. Mars. the " Field Brethren. The Beginnings of Literature. leap the threshold. and orations. In this passage the an averter of evil fields. but — The Romans made a it was extremely crude. usually god of war. school. His plays. to collect the fees As it was difficult and to enforce discipline. the Romans of this time began to write epic poetry. many of whose comedies may still be read. Let not blight and ruin.— Literature 105 were paid for their work by the parents. the life of the in- structor proved miserable. is here from the crops and from the country people. present an interesting picture of Greek and Roman life of the period in which they were written. . fierce Mars all . The most famous of these translators was Plautus (254-184 B. Andronicus. and Mars. and his example was soon followed by natives. The Ciceronian Age lifetiihe of During the ians had now become Romans in ideas. For a long time boys only were sent to For the education of girls. began to translate Greek plays into Latin. the gods of sowing. Be satiate. In addition to comedies and tragedies. however. The fact that all the Ital- 114. history. to obtain We may form an idea of it from La'res are gods of the the following chant of a group of priests.C. In making the translations he introduced touches of Roman life and character. adapted from the Greek. Cicero Latin literature reached so high a degree of perfection that it has furnished models for writers from that time to the present day. Of these works we have mere satire. ! O ye in turn Mars. " Help us.

hip. Cicero has done more for the education of the world than any other individual. For the cure of diseases and the. ^For three centuries after 115. hip. split it men hold measures — it to the hipbones. however. and let two Then begin singing in different " Hip. healing of fractured bones they usually resorted to incantations." ! — . The Cure of Diseases. down the middle. hurrah Bones are crushed and far apart Come together by our art. Hip. I trow. Cato. Some of these speeches tion. others are addressed to the senate or to the people on the questions of the time. many generations are pleadings before the courts. story of his campaigns in simple and direct yet elegant language.io6 The Growth of Roman Civilization furnished a powerful stimulus to thought and literary produc- At the same time the study of Greek culture through had at length brought into being a class of 'highly educated Romans with refined tastes and intellectual interests. hurrah I Though your broken sore. Among his contemporaries were poets and prose writers. 'Viewed in this light. One who to-day is preparing himself for public speaking will fi^d useful lessons in the style and spirit of these orations. for whom there is no spaqe in this volume. and philosophic subjects in the Latin language. was his presentation of Greek ideas on moral. In the study of Latin to-day the first book read is This work tells the Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. One who wishes to cultivate a narrative style can find no better model. hip. the founding of the republic the Romans had no physicians. — : three or four feet long. one of the wise old Romans. gives the following recipe for mending a fractured " It will become sound by this spell take a green reed. You will come together now. The most valuable contribution of Cicero to the world's progress. Through him therefore these ideas were spread abroad over all western Europe. After reading Caesar the present high-school pupil advances to the Orations of Cicero. religious.

in solemn form promised the deity a gift on condition . He was welcomed and granted the citizenship and the senate provided at public cost a hospital for his patients. when Greek merchants were bringing their — wares to Rome to barter for native products. the god cured them of their illness. There were the Ma'nes. As early as the 117. too. believed in a multitude of spirits. guardian of the others. Those who were thought of as especially powerful. but were the shadowy doubles of the objects to which they belonged. After his time many generations passed before the Romans preferred a physician to a doctor-god or an .Religion 107 In time they learned that the Greeks had a god. Many were thought of as evildoers. sixth century B. in the earth beneath. In like manner the flocks and crops had their deities who averted evil and gave increase. Originally these spirits had no independent being.C. maker of the vow was bound to his promise otherwise he was released from it. . whom the people had to win by gifts and ceremonies. They went accordingly by ship and brought home a snake which always attended this god. gods of the dead. — . like other Each lived in an object. Still later a physician came from Greece (219 B. the Romans began . or a magistrate for the state. The family. the If the god fulfilled his part of the con. sun. tree. Romans. ^Es-cu-la'pi-us.). stream. and built for it and its master a temple at Rome. food Vesta who lived in the hearth Janus. were considered gods. and many of his granting success. door. or moon. and whose names were known.C. the pe-na'tes. — The early early peoples. The Introduction of Greek Religion. whose business it was to heal the sick. sky. who guarded the supply of too. Before beginning any important enterprise a Roman in behalf of himself. had its gods 116.. Sick people were taken to the temple in the belief that while they were sleeping there. But in the practice of his profession he cut and cauterized so severely that the people declared him a butcher and would have nothing more to do with him. tract. incantation. Every man had a spirit termed his Genius every woman had her Juno. The Native Religion. as a man.

and in their festivals they began to honor them in the Greek way. is Rome. Sometimes they identified the foreign god In this case they usually gave it the wilJi one of their own. their spirit of grain. cellae : the middle room by Minerva. Roman name. Temple to Jupiter. his wife. whom they found very attractive. the left by Juno. deity the attributes of the Greek god. skill and wisdom. on the other hand. Greek goddess of agriculture. Jdno and Minerva Capitob'ne Hill. Juno. and Minerva is goddess of war. Restoration from archaeological data. was introduced under his own name. They came to regard them as possessing the form and character of men and women. they identified her with In all such cases they gave their Ce'res. At the same time the Romans were adopting the Greek ideas of their gods. Augustus repaired and greatly occupied by Jupiter. the right enriched this temple. the For example. Jupiter is the supreme deity. with horse and chariot races.io8 The Growth of Roman Civilization to learn something about these strangers' gods. when they introduced De-me'ter. They began immediately therefore to introduce Greek deities into their community and to build temples for them. with music . It includes three prindpal rooms. A-pol'lo. is Queen.

118. but the architect at Rome wrought in the in the spirit of her people. He left the exterior plain and unatIt was tractive. Public Works. and with it scepticism. — In the age when Athens was at the height of her glory.c. Rome was an under insignificant little city-state. which the intelligent could despise.Temples and Useful Works and athletic'competitions. the learned from the Greeks. as a form of the Christian church. with modifications. whose inhabitants were for the most part simple peasants. Summary Pericles of the Republic. common in Italy 119. Their contact with foreigners. After his time. essentially a vast hall with aisles separated from nave. In it courts were held. In mediaeval and modern times the basilica has survived. however. pius Clau'di-us built the first About 300 statesman Ap'- great road for his city and the respectively the aqueduct. sometimes by arched piers but of tener by colonnades. which were brutal and demoralizing. In 109 this manner the Romans gained Greek life. and this is one reason why the republic came to an many of the refinements of . but which the state found useful in controlling the masses. The vices of the educated unfitted them for governmental duty. so that Rome was abundantly supplied with fresh water. most educated men looked upon religion as a fiction. other aqueducts were built. was not always advantageous to themselves from the Etruscans. The loss of faith was accompanied by a decline of morals. The result was that while the ignorant continued to believe in the gods. A form of building much used at Rome was the ba-sil'i-ca. especially (§ 263). At the time we have now reached . Meanwhile the Romans were eagerly imbibing Greek philosophy. who lived north of the Tiber. and merchants and bankers transacted The style of building was borrowed from Greece second century B. they introduced as a funeral accompaniment gladiatorial fights. — The first construction of aqueducts they b. .C. end. business. to devote his whole attention to the interior. named after him Appian Way and the Appian Aqueduct. as the population of the city increased.

. -The city was the most populous in the world. it THe Growth of Roman Civilization was the capital of an empire which included the whole of the Mediterranean basin. for law-courts. and shelter for the public._ Restoration from archaeological data. too. desolating wars among the great military . no (27 B. moral civil degeneracy.C. by Augustus . There were. business. The wealthy families erected for themselves sumptuous dwellings. which they adorned with the statues and paintings they had brought as plunder from Greece. On the dark side of the picture we should place the enormous increase in the lies of number of slaves. leaving a vast gulf between the very and the very poor. Basilica Julia rebuilt Built by Julius Caesar . a few large temples and buildings for governmental and business purposes. Far more people were educated now than formerly. Slowly the city was taking on The Interior.). the diminishing population. the form of a great and wealthy capital. and there was already a beginning of a great literature worthy of study even to the present day. the disappearance of the fami- rich moderate means.

i4»ciera< TForW. Source-Book. Review r. Mackail. Describe the native elements of Roman literature. chs. Compare the . 5. Duff. Religion of Numa. and what was 8. Studies chieftains. and talented men in the service of the state Topics for Reading Early Religion. Carter. Name and describe their chief public its effect on their morals? are the origins of the various elements of How did the first Roman school originate? Roman civiliza- works of this period. seditions. xxxv and take notes on " character and civilization. Why did so many Romans learn the Greek language? 4. Why were the Romans later than the . What did Caesar and Cicero respectively write. efficient government and of a more healthful social spirit. 332-4. Describe their primitive religion. Caesar as a Historian. iv-vii. xxix. wise statesman to the creation of a settled. Fowler. — of the II. chs. 3. and for what are their several works noted? What is the place of Cicero in the history of civilization? 5. What elements did the Romans borrow from Greece ? 4. 33. Yet amid the chaos of repubUcan government and society a universal longing for peace. xxxii. 2. and what was taught in each ? Who were the teachers? 3. 398-414. giving hope of better things. Did tive Roman religion with that of Egypt the introduction of Greek religious ideas make the Roman religion Give reasons for your opinion.' especially lects. What deities and religious ideas did they borrow from Greece? 7. 62-77 Literary History of Rome. Story of Rome. i. Cicero as an Author. 338-42. Latin Literature. 6. J — — . Source-Book. How did the Romans originally try to cure diseases ? Who was ^Esculapius? What were their experiences with the first physician who came from Greece? 6. 1-61 Religious Life of Ancient Rome. summoned the strong. massacres III which cut off the most and planted fear and hatred deep in the hearts of all classes. Botsford. tion? What were the grades. Additional Studies I. Write a syllabus of this chapter like the one given at the close of the last chapter." 8. 78-82 Duff. their bargaining with the deity. Compare the nawith that of Greece. if in any.. What 2. Mackail. Religious Experience I. 40-4. III. In what respects. better or worse? Read Botsf ord. 349-397. From what source did the Romans derive their philosophy. were the Romans superior to the Greeks ? 7. Roman Peo^ie. Greeks in becoming civilized ? schools of Rome with those of Greece (§ 67). ii.

He was convinced that the aristocracy alone could furnish the men competent offices to the higher legions.c. all — In vianus overcame his enemies. had enriched themselves by dishonesty and oppression. I. was to be the ruling the Italians alone were to fill the legions and to hold the offices.C.. Political a long It Growth war (43-31 B.. In the year 27 b. however. should be its government. were opposed. and i-»L ^ ^Wi) mP/ "i* W. ican Museum. and had murdered their patron. Julius Csesar had made himself an absolute ruler. and was in his power to say what civil 120. ambition of- the Italian nation.C.-. The Prince.CHAPTER IX THE PRINCIPATE AND THE MONARCHY 27 B. as stated became master of the empire. far from serving him faithfully.D.) Octaabove (§ no). had appointed to magistracies his military officers and other favorites. to 337 A. to monarchy. accordingly the republic was restored but with important modifications. that he could hold the empire together in no other OcTAVIANnS way than by Vat- reviving the spirit class and the This aris- At about sixteen years. These men. Octavianus was to retain com- . The tocracy and the nation. fill the senate and and command the He believed. too. Octavianus was too prudent to repeat the mistake. .

it from republic to monarchy. sometimes from a new family. — Sometimes the new prince was a relative of his predecessor. Meantime the title im-pe-ra'tor.it sanctioned the elevation of his adopted son Tiberius to the principate. They treated the prince in this way. like a temple or the image of a deity. The Prince becomes a Monarch. The senate still had an important place in the administration and when Augustus died in 14 A. It is customary to substitute this title for the name Octavianus.) he was as absolute as any Oriental king. . but we must keep in mind the fact that all his successors bore the same title. Though in a condition to check the prince. — prince's power was aided by religion. and from there extended over the empire. The latter word only an English derivative from the former. The senate decreed Octavianus the In this way his person title Augustus. Often he was recommended by the populace or the soldiers." supplanted that of prince and is came to signify emperor. The Romans adopted from the Greeks the idea that a great man might be a god.The Prince 113 mand at of the armies and Rome. but they were overshadowed by the prince. state of transition All the old republican offices continued.D. time this worship became a bond which united the Roman . Thus he remained through life the chief magisThe government may now be termed a principate. at first meaning " general. but his powers he received from the senate.) he became a real monarch. The Worship of the Prince. the " consecrated. In another century and a half (125284 A.c. to about 125 A. was a 121. Under in flatter- these cir- cumstances the prince gradually gained power at the expense of the senate." was made sacred.D.D. He was to hold in addition some of the offices to be the " first citizen " prince (Latin prin-ceps). tUl in the course of a century and a half (27 b. its ing members strove among themselves for precedence him and in voting him new authority. still somewhat limited by the senate. who should be worshipped with divine honors.. The growth of the 122. The building of temples for the worship of the prince began In in Asia Minor. trate.

Vatican In his wrongs and to make every needed improvement. It is not strange that people who beUeved in many deities should regard as their chief god the man whose will was law throughout the civilized world. and who as a rule humanely and ably say. the prince generally accomplished the desired improvement to the In this way he satisfaction of all. Gradually. number of trained. The Principate and the Monarchy Refusal to ofEer incense to his Genius. Marble statue. and new duties were constantly undertaken. but formed a means of knitting' the empire closely together under his rule. was punishable with death. justice. ship of the prince not only exalted him above the senate and the ordinary magistrates of Rome. Readily accepting such invitations either through interest in the public welfare or through love of popularity.114 world. The Genius of Augustus A man beyond middle age. able. 123. No magistrate. hand is a cornucopia. loyal helpers. with toga over his head and a shallow bowl in his right hand. to his provided for his people peace. signifying abundance. The Prince as an AdministraAnother reator the Bureaucracy. As the guardian spirit of Augustus he brings prosperity to the empire. continually acquired new duties and new power. there grew up a large class of men who were loyal to the prince and experienced in his service. In this way . and in general the conditions necessary The worto prosperity and happiness. or as we may Guardian Spirit. Meanwhile the various duties of the prince were converted into oflSces. however Museum. — authority was the disposition of the people to their call upon him to right aE. son for the growth of the prince's . however. in some such way as the people of the United States are more and more inclined to depend on the President. He is about to left offer a sacrifice. can be a monarch without a large Augustus found no one ac- quainted with the duties of administration outside the senate.

till like a great net. rivers spanned by magnificent stone bridges. Two great advantages came from this policy. — district. After the natives had come to be like the Romans in language and in life. and their successors founded many colonies of Latin-speaking people in the provinces. Britain. extended to the natives. customs. It was through this bureaucracy that the prince finally became an absolute monarch. The public works of the Romans were built to last for ages. Gaul. Another means of centralization was the roads. The roads were straight. . Egypt was occupied by Phoenicians. and in general the West. centring at Rome. they were given the citizenship. The republic began the building of highways through Italy and the provinces and this work was carried on by the prince. and founded on hard rock beds.. when acquired. it was a centre from which the language. and proved as loyal to Rome conquest. Augustus. helped secure the obedience of the surrounding natives secondly. and valleys by causeways of the same material. In her conquest of Italy Rome had planted in each tion. whose Rome. parts. Julius Caesar. Along these roads swift messengers carried the correspondence between the prince and his officials along them marched the armies to protect the frontier or to put down bandits or rebels. loyal to the mother city. The aim was to Romanize Africa. Hills were cut through. broad. There were a few Greek and Phoenician . where as a rule the people were comparatively uncivilized at the time of their To a great degree the policy was successful. colonies of her own citizens or of the Gains Gracchus began in the same way to colonize the provinces. Colonies were a further aid to centraliza124. . In the first place such a colony. Means of Centralization 115 developed a complex system of offices described as a bureaucracy. The empire was held together only by the ease of communication between its centre and its remotest At the same time the highways were lines of traffic. especially in those of the West. and laws of the Romans closely related Latins.! » The northern coast of Africa west of of civilization colonies in was older than that Gaul and Spain. they ran through every town in the vast empire. Spain. Colonies.

Rome made no attempt' to displace it by her own. so that there were few towns. There were a few Roman colonies farther east as at Berytus (Beirut). Syria. just as they already were in the East. It was her aim rather to encourage its further growth in the Orient. one ruled the East and the other the West. from guished. 125. Growth of Cities.ri6 The Principate and the Monarchy as the colonists. as in western Europe and along the Danube. These city-states were like those of Greece or like Rome before she began to extend her power (§§ 43. Citizenship was not acquired by residence but was occasionally bestowed as a gift. City Government. — The attitude toward the part of the empire east of the Adriatic sea In this part Greek civiUzation prevailed as Recognizing the the result of Alexander's conquests (§ 89). already highly civilized were many large cities. In all these places Rome encouraged the growth of cities. 9s). In the other parts. There was still but one empire though divided for administrative purposes. the settlers were mainly Greek and the colonies received Greek names. As a result of this policy most of the states of the empire in the West came to be cities. . partly because the natives could learn in them to speak and live like the Romans far more speedily than when scattered through the country. The latter were either citizens or non-citizens. named after the emperor Con'-stan-tine (306-337). of slaves and freemen. Rome remained the capital of the West and Constantinople. superiority of Greek culture. and partly because Rome knew better how to govern city-states than country-states. The population of a city consisted 127. In the countries which Rome found 126.' The result was that in time the empire consisted of a Roman half in the West and a Greek half in the East. When accordingly she planted colonies in the East. — — ' This statement does not hold for the provinces north of Greece afld Macedonia. became the capital of the East. of whom they could no longer be distin- The Latin West and the Grecian East. . most people lived in the country. When under Di-o-cle'ti-an (284-305) there came to be two emperors. All the citizens had a Rome was different.

and who had an honorable character and occupation. . patterned after the Roman consuls. co'ni-us Pris'cus for duovir." 128. There were quaestors and sdiles at Rome. It was partly by gifts from wealthy citizens that most cities acquired enough property to pay from the revenue all its necessary expenses. In the first century a. Such communities levied no taxes whatever. in fact Public fee fixed Spirit. magistrate received no salary on becoming a curialis he had to Public life gave him little opportunity for illegal gains. were eligible to oflSces. — The on entering office or pay a by law. Below them were the quaestors. In general the ancient state possessed a large capital either in money or in rentable in addition to the required in entertaining them with • The ffidiles were chiefs of police. Many a city received from the same source an endowment for producing the annual tribute due to Rome. The chief magistrates were the du-o'vir-i (" board of two "). who were treasurers. On the walls of the houses — the — of Pom-pei'i (§ 132) may be found written in large letters such expressions as.. supervisors of the markets. At the expiration of their and in the year of duoviri. without resort to taxation.d. became life members of the cu'ri-a — city including the council — they did not already belong to it. On the contrary the people expected him. if office all the important magistrates. the duoviri supplied the deficiency by enrolling among the members cu-ri-a'les more wealthy and distinguished private citizens of the community and sometimes even rich or celebrated strangers. As there were not enough retired magistrates to fill the curia to its normal number. feasts payment. But those only who possessed a certain amount of property fixed by law. " The barbers wish to have Tre'bi-us as aedUe " * and " The fruit-sellers unanimously support Hol. Every fifth year the duoviri took a census and made an assessment of their community. games. usually a hundred. The right to attend the assembly trates Cities 117 and vote in the election of magismaking of laws. etc. we know that there was still spirited rivalry for office. to expend his own money and shows and in building or repairing public works. whence the cities of the empire derived these and other institutions.

we noticed that in earliest times the Romans were — barbarians. their achievement in the history of culture is From the beginning the tliis Roman dress resembled the Greek. but in spite of their wealth and their political power they remained inferior to the Greeks in intelligence and refinement. They were not producers of art or of ideas ' . and the result was a prosperity throughout the empire such as the world had not seen before. In any case the city received the benefit. poems. but only a few had the genius to produce literature comparable with the Greek. II. civilization and that they derived the greater part of their from Greece. whereas a modern state or municipality as a rule has no productive wealth but is burdened with heavy debts. and hence not described in chapter. the interest on which. aqueducts. however. and the remaining arts. Social Life 129. they enjoyed writing for publication. their private and social life came to resemble closely that of the Greeks. republic In our study of the Romans and Greeks Compared. It was inevitable therefore that as they progressed. bridges. in addition to other enormous expenses. in every theatres. must be paid by taxes on the citizens. and through the government of the empire many Romans acquired enormous fortunes. in the extant ruins of excellent roads. but sometimes it was the mere desire of popularity. For example. and the number of dramas. temples.^ Through conquests. Only by taking account of this great contrast can we appreciate the prosperity of the cities of the empire and the generous patriotism of the wealthy The motive was often unselfish.ii8 Social Life property the income from which went far toward defra5dng expenses.. The same was true of their taste for music. and other public works part of the Mediterranean country then included in the empire. fortifications. We read of it in the books written at the time and we discover proofs of it people. sculpture. They were able therefore to make a lavish display. . and philosophic works produced by them was stupendous. histories.

poems. that the matron . if she had any. A proiid father boasts that by these charms his daughter will soon win an excellent husband. The rest of her property. remained under her own control. lyre-plajdng. As the bride was considered too young to have wisdom in such matters. other works. ophy. In addition to the common branches they learned singing. and dancing. Before marriage her conduct was strictly supervised. Under a law Marriage. Many women kept themselves well informed on the events A of the day.. The daughters of the wealthy. certain Roman expresses his gratitude to his aunt for having helped him in the duties of his magistracy. and has already been described The daughter of poor parents attended the primary (§ 112).' — nearly like that of the Greeks. however. These pursuits led them far from the old Roman ideal. and were thoroughly acquainted with politics. which was restored to her in case of a separation through the husband's fault. in a modified form. The bride brought with her a dowry. Girls and Women 119 was to spread the civilization of Greece. a girl from thirteen to sixteen. the Position of Women. school with her brothers and studied the same subjects. Others interested themselves in literature and philosfriends. or they themselves composed memoirs. her father or guardian made the arrangements for her and she could refuse only in case her proposed husband had a notoriously bad character. afterward she was mistress of the household and enjoyed complete social freedom. Others were so 131. — of influential that they could secure oflEices for then: relatives and. over western Europe. Education of Girls. Often girls and boys were called upon to sing in the same choruses at public religious festivals. A man should marry before he was twenty-five. and. The education of boys was 130. A Roman poet asks " Is it a poet's ambition to be read out by : a hoarse and pompous schoolmaster to an uns)mipathetic crowd of boys and girls? " Here is one of many indications that boys and girls studied literature together. were instructed at home. They either acted as critics and patrons of men. Augustus early marriage was required.

the space was cramped. and even Augustus wore homespun. In all ancient cities^ hemmed in as they 132. lava). In the upper classes such examples were Most women in this circle devoted themselves to in that age. woven and stitched and daughter. Women who witnessed these games and indulged in all manner of vice were no less brutalized and debased than the men of the same circle. but everywhere else was a congestion of the masses — .I20 Social Life should devote her days to spinning ^nd to the supervision of the household. another for the enjoyment of the spectators. by his wife rare. the sidewalks and the stones for crossing. In some families this ancient ideal was still cherished . Present appearance. From a photograph. where men butchered one Street in Pompeii Notice the absence of windows. the luxuries and the dissipations common They attended the gladiatorial fights. There were in Rome a few public squares and a few broad streets in the wealthier quarters. were by walls. The Streets. Streets and roads are paved with flat blocks of hard black stone (silex.

D. woodwork was burned but the streets and the house walls to a varying height have been well preserved. tion of one of these streets. Fresh water abounded from the many aqueducts. From a photograph. and has been unearthed in recent years. over the pavement. They were paved with large flat stones of lava. . and at intervals stone blocks were placed. building material. and this activity. and a part of the width was occupied by wares exhibited for sale in front of the shops. It was buried by an eruption of Vesuvius in 79 Nearly all the A.Streets 121 The streets were extremely narrow. See the illustra. The appearance of a smaller city is made clear by the ruins of Pompeii. on which pedestrians might cross in wet weather. multitudinous noises. and hundreds of tanks and beautiful fountains were distributed along the streets. made sleep difficult. it crosses the low plain (Campagna) near Rome on arches above 80 feet in height. wagons loaded with food. and merchandise rattled all night long into the smallest possible area. . As teaming was forbidden at Rome during the day.~^' The Claudian Aqueduct Bringing fresh -vater from the mounFinished by Claudius the Prince (Princeps) tains 43 miles distant. together with other . Best preserved section.

and through which the rain poured into a square basin in the floor. which the owner leased in- out with a view to increasing his come. The guest entered the a'tri-um (court). faced the street. This space was often adorned with and other memorials of the family. The capacity was not so great as that of many a building to-day but the rooms were much smaller and. . and purple hangings. paintings.122 Social Life In Rome the middle and poorer classes were 133. with some of its furniture. Only the wealthy families could afford individual dwellings. which admitted the light. On the floor were mosaics.there were far more occupants to a . The Peristyle an outer ing to hall lead- the door. elaborately wrought in imitation of an Oriental carpet. Monotonous walls. where he found the master of the house ready to welcome him. with no windows first in the stoiy. statues. Present appearance. In a house at Pompeii. packed closely together in tenements occupying a whole block and rising to a height of four orfive stories. Houses. The rbof of this room slanted on all sides to an opening in the centre. The outside was plain with no ornamentation except at the doorway. Often the front was lined with shops. roused richly decorated with costly marble pillars. opened the door. From a photograph. — given space. In these buildings there was great diversity of plan corresponding to the requirements of the space and the taste of the owner. the slave porter. The entire atrium was portrait statues tor approached. As the visifrom his nap in the little lodge. The ^ visitor en- tered the vestibule.

Houses 123 Adjoining the atrium. room was located here. The . whereas those of the men were grouped about the atrium. right. and the court fountains especially needed a supply. each containing at least one table. Sometimes a large diningair. and branches led off to the Sometimes a tank was placed near the top several buildings. A third story in a dwelling was rare. and the whole room was lavishly adorned with works of art. The bathrooms. sweating room on apparatus below. mains were laid along the streets under the pavement in about the same way as at present. A board on the fourth side held the costly vases and cmriosities of the proprietor. were the sleeping rooms and other private apartments of the women. rooms received their light and air from the two courts. There was usually a second heating Restoration. and someAll these times a Ubrary. Other rooms were probably used for storage and others for slaves. and in various quarters of the house. Three sides of the table were occupied by couches on which the luxurious Romans reclined in Greek style while eating their sumptuous repasts. from which pipes led to the various rooms where water was needed. in which the members of the fampassed the greater part of It is noteworthy that the plan of the house secluded family life from the public far more completely ily their time. story so built as to interfere as little as possible with the light. A Roman Bath Bath on our our left. the kitchen. For supplying the tenements and the private houses with water. of the house. than is possible among us. bathrooiris. and comfort of the lower rooms. There were also a kitchen. The pipes were of bronze or lead and varied in size according to requirements. The per'i-style was an inner court planted with trees and Round this court flowers and surrounded by a colonnade. were dining rooms.

architecture. such as medicine. These false ideas were a positive blemish on Roman life. and other property relations. Many satisfied themselves in the coldest weather with braziers. So strict were they in guarding property rights that they developed a complex system of law relating to inheritance. The Romans were keen 134. They included most of the great . called knights (Latin eq'ui-tes) because under the early republic they had formed the cavalry.. Lending money on interest — ' was disreputable. A senator might honorably pursue agriculture for profit. fessions. as governors of provinces. and on the many administrative boards required for the empire. Convenient openings admitted this heat into the rooms. In the warm climate of Italy there is less need of heating than in America or England. 124 refuse water of the Social Life cesspools Pompeian houses was drained partly into and partly into small sewers that have been discovered under the pavement of the streets. At the same time many of them had large landed estates throughout the empire. leaving enable them to live in luxury. In the more luxurious houses a furnace in the basement sent hot air through flues passing immediately beneath the floors and through the walls which enclosed the living rooms and bathrooms. Below the senators were a class of wealthy people. This contempt of the senatorial class for most occupations arose from a consciousness that they had a higher calling in the business of government. and teaching. from which they derived incomes sufficient to in fact the higher class this kind of business. he might be forgiven for engaging in wholesale commerce. provided he retired from it in good season. In contrast with this all-pervading desire of gain was the social prejudice against nearly every money-making occupation. Little better were the proof all kinds were held in contempt. business men. Occupations of the Wealthy. A great part of their Civil Law consists of such regulations. Under the principate they continued to serve as military officers. yet their income chiefly on depended for it however Retail trade and manual labor to their freedmen to carry on. contracts.

Business business men. rare dyes. — . The vast trade of the empire. . spices and gums from Arabia and its neighborhood. on which he paid interest. Banking. and which he lent out at a profit. devoid Usually the of compass and ill prepared to battle with storms. From Britain and the Baltic coasts came tin and amber from the Black Sea. A large part of the banker's business consisted in the exchange of money for many states of the empire long retained their separate coinage. He collected debts. propelled by oar and wind. aromatic herbs saffron and raisin wine from Crete and Cilicia purple dyes from Tyre paper and linen from Egypt and Syria Silks. involving the investment of money in many kinds of business. trade routes covered the Mediterranean and its tributary seas in a net-work and lined the coasts from China to Britain. merchant travelled with his ship. . and other far-eastern products came from India and China. Commerce and Manufacturing. and issued bills of exchange for the convenience of merchants and travellers. These bills were written orders on the banks of other cities for the payment of specified sums.. tion of taxes. precious stones. and which developed into the bureaucracy (§ 123). for 136. In addition to these public services they had their own occupations. but the profits greater. were imposed on goods in transport across the borders. . revenue only. Like the modem banker. of which we have taken but — . he received money on deposit. . 135. . or fleet. devised by the Greeks. and incense from Bithynia. which severely punished any case of proved dishonesty. In brief. A system of this kind implied a high degree of credit it was under the supervision of the government. This freedom of trade did much to offset the dangers to the small merchant ships. A banking system. The risks were great. found its way to Rome in the early republic. to attend personally to his business. 125 collec- They formed corporations for leasing the and individually they served the prince management of his as his financial agents in the many estates and in the supervision of his interests throughout the empire. Light duties. They were the men who filled the offices which he created. salt fish. ebony. tow.

whereas public officials could demand free entertainment from the cities through which they passedi In the larger cities tolerable inns could for there world. yet a general or a swift messenger might. be f oimd elsewhere they were wretched.more splendidly arrayed. thousand carriages. sleeping. In the absence of railways and steamboats travel was much slower then than it is now. we find an endless array For their mutual interests and even more for social intercourse. drivers wore scarlet liveries . The traveller by sea had therefore to watch his chance for a ship. In the neighborhood of military camps travel was safe only in out-of-the-way places. and especially in the mountains. Travel. the prince. — - His mules were shod with silver. eating. Sometimes a robber band grew so formidable as to terrorize a whole province yet. protecting deity.. Journeying by land was more certain. An association of the kind had its officers. their and the outriders were even. in a light chariot and by frequent dianges of horses. A noble Journeyed in great state. The wealthy magnate took with him his household of slaves and all the apparatus for cooking. for passengers. including the delicacies as well as the necessities of were no luxurious hotels like those of the modern Often travellers lodged with friends. It expressed its will by passing resolutions. and life . The excellent roads have been mentioned. in general. . iur dividuals and small parties were exposed to attacks from bandits. had a of skilled trades minutely specialized. and make his bargain. . and the sailings of merchantmen were irregular. sculptors. implies great activity in producing the necesFrom bakers and butchers up sities and the luxuries of life. to goldsmiths. and festivals. .126 Social Life a glimpse above. and incidentally for feasts and entertainments. Similar shcieties were formed to care for the burial of its members. life and property in Italy and the empire were probably as secure as in the same countries . men of the same trades banded themselves together in guUds. and painters. many of which have been preserved in inscriptions on stone. At that time there were no ships exclusively 137. Nero. make a hundred miles or more in twenty-four hours.

whom Younger. and traders conveying their merchandise in wagons to and from the great commercial ports. Pliny the Gifts from clients were a great source of wealth. The intense building activity of the principate called for a great ntunber of These classes proficient architects. treated the poor free of charge. supplied by Greece and the Orient. Every army was attended by a corps of doctors and in time every town had its official physicians. and a His Letters are gracefully composed.d. and sculptors. families seeking to better their fortunes by change of residence. and physicians had to learn their profession through apprenticeship. and who had large sums of money — to invest in business or to lend at interest. it was natural that to attach himself the chief profession should be law. Most physicians were slaves and freedmen. Professions 127 people during the past century. painters. The world was full of such movements. Although in early time the Romans had preferred incantations to doctors t§ lis). Under these favorable conditions moved about with great freedom. architects. political career generally continued to plead cases in court. they gradually overcame this prejudice. and made whatever profit they could from those who were able . artists. officers hurrying to their senger's of the commands. which mingled the natives of the empire. throngs of slaves brought in from the frontier. the government of an empire. for example. was a senator. were mainly Greek.Travel. a practical lawyer. The Professions. and give us literary man. who drew salaries from the pubhc treasury. In like manner. and sympathy. instruction in this subject a to a jurist To obtain the necessary young man had he admired. soldiers passing to or from their legions. Among a people whose chief task was 138.). much information as to the social and intellectual life of his age (about 100 a. rnesgovernment carrying despatches. A man who entered upon a it was easy to step into pffice. Christian mis- sionaries spreading the Gospel. and who was willing in a spirit of From the practice of law friendship to take him as a pupil. and tended gradually to make them one in language^ ideas.

many to care for the baths. For the oath see Botsford and Sihler. Many actual mills have been found in Pompeii. Slaves. proves that the ancient ideal of the profession . Operated by horsepower. arid experts in various branches of surgery. aurists. they took a vast number of captives. and of slaves. was in the hands of slaves. and this source of supply was further increased by kidnapping." ' still taken by the graduates of our medical colleges. Some others were worked by treadmill or by hand. copper. born about 460 CiviUmtion. managed by a slave. made clothes. the most of whom they reduced to slavery. grew The care of a lordly residence requireq^the service of a multitude Many were needed to admit the guests. ' A famous Greek physician. In the industries most of the labor. Social Life The profession was as highly specialized as at present we hear of trained nurses. and cared for the sick.C.: 128 to pay. as well as for the A Grain Mill personal service of each the family. dining rooms. member of Marble copy in the Vatican. but the state punished severely for malpractice and the "Oath of Hippocrates. They made wares of iron. kept the house in repair. ocuhsts. B. There were some whose task was to enforce order and quiet among the rest. was as pure and noble as it is to-day. both skilled and unskilled. 298 f. Naturally there was much quackery. kitchen. Other companies of domestic slaves spun wool. dentists. Hellenic . out the master or mistress was accompanied by a throng of servants. whose numgoing ber and splendid livery advertised On the rank and wealth of their owner. While the Romans were engaged in conquer139. bedrooms. p. ing the civilized world. From Augustus to the be- — ginning of the barbarian invasions (§ the 157) there were few wars and number of slaves consequently less.

pasture. orchards and vineyards. An estate of the kind — contained thousands of acres of arable land. bricklayers. whose business he usually helped manage. filthy dungeons. Here and there stood the by the people of the estate. masons. The freedmen formed a large.ansion was strongly In it built of stone and provided with turrets for defence. They were the cobblers. however. socially inferior to freemen. fluential. bakers. freedom by faithful He then became a cUent of his former master. but very enterprising and inhis happened that a slave won it service or purchased with his savings. fruit. animals. Claudius and other princes after him made laws to protect them. till but a small part of the estate with The rest of it he let out in small lots to free tenants to . be so great a Scarcity of slaves. or crucified them. or in his absence the conductor. 129 and gold. It is freemen often found selves it impossible to not strange. The shops were filled with slaves. glassmakers. too. Under the principate. lived the proprietor. men and women gradually learned to treat their slaves with greater kindness. in which were gathered the There were stables. tortured. millers. and huts for the slaves. therefore. for the domestic grain.Laborers silver. The m. intelligent class. that make a living for them- and their families whether in business or by the labor of their hands. in the provinces by the Most of the land The Large Estate and its Tenants. potters. As a rule the master treated his slaves with great cruelty. had been gathered up into large estates owned prince or by wealthy individuals. however. and wine. In the coimtry they often worked in gangs chained together. a man who had taken a lease of the entire estate. and the more intelligent of their niunber acted as foremen or transacted the business of their masters. till at last they came to be regarded as human It often beings. Near the mansion were the granaries and the storehouses. For the slightest offences he whipped. and carpenters. and slept in crowded. and woodland. There had come that the conductor could their labor. 140. shrines of the gods worshipped . gem-cutters.

who were too far away from him to feel their responsibility. Although he>wished them well and laid down regulations for their better treatment. and whose duty was official to They applied for redress to who lived on or near the see that they had justice. shrines. For a time the high standard reached by Cicero and his contemporaries was maintained. under the principate it is necessary to return Rome. not only their own cottages. The Golden Age. — Our study of the capital of the empire to the border provinces. private person. They toiled in the fields which the conAlthough he was merely a ductor had retained for himself. Literature social life led us 141. The rents which the tenants paid were not unreasonable. of the literature from For a view. they were fast becoming serfs (§. and sometimes the entire estate was thus fortified. ' too often this made common of and shared the to rescue profits his oppression. They built and kept in repair. Though free in name. and For that reason the mansion. and continually renew their leases for their homes were there. For the sake of protection they grouped their houses in villages. The lands along the frontier were especially exposed to raids of the barbarians. but cause with the conductor. The peasants had to remain on the estate. and exacted from them labor and gifts beyond their capabihties. the prince's agent (proc-u-ra'tor). the barns. the to . therefore required defence. and villages were surrounded by walls. Sometimes the peasants sent a piteous complaint to the prince. and attended to the drainage and irrigation. 130 for Literaiure a period of perhaps five years. he was himself at the mercy of his agents. he assumed the powers of a magistrate in his dealings with the peasants. III. and works of defence. and they could find no better terms under other masters. but the conductor compelled them to labor for him. 152). It is true that. estate. storehouses.. begging him them from the clutches of their oppressors. They planted the orchards and vineyards. but also the mansion.

freedom from care as to the future. Because of the excellent quaUty of its literary work the period of his rule is known as the Golden Age. the cultivation of friendship and sociabihty. of which we still possess about one-fourth. Odes. however. us that the world was Horace. a friend of Augustus. he upholds a philosophy of hfe which has always appealed to the practical mind the enjoyment of pleasures as they come. composed a History of Rome in a hundred and forty-two books. produced no orator comof Augustus. The poena glorifies for that reason it and Under the patronage the beginnings of Csesar hero. of the refined joys of private Hfe. the renunciation of high : ambitions. taste. 131 little scope for statesmanship outside the parable -with Cicero. . and public topics. preserved. his interest in personal character. which claimed descent from the same spirit of the great imperial The age found expression gentle in the briUiant splendor of the poem. there was splendid production in other fields. of art and song. contemporary of Vergil. and Writing on personal. he stands forth as the poet of common-sense and good With rare felicity of expression and knowledge of men. and the author's tells sympathy with natmre and man growing kinder and more humane.The Golden Age principate afforded ruling family . His work is one of our principal sources of information for most 'of the period covered by the books still . founder of Rome. the moderation of his judgment. social. Such teachings produce no heroes or reformers. The most celebrated poet of the time was Vergil. he aimed to inspire the Romans of his age with a nobler ambition by bringing before their eyes He was not in stately language the glories of their past. the mythical ancestor of Romulus. to be in the right. Epistles in verse. Livy. but to the generation that took part in the dreadful civil wars they were a wholesome lesson. Like Vergil. whose M-ne'id tells in stately epic the story of the wanderings of the hero yE-ne'as. and his lively dramatic style make him one of the most attractive of ancient historians. Rome and at the same time the families of and Augustus. especially critical in his search for facts yet his sympathy with the persons and parties he believed. composed Satires.

however. who composed a Natural History. in reality an encyclopaedia of the arts and sciences. institutions. Munro. Roman Empire. . iir-2i. covered a considerable His experience as an army officer and statesman gave him a clear understanding of military and political events. and to depend for information on the labors of earlier generations. we find a few writers who in their own way were as eminent as any of their predecessors. For sympathy with common men we must look to the provincial Uterature. Shuckburgh. was with the aristocracy. Augustus. xii). of the customs. his work contains much that is merely fanciful. Source-Book of Roman History. Literature After Augustus literature in general Silver Age. whom he looked upon as tyrants and usurpers. period following the death of Augustus. Ancient World. 464-74. Augustus. Topics for Reading I. Gradually the writers declined in intelligence and in literary style. History of the Ancient World. however. have many books. Outlines of Roman History. accordingly. Botsford. and especially to the Christian writings collected of which we still in the New Testament (ch. The author was extremely industrious in culling notes from hundreds of works. In this time. and character of the~ German His Annals and Histories. 398-469 Firth. The tendency was to neglect the direct study of nature and the acquisition of new facts. 295-302 Davis. . tribes of his time — about 100 a. 451-62. and these feelings led him to misjudge the princes. Source-Book of Ancient History.132 142. This later period is therefore called the Silver Age. — . but he lacked the method and the discrimination of a true scientist. . 143-8 Pelham. 487-9 Story of Rome. Along with a vast amount of sound information. Among them was Tacitus the historian. — II. Hadrian (one of the ablest of Roman emperors). A writer of this character was PUny the Elder. Botsford. Augustus. His Ger-ma'ni-a is an account The — declined. Some of the Romans of this age were interested in collecting and systematizing facts. .d. His whole sympathy.

and why was this change made? come a monarch? 3. chs. i Preston and Dodge. What were the Greeks. What is "public spirit"? Describe the campaigns for office. xvii. ch. and what was their remuneration ? What was the general 11. Johnston. What were they used for? What effect had 5. Pompeii. 15. Describe a Roman street (c/. V Mau. 16. Tucker. Give an account of the colonies. Education: Schools and Books. Inge. 191-214. IV. 10. Name some of the manufactured Describe the banking system. ? Studies 133 III. ii. iii Davis.. Slaves and Dependents. iii. How did the city pay the expenses of government? What was expected of the officials. products and articles of commerce. Travel. pt. 95-105. Describe the tenement Define atrium peristyle. VI. ch. 20. g. Ixxxii. Who were the knights What was their social standing? What were their occupations? 18. warming. Name and define its governing institutions. Private Life of the Romans. — — — . . What were the objects and the means What were its inconveniences and dangers ? 21. . Name and of travel ? . Compare the Romans with condition of the cities in this period? 12. Describe the roads. 19. 105-18. the picthe home of the wealthy. Did the prince try to gain as much power as possible. 228-70. Means of Living. the marriage customs of the Romans? What was the intellectual and social condition of women? 14. — Review the meaning of the word prince as used in this chapter? In what respects did the government of Augustus differ from that of 2. . 58-66. they on the prince's power? 6. 8. Inge. Preston and Dodge. — . Davis. xi. Pellison. History of Rome. ch. Describe the growth of cities (§ 126). How did the people of the empire come to worI. V. 13. Classify the population of a city. v. v Preston and Dodge. ch. Pellison. How did they affect the civilization of the neighborhood? 7. Johnston. Roman Life in Pliny's Time. . 194-224. and why ? 17. What were the means of conveying goods? Describe the guild. chs. Tucker. or did the people urge powers upon him? Explain your answer. i Tucker. Define bureaucracy. vii. ch. Describe the water supply and the means of . V. iii. VII. Pellison. Paul. ch. 147-71. Distinguish between the eastern and western halves of the empire in language and civilization. Influence of Wealth in the Roman Empire. How did the prince beCassar. is What ship the prince? What effect had this worship on his power? 4. ch. 278-87. Society inRome under the Ccesars. ch. ch. Johnston. xvi (women and marriage) Duruy. ch. Johnston. ture on p. The Family. Society and Politics in Ancient Rome. Inge. Describe the education of girls. 120). iv. ch. Davis. iv. What were the occupations of the senatorial class? What callings did they despise. ch. Private Life of the Romans. Johnston. xx. Abbott. Life in the Roman World of Nero and St.

Source-Book. the instructor. Who were the leading authors under Augustus. was the more populous. "Compare the Roman guild with the modern trades union. In what ways was the government of the prince better than the republic? 5. or selections from them chosen by. Compare the Romans with the Greeks as business men. Why did the Romans despise most livelihoods? 11. In what ways did the growth of an empire help commerce? 13. wealthy.134 Literature describe the professions. Why was the senate so willing to yield power to the prince? 6. Describe the large es- Why tate and" its tenants. Name and describe the writings of Tacitus the work of Pliny the Elder. and to whom did they belong? 24. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics. What were the two most important effects of 7. Why were the Romans in a position to develop banking much farther than the Greeks? 12. How were they learned? 22. . What is the New Testament ? How does the literature after Augustus compare with the works of . Read Botsford. 25. Why was the prince's government of the provinces more efficient than that of the senate? 4. chs. 100. The word prince is here used in a special sense. How does it differ I. and cultured? 10. . 14. xxxviiixlii. 16. Why did Rome favor the Greek language and civilization in the eastern half of her empire? Which half of the empire 9. and answer the questions on these selections. bureaucracy? 8. What is meant by the Silver Age? 26. From what did the number sources did the Romans obtain their slaves? decrease ? What were their occupations ? What change took place in their treatment? What were freedmen? 23. Compare the power of Augustus with that of the President of the United States. 15. Where were such estates situated. Write a syllabus of this chapter like that on p. and what did they severally write? Describe these works. Vergil and Horace? Additional Studies should not the government of Augustus be called a monarchy? Was the principate more like a monarchy than a republic? 2. Why from the more common meaning of the word? 3.

His whole education and the trend of public opinion led him to moderation in his desires. ^ The great age first Introduction: the Highest Reach of Ancient Civilizaof prosperity of the Homan empire lay ' two centuries of our era. no well-born Greek wanted to amass an unlimited fortune. tion. we can discover the beginnings of a decay that was to bring the world back to semi-barbarism. art. Then. Causes of Decline.C. The civilization of the ancient world was at its height in the period extending from 500 to 200 b. This consideration explains ^35 . CHAPTER X THE DECLINE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 143. In the earlier part of this age the Greeks produced their most beautiful literature and art in the later part they brought science to the highest point at- tained before the beginning of century 144. The richer he grew. In tracing the causes of this great catastrophe it is necessary to go back to the Greek period.c. From the second and science steadily declined. Even In that period. it is to be noted. and to emphasize the fact that the history of ancient civilization has to do mainly with the Greeks. In those times they were the nearly within the brain of the world. too.. A reason why — the Greeks did not continue to make scientific progress has been found in the fact that slavery degraded labor. was in fact the decline of ancient civilization. The decline of the Roman empire. the more he was exposed to the criticism of his fellow-men. literature. B. Social and Political modern times. The philosopher thought it beneath the dignity of an educated freeman to give the minute attention to material things that was necessary to the invention of scientific instruments. however.

At the same time the feeling of complete security from foreign enemies operated. in cheap or free grain and in public entertainments and festivals. The aid given to the poor in Rome and in all the cities. Roman Repression of Freedom. As the city-states declined. the Greek genius became less active. but in time they themselves tended to fall into the same condition. It was far more difiicult to subdue the Spaniards and other free peoples of western Europe. and the punishment inflicted on them cowed their fellows into submission. A closely related 145. from the Egyptian to the Alexandrian. paternal spirit gradually adopted by the Roman empire was detrimental to manliness. Here is a reason why the Romans found it so easy to conquer the East. had in a varying degree discouraged indepen- dent thought. to render them unwarlike. Men of genius were hard to manage. . They felt that the empire was the only state on earth. with other causes. At the same time a great political cause was in operation. made them less competent to depend on themselves. notwithstanding its tolerance of local freedom. for them death. The Greeks were right therefore in looking upon the Orientals as slavish by nature. The genius of the Greeks was most creative in the period of the city-states. The West tended to become cowardly and inactive in mind. . The result was sluggishness. The restraints put upon them by society and government often drove which they were put to In this way their genius was lost to the world. Their strenuous rivalry in war and peace was highly stimulating.136 The Decline of the Roman Empire why he did not devote himself to labor-saving and moneymaking devices. and called it " the world." There was no international competition in war or in diplomacy or in trade nothing from the outside to stimulate. The result of to rebellion or other crime. as the East had been for ages. — — cause of decay is to be found in the policy of imperial govern- ment. The great empires of the East. Even the protective. They did not submit till all the bravest and most intelligent of their number had perished and whatever courage and mentality remained was gradually crushed by the Roman government.

The reason why the people continually became fewer is to be found chiefly in the growth of city life already mentioned. that he and they might derive the greater enjoyment from his estate. they have a higher standard comforts and luxuries of living it — — than those of the country. art. lation.C. Collapse of the Money System. As early as the second century B. however. too. All this is true of the inhabitants Ancient law gave the father a right to kill of the Roman empire. of the empire but in vain. and mankind lapsed therefore into ignorance and semi-barbarism. Another cause of decline was depopu146. The knowledge which the world once possessed stored up in books was gradually lost. have enabled cities not only to maintain but actually to increase their population. It is neces- — 1 Recent sanitary improvements. population mentioned in the paragraph above was in part economic. Again.oppression and Depopulation mental weakening can be briefly told. . as it had to do with the means of living. insist on more that is. people are less inclined to marry and to bring up large families costs little to rear children. all Greece was suffering from this affliction. . the more inplined he was to kill all his children or to let but one or two grow up. difficult for Rome to find men for her For this reason statesmen began to fear for the safety and attempts were made to check the decline. Depopulation. than those of the country. At the same time the population of Italy was so dwindling that it . and the higher his standard of living his children at their birth became. 137 During the imperial period no great progress was made in literature. and that in the past the population of a city has tended to die out unless it was constantly recruited from the country. in the country and at an early age they are put to work. The cause of de147. without the necessity of drawing upon the country. — It is well known that city people as a rule have had less vitality than those of the country. whereas in the city the cost of bringing them up is far greater and there is For these reasons city Uttle opportunity for them to work. became more and more armies. or science.^ Generally city people. so that they actually become profitable.

India. Obverse: head of Otho with an inscription signifjdng 'Imperator Marcus Otho Augustus.75.d. alloy is . Before the decline. and other luxuries. It is a well known fact that a baser metal when coined in unlimited quantities. A piece which in the time of Augustus was worth fc*ty cents came to be worth about one cent. As a result the amount of money A Gou) ' in circulation be- Coin as the Emeiee came smaller every year. Just enough silver was introduced to give the coins a pale appearance which made them pass for silver while still unworn with use. the pieces which had once been' silver. with the inscription 'Security of the Roman People. and China in exchange for silks. a lance in the left. with Tribunician Power. Worth about $4. had come to be nearly all copper. Little of the gold and silver sent to the far East ever returned. by A great drain on the currency was caused of vast also by the exportation sums annually to Arabia. drives all other metals from circulation for a man will not pay a debt in good gold when the law allows the use of cheap copper for the purpose. On the other hand the precious metals were constantly being used in the arts. perfumes.138 sary The Decline oj the Roman Empire causes acted in other now to consider how economic ways to bring about the condition in which we find the world at the beginning of the Middle Ages.' Reverse the goddess Securitas holding a crown in the right hand. the principate is The lack of enterprise under illustrated by the fact that there mining of precious metals. . and at a lower value than that of the market. by mixing copper with that metal. spices. so that the amount of gold was little and silver in the civilized world was not materially increased. The result was that the issue of pale-copper coins stopped the circulation of all gold and silver money. A little an advantage but the amount was increased so rapidly that in the middle of the third century a. and hoarded private persons.' : The princes could think of no other remedy than that of making the coins lighter and of debasing the silver pieces. stored up as offerings in temples. and were still so in name.

(3) because of the increased splendor and extravagance of the emperors and their higher oflScials. Money Taxes . and through it on society. leather. The New Taxes in Kind. The unjust land tax forced many peasant proprietors to give up their good fields and settle on sterile mountain land in order to Ughten their burden. But much of the evil remained.d.Money and Taxes But 139 coins of the value of one cent will not alone suflSce for the business of an empire. On his accession the . iron. both men and women. Hence people had to carry on business like by barter . and so far as the precious metals jvere used. and the capricious interference of these later rulers in economic matters wrought more damage than benefit. (i) because of an increase in the number of soldiers and in their pay. and this decline elements of civihzation. and other commodities. one of the most important was a long step backward in the direction of barbarism. they were given in exchange by weight for a time lost the use of — not as money. and other products. and more especially (2) because of the enormous increase in the number of magistrates. 149. and his successors. and entertained the people of the capital with shows and feasting. The heavy poll tax thereafter imposed on laborers. From the same motive men abandoned or destroyed their orchards and vineyards. Every fifth anniversary of his accession he celebrated in a similar way. Forced Labor. — Merchants and arti- emperor distributed gifts among his soldiers and oflScials. sans had a different tax. of money on the government. grain. 284-305 a.. meat. It money — In this way the world — — further hastened the depopulation. Hence the soil of the empire constantly became less productive. is still more remarkable. who issued new gold and silver coins. The government had to resort therefore to taxes in kind grain. The effect of this want 148. cloth. discouraged the poor from rearing children. but wool. the taxes in money came to be almost worthless. We must notice first that the cost of maintaining the government had become many times as great under Diocletian as it had been under Augustus. But as the coinage depreciated. This condition of things was partially remedied by Diocletian.

originality. cattle-dealers. It is natural for the son to inherit the occupation. afterward Constantinople as well. 150. There were plenty of merchants till the emperor Diocletian ordered them to take upon themselves without pay the transportation of all government property including the taxes in kind. This tendency increases as a people lose energy. We are now in a position to understand how it was that in the late empire society came to be organized in a system of hereditary classes. and was harshly exacted. and the soldiers their presents. along with the estate. They were organized in guilds. and swine-dealers. bakers. with food. Work animals were levied in the same way. The people who attended to this work were chiefly the grain-merchants. It had to be paid in gold and silver. Forced labor was especially oppressive as it was imposed without reason or mercy. crude system of taxes in kind for the support of the government the world was degenerating into barbarism. Hereditary Social Classes. he could not hire laborers. The system nearly ruined the empire. which were given privileges to attract as many as possible. which enslaved the minds and bodies of the multitude and thus completed the wreck of ancient civilization. he forced men to labor on them without pay. (2) because he was powerful enough to shirk much of his duty. One of the chief tasks of the government had long been to supply Rome. Often parents had to sell their children into slavery in order that the idle populace of the capital might have their feasts. accordingly. As this iiew burden seemed too great to bear. When public works were to be erected or repaired.140 The Decline of the Roman Empire The expense was paid from a tax levied on the tradesmen. and enterprise. As the emperor received little money for other purposes. (i) because his tax was proportionately lighter. In resorting to the -harsh. The great lord still derived profit from his land. But the field of the peasant became worse than worthless to the owner. many tried to forsake their occupation. of the father. The peasant's crop for the year might be totally ruined by a few days' absence at seed-time or harvest. whereupon he ordered them to continue in it — .

Naturally those engaged in the military or civil service of the emperor were free from Uability to enrolment among the Their sons were liable. soldiers to follow the vocation of their fathers. For similar reasons all the guilds became hereditary that the members might be compelled to do their duty to the state. till the emperor Constantine declared that sons had a right to the offices of This edict made the civil and miUtary posts their fathers. and when once a man had entered. nothing short of bankruptcy municipal council — — — the curia — hereditary. hereditary. The same consideration induced the sons of curiales. In case they failed to collect any part of the tax imposed. . Nothing could be more destructive to hberty than such an arrangement. for no inquiry was now made as to the character or occupation of proposed members. they had to make good the deficiency from their own estates. made membership could relieve his family of the oppressive load. — We must now in the consider how the system of taxation These members cmriales as stated above (§ 127). therefore this additional load was placed on their shoulders. But their burden in providing When for the needs of their own commimity was heavy enough. The office lost all honor. If a man went to another city.Hereditary Classes 141 and their sons after them. honorable place under the emperor for a life of drudgery as a curialis. Public Services become Hereditary. To insure the collection of taxes the emperor made them responsible for the amount due from their city. The condition of the curiales was even more unenviable than that of the tradesmen. however. were well-to-do men. many wished to retire into private life. for no one was so self-sacrificing as to exchange an easy. The emperor then made the position hereditary and required all who owned above twenty-five acres to accept and retain the place for life. he was liable to curial service in both. The jealous eyes of the association were always upon each member to see that he bore without shirking his part of the common burden. 151. The tyranny of guild rule was more galling than that of the most despotic emperor.

The lord was in a position not only to shirk much of his duty . The more the population dwindled. w.ere The Large Landowners. too. Constantine bound the tenant and his descendants forever to the soil. whereupon they with their descendants were bound forever to the soil by order of the emperor. The word senator had come to denote a rank rather than a post or function. That the government might keep a -stricter account of rural slaves. 153. Thus the tenants. Mention has been made Most of them throughout the empire senators. many deserted the farms they had taken in rental. and how these two rural slaves were merged . so attached to the' soil as to be bought and sold along with it. or even from one estate to' another. Constantine ordered that they should not be sold off the estate on which they were born or given their liberty. which would soon have destroyed the population. became serfs. Hence it was that the government watched more and more carefully over each individual. the Roman Empire let — Lastly us consider how the condition of tenants and iti of peasant proprietors was made classes together with the one great class of serfs.142 152. either to seek more indulgent lords or to swarm into the cities. slave or free. should do his part in supporting the government. The Decline of Growth of Serfdom. tried to escape. In like manner the small freeholders^ finding their taxes too heavy. Though -many were military or civil officers. By this act they ceased to be slaves and became serfs. To put a stop to this evU. But when heavy taxes rendered their lot hard. — on actual duty or few ever sat in the senate either at Rome or at Constantinople. The work hereditary by law. the more important it became that everyone. retired. It had often happened that slaves escaped taxation by being sold from one province to another. Men of the class were under no obligation to become curiales and had few burdens in addition to the tax on their lands and field-laborers. The tenants co-lo'ni were once free to move about as they wished and to rent land of any lord with whom they could make satisfactory terms. — — of converting the greater part of the rural laborers to serfs was thus completed. of the large landowners.

Architecture civile et religieuse de la Syrie. Outside the walls are less valuable farm buildFrom Vogu£. empire.Lords and Serfs 143 to the state but also to screen his tenants from injustice and sometimes even from just obligations. the own land to tenants Often on simi- As the tenants thus protected shirked their duties government attempted. to check the bestowal of patronage. ' their protection either in produce from the lands they held in or in the money or service. therefore. On our right is a garden with trees. therefore he granted parcels of his to the state. than that of the freeholder. Syria. Generally the lord was glad to receive such persons. Attached to the walls within are long buildings which serve as storerooms and stables. The principal buildings are surrounded by a stone wall for defence. The bond between lord and . or patronage. Every increase in his wealth and number of his dependents gave the lord greater power officers of the to defy the tax-coU'ector and other lar terms.' etc. It was soon discovered that the tenant's condition was happier. The front of the lord's dwelling is a two-storied portico. though in vain. as they paid well for A Country House. ings. Many freeholders accordingly made haste to give up their lands to a lord and become his tenants on condition of receiving his protection. of the Late Empire Fourth to seventh century. Villa.

great landlords. weakened the empire and hastened In a later chapter it will be made clear that the grant of lands to tenants on condition that the latter commend themselves to the lord who bestows the property. 1. tected person came to include military service to his lord. . rather tion of another. .C. Duruy. paternalism. . Concentration of the population within cities and resulting depopulation.. was to mature in the period known as During the empire the relation of the dependent to his lord remained purely social and economic. xiii ' Roman Empire. : Early social and political causes of decline . . VII. 500-200 B. III. Decline and ch. this act a defenceless person put himself under the protecof multitudes of citizens to the lords. feudalism began at the point of time when the duty of the prothe Middle Ages. literature. Diocletian. Repression of freedom. greatly in the Roman empire. . thus germinating state. Bury. ben-e-Jic' grant of a piece of land or other property was termed a benefit (or benefice. xcix. The attachment than to the its decline. 527-32. killing of children. : . (i) slavery degrades labor (2) limitation of enterprise by public opinion (3) decline of the city-state and rise of imperialism. History of Rome. The Lat. Introduction : highest reach of ancient civilization. 144 The Decline of the Roman Empire By tenant was drawn closer by the custom known as commendation. Increasing expenses of government collapse of the money system taxes in kind new taxes in gold and silver forced labor the burden too heavy to bear. — Botsford. ch. . Gradual loss of knowledge and skill. Constitution of the Later Fall of the Roman Empire. Crystallization of society in hereditary classes guilds military and civil service curiales peasants and slaves growth beginnings of feudalism. History. . growing superstition (§§ 142. Under the Roman empire. I4S)- Topics for Reading I. II. This institution. and science.^ Syllabus of the Decline I. of serfdom. and in the Middle Ages this word extended to the thing granted. 4. 2. lack of competition. . . . art. agreeing in return to be faithful to his protector. 3. Gibbon. the. Source-Book of Ancient . i-um). is one of the chief elements of feudalism.

iii Roman Society in the Last Century of the Western Bury. bk. agricultural life or factory life? 4. ch. 364-77. did the city-states of the ancient world decline? 2.Studies 11. Why . Review With the syllabus before you comment on each Additional Studies topic in order. I. How far were the emperors responsible for the wretched condition of the late empire? To what extent was the evil beyond their power to control? 9. S. without assistance from the emperors? 8. Later Roman Empire. SourceBook. Source-Book. ch. Empire. chs. iii Botsford. Why was there in the late empire 10. xlii. Mention all the causes of decline which were in any way economic. VIII. Constantinople supply themselves with food. The historians of the Middle Ages usually begin with a study of the decline. . 9. Why did the Roman empire offer less encouragement to mental and artistic effort than had the Greek city-states? 3. last quesII. xliii. questions at the close of these chapters. Write an essay on one of the so much land lying uncultivated? Reading Topics above according to directions given on p. . and answer the tion. Causes of Decline. Read Botsford. Roman Empire. How could the change of abode from plain to mountain lighten a peasant's tax? Why could not the people of Rome and 7. Dill. I. xliii. 145 142-50. Duruy. — Davis. Which produces the greater physical strength and endurance.Would the empire probably have declined if all the inhabitants had been free? 6.

here and there interrupted by damp.' unwholesome marshes. The — 146 . rigorous in climate. tral — A German Village Reconstructed from descriptions by ancient authors. The country was rude in surface. 154. was covered with forests. the Rhine and north of the upper Danube. From 'Album historiqtfe. Europe. east of.CHAPTER XI THE GERMANS In the time of the empire cenCountry and People. and cheerless to every beholder altogether unfavorable to the growth of civilization.

lived in huts usually grouped in villages. Under an oath to be ever faithful they followed him not only in wars waged by his tribe but also in any private raid that he might plan. of the enormous selves. they brought before the as- sembly of warriors for decision. and there were for their in the own prowess met with the or that of their ancestors. to They were a strong. Government war the members of a tribe came together and elected a leader (Latin dux. they had the people of the empire true to their plighted : Though addicted virtues which were their f amUy life . com'i-tes. Their highest honor was to stand by his side in Spoils gained in war or battle or to sit next to him at meals. fair race of barbarians. peace. but those of greater importance. — kings. They were called his companions (La. nobles of a tribe king in council to plan for the interests of their people. kept herds of cattle.or collectively." On beginning a 155. They iishedand hunted. enterprising freeman might attract to himself a band of young men who sought adventure or honor. time they reared large The population rapidly increased therefore in spite loss of life from continual war among themBefore they learned of Christ they worshipped the powers of nature and had neither temples nor images. Any strong. It was a training school in war and in obedience and . . duke). and gambling. who inhabited this region. and the election of magistrates. .Social and' Public Life 147 Germans. The king was always a The tribe other nobles — men distinguished noble. There were private as well as tribal wars. com^-ta'tus). " Companionship. and in that case the Such rulers may be termed office tended to become hereditary. migrations. of the In contrast with the Romans families. now was pure they were word and they loved personal freedom. especially of war. war and despised labor. and cultivated small patches tall. who loved drunkenness lacking in . brave. of grain and vegetables.. presents from friends were distributed among them according to the worth of each man so that they usually lived in superior style.tm. Minor questions they settled on their own responsibility. Because of continual warfare some tribes came to live permanently under chiefs.

and make more tian missionaries brought as the Vis'i-goths and weapons. north of the Danube. to dress better. into their speech. the tribes or nations along the border rapidly learned to the life of — iriiitate the Romans. to buUd more cornfortable homes. Marcus Au-re'li-us.. Thereafter the Northerners continued to grow more dangerous. siderable influence The Germans Their Early Relations with the Empire. it was but natural that many of them should want to settle within the empire. As the nations nearest Their breaking through was only a question of' time. It The effect was to weaien the enemy was necessary for the these new settlers. who translated the Bible In Christian doctrine Ulfilas was an Arian a follower of A-ri'us. The first great horde of invaders came in the time of the republic. Marcus Aurelius began the policy of colonizing the empire with barbarians on a grand scale. it was inevitable that the barbarians should become a menace to the empire. to the frontier were harassed by the more barbarous tribes on their outer border. while the Germans — and other northern tribes increased in numbers and strength. The Goths therefore became Arians. as did all other barbarians who accepted Christianity before invading the empire. and to check depopulation.d. whose form of belief will be explained in the chapter on Christianity (§ 164). did not all continue in the same stage of civilization. accepted Christianity from Bishop Ul'fi-las. to They began eflScient tools to cultivate the fields more extensively. While those far away from the empire remained as barbarous as ever. 156. Christhem the Gospel. government to watch carefully over In assigning them to vacant lands it for- . Augustus tried in vain to conquer Germany. This fact was to have an important effect on history (§ 170).148 honor. spent the best years of his administra- tion in hard struggles for maintaining the frontier against their assaults. The Germans There can be no doubt that the institution had cdnon the growth of feudaUsm (§ 177). 161-180 a. As the Romans grew continually weaker. The tribe known (West Goths). especially as vast tracts of land lay idle through lack of cultivators. It was beaten and destroyed by Marius.

it extended from the Loire ings the river to the southern shores of Spain. they made many raids across the frontier. The Franks were already settling the left bank of the lower Rhine. Their conquest of the whole of Gaul under their king Clovis (486-511) will be considered below (§ 170). As a rule these colonists remained quietly at home. though entertaining.Invasions 149 bade them to leave their holdings.d. For underthis chapter. and many years later (565) the same country was invaded by the Lombards. exerting themselves to throw o£E all trace of their own nationality and to become Roman in customs and language. They were required to pay rents and to do noilitary duty when needed. Account must also be taken of those 157. About the middle of the century the Angles and Saxons began to overrun Britain. — relation to the empire after their settlement in it.' rival of the West Goths the Bur-gun'di-ans settled in the valley of the Rhone. Soon after the ar- From 'Album historique. When at its height a half century later. and in 429 the Vandals invaded Roman Africa and established a kingdom there. standing this subject ' we must take into account a great change For the location of these kingdoms. It is far more useful to study their 158. In the — third century a. It was not till the opening of the fifth century that they began to make permanent settlements within the borders. Germans who are said to have invaded the empire. After many wander- West Goths (§ 156) founded a kingdom in southern Gaul in 419. see the map accompanying . The Invasions. has little value as history. Toward the end of the century (490) the East Goths (Os'tro-goths) entered Italy. German Women In an oxcart. ail often defeating Roman armies and on one occasion killing emperor. a feature of the migrations.^ The story Relation of the Invaders to the Empire. of the wanderings and wars of these tribes.

Each lord to give a third. They were quartered accordingly on the inhabitants. the German often violent and brutal. of taxes in kind (§ 148) had proved too costly and cumbersome. this process The first step in was to assign an arrtjy to a province or other district. differing little from other Roman armies. The army thus quartered had its oflScers and commander as in war. and had broken down by its own weight. but they were soldiers were — neither Their commander was enemies nor conquerors. at once " king " of his followers according to their native . ISO The Germans The system which had come about in the method of supporting the armies. The family the sol- dier was included in this arrangement. Each was an army in the service of the emperor. fied part. performed his duty to the state a substitute for the payment of taxes. the bridges were in ruins. their cities civU authorities as This system was now applied to the Germanic nations which settled in the empire. The system was oppressive. but for a time the provinces and retained before. clothing. of his shelter to provide them with of food. It was necessary in time of peace to bring the soldiers near to the source of supply. soldiers The were then distributed among the cities. or other specito soldiers. The German soldiers did not become owners of the land they were simply the guests of the proprietor. and all necessaries from his estate. and wagons and beasts of burden failed through the general impoverishment of the Romans. with a right to It was by bearing this burden that he shelter and support.. Especially the roads had fallen out of repair. and in each city among had and the proprietors of land.

By this arrangement the division of the empire into East and West for administrative purposes (§ 125) ceased. and retaining the kingship. — The presence of these Germans. sent his submission to Zeno. and some of them were 159. Dissolution of the Empire in the West. accession the Shortly after his German troops mutinied. Though these chiefs were strongly inclined to independence. emperor at Constantinople. emperors in the East satisfied in some magne' in 800 The continuance of the degree a want which Rome had left in the hearts of the bara longing for a cenbarians as well as of her native citizens tral power which in the midst of the existing chaos should stand — . The emperors at Rome had come to be mere puppets of the German commandernicknamed in-chief. Private land remained in the hands of former owners. trievably lost to Britain was irreshowed their hostility to Rome by crossing in ships to Italy and sacking the city Gaul and Spain. the Empire 151 and a military officer of the emperor. still willing at critical times to fight in his cause. 476. The last emperor there was Rom'u-lus It fell into chaos. as the entire empire was henceforth to be ruled from Constantinople. to the dissolution of the empire in the West. one of their number. This country. He deposed Romulus. — Au-gus'tu-lus probably because of his youth. however. Such was now the weakness of the imperial government. as they afforded no revenue and could not ordinarily be depended upon for military aid. Practically Rome had to look to Italy alone for support. worthless to the empire. they con- tinued to regard the emperor as their sovereign. From (§ that date to the coronation of Char-le175) this condition remained unchanged. tended it. and made 0-do-a'cer. king. was falling into the hands of Germans for the soldiers and the military officers were of that nationality.Germans in custom. too. that these German kings finally acquired the civil power over their districts in addition to their military commands. Taking possession of the public lands. in Africa The Vandals . though more loyal. were practically (455). they kept a part for their own use and assigned the rest to their favorites and followers. however.

of the relations between the Germans and the Romans still further. The Blending of the Two Races. we find that the natives were not deprived of their property by the Germans (§ 158). Church of Rome — Roman Catholic . accordeven in the West. the West broke up into several ingly. Much more influence in these directions was exercised. All alike. as will be explained below (§ 170). The religion of the natives also prevailed. Most men. Pursuing our study 160. independent kingdoms. Intermarriages were common and the two races soon blended in one. For a long time Roman life continued almost untouched by the presence of . paid taxes. by those who had for centuries been coming quietly into the empire. whatever their race or condition. The question as to the influence of the Germans on morals is difficult. however. WhUe therefore the empire in the East remained strongly centralized. — whereas It was that of the the invaders were either Arians (§ 164) or pagans but all eventually became Catholic. the German king filled his civil offices with Romans. but their obedience went no farther than their own wishes and interests. or considered in any way inferior. and brutality of the time it hastened the decay of civilization and the reign of ignorance. without reference to race. to the of their land. who in these positions managed most of the business of government. or gave other support to the state. thought of the Eastern emperor as their own. or reduced to slavery. At the same time it brought a better family life. violence. Their coming added greatly to the confusion. amount and eligible to office. and infused a new vitality into the population. the Germans learned to speak Latin. in comparison with whom the " armies " of the Germans here under consideration were a mere handful.152 for The Germans law and order throughout the world. . German and Roman laws existed side by side for the two races respectively till the former gave way to the latter. Forgetting their own language. The German kings acknowledged his sovereignty and accepted offices from his hands. according — All were liable to military service In fact as the Germans were for a time unable to read and write and were ignorant of administration.

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What features of Roman government and society continued to the time of Charlemagne. and what new features came from the Germans? Which was the more important of these two classes of features. vi . 792-803. III. By whom was it afterward ruled? Was there still an emperor ? 8. ch. elements. their. History of Rome. xxxi (by the Goths). 5. Compare the system of the barbarians have any bad effects? 7. Read Botsford. chs. xcv . I. Source-Book. ch. Were the German hordes which entered the empire really invaders ? g. Explain the blending of the races in the empire. emerging from the old the Roman world had passed away. 283-6. we find a new life . (2) with Greece. — Lanciani. Topics for Reading I. xxxvi (by the Vandals) edition of Bury. v. VI. 323-30. of mediaeval life? xKv. Review time of the empire ? Describe Give an account of 2. Compare the government of the Germans with that of the early Greeks. 5-7 . Life of the Primitive xliv (from Tacitus. II. Which was the greater danger to the empire. 153 When we come to the reign of Charlemagne. 2. Name and define their governing institutions. and answer the questions at the close of the chapter. Gibbon. Compare the early Germans with the North American Indians during the 1. and where did each settle? 6. Where did the Germans live in the their country. Why and how did their civilization improve? How were they converte(i to Christianity? 4. What was "companionship?" What were private wars? 3. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.religion. Which had made the greater progress? Which had the greater capacity for improvement ? 3. What German tribes invaded the empire. Why did the Germans make slower progress in civilization than the Greeks and Romans ? 4. What arrangements did the Roman government make for their maintenance? What were the relations between these invaders and the natives? How was the western half of the empire dissolved? 7. Hodgkin. . Botsford. . Duruy. quartering soldiers on landowners with the earlier method of supporting the army. or 10. internal decay or the hostility of the barbarians? Did the colonization of the empire by 6. Germania) Germans. IV. ch. Additional Studies Contrast Germany (i) with Egypt. II. colonial period. Italy and her Invaders. ch. their government. Explain their peaceful introduction into the empire5. the Mediaeval world was at hand. — (the barbarians). Source-Book. Which did the landowners probably prefer? 8.Studies these foreigners. Sack of Rome by the Goths and Vandals. their physique. Destruc- tion of Rome. I.

his rection. iij the administration of Augustus. who were especially close disciples. led a perfectly blameless life. who knew him and his teachings better than any He commissioned them to carry on his work others did. . teachings. the Jews. love God and do unto others as you would have others do unto you. statue.CHAPTER XII CHRISTIANITY i6i. Lateran Museum. after his death. Marble carrying a sheep. They are called IS4 his Apostles — that is. life A youth in shepherd's attire. his self-education. — The four Gospels give the story from the point of view of their respective writers. and themselves as his sheep. third century. who cruelly put him to death on the cross. the Roman governor of Judea. straightof his Hf e The Good Shepherd forward narrative they of tell of his birth. he had a wonderful power of attracting people and of inspiring them with faith Although he in himself and his word. his death and He had gathered about him twelve men. He was Christianity was founded by born in Ju-de'a. miraculous cures of diseases. falsely accused him before Pon'ti-us Pi'late. The early Christians liked to think of Jesus as a shepherd. Origin and Character. In simple. his his among resur- men. Jesus Christ. His teachings were so simple that all could understand them without explanation. thinking him an enemy of their religion. is the substance of what he had to His personahty was lovable and say.

his followers which begins with the birth of Christ our era The Roman — — — attracted little attention. Christianity. . making conEverywhere the poor and the lowly accepted verts to the faith. Trouble often arose between Christians and their pagan neighChristians were forbidden to have anything to do with bors. a man of learning and of great zeal. Paul and others to the various churches to explain Christianity and to encourage Acts. The believer felt that his sins were forgiven. officers of government. they grew more numerous and more powerful they had churches in every city and town of the empire and included many wealthy men and women. It was used to designate Roman gods because the country people were the last to ac- . The Roman government protected the public worship of all peoples within the empire and adopted many of their gods as its own. It presented to them Christ as the Son of God and their Saviour from sin and its punishment. it usually left them undisturbed. In affording man this close personal relation with God and the hope after death of dwelling with him forever in Heaven. for it was no respecter of persons but counted the slave of equal importance with the emperor. John. a Latin word meaning country people. became an apostle. the pagan ^ worship. however. It was impossible for them. The most famous were Peter and St. During the first century of 162. and sometimes members of the imperial family. and Epistles together make up the New Testament. which teachers of the the part of the Bible treating of Christianity. and that he had become an heir to eternal happiness. Relation to the Empire. It taught that in Christ man was so united with God as to receive from him wisdom and strength for every emergency of life. new reUgion journeyed throughout the empire and into other parts of the world. Christianity satisfied a spiritual craving that had come over the world. In the second century. therefore. is given in the Acts oj The Epistles are letters written by St. ' the worshippers of the cept Christianity. men " sent " on a special duty. Considering the Christians merely as a sect of Jews.Christ and Apostles 155 St. is men to accept and live up to the faith. Some time afterward St. The Gospels. From pagam. A brief account of their travels and teachings the Apostles. Paul.

adopted this yiew. The pagans. The followers of Christ were extremely active. In Church history the execution of these commands is termed persecution. When. and death those who refused to give up the faith. earthquakes. torture. looking upon the Christians as exclusive and unsocial. saw their near relatives converted and no longer at hberty to converts. always suspicious of such associations. looking and the government itself upon them as vile. for they were to bring the commanded join with them in their usual social activities. began to hate them. They were most severe toward the end of the third and the beginning of the fourth century. disturbers of the peace. therefore. too. Its vitality was marvellous. ordered the officials to punish with imprisonment. Through all these tribulations the Church grew rapidly in numbers and strength. pestilence. This hatred of the Christians grew so great that the populace often rioted against them. . On these occasions the magistrates always sided with the pagans and punished the Christians as In other ways they fell into trouble. his refusal was looked upon as disloyalty. They formed a vast secret society. lawless wretches.156 Christianity to sit at the table of a pagan or to join in any of the local or public festivities. looked upon those of the Christians as espeWhenever a member was called before a cially mischievous. Some of the emperors. and other calamities were sent by the gods in their indignation at the Christians. and each congregation held its secret meetings. in making whole world Naturally the pagans were angry when they into their faith. for the gods were worshipped at every meal and every festival. and even killed and ate children. There were periods of persecution broken by intervals of comparative quiet. the In their superv officers of the law were ready to believe them. the pagans came forward and falsely stated that the Christians in their secret meetings practised the most depraved immoralities. magistrate and asked to prove his loyalty to Rome by worshipping the Genius of the emperor (§ 122). therefore. stitious hatred the pagans asserted that famine. The government.

Relation to the Empire 157 163. to the archbishop. In the beginning each society of worshippers was independent. Common freemen and even at Rome the term pope ^ came in — — slaves had the offices. or presbyters. money from his treasury. and aided the churches with In this way he raised Christianity Constantine was himself converted Some to the new faith and encouraged it rather than the old. if they possessed Christianized ability. Accordingly he granted the Christians complete Uberty of worship. for froni the beginning the Christians gave great attention to charity. The bishops who resided in of a province were subject the capital of the province. The Empire is . whose large sumptuous church was in a city of the district. too. — The strong organization of the Church and the restless energy members made it the greatest power in the Roman world. The emperor Con'stan-tine (306-337). and to instruct There were deacons. Theological Sects. was glad to have the supof its port of so great a power. to common (Latin papa. A district containing a number of small churches was placed under the care of an overseer. to a level with paganism. . In another aspect Christianity was a democracy. Constantinople. Organization of the Church. Thus all Christendom was brought into obedience to a few great officials. The Church was strong not only in spirit but in organization. 1 The word pope priests. to look after its interests — the congregation in religion. whose In time the churches main duty was the care of the poor. and some other places were held in still higher honor. One more step in centralization the substitution of a single head would make the government of the Church a monarchy. They were generally termed patriarchs. Jerusalem. whose early associations made him favorable to Christianity. Among these higher bishops those at Rome. or bishop. right. time after him Christianity was made the sole religion of the empire and paganism was forbidden by law. for all its members were equal before God. father) was for a time applied to other bishops and It was not till the eleventh century that the title came to be restricted to the bishop at Rome. It elected a board of elders. came to be grouped in a complex system. For the one time to be preferred. to rise to the highest 164.

full of fine distinctions which none but themselves could understand. some to their Saviour. teachings of Christ are simple. Peter's. were introduced from Roman law. From drawings of the sixteenth century. In the sixteenth century the church was demolished to make room for the present St. Meantime a Christian theology was growing. of them attempted to explain the nature of their belief and the This is especially true relation of one part of it to another. Differing from one another. They gradually built upon the original simple faith an intricate theology. piazza. In their effort to explain and systematize Christianity they brought their philosophy into Many ideas.iS8 Christianity up. of the Greek philosophers who had accepted the it. founded by Constantine. as has been said above. The They For a time after his death his followers thought and spoke mainly of the personal tie which bound them Not satisfied merely with believing. Each believed his own view to be the only truth. Peter At Rome. faith. . Old Basilica op St. and greatly enlarged and modified in the following centuries. surrounded by porticoes. the only way of salvation. contain no creed. they created opposing doctrines. In front is an oblong space. too.

whereas a convent was governed by an abbess. the Nicene Creed. a city in northwestern Asia Minor.Theology and Creed 159 whereas those who differed were heretics and under the wrath In the time of Constantine there were aheady elabof God.). whereas that The West readily accepted of his opponent became a heresy. added greatly to the power of the Church in its conflict with paganism. The great organizer of monasteries in western Europe was — . In order to 165. Athanasius. Women who adopted the same form of Ufe were called nuns. The council of Nicaea was the first gathering which professed to officials of Egypt — Ath-an-a'si-us (§ 161). represent the entire Christian world. a number as hermits alone in the desert. holiness some Christians thought it necessary to separate themIn the East such persons often lived selves from the world. At the head of a monastery was an abbot. The institution of such a general council. and their institution was a nunnery or convent. view of Athanasius the council made it orthodox. Sometimes. The Council of strengthen the Church by securing uniformity of behef on this as well as on other points. asserted absolute equality betwten the Son and the Father. Men of the kind were monks. Arius maintained that the Son was by nature inferior to the Father. as this decision is called and in this manner it has come down to the Roman Catholic church and to most but Arianism conof the Protestant denominations of to-day tinued widespread in the East and among the Germans. however. — the nature of Christ — . Nicaea (325 A. . In their effort to attain to a life of 166.D. of them formed a community. on the other hand. Constantine called a council of bishops from all parts of the world to meet at Ni-cse'a. The chief controversy was that between two Church and A-ri'us concerning Although both admitted that He was the son of God. . orate theologies and wide differences between one sect and another. Uving together in a large building and possessing land and all other property in common.' and their community was a monastery. to meet as occasion demanded. Monasteries. to settle the disputes and to deBy adopting the cide upon a creed which all should accept.

superiors in the Church. because it should be the centre of -this universal had so long been the poUtical centre . and held up a standard of moral and religious life far superior to that of the outside world. St. ^=s^^^m _ submit to unreservedly their the will of J. chastity. acquire great wealth. He is so holy that the lion obeys him. and reasonable. To them it seemed natural that Rome Christian empire. taught by example the dignity of labor. monasteries of a hermit who lives in a cave in the wilderness. systematic. whereas ' pressed upon West people felt more deeply the influence of law imthem by Rome. When necessary the hermit disdpUnes the lion by beating him with a stone. Members of the order were exonly to pected not pray and read but also to labor on the common estate. He laid »r-4*1. — The difference in civihzation between the East influence and the West exercised a profound much in the free on Christianity.i6o St. Jerome Chastising the Lion is Many . as it came to differ from that of the East. Benedict. In the East there continued to be thought and discussion in the Greek spirit. a refuge institution preserved The Beginnings of the Papacy. was less subtle but more simple. They were required also to remain unmarried and to for the of poverty. Painting of the sixteenth century. St. eftl"—'^* . the the Httle learning which remained in the West. the individual members had to remain poor. iThey taught that God had aided the growth of the empire as a preparation for Christianity. 167. Louvre. Their doctrine. and that on this political basis should be founded a spiritual empire which in time should embrace the whole world. Jerome the Benedictine order were established throughout western Europe. affording While from the barbarism of the age. down who lived early monks the rules in the sixth century. Christianity and obeAlthough the society to which they belonged might dience.

xvi. That thou art and upon this rock ' I will build my church. 1 1 settleofficials as their ments. growth of the papal power was also favored by the general dissolution of the West.— The Papacy of the world. M . Paul and bishop. against it. or popes. only its The papal its office owed its greatness further to activity in sending out missionaries to convert pagans heretics and and willingness to accept the latter on recanting lastly to the abiUty their errors. i8 f. prevail : : that as the successors of Peter the bishops.' From 'Album *. of Rome also held the headship. The idea was A Benedictine Abbot In his official chair. had founded it and St. Peter tion of that city St. on one occasion declar: ing to " him — I say unto fhee." Matt. of the ^ German mvasions and . 'Among those who i68. Gregory the Great (590-604). And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Peter to be head Church. The crozier in his hand symbolizes his pastoral p?-5'^°^*' duty. . This idea brought the Roman for it was understood that Christ had appointed of the St. and that they were better able than any others to The teach the reUgion in its purity. and the gates of hell shall not And Peter. histonqi . Peter was its first bishop especial reverence. helped most to increase the authority of the office was Gregj 1 — Reference here is to the circumstance that the word Peter means rock. and and wisdom of several early popes. hooded mantle. which left the people without governments competent to protect them. In the coUapse of the civil power and the confusion and violence .ue. the people looked to the Church protectors. i6i and because : of the origin of the Christian organizaSt. He wears over his tunic a long.

helpful advice increased their reverence for the papal office. The office he held had already acquired many great estates throughout Italy and Sicily. Himself a monk (§ 166). In the end Roman influence prevailed. Only by taking upon itself this character could it accomphsh the work at which it aimed. Christianity found his position beset few years earlier the Lombards had invaded Italy (§ 157). The only power his accession he On A that made for order. Some» of them he sent as missionaries to Britain. Rome. had for some time been growing. The Angles and Saxons who had conquered this country (§ 157) were pagans. law. while within a deadly pest was raging. This power. In Gregory's time. accordingly. and the protection of the weak was Gregory. The rulers and their him by letter on own affairs. and partly through him. with difficulties. which we call worldly or temporal in contrast with spiritual. and was now greatly strengthened by Gregory in the way here described. Gregory resisted the conquest with such energy that the invaders had to limit themselves to certain parts of the peninsula. that of the pope. and his wise.i62 ory the Great. and were still trying to conquer the country. acted not simply as a spiritual leader but as a governor. Gregory encouraged the growth of that class of the clergy. Nearly everywhere else the great nobles were practically independent and always at war with one another. who aimed to give the Italians all the protection and justice possible under the unfortunate conditions. That work was to save for bey. the revenues from which enabled him to support considerable civil and miHtary power. and Britain entered the brotherhood of CathoUc nations. There was no civil authority strong enough to establish unity and peace. afterward known as Lombardy. Some had abeady been converted by missionaries from Ireland. Gregory did not hmit his activity to bishops of western Europe consulted Italy. independent organization. especially to a district of the north. and now the work of Christianizing the island was carried on vigorously from.er . Everywhere outside of Rome was confusion and violence. the Roman Catholic church became a powerful.

Carter. Christianity) VI. ci. . Why had the Christians less religious history of Christianity? tolerance than the Romans? Were the Christians blameworthy in this respect. cii Firth. Ayer. Ixxxvii. iv. How did monasteries arise? Who was Describe the life of the monks. II. 362-96 Duruy. or the contrary? 3. Christianity . Botsford.Studies 163 times from the wreck of ancient civilization the Christian resome learning. V. Who was Gregory the Great? What were his aims and achievements? How did he What benefits came from this aid the growth of the Church's power? I. chs. ill. ch. Constantine. How did the imperial government What change afterward took place in its at first regard the Christians ? attitude? What were the causes of the persecutions? 4. Glover. . 3-271 Carter. How did it gradually develop a monarchical government? Christianity become an 5. Benedict? 8. Religious Life of Ancient Rome. — . some of the ideas and habits of industry and of order and obedience to authority. see Contents Duruy. In what ways did the Christians Were they right in violate Roman law and long-established custom? so doing? 4. VII. To what social class did Christianity especially appeal? Why was this so? Does the same principle hold for India and China . — Botsford. What was their service St. and explain its origin. Describe the organization of the Church. see Contents. Christianity Accepted by Constantine. § 6 (early . Roman Empire. In what way did official religion? Why did the Church divide into sects? Distinguish between the two greatest sects. the Acts of the Apostles. What was power? Additional Studies I. and the Epistles? 2. SourceBook. 281-315. Conflict of Religions in the Roman Empire. 6. History of Rome. ligion. In what book or books can we best study the origin and early 2. Describe the missionary work of the apostles. xc (beginning of the third century). Under the Pagan Emperors. 532-6. What were their principal teachings? 3. SourceBook for Ancient Church History. . ch. Story of Rome. Source-Book. ch. Jones. What was the Council of Nicsa? What did it accomplish? 7. By what to civilization? means did the power of the pope become great? 9. ch. 294 f Source-Book of Ancient History. . What are the Gospels. . Review the origin of Christianity? Describe the character and work of Jesus. ch. Define papacy. xli Ayer. Topics for Reading I.

Read the Acts of the Apostles. Why have any good reason for . Write a syllabus of this chapter like that on p. 11. and answer the questions at the close of the chapter. Read Botsford. Christianity did the pagans dislike the Christians? Did they this feeling? 6. 12. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics. 10.164 to-day? 5. ch. and write from it a brief history of the early Church. 144. and why? What advantage was the monastery. How did Rome come to be the seat of government of the Church? Who were St. Peter and~St. xlv. Source-Book. Paul? g. How did the persecutions affect Christianity. 7. to industry and intelligence? 8.

The civilization of the Middle Ages was not a thing entirely different from that of the late Roman empire. conditions. modified more or less make by new 170. we are undoubtedly across the boundary. as it chanced. This event had far-reaching results. whereas the Franks had come into the empire as pagans. faith. and on the other hand. were Arians (§ 156). Burgundians. His ambition to build up a great kingdom for himself by conquering the heretic West Goths and Burgundians received the hearty support of the Catholic Church 511).BOOK II THE MIDDLE AGES CHAPTER •THE PRANKISH XIII KINGDOM AND THE EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE 486-814 169. to the Roman Catholic and his example was followed by his people. mation of — was converted. NotwithstandRoman empire by the bar- — barians. it was only a survival from Roman times. who had accepted Christianity before their invasion. however. i6s . their king (486The Franks. ancient civilization never wholly died out. When. The main events which led to the forCharlemagne's empire deserve mention. From Ancient to ing the chaos wrought within the Mediseval History. founded in 800. Clovis. we come to the empire of Charlemagne. The Goths. and Lombards. mediaeval life developed so gradually as to it impossible to draw a clear dividing line between the two great periods.

Restoration in °* Artillery. and after his death It Collected in a book called the Ko'ran. and low shoes fastened by thongs around his legs. of the Palace. With a wonderful personality and with a deep knowledge of the religious and moral j^gg^g ^f jjjg people. . mighty power of God. a fur vest. descendants of Clovis. for nothing in the history of the world. a high court A man came to Charles great power in time to meet a crisis in the history of Europe — the invasion of the Mo-ham'me-dans. After his death came a long period of discord among the Franks. Mohammed presented himself and counted ^enTwd buX^nd a helmet. With this help. The Mo171. had come to be mere " do-nothings.° * * : as One mspired. the torments of hell. he ordered that their Before his death religion should be forced upon unbelievers. His hair falls below his waist in heavy braids. who were finally reunited in one state At under Charles Martel (the "Hammer"). the real ruler. Clovis united Gaul in one Prankish nation.i66 The Franks and of the natives of Gaul. added to his own ability. he bad the satisfaction of seeing all Arabia free from idolatry . ' . His saymgs were written down by his followers. hammedans were followers of Mo-ham'med. — A Prankish Chief He wears a tunic nearly reaching the knee. and the pleasures of heaven and it prescribed rules of life for the faithful. this time the Frankish kings. the holy city of Arabia. who was born about 571 in Mecca. waS tO his people what the Bible is to It taught the unity and alChristians. Paris^"'^™ to them as the prophet of the one God. He is armed fought endlessly with one another. of extraordinary ability. As his followers increased. a mantle fastened at the breast and thrown back over the shoulders. . he spoke and taught . was Mayor official. Before his time the tribes of that country worshipped idols. who belonged to the latter faith. . His success insured the triumph of Catholicism throughout the West." Charles. The Mohammedans.

notbe forced the faith of in its to accept Mohammed and become a dependency of Asia or Africa. a conflict between two religions tinents. 173. work out its own destiny This question was decided on the battlefield where Charles at the head of the Franks overwhelmingly defeated an army of Mohammedan invaders from Spain. religious Fierce swept 172.'). and in the course of the seventh centiuy the entire African coast to the strait of Gib-ral'tar. enthusiasm them impa- tiently on. This victory for Christianity gave Charles great prestige. importance utmost that Europe should A Saracen Army on the March of the thirteenth century. sis in A great crithe history of and two conIt was of the the world had come.The Mohammedans and united in his 167 zeal for Islam. the walls of Constantinople withstood them. But when they tried to conquer the Roman empire in the East. however. From an Arabic MS. His son Pippin was made king of the Franks in place of the effeminate heir of the family of Clovis. but should be free to own way. They conquered Egypt. In the ceremonies attending of Poitiers (pwa-te-a. with — Early ia the eighth century they crossed into Spain and readily overran the whole country. — . Under soon army believers spread their religion over Persia and farther eastward and north- eastward in Asia. Their Conflict Christianity. On the south shore of the Mediterranean. they met with little resistance. as the successors — the Caliphs — the new faith was of called. 732. Alliance between the Prankish King and the Pope.

There are also bams. The close alliance thus forming office led between the Prankish king and the papal him to interfere in the affairs of Italy. These lands. Charlemagne (768-814). It is fortified by a palisade. fruit trees. 'Histoire de I'habitation humaine. and the It contains a large open court surrounded by a portico.' buildings are mainly of wood. so that henceforth obedience On the precedent thus established the to him was a sacred duty. A Prankish Patterned after a villa of Villa the late empire. into which open two long low dwellings.i68 Charlemagne the coronation the pope took the important part of anointing Pippin with holy oil according to Biblical usage. —The son and successor of Pippin was Charles the Great. pope began to claim a share in the making of kings and emperors. From Ammann. and transferred to the pope. 174. grew in extent through later acquisitions. The square tower is for dwelling and defence. On this occasion he seized a considerable territory belonging to it the emperor at Constantinople. It was as their ruler that the pope became a great temporal prince. and flower beds. or as he is more cpmmonly . stables. This event gave the king a sacred character. henceforth known as the States of the Church.

From the third to 176. 800. The top . He had a fine head of gray hair. was kneeling at prayer in St. — ! — ' Charlemagne is Charles the Great. Readings.' By this act the pope further strengthened his claim to a share in the appointment of temporal rulers. 134. that he was not French. and placed the imperial crown upon his head. however. The Franks and called. whereupon all the Roman populace cried aloud. No subject of Charlemagne could doubt that their king was far more deserving of the title. the pope did homage to him. crowned of God " After he had been thus acclaimed. 'Ibid. the pope approached. and he himself seems On Christmas.. The kingdom of the Franks had grown greatly since the time of Clovis. but I. and his face was bright and pleasant so that whether standing or sitting. who was now held in little esteem throughout the West." Majestic in form and tireless in action. and his nose was somewhat long. quoted by Robinson. a great general and a beneficent statesman. and Charlemagne doubled the territory inherited from his father. . for it appears that he measured seven times the length head was round. lAJe of Charlemagne. He was simply 175. The Christian Empire Realized. Peter's. It the French for Car'o-lus Mag'nus..^ the Pope 169 He is described " large and robust. and henceforth he was called emperor and Augustus. The Pope Crowns him Emperor. The title of emperor was used by the ruler at Constantinople. as had been the custom with the earlier rulers. the fifth century there had regularly been two emperors ruling own foot. Most of his long reign he occupied in conquests and in putting down revolts. Char-le-magne. accordingly. Rome. his eyes were large and animated. " Long life and victory to the mighty Charles. the Latin equivalent of must be borne in mind. Einhard. while he to have desired it. king till 800. of of his commanding of his stature by his secretary^ as and excellent pro- portions. 126. 2 in speech. he showed great presence and dignity. 800. German. Most of his conquests were east of the Rhine and in northern Italy but in every direction on land he extended the boundaries of his realm. the great and pacific Emperor of the Romans. he left an enduring impression of himself upon all western Etu:ope.

Lastly it must be noticed that his empire once more presented to the world the idea of all Christendom united in one church and state. 177. too often he worked simply for his own advantage in opposition retain them for life . The bishops and abbots were independent of the counts (§§ 163. which we may trans- . Unlike them." The district mider his rule who was at first merely an assistant of was termed pa'gus. however. head of the Church and defender of the faith. The duke was therefore more powerful than the count. These various officers kept order and administered justice in their districts. There were a few dukes. He completed the task. empire. Imperial Organization it is ." the magistrate. " companion. begun by earlier Frankish kings. and as a reward for his service had given him some of the public land. he was a German and he ruled an empire which was more than half German. to be the count. the principal civil officer in Gaul In the late Roman The district under his rule was a Charlemagne's empire. Although he held the land and office at the pleasure of his sovereign. Within the limits of the old Roman domain the two races had blended into one. — InbuUd- ing a state necessary not only to conquer but to organize. he strove to had come county.170 Charlemagne simultaneously in the East and West —a condition now re- newed. of reconciling its institutions the Germans to the empire and and religion. cessor of Charlemagne regarded himself accordingly as a suc- Augustus and Constantine. 166). As the Frankish rulers lacked money with which to pay their officials. included many such counties. and went far toward the realization of that idea. Because it of the difficulty of travel in those days the king often found ' impossible even to learn From the Latin co'mes. spite of the fact that his to his sovereign's interest.' — and hand them down to his heirs and in duty was to represent the king. Like the emperors since Constantine he was a Christian. they had usually bestowed the title of count on a great proprietor in the county. who ruled duchies larger districts comprising several counties. . late " county. Feudalism Checked. too. and often more troublesome to his sovereign.

and for the future he devised a means of controlling them. They usually went in pairs.Imperial Institutions of the disloyalty of the counts for till 171 their power became too great him to control. the fighting men were required to come armed so as to begin the campaign ' month of May was called Mayfield. and abbots but the fifth century the even the common freemen had the privilege common people began to change their tostume It was a continuation of the from the Roman. 178. ment Charlemagne could not wholly change the system of governbut he did compel rebellious counts to submit. religion. If the subject of a hlstorique. He began the custom of sending out . From Album earher chapter (§ 155). They had power and punish wrong-doers. and to try education were everywhere properly cared for. of attending. Assemblies and Councils. and were required to full make a report to the emperor on the condition afEairs of in the territory to which they were sent. . But Charlemagne always presided. bishops. Not immediately after the adjournment of the meeting. that they might check one another. Their work was to see that the local magistrates were attending eflBciently to their duties in the loyal service of the emperor. In that case they were composed mainly or wholly of clergymen. a count and a bishop or abbot. regularly deputies to various parts of his empire. — Once Priest or twice each year he held a general assem- bly of his people. The gathering in the Ninth'century. old German assembly mentioned in an whereas the clergy retained it. and may therefore be termed councils. The excessive strengthening of local magis- trates at the expense of a king or emperor was an element of feudalism (§ 181). blies also discussed questions relating to religion Such assemand the Church.' new war was to be brought up. From only the counts. and that justice.

probably that he might use them as a check on the bishops. enjoyed any education. In like manner his attention to the building and ornamentation of churches encouraged architecture and the decorative arts. Charlemagne had become too independent because Church organization.172 . He Encourages Education. He had what would then be called a good education. . disunion. Other German statesmen had chosen the latter. barbarism. turies of the Roman empire learning had greatly declined. With great earnestness. Romanism meant Christianity. and every bishop to an archbishop. that the clergy might have a respectable education and that the children of common freemen and even of the serfs might learn to read. He not only set a good example to others. and even they as a class were ignorant. and Charlemagne in spite of his native sympathy could not hesitate to follow the same course. as he possessed some knowledge of Greek and could speak Latin. Under the late Frankish kings. and now Charlemagne undertook to revive learning. : . and good order under a strong central government. for Charlemagne dared not favor the growth of a native German literature. All the books were Latin. he devoted himself to astronomy and rhetoric. and chaos. The issue was clearly before his mind Germanism meant idolatry. however. civilization. but founded schools and encouraged his bishops and abbots to do likewise. The abbots he left outside this organization. Most of the Greek or Latin classics were destroyed or lost scarcely any new books were written and the of the clergy of the looseness of the As many — . Through the late cen179. some improvement had been made. Charlemagne saw that every parish priest should be subject to a neighboring bishop. few old ones in use were mainly religious rather than literary or scientific. and None but the clergy in western Europe had almost ceased. Many a priest understood not a word of the Latin services he had to repeat. From these beginnings western Europe would doubtless at once have entered upon a new era of progress in the arts and sciences had his empire remained intact.

Rashdall. Readings. Source-Book. Education. the Ger- man. Mombert. and even the papal office was sinking into weakness and contempt. Stockhohn. Davis. I. king. ii. in the ^\ (Ti | the dukes. the Latin language. . too. At the same time bands of fierce Northmen from Scandinavia were invading France and desolating Britain. however. Charlemagne. dissolution set From and strife which filled the rest of the ninth century gradually emerged two weak kingdoms which corresponded roughly to modem France and Germany. /^W\\ 1\ // Fl \ 1 1 ^ /I^ . ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ <y7'5aii^i~l!!l-'"Pli!'"-!!'iS-'Mt^ ^ Jm^'\. I. his title cal Each had a . 579-81. Charlemagne. T m. Mombert. 581 f. Restored from miniatures of the tenth and were vain.^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^jr i^^feBJ^MfeyrT^iiiM^^^"~ -'^' Norman (Noethman) Ship Here. In the former. . iii. in the latter. and abbots. 108-14 . prevailed . Decline 180. Ogg. 168 S. — Robinson. . Protection to life and property had to come from other sources. Education in Charlemagne's Time. Topics for Reading I. Robinson. ch. Source-Book of Medieval History. his pretences r^ .. Charles the Great. for that peninsula eleventh centuries. and aspired to rule over Italy. — that counts. 126-8. who enjoyed ^^ |\^l little else but for the real politi- power was now hands of the barons is. gradually changing to French. Charles the Great. . Davis. „ actually belonged to a multitude of independent Uttle nobles. see rnCcx under ^'Charles the Great " . bk. bishops. II. vi. The king in Germany had also the title of Emperor. Charlemagne the Man. bk. Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. I. 26-30. Botsford. — Botsford. ix. There were as yet in western Europe no states in the modern sense of the word. 173 his Dissolution of his Empire. weak sons and the confusion grandsons. Source-Book of Ancient History. ch. now England. For convenience we shall henceforth use these names. — Under in. 144-6. Museum of Antiquities. Readings. .

14. Sketch the growth of the Frankish kingdom. Source-Book. For what is the battle of Poitiers noted? 5. Describe the conflict of religions in Spain. date? 3. to territory in Italy ? 8. in France. of the magistrates of the empire under Charlemagne. . Why had education declined before Charlemagne? When did the decline begin? 12. What was the condition of education in his time? How did he improve it? Why did he prefer 12. Explain the origin and character of Mohammedanism. What was the Christian empire. Roman empire. What were their functions? their personal ambitions? How did Charlemagne check them? 10. Compare the decline of Charlemagne's empire with Is it right to call that of the old xlvi. Mohammed an imposter? 4. p. 2. What benefits did Islam bring to the people of Arabia ? 5. tions. the Middle Ages begin? Is it possible to set an exact Explain the difference between Arians and Roman Catholics. When do 2. pieces after his death? Additional Studies I. How did he become emperor? 8. Why did not Charles Martel himself become so successful in war? What right had the emperor at Constantinople king of the Franks ? 7. What was the position of a bishop? of an abbot? How did Charlemagne organize the clergy? 11. and how nearly was it realized? 9. ch. Over what territory did it expand ? Explain Koran caliph Islam. duke. 4. and answer the questions at the close of the chapter. Describe the personal appearance of Charlemagne. and what was the outcome? . Why were the Mohammedans 6. Write a syllabus of this chapter like the one on . Who were the " donothing " kings? Who was Charles Martel? 3. Explain count. Describe his assemblies and councils. Describe the transition from ancient to mediaeval history. Why was Charlemagne called " emperor of the Romans" ? In what respects was his empire Roman? 10. Read Botsford. 144. Make a syllabus. II. 13. showing their relations to one another. What were his conquests ? 7. Why did his empire fall in the Latin language and literature? 6.174 Charlemagne Review ' I. What especial causes brought the Frankish king and the pope into close relaDefine States of the Church. or table. Is there any reason why Charlemagne should not want to be crowned emperor by the pope? 9.

I7S . Because of the weakness of the central government each baron had to protect and to govern his own district and owing to the lack of commerce each duchy or county had to produce nearly all the food. therefore. Without money the king could not support the officials necessary for the good government of a large realm. clothing. On the German side of the Rhine were no roads at all. the of his barons. just as in ages past barbarians had attacked the old Roman empire. tools. The famous highways which the Romans had built through Italy and the West had not been repaired for ages long stretches had become impassable. . — of king heard but slowly of the rebellions and he could not easily send troops to check revolts. cut off from the rest of the world and paying little attention to the king or emperor. This lack of good roads prevented the various counties from combining and even from trading with one another. difficulty of travelling. furniture.put a stop to trade. Because of the i8i. Another source of weakness was the want of money. and weapons which it used. One reason why the successors Charlemagne failed to control the dukes and counts was the lack of good roads. Each county and duchy became. Fresh Attacks of Barbarians. The same lack of money nearly . which had continued from the late Roman empire (§ 147).CHAPTER XIV FEUDALISM Growth of Feudalism. The task of protection 182. grew extremely difficult for the border counts for barbarians began to assail the countries of the West on nearly all sides. for most purposes an independent state. — . . or an army for the protection of his coimtry from foreign enemies and from domestic strife and rebellion.

while on the East the Slavs and Huns. Over all the West these fortresses arose to The Donjon. Lords. In these troublous times even the interior dukes and counts failed to give their people all the protection needed. dukes.176 Feudalism In this period fierce sea-rovers from Scandinavia were burning and plundering along all the coasts and ravaging the country many miles inland (§ 192). and Serfs. continued their attacks. made certain demands on those whom he freeholders to tenants. and just it as often to 183. and on the South the Mohammedans. sufficient with for wealth castle. English protect the tower of the castle. In return for protection all make the lord of the castle protected. his In the first place he required surrender their lands to him and become In . usually isolated neighborhood from barbarous invaders. duke. as well as lesser lords had their castles. From VioUet-le-Duc. Tenants. seemed powerful enough to furnish In this way any man with ability and taste for war and command. Men who were thus left defenceless any turned to neighbor who aid. hence the word dungeon. The emperor. and often containing the prison.' was the strongest from the other buildings. building a became the protector and governor of his neighborhood. 'Dictionnaire de I'architecture franjaise. kings. — independent of the king. A Donjon 'Keep.' and counts. or count. This is a restoration of the keep of the Chateau-Gaillard built by Richard the Lion-Hearted.

the knighting of his eldest son. to serve him in war a fixed number of days each year. As explained above (§ 152). and were bought and sold with it. they readily took the oath of fideUty to any neighbor who was willing and that is. The surplus therefore they parcelled out among their tenants. too. For this purpose he made use of the custom of commendation. and serfs remained. which they now distributed among tenants. proprietors gladly In the period of violence following Charlemagne the small became tenants rather than lose both their property and their lives. had more land than their serfs could cultivate. We have seen. especially the dukes and the counts. — certain duties to their lord. They had also to make contributions for the ransom of the lord or his eldest son when taken captive. Some lords. and for the marriage of his These contributions were called aids. subjects of Charlemagne and of his successors had long been used to the idea of loyalty to a strong leader. if called on. tenants. Those who needed protection placed themselves vmder the care of a lord. that among the Germans before the invasions there was a similar custom (§ 155). his son on inheriting the benefice had to make to . The vassals owed They were obliged. which had grown up during the decline of the Roman empire (§ 153). swearing at the same time to be faithful to him. serfs were bound to the soil. A* grant to a tenant was called a benefice.Lords and Vassals 177 making this arrangement the lord was simply following a custom which had continued from the late Roman empire (§ 153). whereas the tenants were freemen. usually not above forty. The churches and monasteries had received as gifts from kings and barons large tracts of land. the Fief. In time the small proprietors wholly disappeared and only lords. they became his vassals. In this case the management of the land and the duty of protection fell upon the bishops and abbots. 184. When a vassal died. The lord required all his tenants to take an oath of loyalty to himself. able to protect their Uves This word accordingly applies to a class of free tenants who As the — voluntarily entered into the obligations described in the follow- ing paragraph. eldest daughter. for Obligations of Vassals .

To win the favor of a vassal the king A noble granted him immunity freedom from the visits — — of the royal oflScials either for the collection of taxes or for the settlement of disputes at law on the vassal's estate. sought such an exemption. Paris. into By this of ceremony the two persons entered lord relations Chaeleuagne as a Feudal Lord is kneeling before him and taking the oath of fidelity. which he held. and over made him an independent his own vassals to break and serfs. It tended therefore to weaken the king and up the kingdom into a multitude of petty states. and to hand them down to their children. on receiving it. the lord a pa3aneiit." The the receiver. The receive knelt with bent head before the giver. The from lords were unwilling that their hands.178 Feiidalism relief. which often amounted to an There were many other minor obligations. whether duke. they strove to keep them during life. Every ambitious for it vassal. so that the benefice was granted to those only who. and vassal. and the ceremony was homage (from Latin homo. bishop. giver kissed raised his him up. were willing to commend themselves to the giver. and the commendation were totally but in time they became inseparably connected. whether of great or small extent. termed entire year's income. count. From a miniature of the fourteenth century in the Library of the Arsenal. promised Originally the benefice distinct customs. was called a fief (Latin feudum). to become his " man. or abbot. man). and placing his hands between those of the giver. The growth of the system was greatly aided by the custom of immunity. Though at first vassals held their fiefs for as long only as the lord willed. their lands should slip wholly and for that . The process of granting it was called infeudation. and accepted vow of fidelity. and often violently usurped ruler over the estate it. The land granted.

especially France. some of whom might be stronger than he. its Complexity and Confusion. The Lords become Vassals.The Fief. Near him were other lords. ^ A Mounted and or to pay for other and as land was almost Knight in full armor. By an extension of the same principle ofiSces. and before the close of the tenth century the fief had become hereditary. tolls. By this process aU lords became vassals of other — lords or of the king. or powerful. The Completed System . could not hope to keep himself wholly independent. the Completed System 179 reason tried to prevent their property from remaining per- manently in any one family. and other privileges were made into fiefs and let out on feudal terms. including . As there was no money with which to support soldiers service. — In time most of the land came to be held by feudal tenure and the government became thoroughly feudal. whether weak 185. ' From Kleinpaul's Mittelalter. long maintained their independence against the king. — vassals who held their land directly of him. They were obliged in the end to yield. and ruled over the tenantsin-chief 186. For the sake of peace and protection he was willing to give up to a greater lord his castle with all the land under his control. Under the conditions of the time feudalism could not be avoided. those who desired the service of others had to grant the use of land in exchange for it. In theory the king owned all the land of the realm. It was but slowly and with much fighting that he compelled them to do homage to him. Many in great nobles.' the only productive property. and receive it back as a fief. The lord.

The lords and vassals devoted themselves to government and war. counts. I. turbulent. and in what way? 3. Thus there were several grades of lordship and vassalage. his . or even of one of his own subjects. the lowest being that of the simple knights. — Robinson. had his vassals who him and over whom he ruled. Ceremony of Homage. and their relation to one another. Topics for Reading Chivalry. Gautier. 179-83. caused endless The vassals were continually fighting among themselves to or rebelling against their lords.. bishops. dukes. P. v-xi. Chivalry. . Review I. . Though in the centuries following Charlemagne it saved society from complete dissolution. IV. with a few common people who held their land of remaineii free. Life in the Castle. I. — Food and Cookery. The A duke and confusion wars. Feudalism . Ogg. How did scribe the continued barbarian attacks.. L. 56-104. and Dress during the Middle Ages. — 240-7 II. Source-Book. feudalism was itself but a step removed from anarchy. etc.. added to the treacherous. especially chs. The king might be a vassal of another king. Explain lords tenants serfs . Manners. Each above the simple knight. Munro and Sellery. i8o . and some simple knights. Readings. was very intricate. Customs. The complexity of the pope. De- Why could not the king protect people? Who gave protection. did all the The feudal system here outlined clerical might be the vassal of lords (bishops and abbots) might be vassals or lords of the lay barons (dukes and counts) the same person might hold fiefs of several lords. 216-g. III. 105-77. tenant-in-chief. enforce peace and no one had the power upon these faithless. fighting nobles. manual work. another duke or count.. . What was the condition of the roads after Charlemagne ? What was the relative amount of money in circulation? What effects had these two facts upon commerce? upon political conditions? 2. self- seeking character of the nobles of every rank. who were themselves vassals but not lords. Lacroix. abbots._ of the system. while the serfs. — Lacroix. MedicBval Civilization.

Give a precise definition of feudalism. for instance. 11. (earlier ch. i8i benefice. 5.) ? 5. What were its defects? Additional Studies What Describe the comservice did it repair? chapter. or on Japan. Write a syllabus of this chapter like that on p. 7. What was the chief cause of feudalism ? What were minor causes? 9. Who . immunity. Can you find feudalism in any other period of history than the Middle Ages? For an answer to this question consult some work on ancient Egypt.Studies freeholders 4. of the late empire keep their roads in were the barons ? Find the explanation in an earlier 3. Explain the derivation of benefice. man custom was somewhat like " commendation? " Describe the former (earlier ch. Why did not the Romans 2. Explain the rise of serfdom in the late Roman empire What Ger6.). perform ? How did lords become vassals? 6. 7. When did the Mohammedans begin their attacks (earlier ch. What was the difference between a duke and a count (earlier ch.)? 4. What were vassals? What were their obligations to their lords? By what ceremony did a person become a vassal? Explain fief. 10. pleted feudal system. 8. become tenants? Define commendation. 144. I.).

It had declined in the period immediately following Charlemagne. the Christian Church alone was strong. and under Pope Gregory VII it became more powerful than it had ever been before. alone . it has never made a The Pope from one rulers. the supremacy of the Gregory pursued unerringly one aim pope over all other powers in Christian Europe. and on the active aid of the monks. when rulers 187. civil were unable to protect their subjects. reinstate them. He could count to him. but had recovered. and institutions not belonging to the clergy are thus distinguished.l ambition. He may depose emperors and absolve subjects from allegiance to unjust I "Lay" in this sense is derived from a Greeli word meaning "people". devoid of person3. on the rivalry between the lay^ and the spiritual lords. Feudahsm had weakened the kings. and transfer them see to another.CHAPTER XV THE PAPACY AND THE NEW STATES I. The States of the Church (§ 173) were his and several Italian duchies supported him. and never will to all eternity. The Christian Church under Gregory VII (1073-1080). The Supremacy of the Pope — in the confusion and violence of the Middle Ages. on the rebellious spirit of the barons. In defining the powers of the papal office he issued a declaration containing the following pro- — visions : — The Roman Church was founded by God mistake. persons property. To this end he directed all the resources which his genius could discover Circumstances were favorable in the conditions of the time. alone may depose bishops. A practical man of affairs. 182 .

Church councils were merely to give advice and to aid in legislation. From a fresco the tower of Pernes (Vaucluse). words could be made good. „. • personal greatness. would bow to one all-controUing will. the pope would be absolute master of the clergy throughout Christendom. — . bulla) is attached is the key to heaven the kingdom Charles becomes a vassal of the Pope. .Gregory 183 No one dare judge him or condemn a person who appeals to his court. vailed throughout all west- ern Europe under the feudal system. In this magnificent scheme Gregory had in mind not the mere ^^ p^^^ ^^ ^ F^^^^ exaltation of the papacy. The pope would be and the the supreme judge one source of law. but he alone may . Pope Clement IV granting the crown of the i and certamly not nis own Two Sidlies to Charles of Anjou.to it. formed into a great empire. annul the decrees of all. By accepting chiefly sought the the . . Thedocu- ^^ . . among the barons. they could neither be — loyal to the king nor repre- sent the wishes of their congregations. In his left hand ment of mankind. the incessant warfare everythe ignorance and brutaUty of kings where the triumph of might over right. lawlessness that ^ pre- m in the pope's right hand is called a bull because the pope's seal (Lat. No general council (for the management of Church business) may be called without his consent no one may annul his decrees. excepting in so far as they were permitted by the omnipotent master at Rome. Christian Europe. Seeing and hell. he naturally concluded that nothing but an omnipotent papacy could remedy this anarchy and enforce justice. He ment improve. „ ^. Kings and emperors were to become his vassals. If these 188. Gregory's Ideal of a Christian Empire. mercy. and peace.

Under the circumstances described in the last two paragraphs it was inevitable that the civil rulers and the pope should come into conflict. He needed the help of the clergy. as he was generally poor. of the allegiance of the As the transfer Church officials from the king to the pope meant the ruin of every kingdom. and on investing them with the symbols of both spiritual and temporal power. Far from lookpire. 'Kultm:.i84 189. — The emperor or king aimed to the high oflSces of the Church with men who would be faithful to him ." Church. the decree precipitated a life and death struggle between Church and State. the king in employing a priest was not setting up a dangerous rival. The clergy alone had sufiELcient knowledge and intelligence for these positions and as the Church offices were not hereditary. and Emperor Of the Holy paid him a large share of the first year's income from his office. He therefore insisted on appointing his friends to Church offices. counsellors. 190. From ing upon these payments as bribes. The newly appointed officer swore allegiance to the king. It was lay investiture when the appointment was by any other than a Church official.king felt that he was merely receiving geschichte des deutschen a just share of the rich revenues of the Volkes. . Furthermore. Gregory's Conflict with the Civil Rulers. the Hgnne am Rhyn. he desired a part of the Church revenues for the suppprt of his government and the improvement of his country. Roman Em- — Through a council of the clergy Gregory issued a decree absolutely forbidding lay investiture. too. for he needed their aid as ministers. . and magistrates. in his effort to check the growing power of the lay barons. wearing the imp^al robes and crown. The Fapacy The Civil fill Rulers and the Clergy. The ceremony of granting these symbols is called investiture.

exclude him from the Church — . whenever possible. It controlled not only kings and lords but every human being in western Christendom. which the sinner had to others — the Lord's Supper. In case the Christian sinned. — lasted the hfe of Gregory — tism. It is difficult for us to appreciate the overwhelming power of the Church at this time. The Holy Inquisition was a system of courts estabUshed for the detection and punishment of heresy. For a time the popes reaUzed almost to the full the ideal of absolute power created by Gregory VII. marriage. Those who refused to accept the orthodox faith and were therefore called heretics. and whole communities were massacred because their beUef differed more or less from the orthodox standard. and some do before receiving pardon. The German kings tried to realize at least a part of the idea by conquering Italy. prayer. The Supremacy of . had himself crowned emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire. and it was the priest alone who pronounced forgiveness. If a man refused to obey. the clergyman prescribed the penance. were punished with torture and death. In those days a heretic was looked upon by all the orthodox with as much horror as that with which we now regard anarchists or perhaps even murderers." This empire was Uttle more than an idea that all Christendom should be united under one emperor. which were esteemed essential to salvation. administered at the will of the pope by a well organized and highly efficient system of officials. who claimed the right to appoint and depose even the popes. such as fasting. The conflict outbut in the end the empire became a mere name and Germany fell into. It was an additional grievance to the pope that this German king. Thousands perished through this institution. confirmation. The institution was a strongly centrahzed monarchy. or pilgrimage. Throughout Ufe from birth to death every one depended upon a priest for the sacraments bap191. This ambition brought him into still more unpleasant relations with the pope.Conflict between Church and State 185 Gregory's quarrel was especially bitter with the king of Germany. — the Church. the pope had a right to excommunicate him that is. hopeless disunion.

The Northmen in England and in France.1 86 Norman England and from salvation. Here the followers of Rolfe settled. it is necessary to review briefly the history of these two countries. While Germany was faUing to poUtical ruin (§ 191). others visited Iceland. Before considering this subject. Englaiid when the Northmen began to assail that island. and the shores of North America others ravaged the coaStlands of western Europe and of the Mediterranean sea. Early Movements of the Northmen. made these things means described above. England and France were becoming strong states. to plant colonies. burning. to explore. All the terrors of earth and of the world beyond the grave were thus invoked to force obedience. and murdering they conquered it. the Church effectually accompUshed the task of reducing to order the chaos into which western Europe had fallen. For this severity we are not to blame the Church-. Greenland. 193. . however. Hordes of Northmen poured forth from Scandinavia in every direction. Some of them crossed the Baltic sea and founded on the east coast a kingdom which in time was to expand into the Russian empire. No one dared associate with a person under such a ban or give him aid or shelter. the By II. The Normans in England 192. however. to plunder. The petty kingdoms of Angles and Saxons in Britain (§ 157) had not yet been united in one state Anglia. these two countries had fared badly. and in time adopted the language and the cus. it was the ignorance and the illiberality of men in general and the barbaric cruelty of their nature that possible. Meantime a horde from the same country under the lead of Rolfe invaded France and secured from the king the grant of a large district on the lower Seine (911). but the bondage it now imposed was to prove excessively irksome to England and France. For about a quarter of a century (1016-1042) England was ruled by the king of Scandinavia. where they were known as Danes and after two centuries of pillaging. — — — — . and to conquer. But for a long time after the breaking up of Charlemagne's empire.

duke of Francia and count of these two cities. The barons waged wars at their pleasure. Normans. He rewarded with EngUsh fiefs the Norman lords who had aided him in the conquest. and became in fact a powerful vassal Normandy The greatest lord. years unable to control the lesser lords of Francia. or to build dwellings or churches. was elected king of the Gauls.The Norman Conquest toms 187 of their neighbors. The Nonnan Conquest of England (1066). Feudahsm had made little progress in that country. firm government enforced ter. however. and various other peoples who occupied France. For more than a hundred years the two races existed side by side. so that throughout the kingdom* property and life were safe.^ They built castles on these estates and helped keep down rebellion. English as well as Norman. and their country Normandy. Bretons. exacting masHis strong. the conquerors enjoying feel bound to support him rather than of all the their feudal lords. On his own responsibility WiUiam. 194. which contained the populous cities of !^aris and Orleans. In 987 Hugh Cap-et'. But William require<i all landowners to swear of France. and even as dukes they were for many of the Frajikish king. he used the natives as a check upon the power of his great Norman barons. duke of Normandy. to conquer and rule England. was the duke of Francia. the laws and preserved peace. These settlers came to be called Normans (Northmen). fit taining direct command men for . heedless of the king. — allegiance to himself. that in time of insurrection they might Remihtary duty. The duke of - acquired the lordship over the duke of Brittany. A stern. he aimed to be just. another Prankish country. As kings he and his early descendants had httle influence and no real power (§ 181). and WiUiam introduced it only so far as he thought necessary for securing his own control. conquered England. brought new ideas and new energy. or who afterward followed to trade or manufacture. It was a duchy governed by duke Rolfe and his descendants. The Norman conquest cut England loose from Scandinavia and connected her closely with the more progressive countries The Normans who came with William of southern Europe.

In another form the accused was thrown into water. If meantime the injury had healed. however. These methods were used not only in crimes but also in disputes about property. — From before the Nor- man conquest England had been divided into shires. Beginning of the Jury System. it was a proof of innocence. corresponding to our counties. They were called compurgators with the idea that they joined in purifying him from the accusation. the In place of compurgation or the ordeal to England preferred trial by battle. — Henry II introduced great changes in the judicial system. daily contact. Compurgation and Ordeals. The underlying principle was an appeal to God to protect the • Normans who came innocent. He had his own court which . • Gradually. They were not witnesses. and after three days the covering was iremoved. to swear that the oath he had taken was true. The court itself fixed the number of compurgators and other conditions of the trial. political. 195. and the victor was deemed innocent. and no real evidence was required. Down to the reign of Henry II (11 54-1 189) the English had kept the rude ideas and customs of law which they had inherited from their German forefathers. social. fought. whereas sinking was a proof of innocence. and common interests united the two races and the two languages to such an extent that the greatest nobles were proud to call themselves EngUshmen. generally his friends and neighbors. intermarriage.1 88 Norman England and economic advantages over the conquered. or champions selected by them. In this case the rising of the body to the surface indicated guilt. He was required to swear to his own innocence and to bring in addition a number of persons. Each shire and hundred had its court for the trial of cases at law. 196. His hand was then bound up." somewhat hke our townships. In one form of ordeal the accused was required to carry to a certain distance a piece of redhot iron. Another method of establishing one's innocence was by ordeal. The accuser and accused. each of which comprised several " hundreds. A person accused of a crime was sometimes tried by the method known as compurgation.

was probably guilty. Through up of priests only. by ejection from the clergy. the system took the form with which we in America are familiar. an accused person by merely showing that he could read and write could claim the privilege of trial before a Church court. Any freeman whose title to his land was disputed could apply for protection to the king's court. small) jury.English Institutions 189 not only tried cases affecting himseK and the state. by imprisonment. At first settled disputes about land. established trial of clerks (clergymen). the judges compelled him t-o undergo an ordeal and even if he came out safe. but also strove to take upon itself much of the business of the shire and hundred courts. Their decision was called a verdict ve're dic'tum. they ordered him to abjure the realm swear to leave England within a specified time. to declare under oath who in their locality were guilty of crime. — in the decision of criminal cases. which began in this way. After many years the petit jury was substituted for the ordeal to hold court. never to return. to satisfied. made by William the Conqueror for the As they alone were educated. they . Thereupon the royal judges ordered the summoning pf twelve persons. . Church Courts." It is to be time witnesses and jurors. 197. and they were not wholly that is. The institution here — described it is the so-called petit (petty. usually neighbors of the contestants and of knightly rank. The present jury system. This is the Assuming that a person thus indicted origin of the grand jury. — There were Church courts. 'to inquire into the matter and to declare under oath which of the two parties had the better right to the disputed property. but not by death. Much later. has long been regarded by English-speaking peoples as necessary to the protection of their liberty. It could punish by imposing a penance or fine. too. " truthfully noted that they were at one and the same stated. In like manner when the king's judges came into a shire summoned twelve men from each hundred in the county and four men from each manor. when the witnesses were differentiated from the jurors. as suits was already the usage in about property. afterward about any kind of property.

— These and although intended Council. In 1265 for the first time not only the lords and bishops were invited to parliament. the become the all-powerful latter found an ob- Progress of Government in England. an appeal to the pope. but under John it acquired a real function. bitter struggle Henry subjected the Church courts to those of the king and made his own consent necessary to an excommunication or to keep all his people obedient to himself. In his effort to (§§ 187-91). had occasionally convened merely to do honor to the king. but also two simple knights from each shire and two burghers from each important town. it came to be thought of as a foundation of the liberties of all. Relations between England and France. In this way all owners of property gained representation. Heretofore the Great classes- made up of tenants-in-chief (§ 186). King John (1199-1216) was so cruel and tyrannical that the barons rose against him. to imprison or put to death no one archy. which protected them from unjust taxes and allowed them self-government in local affairs. In time the simple knights joined with the burghers to form the House of Commons. in which he agreed to levy no taxes withbut the consent of the nobles. and thereafter it began to take more part in the government. — Though the government which William established was an absolute monthe people gradually gained political rights at the expense of the king. without a trial. ruler of Christendom 198. while the lords and bishops united in the House of Lords. the clergy aimed to make the Church independent of the king. stacle in the English king. Soon it came to be called Parliament.I go Norman England these courts as well as through the right of excommunication (§ 191) and of appeal to the pope. and compelled him to sign the Great Charter (Magna Carta). time a source of weakness to both England and France lay — . It was not long before niany towns acquired charters. For a long 199. brief to rule justly in and to allow the Church its privileges and to respect the rights of nobles and clergy. who on the other hand strove In a hard. for their benefit. as has just been stated. compelled succeeding kings to sign the Charter.

but this ceremony did not lessen his independence. resisted English aggression. It had a strong central government. The Crusades Meanwhile all 200. but found it far more difficult to subdue Scotland because the latter received support from across the channel. The contrast was great between the civilization of the East and the barbarism of the West. with the result that both sides wasted wealth and energy in fighting one another. The capital was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe. Henry II acquired by inheritance and marriage about half the French territory. its capi- (§125). The French kings. the Roman empire continued in the sciences East. still halfsubmerged in barbarism. but this was a gain in strength. Meanwhile England conquered Wales. The fields were well homes were comfortable. III. without comfort or refinement. western Europe was affected by the Crusades. who were slowly gaining power at the expense of the barons. change than in the West. able to maintain order and to assure the inhabitants a considerable degree Here the Graeco-Roman civilization continued of happiness. The Eastern or Byzantine Empire. Often they were obhged to allow foreign peoples to settle in the empire. the schools. neglecting the and arts. which must — now be described. and industries flourished. The ancient Greek and Roman classics were studied in good with far less cultivated. While the people of the West were devoting most of their energy to the petty wars of kings and barons. tine) tal It is known to history as the By-zan'tine (or Byz'anearlier empire from the name of Constantinople. It is true that the emperors found it difficult to protect their frontiers from the attacks of enemies. Territory seized by enemies they could not always recover. . It is true that for these possessions he had to do homage to the king of the country.The Eastern Empire 191 in the fact that the English king had extensive possessions in France and was continually striving for more. Thus the enmity between the two countries became continually more bitter.

The Crusades The Civilization of the Saracens. patterned after a Roman house. Cairo.The Moors. in Roman ele- Catholic Europe. It has an ample.Country dwelling of a wealthy family. the v/hich like their entire country the Saracens built great cities.). two-storied porch in front. geometry.192 201. priests alone could read and write. and Bagdad. graceful minarets. Their architecture is noted for its domes. Histoire de I'habitation humaine. as Mohammedans of Spain were called. philosophy. and physics ments to thousands of students at a time when. and beautiful arabesque ornamentation. ' A Byzantine House . learned teachers gave instruction in literature. of their The knowledge the Saracens had derived from the Greeks. — Beyond the Byzan- tine empire was the country of the Sar'a-cens (Mohammedans).' ' and which were beautified with splendid mosques and palaces. known as the Caliphate of Cor'do-va. In the universities of Cordova. From Amman^n. and had added many discoveries and inventions of their . astronomy. which extended from the Tigris river through northern Africa and through Spain to the Pyrenees (§ 171 f. and on the end an overhanging balcony. algebra. some of Cordova contained more than half a million people. had formed a state of Throughout their own.

In the eleventh century a great horde of Turks from the country north of China. . The Saracens had probut the Turks. who looked upon such journeys as an aid to salvation. — The Mosque oe Omar Jerusalem. the andent Hebrew temple. appealed to the pope for help in an effort to win back the Holy Land. own. Present condition. Jerusalem and the neighboring sepulchre of Christ fell into the hands of the barbarians. 202. The Turks in Possession of the Holy Land. and they traded with the whole known world. pouring into western Asia Minor. . Built 6gi on the foundation of From a photograph. These places were constantly visited by pilgrims from every part of Christendom. though converted to Motected the pilgrims hammedanism.Saracens and Turks 193 Their manufactures were far finer and more varied than could be found in Christendom. The excellence of their government contrasted strongly with the feudal anarchy of the Christians. Alexius I (io8i-ii'i3). treated them most brutally. wishing in reality to regain his lost provinces. wrested these countries from the Saracens and the ernperor at Constantinople. The Eastern emperor. So named after its supposed founder.

too. headed by himself. Froni a sketch. For the higher classes it was an especial motive that the feudal system. increase the prestige of the pope. France. if successful. pope at to the Crusades. set in motion at the council of Clermont. Such an undertaking. many from a desire to escape punishment for crimes. lasted Motives Leading this time.000 students drawn from all nationalities of the Moslem world. and possibly recover for him the supremacy over the Eastern Church. Even now instruction is here given to 9.' about two centuries. extend the limits of Christ's' kingdom. Merchants took part in order to reap worldly profit in additidn to their spiritual rewards. welcomed the request. At the same time it would. — A Mohammedan School at Cairo Known as the Mosque of El-Azhar. and educational purposes. Tfie Crusades Urban II. began somewhat to cramp the freedom oi . The various expeditions to the East are called Crusades from the circumstance that those who took part wore a cross. in 1095. Many went from motives of piety. built in the tenth century for religious.194 303. now becoming more orderly. would be an act of piety. There was. the love of adventure which characterized the period we are now studying. The movement. reproduced in 'Album historique.

the movement created in them a more independent opened an outlet for the warlike energy of the nobles. fatigue. liberty. or were butchered by the people through whose country their hands. The few great nobles who acted as leaders dreamed of winning kingdoms for themselves. many of whom perished on the Crusaders Marching From 'Album historique. bands of knights under their respective leaders reached the Holy Land. and there were every year great numbers of pilgrims travelling eastward toward the Holy Sepulchre. and to enter this new field which promised free scope to their personal ability. 205. Thousands. the knights rejoiced at this — of unarmed men but even their way eastward. they passed. but there were many minor expeditions. were soon on hoping that they would be miraculously of women and fed and protected. 195 Chafing under the slightest restriction of their opportunity to break loose from all control.Motives and Cha>acter the individual. conquered it. and that God would deliver the enemy into They all perished from hunger. ways subjection to the papacy.' way. and the people of western Europe directed their attention to other matters. It . Religious and Political Effects. Historians enumerate six great crusades within the two centuries above mentioned. The pope had hoped to reunite but the hostility which immediately the East with the West sprang up between the crusaders and the emperor widened the schism. The later expeditions were devoted to other conquests in the East. who after wasting their resources in these expeditions spirit. Finally the Christians had to abandon the Holy Land. all children. Character of the Movement. and divided it among themselves. One of them temporarily overthrew the Eastern empire and another assailed Egypt. — The Crusades af- which the promoters of the movement had never dreamed. Voluntary. not only 204. Instead of bringing the states into more complete fected Christendom in of . and sickness.

Built at Jerusalem in the twelfth century.196 The Crusades less able to resist their kings. Civilizing Effects. condition They to could not feel their be wretched. There were other equally unportant 206. Growing discontented with . In the East they saw with astonishment Greeks and Arabs a life far above theirs in comfort and refinement. were ignorant and bar- barous. Those who their inferior returned home brought with them stimulating ideas and more open. The their experience of travel broadened minds. Down to this time the West- erners. were The latter at the close of the movement in a better position to were therefore put down feudalism and to buildup centralized states of the modern kind. liberal minds. — effects. Compelled living by Church of the Holy Sepulchre on the spot supposed to have been occupied by the tomb of Christ. learned to respect and admire spite of the fact that they them as were not the crusaders men of real worth in Christians. their situation in the Holy Land the to deal with Mohammedans. for they had little commuworld nication with the rest of the and were unaware of anything better. as has often been noticed.

France condition. . In connection with this revival of coinage. For the purpose of supporting expeditions and of carrying on this commerce. but they were helped and hastened by these expeditions. for the improvements just mentioned as resulting in part from them were precisely those which were transforming mediaeval into modern life. began about 1300 to take on the character of a modern The Capets (§ 193) were still handing down the royal state. We are how it was that France. Fortunately in nearly every case the heir was at his accession a mature man. causes were combining to bring IV. was revived. ready to take personal charge of the government. 208. 197 to strive toward a higher standard Economic Effects Literature. too. all We should not be right in ascribing to the life. In fact. Hence they were now more ready to shake off their exclusiveness and to enter into commercial relations with one another as well as with the East. The period of the crusades was one of transition. ment of America. crusades alone these improvements in Western Many them about. — ities of . and most of the kings of this long dynasty were men of ability. which further stimulated useful enterprise by making it possible to borrow large sums of money. France Monarchy in France. banking. Mediterranean trade had become necessary in order to furnish the crusaders with food. . . and it continued after this need had passed away. The various nationalEurope had mingled in friendship on these journeys. barter was insufficient money had to be coined in far larger quantities than had formerly been needed. The Strengthening of — now in a position to understand authority without interruption from father to son. Meanwhile the adventures attending these journeys were finding a place in a new literature and the zeal for exploration continued to grow till it brought about the discovery and settle207. they began of life. which was more affected by the crusades than any other western nation.

the other is testing them by weight. The 209. This process began before the cruand continued without interruption throughout that period. He and other rulers of that time were greatly aided by the new education fostered at the universities (§ 223). In some of these institutions the study of Roman law had been revived. There was the same good understanding between the king and the free towns. It was nearly completed by Philip the Fair (Philip IV. as well as other kings of his time. no longer chose his ministers from the clergy. From 'Album bis- One man advantage which it offered to rulers of the age of Philip lay in the fact that it upheld the absolute power of the sovereign. who devoted the whole force of their knowledge to freeing their sovereign from both feudal and papal restrictions. too. With this money he could hire soldiers who would serve him as long as they were needed and at any season of the year. and in thus uniting France in one great state. rising class of scholars versed in The king's vassals still rendered military service for a fixed number of days each year. But money payments from his vassals. and he was determined further upon improving roads. — Mmdi/zyai.' Roman law. and who were far more obedient to his commands than the feudal lords had vassals to been. sades. were not . required salaries. together with the old feudal dues and the income from the king's domain. but from the torique. and was carried on with great zeal. As it was impossible to conduct a long campaign with such troops or to. palaces. erecting cathedrals. government offices. and in return received the support of the clergy. and other public works. in limiting the possessions of the English king. For these reasons the Capets succeeded in gradually gathering up all the fiefs of the kingdom into their own hands. His ministers and officials. Philip the Fair.198 France The family favored the Church. 1 285-13 14). keep them thoroughly under control. Coiners is striking coins. Philip introduced the custom of requiring the pay money in place of military duty. Philip.

" The townsmen." had as yet no representatives in the council. abbots. for Edward I. the clergy refused on the ground that such posses•sions had been devoted to God. The Estates General. strong-wUled pope who lived at this time. Edward answered the papal bull by forbidding the clergy the protection of the law till they should be willing to I of . industrious class. Philip summoned a council of This gathering was a development from the primihis people. Boniface VIII. and counts. 210.Philip and Edward to 199 enough to support a officers of large army and pay the many civil the government. England Conflict with the Pope. the nobility the " second estate. so that the assembly had come to be a " Great Council " of influential barons bishops. Philip required the towns to send deputies to the session of the year 1302. Boniface in another bull asserted his temporal as well as spiritual su- premacy. 178). and occasionally on personal property. For a time pay these measures inclined the pope to a 211. The commons tive German assembly of freemen (§§ 155. taxes on incomes. an ambitious. The clergy formed the " first estate " of the realm. thus depriving Boniface of a great part of his revenues. and were therefore free from the control of kings and princes. Philip therefore levied duties on merchandise. The decree affected England as well. who were merchants and artisans and who belonged to the " third estate. and threatened to depose Philip for having imprisoned a papal legate. while Philip met the difficulty by prohibiting the exportation of gold or silver from his kingdom. — Recovering courage. Desiring the support of the whole nation in his new conffict with the pope. was likewise taxing Church property. — Wishing the support of this wealthy. more moderate policy. He and Edward — their taxes. dukes. A council made up of the three estates was called the . had ceased attending. A large part of the wealth of the kingdom belonged to churches and monasteries but when the king wished to tax these institutions. king of that country (1272-1307). issued a bull (decree) forbidding the clergy to pay taxes to the king and threatening with excommunication any king or prince who collected such taxes.

312-43. — . . — Parliament. Green. Iviii. Munro and Sellery. Short History of the English People. (4) motives to the Crusades character of the movement religious. Ogg. 284-96. Robinson. 814-1300 : (i) growth of feudalDecline of the Empire after Charlemagne ism (§ 181 f. strictions on the king's (a) Great Council V. Lee. : VII. 224-31. Topics for Reading The Crusades. economic. — II. 248-56. : . : . . France of 1302 heartily supported Other meetings which he afterward called were equally loyal. Gibbon. IV. The Frankish kingdom . and cultural. William the Conqueror. Cheyney. For this reason the estates general formed no check on the growing power of the king. Englishmen. The assembly the king against the pope. amalgamation of races. Readings.). The Crusades Europe . the delegates from the towns bowed submissively to the royal will. . Robinson. (i) The Byzantine empire contrasted with western enemies and invaders area and (2) the Saracens civilization effect on (3) Turkish conquest of the Holy Land Christian pilgrims.. SourceBook. Source-Book of English History. the duchy of Normandy. power (o) the Magna Carta. VI. Far from any thought of maintain^ ing their rights or of winning new privileges for their constituents.) (2) fresh invasions (§§ 180. Edward I of England) (4) the Estates General. Government courts : of England : (i) curia regis. . paid soldiers public improvements increased need of money (3) Taxation of church property. . lix. : (2) the the (3) re(6) Relations between England and France. (2) Philip the Fair: new class of ministers. (c) church courts . 11 1-2 2. I. Progress of France: (i) effects of the Crusades. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.. . chs. : 200 Estates General. II. polit(s) effects of the Crusades ical. I. Europe. Readings. I. conflict with the pope (c/. (J) juries. Meditsval Civilization. iSS f. . . . compurgation and ordeals. III. 74-87. Political Progress of I. Short History of England. strengthening of the monarchy. 88-113. Norman conquest of England: (i) William the Conqueror's organization modified feudalism (2) effects of conquest relations of Britain with southern Europe.

comment on each Additional Studies topic in order. From Church draw its ofi&cers (§ 163)? 3. Who were tenants-in-chief (ch. Did the pope have more or less power in the time of Gregory VII than in the time of Charlemagne? 5. no learning outside the clergy? 2. In the conflict between Gregory VII and the civil rulers what could be said in justification of the pope and of the civil rulers respectively? 6. Why were the Saracens more advanced in civilization than the Christians of western Europe? 13.Studies 20I Review With the syllabus before you. Who were the barons (§ 181)? 10. When abd how did Germany fall into political ruin? 7. Why was there little or what classes of persons did the . Why had the churches of the East and the West fallen apart (§ 167)? I. How did the feudalism of England under William I differ from that of France and Germany (ch. Why did the eastern half of the Roman empire continue long after the western half had been dissolved (§ 159)? 12. What were the States of the Church (§ 173)? 4. xiv) ? 9. xiv)? 11. Why was the early history of France and England different from that of Germany? 8.

relapsed into a rude. the failure of the government to protect traders and their merchandise from robbers and invading enemies.C. dwellings. — The Roman empire was filled with wealthy cities. niture. the scarcity of money. to an end through the ruin of roads and bridges. is stirring People deserted the cities because they could no longer find a livelihood there. All these conditions were made worse by the P^nts. Workmen of this period often wore short tunics belted at the waist.' 'Album his- and furHunting and tilling the soil became once more the chief means of subsistence. semi-barbarous condition similar to that from which the Romans had emerged more than five centuries B. The Castle. country life centred 213. about the castle. in which the lord resided. coming in and settlement of the Germans. Under these circumstances each country estate had to manufacture the tools and cloths needed by its occuMedieval Cooks at the height of its prosperity One cook is roasting meat held on the fire by a long spit another . In this period. whose people earned a good living by manufacturing and trade But during the decline these activities came nearly (§ 126). The World in Semi-Barbarism. TriE Manor 212. and the Greeks in far earlier time. Early in the period — . and the decay of mechanical and artistic skill. the most of whom were satisfied with the From torique. In brief the inhabitants of western Europe coarsest food. the soup or stew in a huge pot suspended by a hook.CHAPTER XVI LIFE IN COUNTRY AND TOWN I. clothing.

and therefore easily burned by enemies. and to our left the donjon or keep. At that point the moat was crossed by a bridge which coiild be drawn up in time of danger. steep path. Restoration of the chateau de moat. interior buildings. was opened by ping. Round it was a yard enclosed by a huge stone wall strengthened at intervals by turrets. wall and towers. In of many cases the wall difiScult was made more approach by surrounding it with a deep ditch irioat filled with water. which gave the defenders a great advantage over an attacking enemy. The builder the enclosing wall a single narrow gate flanked by strong towers. France. in the earliest but were relatively late improvements. and the gate — portcullis — on the drawing A Showing the Castle other hand. many of them so solidly that they are still standing. Within the yard in outer buildings the lord kept his horses . but and thirteenth centuries most castles were built of stone. To make his castle more defensible the lord generally placed it on a high steep hill or in the twelfth mountain. by dropPortcullis and drawbridge did not exist drawbridge. but sometimes on an island or in a marsh. The moat was especially — — useful in preventing the battering engines of ene- mies left in from approaching the walls. quickly closed castles up' and la Roche-Pont.The it Castle 203 was wooden. The gate was approached on the outside by a narrow.

His clothing From a is of fine material. Their education was a training in court etiquette and in the use of arms. The nobles despised books. often practically sovereign.. some circumstances by a common knight or even by a lady. and other manly artS. for he was not only proprietor of the manor but also magistrate. The lord and his family lacked the comforts enjoyed by the — poorest workman of to-day. and as a squire the yputh serveda knight to whom he was attached. as improved and their wealth increased. In this way he learned politeness while he was training himself in the practice of arms. The water supply was provided for by cisterns and wells. a mantle. Vast tracts of land once cultivated were covered with forests. The king or great lord kept at his court the sons of his ^^assals. bracelet. Life of the Nobles. Only by performing some valorous deed could he gain. furnished and as gloomy as a prison. MS. He wears a long tunic with low broad collar. in the Library of Tours. the right This honor was conferred by his lord or under to knighthood. He aimed also to have always on hand a large stock of provisions to enable him to endure a siege. and pointed shoes. 304 The Manor and other necessary domestic animals. The castle was almost as barely 214. over all who lived on it. The lord spent much managing his estate — manor — and in its of his time in dispensing justice to occupants . their tastes In time. they were able to buy bjetter clothes and furnishings but at its best their life was the opposite of luxurious. riding. . Hunting afforded him his chief recreation and at the same time supplied the family with meat. who were there instructed in the elements of manli- As a page the* boy waited on the it was then regarded. the home not only of the hare and A Noble Twelfth century. ness as ladies . thinking them fit only for monks. deer but of savage beasts.

and fortunate. or to put down undutiful vassals. and faithful to the lady of his choice. to be truthful. ^In reality some knights were violent. high ideal placed before them was an influence for good. re- the modern languages for literary purposes. . for amusements were Sometimes they played chess. Be faithful. or against . The spirit and etiquette of knightly life are termed chivalry. ." There were other ceremonies more or less essential act The knight swore to protect the weak. They were among the first to use Strolling Musicians Encouraged by the hope of freshments. in the National by singing these songs to the accompaniment of the lute or other musical instrument. or danced. In southern France the composers of such poems were the troubadours. Such struggles destroyed many lives and a vast amount of property. Library. and defend Christianity. The lords and ladies took pleasure in listening. Son. succor the needy. or watched the few. in Germany the minnesingers. The education of the women of the castle and court was domesAmong their household duties were sewing. devoid of respect for women and faithless to Nevertheless the every obligation. and doubtless many lived up to the standard. Their deeds and loves furnished subjects for many a poetic tale. a fellow lord. He was fighting most of the time either against his suzerain. and Holy Ghost. MS. A contest between two was a joust. spinning. bold. between whole companies a tournament. rain (lord) 215. and tic. " I dub thee knight in the name of the Father.Noble Men and Women 205 The panied with some such declaration was a blow on the neck with a sword. Noble Women. mimic battles of knights on horseback. Minstrels travelled from court to court earning their living From a Thirteenth century. But nothing could so interest a lord as an actual war. Paris. loyal to his suzeelaborate. accomas. brutal Chivalry and Minstrelsy — oppressors of the helpless.

fowls. as well as to superintend the similar work of the peasant women on the manor. They spent much time in embroidering tapestries for the decoration of the walls of their homes. and there was no essential difference in the managenient of the estate. Adjoining it was the church land. and submit to his decisions concerning themselves.' surrounded by his and the dwelling of. though less mili- tary than in the castle. the lesser lords ' found it possible to live in unfortified dwellings. which he A Manoe House Normandy. a freeman might tome and go as he chose. occupied Although most of the villagers were serfs. The Estate and the Peasants. was in other respects the same. a group of huts. were Life Such abodes manor-houses. there were a few freemen and on some manors. and a slave was wholly dependent upon his master. From Viollet-leDictionnaire de I'architecture fi^ngaise.2o6 weaving. In law. 216. or rector. pigs.' kept under his immediate control. All the villagers had to appear before the lord's court of justice when summoned. They Were by no means weaklings. In some localities. particularly in England. and . if not in fact. slaves. Duc. — Around the lord's dwelling lay his demesne. but often hunted on horseback with the men or even helped them defend the castle when attacked. with its burial ground. on which stood the chapel. by the peasants and their cows. ' thirteenth century. or private land. the priest garden and orchard. Near little the church was the village. as they found for themselves it The Manor necessary to make most of the clothing and their families. whereas a serf was bound to the soil. in the manor- house.

In their homes and smithy the peasants made their furniture. manor was divided into three fields of several hundred acres each. he worked ignorantly and produced small. Every peasant had a right to perhaps ten strips in each field. so that they had to buy nothing but a few raw The arable land of every well-regulated materials. The arrangement here described is lie called the It three-field system.wo(m. producing nothing but grass. one year out . the East field to the coarser grains. in different to kinds needs. and barley. thus. rye. who often . of crops. He was at the mercy of his lord. and the smithy. was found soil by centuries of experire- ence that the mains more productive when planted rotation. poor crops. Year by year they were apportioned by lot among the villagers. and sys- when not of idleness tematically fertilized. divided into long narrow strips. such as iron. acre. was planted to wheat.. the mill. Then in the following year the West field would be planted to wheat. Estate and Peasants 207 In the village were the bakery. cloth and tools.Am ai/d viajte of every three for re- cuperation. In a given year the East field. while the South field would fallow. and the West field lay fallow. we may say. Altogether he might have the use of from fifteen to thirty acres but though industrious. or each containing about an on some estates half that amount. in order to secure the utmost fairness in the division of the soU. The Thkee-field System Black strips belong to The arable land was demesne. the South field to oats.

he could save nothing. and that its end finally came through circumstances over which the villagers had no control. The Stability of Serfdom. and plagues. they made no effort to rise above this condition. for there . From his miseries there was no escape but death. Through all these hardships the peasant suffered far more than his master. The endless round of toU was rarely interrupted by a holiday. it was taken. while the delicacies went to the lord and his family. in fact there was no ground for hope. and oats. as poultry. eggs. While grumbling at their miseries. wheat. From what has been said 217. He was all obliged further to give the priest a portion of his produce that his pastor might be supported and that something might be sent to the Holy Father at Rome. Before "the invention of printing they owned no books and were unable to read or write. famines. 2o8 Monasteries and Universities exacted of him far more than was reasonable or just. he had nothing laid up in store to tide him over the evU day and if disease assailed his family. Under the existing system of landhol'dLng it would have been impossible — an individual to introduce better methods of farming. As was almost no money in circulation. and therefore more effective was the — Far more labor of the . and labored. The coarser foods were theirs. But regularly the peasant handed over to the lord fixed amounts of produce. he could not procure medical aid. At least half was given in this way to his master. II. If there was a slight opportunity for a gradual advancement ol the class. The Monasteries and Universities 218. or drought and storm destroyed his crop. If an invading army ravaged his field. In their hard existence they had little time or inclination to think. from them by the numerous wars. above it is clear that the villagers were heavily burdened. It is not strange then that in western Europe serfdom continued through many centuries. intelligent The Economic Value of the Monastery.. however thrifty his disposition may have been.a definite number of of the serf's time days on the lord's demesne.

' ' The two whom all members were bound to obey. the estate served as a model farm for the surrounding country . To counteract the grow- ing wealth and luxury of the clergy and to restore the Christian religion A Dominican Friae orders are dis- to its early simplicity and purity. — When 166) the Benedictine idle monks (§ became through laxity of discipline. New Orders of Monks. 219. to lay fresh emphasis on labor and on strictness of life. Their orders. many from mediaeval to modern life. 209 Often the estate by a king or monastery originally a forest or waste tract granted baron and converted into a productive farm. The monastic Francis (born about founded an order of begging monks — the (Latin Franciscan friars fr aires. these communities were second only to the towns as a factor in the economic progress which helped greatly to bring about the change cases beautiful. . too.Monks and monks in the fields of was tion their Friars (§ 166). whereas the parish priests were secular. were well adapted to buildings in large. new orders were from time to time instituted. the friars went out into the world to relieve suffering and to preach the gospel. "brothers ")• The Dominican friars were a similar order established about the same time. substantial. des ordres monastiques. and Developing considerable manufacturing and trade. The Dominican wears a short black cape over a white From Helyot. their purpose. 11 80) St. orders differed from others in having each a General tinguished mainly by color of uniform. founded many monasteries and became wealthy. Monks and friars were the regular clergy. Thus the instituwas the chief agent in reclaiming for agriculture the vast The monastic forests and waste lands of western Europe. Whereas the monks usually remained at their monasteries engaged in the saving of their own souls. Histoire robe. the Friars.

In the more liberal monasteries. French. From them open. and parchment was very expensive. Still existed. genthirteenth century. They are a shelter for walking and teaching. the sole object of which was to give the instruction in religion and theology necessary for the clergyman. mainly because they were pagan.210 320. Some of these books are written in a beautiful hand and are illustrated with pictures called illuminations. Every monastery. the Cloisters Mont-Saint-Michael. When in the general decline of Roman civilization (ch. x) these two conditions failed. as much as through the barbarian invasions. howspent! ever. But there was no paper. the cells of ' the monks. Through of the quite neglect the Chris- tians therefore. Few books accordingly were written. by the fact that Latin the language of learning —. t)uilt in the Cloisters are galleries. most of the Greek and Latin literature was either destroyed or lost. from which the present Romance languages developed. i„ theological WOrks Of the Abbey and and i m . The spread of knowledge among the people was retarded. too. erally with an arcade. The scientific works of the tion of the — ancients they especially shunned in the belief that these sciences were contrary to Scripture. Romance languages. the spoken language of the Latin countries began to break up into dialects. Monasteries and Universities Another funcMonasteries as Centres of Learning.-i i„ . Copying the ancient rlassics i which r.' of monks part of their time in writing historical . as well as every bishopric. and Spanish. as the ItaUan. Almost from the beginning the Christians had opposed the study of the Greek and Latin classics. . From Album historique. surrounding the interior court of a monastery. painted in bright colors. was expected to have a school.^ ' A common language can be maintained over a wide area in no other way than by constant intercourse between one part and another and by education in a common literature. was known to few outside the clergy for spoken Latin had differentiated into the — . monks was education.

the schoolmen aimed to deduce knowledge from the Bible and from early Christian writers by means . they succeeded in instilling in the minds of the barbarous Germans a reverence for the Church and a respect for the books from which the clergy drew their information. and induced them to worship as saintly relics objects which had had no connection with the saints. Although alchemy has died out with the rise of chemistry. called scholasticism. They taught these simple-minded folk the lesson of faith implicit belief in what was told them about this world and the hereafter." life which would transmute the baser metals to gold and prolong through hundreds of years. German and English no one as yet thought of employing them for scholarly purposes. The alchemist devoted — * — his energy to seeking the " elixir " or the " philosopher's stone. Countless stories oi the saints and martyrs and miracles of doubtful origin were implicitly believed. but were nourished to a new life by the general superstition of the period now under consideration. 221. The clergy had become the only teachers. Scholasticism. like alchemy and astrology. Learning Although local poets 211 were using these languages as well as the for the expression of their fancies (§ 215). He never doubted what passed for the truth he accepted. In many cases the unscrupulous deceived the faithful. Astrologers claimed the power of predicting events in the lives of individuals by observation Both " sciences " were known to the ancients.. astrology is still practised upon the 222. to flourish. The chief difference between the mediaeval and the modem man is that the mind of the former was absolutely controlled by religion. Its essence was the setting of authority above the reason. gullible by fortune-tellers. Even scholars of repute and princes were sometimes imposed upon by forged documents. The Mediaeval Attitude of Mind. — The higher learning of the time. conis sisting chiefly of logic and theology. of the stars. Instead of trying to discover new truths by observing nature and by independent thinking. Though their fund of knowledge was small and their teaching mainly religious. This condition of mind made it possible for false sciences.

like that of the merchants. In that period any guild was called a university (Latin universitas) but in time the word Came to be restricted to an association of teachers. — In the Middle Ages to about iioo. book in hand. reading and explaining the text to a group of boys and young men seated before him on heaps of straw. In a bare room. Books were so scarce and so expensive that the majority of students had to receive all their instruction orally. his students. It was poor in quality and limited in scope. Aquinas helped bring about a new and more accurate It was largely the translation of Aristotle from the Greek.212 of logic Monasteries and Universities which they had learned from an imperfect Latin translaminor logical works (§ 86). Universities. individual teachers in the larger cities were engaged in educating whatever students they could attract. sat the teacher. however. The teacher supported himself He lectured by fees from on whatever subjects he chanced to know. a reasoner of great clearness and force. In this . so that education was almost wholly confined to those who wished to enter the clergy. tion of Aristotle's ch. xvii). Before the close of the twelfth century so many teachers had gathered in Paris that they formed a guild. 223. way tions the University of Paris in other places. Early in the twelfth century. schools were limited to monasteries and churches. Scholasticism produced acute reasoners. which was stiU Greek. in Bologna. hired for the purpose. and . England. renewed acquaintance with Greek literature now faintly beginning which was to lead to a revival of learning (Renaissance. Some of them. did good service by putting existing knowledge in order. He was the most eminent of the schoolmen. Thomas A-qui'nas (died 1274) reduced the doctrines of the Church to a theological system which has remained with scarcely a change to the present day. however. Similar institu- were established in Oxford. occasion- ally taking notes. for their mutual protection. came into being. In his time communications were improving between western Europe and Constantinople. Italy. who too often spent their time in quibbling with words or in trying to settle unpractical questions.

university grew faculties of arts. The law faculty taught Roman law and Church law. Oxford Oxford University was founded in the twelfth century. The faculty of arts gave instruction in the " seven liberal arts " grammar. law. it came to include and theology. it the people of the city in which they resided. logic. rhetoric. medicine. for the city profited greatly by the expenauthorities took measures to punish the evil-doers. they generally led disorderly lives. Bologna was especially famous for its school of law. geometry. increased privileges. is a view of Though eager for knowledge. This picture one of its most celebrated colleges. The students." under their officers. arithmetic. When ditures of the students. carousing in the taverns and fighting with one another or with the civil sometimes happened that the whole student body threatened to migrate Such a threat brought indulgence or even to another place. and astronomy. music. . who had gathered from all countries. As the — Christ Church College. organized themselves in " provinces " and " nations.Universities 213 more complex.

was the Gothic church. as they were designed to accommodate large numbers of citizens (§ 227 f. 224. how- ever. they were finally used also for instruction. of the English — In the preceding pages a description of the and mention has been made 215). Buildings. From a photograph. In this use of the word. Belgium it Built in the thirteenth century. became a cloth market after the erection of a new city hall in the seventeenth century. however. The most artistic creation of the period. In time. These buildings were termed colleges. Our chief interest here is in contrasting it with the classic style from which it grew.214 Monasteries and Universities first At the university possessed jio buildings. manor-house Many guildhalls City Hall at Ypees. This new element made it possible to give . and townhalls were of great size. typical castle has been presented. and though intended merely as lodging houses. generous men founded dormitories for the poor students.). Appearance before the great World War. (§§ 213. Gothic is but another name for Ger- manic. and the style of architecture was so named because it developed most strikingly north of the Alps. In the Gothic church the pointed arch is substituted for the round Roman arch.

the most beautiful and imposing of Gothic 1200 and completed in 1880.Cathedrals 2IS Cologne Cathedral One of churches. It was begun about .

2i6 Monasteries and Universities the great the roof a steep slant. . Peter's. and to adorn the cathedrals with a multitude of spires. and the second the is Cathedral of Seville. val man. symbolizing in this way the highest aspirations of mediaeif The art of an age expresses its ideals.000. as While the Greek temple content with this goodly life. In the larger buildings piers are used in place of columns to tall. Rome. Milan Cathedral The of building was begun in 1386 and European churches. The churches of the bishops — — windows are and decorated in beautiful colors. the first being Is not yet completed. 40. the Gothic spires lift the minds of the worshippers to the heavenly world. It is third in size St. slender. Spain. tions. The capacity of the church here pictured and the elaborate decorations include 4440 statues. The nature of the pier and of the other illustra- features of the Gothic church may be learned from the nestles closely to earth. support the arches.

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000. ent kinds. The streets were narrow lanes and the houses were built the closely together. are that people had not yet learned to look out for comfort. During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Cities 217 Business Life life was almost 225. far higher skill and produced than could be found in a purely agricultural By the gathering of such men in one place the . and the like was the principal In answer to the demand force which brought about its growth. town or city was built up. men who had a wholly to it taste for mechanical labor devoted themselves and thus developed far better wares community. such as we find in many museums ' The demand for of Europe. tools. however. gauntlets. Amman. dependent on a castle or moiiastery. for number of inhabitants.' 1368. Such a town or city occupied. As the people therefore were scattered throughout the country. an exceedingly small space. weapons. Towns and Cities. Among his products are Often the town was merely an enlargement of a village. wholly agricultural. We are not to think of the cities — In the Middle Ages of the thirteenth century as large according to the present standard . To our left is a full suit of armor in position. they increased rapidly ia number and in population. No The vacant reasons room was market left excepting the place. and no other English city reached half that size. was easier to surround with and that a compact town a A Mediaeval Akmoeek helmets of differ- wall of defence. there were few towns. breastplates.Towns and III. the population of London was about 25. and greaves. From StSnde und Handwerker. better clothing.

Another object to maintain for itself a monopoly of the mercantile business With that end in view it prohibited all nonmembers from buying and selling. and times of meeting for business came to the rescue of " brethren " . In many instances . who had fallen into poverty it stood ready to procure at its own expense the release of any brother who had been imprisoned and was it took charge of the funerals of its dead. For mutual protection the merchants town banded association themselves together in a guild. — The manufacturers of a It included sold their tJie own wares. many but The necessarily all the inhabitants of the place. . northern Italy supplied the churches with furniture and vessels used in the service and with appropriate vestments for the The north German towns had the special work. In exchange for these manufactured goods they received raw materials and food supplies. and furs but they also manufactured arms and other metal wares as well as cloths. as cloth and clothing.. importing and distributing the raw products of the Baltic countries.of clergy. or narrowly restricted them and subjected them to special dues. the cities extended their commerce farther and farther. had and its officers and its place It for social intercourse. was strong enough to control the town government the government of the association was practically with that of the town. 2i8 Business Life The inhabitants 226. weapons and wares of leather. Those of Flanders became famous throughout the western world Those of for their fine woollen. manufactured for themselves and their country neighbors the most necessary articles of use. such as smoked and salt fish. 227. lumber. in some identical The Craft Guilds. Increasing Industry and Commerce. iron. — The growth of the guild merchant members began to had not progressed far before its form small . and linen goods. wood and metal. and were for that reason included among mernot chants. 228. The institution developed gradually with the growth of towns and reached the height of of the town. > — The Guild Merchant. its it importance in the thirteenth century. As the industries improved and money became more plentiful. muslin.

or market. but it was only after the decline of the in the fourteenth century that they guild merchant brief It .Guilds associations with one another 219 of the — all same trade banding themselves together in a craft guild. In this condition he was a journeyman. the apprentice became free. At the end of the time agreed upon with the master. From Album — — acquired notable power. its . The number of such beginners was limited. too. Markets and Fairs. The object of such an association was the control of the handicraft with which it was concerned. By saving money he could '^^Sl/^ /f^^^^^ nszZ. histonque. as Sweden and the eastern Mediterranean. For this privilege they paid a fee. in order that those be able to make a skill fair profit up to a high standard. There came to be many craft guilds in the greater towns and cities. commonly seven.. as well as neighboring farmers came together with their products. — The most important event in mediaeval business was the fair. buy a house of his own and engage apprentices and journeymen. of these associations. Meanwhile no merchant in the neighborhood was permitted to sell goods exestate of a noble. usually held under the auspices of a town or feudal lord.. Jp-rr^erisSS barrel. . place and times of meeting. The members of the guild aimed to limit the number to be admitted to it. and could henceforth work on daily wages for a master. Each in . often in the town itself or on the The time and place of meeting were then heralded far and wide through the neighboring country.•'' ^p ftW/Jj^S j <^cg^K JmM^m member all of his craft guild on fulfilling the conditions imposed by it. . ior skilled labor In this age the tools were simple. . who belonged might from their labor. He was now a master artisan and became a '^OH ^^S [ _. Merchants from distant lands. 229. An open square was chosen in a convenient place. its officers and . . wished to follow a trade had as apprentice to serve a fixed number of years. was a copy of the larger guild merchant. . had . and to keep the With these ends in view they careOne who fully regulated the training required for admission.

wax. a special court was established on the grounds. an important social event. Back of them is a high stage occupied by actors. There — — — . flax. and behind him are cloth dealers with their customers.' in brief. Behind the beggar are a moriey-changer and a customer. From 'Album historique." linen and woollen cloth. Purchasers thronged to these places. The background is filled with steep-roofed houses and church spires. On our right is a workman unpacking cloth. Here they could buy " ornaments of holy Church. Ordinarily life in those times must have been monotonous and dull." household goods as " vytell for the time of Lent. brass and A Country Fair In the centre is a middle-class citizen with his wife departing with their purchases.220 cepting at the Business Life fair. To provide against the admission of goods without the payment of the customary toll. too. and eatables a few simple luxuries. the marketplace was surrounded by a palisade and guarded by pickets. To protect purchasers from fraud for the merchants of that time were tricky and to punish rowdies. The fair was. the necessaries of life and pewter pots. A lame beggar holds out his hand to them.

whan seke. The mediaeval traveller. man or woman. Business was carried on under the most adverse conditions. Many a yokel would gape wonderingly at such monstrosities as the two-headed man or the bearded lady. He might even be a pilgrim such as Chaucer writes about . to Caunterbury they wende. : — — Whan The droghte that Aprille with his shoures sote of Marche hath perced to the rote. The holy blisful martir for to That hem hath holpen. Always the traveller had an earnest purpose in view. Travel was not a sightseeing tour. then. Perhaps the greatest obstacle to commerce was the difficulty and expense of going from one place to another. Travel 221 was no amusement or recreation nowhere could one find relief from the daily grind of hard labor. as it often is to-day for in those times one could not board a train and reach his destination in a few hours. usually horseback. He might be a great landowner who wished to look after property scattered through three or four counties. He . . He might perhaps be engaged in a lawsuit in London. must have been the excitement of the fair There were halls where he might gamble or dance. Trained dogs and wild animals from distant lands furnished ample entertainment for the good-natured countryfolk. however.Fairs. More often. There were clowns a-plenty to make him laugh. Of which vertu engendred is the flour. 230. And specially from every shires ende Of Engelond. was the one bright spot in mediaeval commercial life. Difficulties of Travel. though often necessary. however. kouthe in sondry londes. Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages And palmers (pilgrims) for to seken straunge strondes To feme halwes (shrines). or from the efforts of . whose female parts were acted by men. . . in And bathed every veyne swich licour. that they were seke. How welcome to the countryman. he was a merchant or trader. Others obtained real enjoyment from morality plays. set out on found it inconvenient. Usually it was packed in chests and to take baggage with him. The fair. ! poets and musicians.

Dangers and Expense of Travel." Little help could be expected of the nobles. From Traill. therefore. In doing so they sacrificed comfort to style. At present we may venture in the night on a country road with comparative safety. 231. The kings. for the roads had been poorly made and as a rule were sadly in need of repair. this duty fell upon those chari- who queathed money table persons befor that object. More and more. streets . many of the nobihty conto carry is It true that the . In fact. Bridges had fallen to ruin and the traveller had to seek a ford and bravely struggle across.' use them without endangering one's life. The traveller was advised weapons or to join a caravan. Country roads were worse. Social England. there Originally that task until the was no one to take care of the roads and bridges. were so poorly paved Used only by pedestrians. — The of effects of this lack of became system soon In serious. they were full of pitfalls which made progress almost impossible. had been performed by the barons. still very weak. Vehicles had to seek a that one could not ford.222 Business Life carried on animals or in carts. In fact. day. The wealthy rode in elaborately decorated carriages. to ensure his safety. Church was ever vigilant in repressing disorder and in preserving the " Peace of God. at least decay of the feudal system. the prosperous OuD English BsmoE town Gloucester. All these obstacles made transportation slow it was in fact a hardy and experienced traveller who could make thirty miles a . thotight it advisable to spend money on armies rather than on internal improvements. In the Middle Ages highway robbery and acts of violence were common.

This fate one might avoid. however. . Until the fourteenth century. sea voyages were for short distances only. the captain took the Uves of aU into his hands. There was great danger. who could swallow a whole ship with its cargo. in travelling from Nantes to Orleans on the river Loire a distance equal to that between New York and Albany the price of goods was more than doubled by toll charges. and property a promise which was of Uttle value in actual practice. and under these circumstances we can sympathize with faint-hearted passengers. and were tossed about on every wave. . moreover. This growth meant an added expense in the transportation of goods.xmknown seas held countless terrors. — — — by river or sea. was an additional terror that and a ship dared not venture far too real danger Piracy. For instance. the traveller was forced pay a toll — ever. lest 233. Travel 223 sidered it valorous to take part in deeds of violence and perfectly honorable to receive a share of the booty. howTravelling.. in some dreadful it fall whirlpool. In return for this fee the lord promised to protect his Ufe. It proved so lucrative. the over the edge. In those earher times the navigator's sole guides were the sun and stars in stormy weather he could only guess at the course. Upon entering the to of every feudal lord. Travel on inland water was pleasant and less expensive. Wherever possible therefore the 232. People of leisure. When sight of land was lost. in journeying by sea. Shakespeare sets forth the highhanded brigandry of Prince to the life Hal in a drama true of that time. for ships were hght and poorly built. and the great area of . There were no accurate maps or charts. sought diversion in water trips and rivers were gay with boats. It flat the world was thought to be too far. hmb. to the collector of fees that the number of toll stations continually increased. only to be engulfed traveller preferred to journey too. Imagination peopled the waters with huge monsters. domain on himself and his belongings. — There was. Travel by Water. This added cost eventually came from the consumer's pocket. proved expensive. when the compass was discovered. both large and small. too.

224 of pirates. for their crime was not then so heinous as at present. as Denmark and Sweden. Business Life who swarmed on every sea. each with a vote in its parhament. while the cargo of the captured to the pirate vessel. . Many thought it a branch of legitimate trade. that there is safety in numbers. this city deserves a place in our memory. On the principle.pirate ship . It monopolized the Baltic trade. A desperate hand-tohand struggle with knives and dirks ensued. and in this part of Europe from desolation. About 1200 the German cities 234. the Baltic and neighboring seas. too. With other countries it made commercial treaties. Constantinople. way saved the civilized For these signal services if for no other reason. the Mediterranean remained the centre of the commercial world. Even a reputable merchantman might turn A fight at sea was pirate. Its greatest port was . were often held for ransom. It included a hundred members. however. merchants preferred to send forth their ships in fleets. The officers. This league was primarily for selfdefence and with the help of its army and navy it suppressed piracy in near-by waters. of the. on the Baltic sea began to unite in what is known as the Hanse-at'ic league. merchantman was transferred For self-protection therefore the crews of merchantmen were armed with bows. she remained the distributing centre successive hosts of invaders. During these centuries Constantinople lost her great empire but retained her commercial power.. if it chanced to meet a smaller ship. Still commanding the trade routes to the East. That city is especially interesting to us as the defender of western civilization against advancing hordes of barbarians. — — Constantinople. The Hanseatic League. and even had commercial stations in distant cities. arrows. Drawing alongside their prey. No quarter was given or asked the losers were murdered in cold blood and tossed an exciting spectacle. overboard. knives. and dirks and later with cannon and small arms. In spite of these developments in 235. It engaged in war with foreign nations. From the fourth to the tenth century it drove back . For three centuries it remained a powerful commercial and political force. the crew swarmed over its decks.

Industrial and Social History of England. Marco Polo." Early in the century successive barbarian invasions to seek refuge in the marshes off the coast of northeastern Italy. As a result they were free to work out their own destiny. 84. By the end of the tenth century they had built up a considerable merchant marine. who first acquainted his countrymen with the real Cheyney. ' Marco Polo. ' Genoa and Venice. From a MS. hving as they did on many small islands. 237. It was the great Venetian traveller. Their very position made them sailors. It was natural that the Venetians. and they were secure from attacks by enemies. — Q . He wears very plain dress in contrast with that of the official or the noble. state. cotton. and for a long time lived by fishing. " the Queen of the Adriatic. dried fruits and nuts. dyestuffs. win a large part efficient of this The government too. They were far fifth had driven many people removed from the turmoil connected with the breaking up of the Roman empire. Genoa. Paris. should devote themselves to the sea. Here they founded Venice. At first they were content with the Mediterranean trade and planted many commercial settlements on its shores and islands. in the National Library. to was destined trade. The Italian cities were the first to carry such products from that centre.Commercial for goods Cities 225 from Asia Minor and India the warehouse of rich Eastern products " wines. A Genoese Merchant About 1600. and skilled sailors. certain kinds of leather and other manufac: — tured articles. — There was a constant demand for those articles which Eastern merchants brought to Constantinople." 236. drugs. sugar. and to distribute with its excellent seaport them through Europe. were anxious to expand their enter- Her claims were soon disputed by Venice. of this little city- was highly and its citizens prise.

he carefully Kdblai Khan recorded the experiences of his travels in his " Book of Marvels. named Kublai. he journeyed through the Orient for three and a half years. and there had poured forth hundreds of precious . They finally reached home. had he not welcomed these dusty travellers from the unknown. Kub'lai. in a romance yet even his name might be forgotten before now. He won the confidence of Kublai and was sent to the most distant provinces on matters of pubUc business. embracing a large part of Asia." Needless td say. neither too full nor too short. This work reflects most of all the splendors of Kublai. In that time they had heard no news from their beloved city. They were received graciously at the court of the Great Khan. to find a land " where the golden blossoms bloom upon the trees forever. the Polos did not find an earthly Paradise. as well as to other men of the time. ruler of so many cities. a dream of an earthly Paradise. " He seems indeed hke a king . old Chinese ency- upon his return." . Setting out with his father and brother (1271). tian industriously set about to learn the language and customs of this strange land. is of middle stature. centering about China. so many gardens. the and rainy weather. much of the time in cold Polos. He has a beautiful fresh complexion his color is fair. To the East had been a mystery. so many fishpools. After seventeen years of honorable service the Polos longed to return home. Polo says: "The great khan. They hoped. but they found one great empire. With great reluctance the Khan bade them farewell. his eyes are dark. gallant Marco." published From an clopaedia. " the lord of lords. It was not until they had ripped open the seams of these shabby Tartar clothes. clad in rags and unable to speak their own tongue. mightiest of earthly kings. who was especially fond of The Venethe young.226 Business Life wonders of the Far East. as did Columbus two centuries later. The return journey was hard and dangerous. lord of lords. An observing young man. Their relatives had long given them up for lost.

The Venetians wished to supply the increased demand for such goods as "silk and cotton. narcotics and other drugs. for in 1453 Constantinople. and allspice. The tastes of the westerners had developed through contact with the Orient. The location of Venice was ideal for this purpose situated on the Adriatic. cessive its toil. rubies. This proved to be a fortunate stroke. Venetian Trade jewels. ' . Venetian Trade with the Far East. both raw and manufactured into fine goods. she was nearer than Genoa to the Orient. sapphires. The Venetians hoped to engage their large merchant marine in the profitable eastern trade. cloves. She succeeded in opening the old route to India by way of Alexandria and the Red Sea. faithful to the interests served." ^ In addition to the natural advantages of the Venetians. the guardian of western civilization. skilful in the management of own affairs. History of ColonizaHon. which it win the highest degree of success. and she rapidly devoted to fixed ideals. expert in experience. turquoises. 168. fell before the advancing Turks. and they now demanded a greater variety of luxuries and in larger quantities. indigo and other dyestuffs. cinnamon. pearls. 238. and gums. aromatic woods. people. ' Cheyney. that their relatives decided to recognize them. and above all. 84. the monopoly of trade with Constantinople. Morris. and other precious stones gold and silver. must assuredly — declined to a third-rate state. Nearby were accessible mountain passes over the Alps to Germany and thence to the rest of Europe. diamonds. The Route through Alexandria. sturdy in the defence of its freedom. pepper. and favored by its situation. ginger. I. 227 This great achievement is but one example of Venetian energy and ambition. the edible spices. These Moslem fanatics would not allow the hated infidels to use the land routes to the East. atid Venice was compelled to look elsewhere.: . hardened by ex- — . Christian merchants were slain The opening of in cold blood and their caravans confiscated. their " A character and environment were such as to ensure success." ^ Genoa had secured 239. this route meant the end of Genoa's power. Industrial and Social History of England.

The Decline of Venice. Even the resources of Venice. But they did not greatly care. by a monk. From a painting. note that there was little or no poverty. The people had little voice in the government. was Business Life still free trade with the East was now c'arried from the Turks. for they were prosperous and therefore contented. At home she had expanded territorially. Venice was at the height of her power. IN the Fifteenth Century A canal with gondolas and bridge. Foreigners of moderate means were attracted by the opportunity to make fortunes. Everyone was sure of employment and a chance to earn a living. therefore. During the second half of the fifteenth century. Her population and wealth were greater While many individuals had become exthan England's. however.e sure to yield large profits. — . it is important to Venice. 240. while the people A cross all has fallen into the water and is rescued about are kneeling. tremely rich through trade and manufacturing. which was controlled by a few nobles. as their investments wer. and the entire on through Alexandria.228 Egypt.

<=«"'"'>' coal at less expense across . Venice had been able to keep her rivals from trading in the Mediterranean. than from Philadelphia to Trenton. and the days of Venice were past. That difference is wearing the dupai crown. For the first time the cheapness of dqge (Duke) or Venice sea travel as against land travel was i^ his offimi robes and clearly demonstrated. This enterprise Venice could not prevent. for there was room for all. their goods at the Instead they had recourse to the Portuguese and Spaniards who carried their goods at a much lower rate. evident to-day when we can send a ton of !I*'''^'?. was des- tined to win. men of the Middle Ages paid for the goods they bought.d.^°'^ . From Album histonque. The known mines of the world were almost exhausted in antiquity — before the end of the second century a. Decline of Venice 229 however. Customers refused to accept increased prices. the Atlantic All-sea travel 1 « 1 . Her prosperous and contented merchants did not understand that the Medi' They continued terranean was no longer the centre of trade. was little money. Unfortunately for herseh Venice failed to enter the ocean trade in competition with other nations. and in fact little In the Middle Ages there need of it. had ventured on the unknown Atlantic and discovered an all-water route to the Indies. Money and Banking. for on the vast ocean no monopoly could exist it was a case of every man : for himself. to pay ever larger toUs to the greedy Turks for the privilege of using the land route from India. In most cases barter proved satisfactory. lured by the hope of wealth. . the amount of precious metals was already growing less. failed to halt the mighty onrush of the Turks. It is interesting to know how 241. One byone her colonies and finally Alexandria fell into the hands of the Moslems (1517).. . Meantime Portuguese and Spanish navigators.

Europe spent $8. 'Album wars or Other purposes secured their Florence. They ^^-^^^^^ Veneimn Coin Thirteentii j^^^^^ ^^^ f outstripped all ^^len in need of rivals. The currency would have totally disappeared before 1525.000 a year on goods purchased in the Orient. and even extended credit to desirable customers. money century. In another place we shall see the effect of this prosperity upon the life of Florence (§ 246 f. induced the best Christians to evade the law of the Church.000. It required the skill an expert to appraise the actual value of such money. each feudal lord coined money. for the money that went to eastern merchants never returned. as the Church forbade its members to charge interest on loans. however. made loans. Especially the wealthy Florentine manufacturers turned with great eagerness to this new line of business. This was a great leakage. exchanged money. seen that the growth of commerce and the rise of a trading class — ' brought about a great increase in the use of money. . received deposits. had been conducted chiefly by the Jews.230 Business Life For the pa5Tnent of outside debts. as well as for the convenience of merchants and traders. alloy according to the of whim of the coiner. however. Private merchants and traders were regular customers. The enormous profits from this business. histo- for their j From nque. Changes in the Volume of Silver and Gold. Within a few years great banking houses were established They in every important business centre. and people once more would have returned to the primitive system of barter. There was no standard of value coins were of different size and weight and contained a varying percentage of . To do this work and to make the exchange became the duty of a new During the early Middle Ages this business class of bankers. for it considered such a transaction sinful. as Europe sold little to the Orient. Toward the middle of the fifteenth century mines were discovered in Germany which produced over half a million dollars' worth of silver annually.). On the other hand. We have 242.

243. education and occupations of women. Monasteries. with their merchants who supported the national governments in their struggle against the decadent feudal nobles. General conditions. . estate and the peasants. which was about to ofier its gold and silver mines to a moneyless Europe. This merr was eventually to lead and to win in the struggle for the political. and of . minstrels. . of these condi- tions. commerce It exerted therefore were far-reaching in every activity of a powerful force in hastening the departure of the mediaeval order of things and in ushering in the modern civilization. 2. Life within poor furnishings slow growth of comfort occupations of the lord. unfortified manor-houses. 2. life and of agricul- lack of commerce and industry causes. village.Money and Commerce 231 had no new supply been found. . The Effects of Commerce. — The effects of life. its defects products. prevalence of country . but they accomplished a far greater service to mankind in discovering and developing the New World in which we Uve to-day. supply . ture . they never found. defences. Finally it was the rivalry of commerce which induced navigators to seek a short route to India. That route chant-class . social. . By extending the use of money commerce raised the standard of living it put money into the hands of English serfs and bought their freedom. church. and shops. . Syllabus of Mediaeval Life I. III. training of the knight. That supply lay in America. chivalry. Situation and construction. 3. IV. Commerce brought with it the. The land three-field system and Long continuance of serfdom. It was commerce which buUt up the busy industrial towns. dwellings. 1. Classes of dependents . The 1. New Economic value reclaiming of waste land the friars and their orders of monks . wealth and leisure necessary to the production of the best art and literature. of provisions 2. The 1. castle. activities. water. . model farms. and religious rights which we to-day hold dear. II.

Hayes. the route through Alexandria and the Turks decline of her trade. I. . 232 3. money. VII. Business Life Centres of learning opposition to pagan literature authorexclusive use of Latin. Hayes. ch. sale of goods.iv. The Manor and its — . Innes. use of Bible and of Christian fathers Aristotle Thomas Aquinas . supply frpm America. Innes. 28-36 (includes decline of the system). vi. : tolls. I. success. 3. Constantinople. . corporation of teachers etc. lending Florence a financial centre. II. AUsop. 2. By water. Origin. iii Gibbins. Students . . . composition. and theology. . VIII. Markets and 1. Bologna. 1. piracy. Introduction to English Industrial History. medicine. . Gothic churches. Venice origin and growth enterprise of its citizens Marco Polo. ing h:Ute= : barter. seven liberal arts law. fairs. excessive 1. By land. : gradual increase in quantity of at interest. ship and the copying of old books Mediaeval attitude of mind prevalence of faith over reason liability to belief in miracles. Towns and Guilds. . Commercial centres in the South. Faculties and curriculum theology. I. . trade with Far East. X. . 59-76 . Money and banking. mediaeval conditions and promotion cf modern forms Topics for Reading People. Genoa. 36-49. V. .. : . Robinson. v Gibbins. Political and Social History of Modern Europe. poor roads. . ch. The Hanseatic league object. tolls. ch. Universities. manner of life. deception alchemy and astrology. its advantages. 1. 7-27. gathering of merchants Social features. : . imports. University of Paris. the compass. difficulties. I. . ch. 5. VI. 4. 399-406 AUsop. Travel. — . . Industry in England. bank- XII. 2. . Place. Scholasticism: authority preferred to evidence. XI. Buildings: tures and town halls. guild halls . Effects of commerce breaking down of of life. fea- and interpretation. IX. insecurity 2. organization . England's Industrial Development. Readings. ready acceptance of myths . 2.

10. an essay on one of the Reading Topics. xiv. 129-58. Munro and Sellery. Historical Documents of the Middle Ages. Coming of the Friars. 2. 233 . vii. Putnam. From this chapter what do you conclude as to the area of the world known to the Italians or the Germans? 14. Richards. Mediaeval Civilization. Why were there more robbers and pirates in the Middle Ages than there are to-day? 13. Is there anything in the industries of industry and commerce? to-day that could be compared with the guild? 12. Books and their Makers during the Middle Ages. History of German Civilization. Lacroix. xiii Middle Ages.c!a. iii . Munro and Sellery. Did the Romans of the late empire have any kind of castle? 5. the Roman or the mediaeval? g. take the lead in commerce? 16. summarizing the causes. Why did Genoa and Venice. Rashdall. 274-314 (rule of St. II.Studies III. What advantages came to the Italians from the journey of Marco Polo? 15. How do you account for the difiference? Which is more nearly like ours. 22-40. vii . IV. — Henderson. 8. ch. Social Life in France in the Time of Philip Augustus. Contrast the three-field system with the present system of agriculture.. Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Source-Book. How do you account for the growth of towns and 11. . Trace the origin of the serf class from late Roman conditions. Why was Jhe castle so poorly furnished? Did not the people of the time like comforts and luxuries? 6. What is the connection between that subject and the condition described in § 212? 4. ch. 16 ff. Student Life. Comment on . Classical Heritage of the ch. Point out all the differences you can discover between the Parthenon and the Gothic cathedral by comparing the illustrations. ch. What has the growth of commerce contributed to civilization? I. 3. Luchaire. Monks and Monasteries. 7. Additional Studies Write the topics of the syllabus in their order. Benedict) . Contrast the amount and kind of knowledge existing in the Middle Ages with that of Roman times. Taylor. 341-59 348-57. rather than London. Science and Literature in the Middle Ages and at the Renaissance. I. Review the decline of the Roman empire. Jessop. — Ogg.

as it has afforded to mankind a world of opportunities. From Mediaeval to Modern Times. Changes take place so progress and decline are continuous. xvi-xx is his ambition. — In the preceding chap- we have seen the remarkable growth of cities through com- merce and industry.BOOK III THE MODERN WORLD CHAPTER XVII THE RENAISSANCE From the fourteenth to the sixteenth century' Movements of 244. it is impossible to say precisely impossible therefore to determine exactly where the dividing line between these two ages should be drawn. . and the same may be said of the rudiments of trade but in tracing the fuller development of commerce we have undoubtedly crossed The whole Ren-ais-sance' is decidedly modern. The man of genius is welcomed there ' and finds scope for putting his ideas irito practice. ter modern age. In the chapter above. gradually that in. the manorial system is distinctly mediaeval. 'The sequence based upon historical connection rather than upon mere chronology. so that from this point of time our study will lie within the 245. 234 . — condition has passed of is when an old away and a new state of affairs has come In the preceding pages we have learned that the beginnings It the modern world reach far back into mediaeval life. of chs. During all the past the city has been an important means of progress. Cities a Force in Civilization. the line.

His that virtue ardent love for country deserves our admiration. too. Although the city was a republic. but differing in size and importance. such cities in northern Italy. in which the classes of society live far apart. were Milan. presents to our view a happy picture. each with its own customs and government. invention. and Naples. Florence For these cities. The most brilliant was Florence. Pisa. extending to politics. Within its bounds thousands inspire one another with the contact of their personalities to supreme 246. strikingly orig- ever seeking some- thing new. Siena. Genoa. Unfortunately this restlessness. Rome. Modern Europe. Those who seek knowledge find the best faciUties for study in the city. and of this fact they were proud. The daily life of this people 247. I.. They were men. resulted in con- stant broils and uprisings against the party in power. .An too. the leaders of the party opposed to the government were often driven In spite of'this into exile. oj is here chosen as a type. — In the fourteenth century there were many efforts in trade. is Italian City 23s rewarded with money and power. I to the rest of Europe. Florence. see Hayes. Daily Life in Florence." They were inal. defect the Florentine patriotic at a time was K^--^^^ LLPOHTEB CO.^ Her people were active and energetic Hke the Americans of to-day. We see here no caste system Uke that of the Middle Ages. each ruled by its own customs and code when was almost unknown — ' Among the other cities of Italy like Florence in character. It was a Florentine who remarked that " twelve of them would never come together who were of one and the same opinion. 14 ff. Political and' Social Hist. and art. of remarkable individuality.

They kept their houses neat and clean in days when soap and water were not appreciated throughout Europe. From a fresco in a church at Florence. too. They were cious stones. They wore also various strings of pearls and pre- In the same manner they gave expensive entertainments and wedding parties.' Likewise they had dresses cut of sev- A Florentine Woman eral kinds of clcTth of various kinds. they made good housewives. of " wearing too. however. Unless well-to-do. and had the cloth sent from Prato for economy. silver." As a rule. Servants I have none. sewed the trousers for the boys. life Renaissance All citizens mingled in a democratic spirit. with puffs and with fringes of buttons of gold and four or five often of rows together. and under their management meals were simple but tastily prepared. 248. and were the first to introduce bookkeeping and business methods into households. They were orderly. My wife. pearls. — For the most part Florentine received the same education as women men They and were highly respected. and little and silk. Everywhere we see warm affection between husband. excellent cooks. whose bonds were not to be trifled with for Florence was a Catholic city where divorce was forbidden. The Women of Florence. .236 of honor. however. of extravagance in their dress. A man with fourteen children writes " The boys I sent to school to have them learn arithmetic and correct writing then I placed them in trade. many ornaments of precious jewels. wife. Family was the heart of Florentine society." . not healthy. Yet we may safely say that as a rule marriages were happy. Marriage was a sacred institution. : . and children. every member of the family was accustomed to hard work and thrift. were accused.

Festivities. could mingle with men. But the favorite sport of the young men was that of events. going about the city barring the narrow streets with long poles. during which time practically the whole city was feasted by the Medici. — This democratic spirit in their love of festivals. and unlimited There were pageants with artistic floats and other formal fun. but from towns and villages subject to Florence among them eight hundred calves and two thousand pairs of chickens. were one hundred kegs of wine consumed daUy. to all friends regardless of business or station. Presents in immense quantities came in. he might bask in the company of his learned guests. . not only from personal friends. pounds and in the house of Carlo de' Medici. drinking. These people knew" no affectation. . preferred to spend a great part of his time on his beautiful country estate. Here he could hunt and If he were a man of culture. Social events were hilarious. till : . dancing. dancing. Those were days filled with good eating." 1 Chiu-ch holidays and the birthday of the patron saint of the guild were celebrated by festivities. for the Florentine was lively and bright. commenced on a Sunday and continued ' Scaife. who entertained the townspeople. not overfond of the city. The height of hilarity was reached in the few days before Lent when carnival was held. Rich and poor alike enjoyed the company of fellow human-beings to the fullest extent. gs. and games of all kinds.Society 237 The Florentine business man. . Florentine Life during the Renaissance. festivities " The noon Tuesday. educated in the convent. and hospitality was extended — fish to his heart's desire. The Business Man. Most joyous of all is best shown and most royally celebrated was the marriage feast. Here for the first time the young girl. 250. . After dinner guests and host enjoyed music. On this occasion the father of the groom played host to the townspeople. Feasting. The most brUliant of these affairs was perhaps the marriage of Clarice Or-si'ni to Lorenzo de' Med'i-ci. 249. and music continued day and night. until one wonders at the endurance of the There were consumed of sweetmeats alone 5000 people.

pleasures in the more artificial life of to-day. We have too few of such whole-souled 251. Government. The least formal went to the an art amusement was music which the Florentine loved most of all.' time the Medici triumphed over their They succeeded best in dazzling the populace by fair promises and flatFlorentines were easily swayed and liked to be complimented. was wont to his private make a common fund treasury. this sport was taken good-naturedly. for the From 'Album histo- Rulers to invariably used their office swell their fortunes. We must not think too ill of the Florentines. if only he could play or sing. for example. — In the republic were eligible to of Florence all citizens vote and hold oflSce. — On a warm city could see evening the visitor to the many a Uttle group of mandolin and guitar players. Those who were less energetic con- tested at chess or joined the brilUant throngs which horse races. Others preferred to play football. for even to-day the official is judged too often by success rather than by honesty. tery. As a matter of fact the public at large did not have the training necessary to govern. and over it a sleeveless coat. rivals. Anyone. whether acquaintance or stranger. Occathe state money and .238 Renaissance No one could pass without paying a toll. however. and the important offices. He wears a turban hat. Lorenzo de' of Medici. For a long FioRENTiNE Magistrate Sixteenth century. was warmly welcomed. were striven for by a few merchant families. For the most partjliowever. those of mayor and alderman.thus fill the family coffers. Other crowds of youths made their way along the streets tossing footballs into the stores to the great confusion of the shopkeepers. an embroidered robe reaching the knee. Other officials found it more convenient to manipulate the market of state securities. and. rique.

at a time when those of London and Paris were in worse condition than the country roads. Begun in 1296 and consecrated in were citizens first. In public opinion. . of their city a family interest. 62.' " ^ Before the middle of the thirteenth century the streets of their city were paved and drained. Florentine Life during the Renaissance. is a separate work. its political the unfortu- nate exiles dreamed of the bliss of again beholding their ' beautiful Florence. at that date the largest church in Italy. City Improvements. The Campanile. ' Scaife. life. From a photograph. then private individ. bell tower.' and were ready to offer up wealth.Ptiblic Buildings 239 sionally in Florence there were sweeping investigations with punishment for the guilty.dates from 1875-87. continuing the work its done by rival. Since 1436. however. political " Each party when power did its utmost to beautify the city and increase in greatness in the eyes of the world. 252. The city was well-governed — in spite of this cor- ruption.that time it has been improved and the present fagade uals and they recog. for her cials offi- were sincerely ' patriotic. and sometimes even honor to itself in order return. to nized in every glory our right. the crime was not so much in doing a corrupt deed as in being found out. : As ' a modern Florentine The Cathedral or Florence has well said They The front. .

. Truly it embodies the soul of Florence. accord- ing to the manner of their ringing. luxury. ' Scaife. Little oil lamps were hung outside at intervals. its and huge dome. or I summoned the officials to their duties. " From its lofty bell tower known — still peal forth the deep- toned voices of the ancient bells." 7. brought them together for the defense of their city. of day. too. still serving as the city hall. and a penalty was imposed upon any who should disturb them. Its creators had intended that man should never undertake anything whatsoever more vast and more beautiful. 253.240 Renaissance There were sewers. Of the the best civic buildings The Old Palace. From a photograph- is the Pa-laz'zo Vec'chi-o. — The visitor to the of see flo\^ers Splendid Build- " city still " may the this splendid period. citizens were requested to keep lights burning in their windows. ings. with its aisles most and nave It cupola. like a castle in structure. with battlements aAd a high tower. either announced the time . Florence Palazzo Vecchio. required a century and a half to complete this grand structure. which in those days were a municipal In an attempt to banish the darkness of night. and cloisters. which. Built about I3CX3 and for a long time the seat of government. " Old Palace " the city hall. Florentine Life during the Renaissance. buildings of dral Among them all is the cathethe justly famous. or called the citizens to the consideration of municipal affairs unarmed or with arms ^ in hand.

all The university drew students from parts of the world. Great interest was shown in anatomy. In fact there was every inducement to attract men of the highest intellectual worth. which was called the " cloth of honesty. It is Education 241 perhaps unfair to cite examples. During the winter there was little but hard work. and painting. In generosity Florence would in fact compare favorably with a attractive. and gave their time and money to the sick and needy. They formed volunteer associations. The student wore a plain regulation dress. Beginnings of Organized Charity. — A Florentine once said It : " Good examples are born of good education. however. there were many citizens who saw that poverty was a serious misfortune to their state. made of cheap woollen stuff. surgery. and the majority were fortunate if they succeeded in keeping the wolf from their own doors. — . came the close of the college year. Here they could study theology. At the same time they were wealthy. The effects of this broad training can hardly be overestimated. and grammar. sculpture. Ages people had little chance to care for the needs of their neighbors." the future of the state was a recognized fact that depended largely on the training of the city provided accordingly for the educa- young generation. It is worth noting that the professors were well paid and in high social standing.Charity. During the Middle 254. and the — . logic. They were not naturally hard-hearted but were engaged in a struggle for existence. however. Early in the fifteenth century a university was founded. philosophy. They were religious they loved humanity. free of expense to all who cared to study there." In the spring. writing. Education. architecture. eloquence. accordingly. tion of her children The and at an early age they were taught reading. physics. From this effort rose permanent hospitals. and pitied the less fortunate. and medicine sciences then in their infancy. church law and civil law. modern American 255. city. for the entire city was This condition was largely due to the fact that private homes were built with an eye to beauty as well as to comfort and utility. In Florence.

Florentine Life during the Renaissance. — Conwe ditions at Florence. according to his fortune. 242 Renaissance their degrees young graduates received amid great pomp and ceremony. " which was public. and high social position. greatest festiyity for the student was during the period of his final examinations. the time of. the candidate went about the city on — by the beadles of the university and by some of his fellow students. and accompanied by his friends to whom he offered an entertainment. but they yearned for the material comforts and finer things of life rather than for luxuries. to invite his friends to the ceremony. the horseback. although not exceptionally strong and while I do not lay claim to remarkable personal beauty. True. accompanied . her citizens were not scholars.. To men of learning they "offered tempting encourage- the use of their private libraries. He hired trumpeters and fifers for the day and if he passed the examination. a fete. ' Scaife. ment — money. 11$. a play. Just before his last examination. 258. 256. Pe'trarch was self : Petrarch (1304-1373) Early Life. he came out from it preceded by the musicians. as A Sculptor's Sitmio of a child. . — "In my prime I was blessed with a quick and active body. I was possessed of a clear complexion. nature of which was. a collation. were favorable to a revival of literature and art." 257. Strange as it may seem to us. or a joust. Of all these scholars by far the greatest. Wealthy men in other cities and even in far-off countries followed this example in their zeal to outbid one an^ other for the services of scholars. He naively tells us of him. At work on the statue From a relief in a Florentine church. I was comely enough in my best days. have seen. Student Diversions. ^ The Encourage- ment of Culture. lively .

declaring that " he was but a man and therefore many things may have escaped him. of old Florentine stock. . . of these lovers of the classics. Laboriously he searched obscure places for remnants of Latin authors. Petrarch as a Reformer. inany of the choicest gems of ancient ists Under the guidance > Robinson and Rolfe. He became steeped in their life. otherwise. 39.." His parents. the enemy of ignorance and superstition. He believed that after regaining the knowledge of the ancients. Greek literature." ' To learn the best that had been said and thought during the world's history Petrarch had to go back to the Greek and Latin classics. to resort to glasses. he composed many delightful sonnets. Such was his genius that while still a young man he was crowned with the laurel wreath by the Senate of Rome. ' Ibid.. after I reached my sixtieth birthday me to my great annoyance.. contrary to and forced my hopes. 243 and for long years a keen vision. and emotions. I am confident beyond a doubt that he was in error all his life. He could not even find a teacher from whom to learn the rudiments of the language.Petrarch ^yes.. not only as regards small — . . He corresponded with kings and men who were looking for scholars in all parts of Europe sound knowledge and broader views of life. had disappeared from the West. He sought to uproot the worship of 'Aristotle. 67. . The Humanists. however. . advised him to learn law^ but he refused to acquire an art which he " would not practice dishonestly. but in the most mighty questions where his were involved. was to live. which however deserted me. Many accepted his judgment that they might find the essence of human wisdom matters . and could hardly hope to exercise. thought. 60. ^ Ibid. or " human" as they are called." ^ Returning to the country. that Petrarch became a reformer. the world might once more move forward. Fortunately Petrarch's influence 260. supreme interests — — in the classics. Petrarch. for his personal charm and remarkable intellect made him the hero of the age. . It was not until later years 259.

People were attracted by his sad. (1483-1520). however. the walls of several rooms in the Vatican. for they seem to reflect the beauty of his own character. The painters of the sixteenth century. When that city fell into the hands of the Turks (1453). Italy took her place as the guardian of classical zation. civili- 261. While he was still a — young man. Now in the Dresden Gallery. which was the pope's . whose figure is in the pamting. There The Sistine Madonna were a score of this artists of In the painting from which this picture is taken St. The picture is the work of Raphael's later years and is wonderfully beautiful.244 Renaissance literature were recovered. period whose work equalled has not all to been since. con- tinued to treat of religious Their work. lifelike. but they and had one pay homage to Raph'a-el. he was engaged to decorate with paintings. to artistic of the Italians. Mary with her child Jesus is the centre of a group. the enthusiasm of the Italians and generous pay attracted teachers from Constantinople the home of Greek culture since the — collapse of the Roman empire. like those of the Middle Ages. His countless Madonnas the work of his early life— have won the heart of succeeding ages. The study of Greek went on. too. was no longer stiff and unnatural but subjects. Even as a simple country youth he was loved by all who knew him. reflecting the beauties of nature. quiet air and by his tender and sympathetic nature. — The the Raphael love of the beautiful which per- vaded the Greek world appealed sense. their master. It is named after San Sisto (Pope Sixtus II). Art.

their models. Raphael Painted by himself. express the beautiful in David most admired work. nature. the Italians went back to classical time for — The Roman basilica (§118).. in man and 263. but origi- and many of them impress us with their tremendous power. the cam-pan. — An equal genius was who at the age of fifteen left his home. became a Christian church. From this simple plan developed one more complex in the . Architecture. Equally great strides were made in arHere. of his class. Visitors rapturously admire the ness and the beauty of these paintings. In its simplest form the interior was accordingly an oblong hall with nave separated from aisles by rows of columns supporting the roof.1 . too. critics Many consider him at his best as field his colos- a sculptor. where a sickly mother and many selfish and worthless brothers despised him for his love of art. philosophers. Here he could associate with men Mi-chael-an'ge-lo. artists. who wrought with intense energy and allowed his imagination full sway. and poets. with famous scholars.tower was often added. most sumptuous palace. sal statue of In that marble is his There are many other Italian artists and authors whose work. more or less modified. inspired by Greek models. His works were not only beautiful. The exterior was plain. 262. fresh- Michaelangelo (1475-1564"). wall of the Sistine Chapel. His greatest task was undoubtedly the decoration of the walls and ceiling of the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican.il'e and a square bell. chitecture. The most awe-inspiring is the " Last Judgment " on a nal in conception. He was essentially a creator.Art 2. The stranger was welcomed at the home of Lorenzo de' Medici. This tower either formed a part of the building or stood entirely — — detached.

took a deep interest in scien264. basilica Any to kind of itself readily interior . . This fact had been known to the Greeks (§ 91) but had long been forgotten. he tific matters. man's activities were seeking new . Peter's. too. . the the colossal CHEaST impress The central figure in the with Last Judgment. Opposing the old f™lJof ^rg^" strength is admirable. proved that our globe is nothing more than Academy of Fine Arts. — by Michaelangelo. The most stupendous example of this form is the Church of St. ^ channels. a quiet monk of scholarly habits.246 Renaissance form of a cross. Lo-per ni-cus. David is on ™arble the point of attacking belief that the earth was the centre of the universe. one of several planets which revolve about the sun. and is represented as a man of tremendous strength. painted by Michaelangelo. In other fields. for then the eye could to convey include the whole interior at a lent single glance. Christ is seated on a great white throne. . with the centre surmounted by a dome. Peter It is an interesting fact that at Rome. . a work of his youth. . aiming proportion an impression of vast spatial and harniony. the cen- tral shrine of lic Cathoyisitor Christianity. power and wealth of the Church in the period in which this building was erected (1452-1626). the Italian architect devoted his most careful attention to the interior. David Colossal statue in Copernicus (1473-1543). The best efiect was given when the form was that of a Greek cross. . . people thought . ornamentation the vast size and and of costly decoration St. As can be imagined.

and it was not . for upon the ' principle involved in it all pendulum clocks are based. noticed that the time of swing remained. Galileo (1564-1642) his Discoveries in Physics. His father was a merchant who wanted him to study medicine because it was the only profession that paid well. 86. — A worthy successor to Copernicus was found in G a 1-i-l e'o. its by only watch he possessed — TowEE OF Pisa own He From a photograph. At the university he showed science. Galileo pro- ceeded swings his to time the pulse. notwithstanding the fact that the swings were growing smaller and smaller. well understood till long after the death of the discoverer. . as near as he could the same. all his Ufe. of . like the good Catholic he was .Science it 247 strange that the solid earth with its trees and houses was spinning about like a top and rushing around the sun at the rate of nineteen miles a second The idea was too wonderful even ! to dream 265. after had and left the verger swinging to fro. which. Lodge. by the great lamp. his attention was arrested lighting it. Pioneers of Science. covery." ' This was an important distell. his natural inclination toward " While he was praying one day in the Cathedral.

that this was thei teaching of Aristotle. . doing so he attacked the arguments of the theologians and . have adopted the division of the week into seven days. Yet one morning before the assembled University of Pisa. In his time intelligent people believed that a hundred- pound weight would fall a hundred times as fast as a one-pound weight. and therefore would not exist. . If the number of planets were increased. Afterward he ground more accurate lenses for a telescope which would magnify — With this instrument he proceeded to study the In these investigations he found that the moon in some respects is like the earth. two eyes.248 Renaissance In his methods Galileo was modern. the other* concave. Moreover the satellites are invisible to the naked eye. placed a lens in both ends. this system would fall to pieces. two nostrils. He discovered. heavens. by observation . A few years later he took a small organ pipe." Galileo was a firm believer in the Copernican theory and In explained its principles to thousands of eager listeners. and therefore have no influence on the earth. They struck the ground together. though of very crude character. perhaps wrongly. as do scholars of to-day. taking with him a hundred-pound shot and a one-poUnd shot. and they continued to believe it though they had never made an actual test of its truth.and experi- ment. he sought to discover great truths. and therefore would be useless. Galileo ascended the famous leaning tower. the Jews and other ancient nations. They supposed. His Discoveries in Astronomy. and a mouth from which we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. and that the earth shines like the moon. 266. the satellites of the planet Jupiter. one convex. and a great scientific truth was established. He balanced them on the edge of the tower and let them drop. This combination gave him the first telescope. too. two ears. In the old-fashioned mediaeval way they argued: "There are seven windows in the fifty times. Besides. as well as modern Europeans. . Undoubtedly it seemed logical to them. head. which made objects appear three times as large as their actual size. This event aroused a storm of protest from the scholars who were bhnded by ignorance and tradition.

Faced by torture and a threat of burning at the stake. the old man lost his courage and signed a statement agreeing to the immobility of the earth. " And yet it moves. accordingly. but tradition credits Gu'ten-berg. The method of working is evident. has Of all inventions. up of the old The Gutenberg's Peintikg Press easier mariner's safety at compass of insured the sea and made the discovery new as With examples of books printed by it." By sheer force. For sixteen years all went well. Gunpowder rendered insecure the mighty feudal strongholds. Finally he was brought to trial by the Inquisition (§ 191) on the charge of heresy." He established the first printing press. about the middle of the fifteenth century. . Germany. and gave the death-blow to feudalism (§ 270). the progress of knowledge in this direction was temporarily checked. made it possible for us to see other worlds. world. stated above. he once more appeared as the vigorous supporter of the Copernican system. too. a native of Mainz. were to play a Inventions. Printing 249 even contended openly against the authority of the Scriptures in scientific matters." Its origin is obscure. tions. Inventoo. with perfecting the movable letters which we call " type. but a threat of imprisonment induced him to promise not to teach such doctrines.Astronomy. Victor Hugo has called certainly the most it the " greatest event in history. printing is beneficial to mankind. At the age of seventy he was compelled to go through a rigorous and prolonged cross-examination. — great part in the breaking order. 267. The telescope. made the peasant with a gun superior to the knight with his heavy armor. unmindful of his promise. Then. he was heard to murmur. The story goes that after putting down his pen. From a drawing. however.

In the East explorers found another religion which could exist with a high civilization. I. 268. All who could read could afford to buy books. but in the approval of future generations. Commercial History. Lindsay". I. Economy and Social Conditions. . classroom with its narrow atmosphere. Putnam. Cambridge Modern History. I. I. xv . in which he had to bear endless burdens patiently in the obscurity to which Providence had consigned him. as in the days when books were few and expensive. which had bound him tightly for centuries. No longer was learning confined to the clergy and the wealthy. not in a future life. Cunningham. People were freed forever from dependence on the mediaeval. The result was an extension of knowledge and a rise in the average iatelligence of Europe. II. Many things. Political and Social History of Modern Europe. I. The Great Khan (§ 237) said " We have a law from God delivered by our divines. ch. ii Marchant. ch. Instead. 177-80. You Christians have a kw from God through your prophets and you do not do it. and which had aheady produced a vast number of books. chs. they made the important discoveries and inventions described above. Man no longer thought of life as a period of probation. II. The efEect was farpresses. Florentine Life. No longer did one have to go to a monastery or university to make use of a library. 79-113 Burckhardt. Western Civilization.250 Renaissance Before the end of the same century there were in existence fifty which were located in important cities. 78112. He broke loose from tradition. History of the Reformation. 138-224. there now appeared to him new desires. reaching. Hayes. and to seek his reward. the ambition to raise himself above his fellows. As they began to' think of things outside the sphere of the Church. — : Topics for Reading Hayes. . too. II. iV-ix. Renaissgrnce. Scaife. Books arid their the Middle Ages. had happened which gave them increased confidence in their own powers. — ." Such knowledge made men more liberal. Results of the Renaissance. — . From what has been said above it is clear that the greatest' effect of the Renaissance was upon man himself. 348-402. and we do all they tell us. 109-75 I. Makers during Printing and the Earliest Printers.

vi Statham. Central Italian Painters: " Raphael ". Define the humanists. Apollo. ch. What are the distinguishing features describe some of his works. A Short Critical History of Architecture. Who was Galileo? What discoveries in physics did he make? 23. Apollo. Eve of the Reformation. Reformation and Renaissance. 8. Robinson. II. Sculpture. Who was Michaelangelo ? Mention and 20. Readings. 22. Give an account of Copernicus and his discoveries. 100-102 Williams. 13. Describe the relaxations of the business men. History of Science. VI. viii Pater.Studies 251 III. Introduction to the Study of the Renaissance. What reforms did he undertake? 17. vi. and with what obstacles did they meet? ' 24. ig. In what ways do cities stimulate the growth of civilization? 3. Lucca della Robbia. campanile. What are they severally noted for? II. — . Robinson. What was done to improve the city? 10. Raphael. — — . 65-74. I. Architectxire. Give an account of the condition and activities of the women. Give an account of the early life and character of Petrarch. What encouragements were given to culture? 15. Summarize the results of the Renaissance. Describe the festivi7. ch. this effort? the advanced education. see Contents. 160-76. Erasmus. ch. VII. ch. II. 101-34 (Da Vinci). V. Readings. Reinach. What were his astronomical teachings. Marmery. — . Emerton. Review Explain the division between medieval and modern history. iv. 95-108. Explain basilica. 21. . v. of the architecture of this age? Peter's. What was the character of the government? the magistrates? 9. IV. Is it a question of time or of the condition and activities of mankind? 2. — ch. What did Italy receive from Conties of stantinople? 18. Renaissance. 536 f. What was done in behalf of charity? What was remarkable in 12. Lives of Seventy of the Most Eminent Painters and Architects. 5. I. VIII. ch. I. IX. 41-6. What were the diversions of students? 14. In what respect did the painters of the age improve upon mediaeval art? Describe the character of Raphael. Berenson. What were the great inventions of the age? What intellectual advantages did the people gain through any of them? 25. — . Mention some of the buildings. Field. Renaissance. 16. Vasari. — . 191-201 Hoppin. 106-19. Reinach. Describe the elementary education. 6. and holidays. vi Stone. Field. Venice. Reinach. St. Pater. Gasquet. For what were this city and her people distinguished? 4. . Mention some of his works. Great Epochs in Art History. I. Cambridge Modern History. Describe their daily life. Progress of Science. vii. Erasmus. Describe from the map the location of Florence. 120-29. Galileo. 76-92.

I. . For the future progress of the world why was a renewed study of the Greek and Latin authors necessary? 9. Why were these Italian astronomers able to make further progress in their science? 5. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics. In what way did the printing press help democratize knowledge? Why did 7. Compare the Roman basilica with that of the Renaissance.C. 2. scholars so long continue to write their works in Latin? What advantages came from the use of the modern languages for literary and scientific purposes? 8. Why did the theologians oppose the advance of astronomical studies? 6. 10.? 4.252 Renaissance Additional Studies In what way did the growth of cities help bring about the decline of feudalism? From a review of the past few chapters make a list of the causes of the decline of feudalism. What were the political and economic conditions of the cities of northern Italy which encouraged the growth of a brilliant civilization? 3. In what ways did Copernicus and Galileo continue the work of the Greek astronomers of the third century B.

. towns began to grow up districts. § 388) way were introduced after nationality had weU developed. in the intensification of nationalism (c/. His subjects. In those days people had no newspapers ' to bring them into close touch with one another or to tell them how great they were. England a Nation. a ruler of all England.CHAPTER YEARS' XVIII ECONOMIC CHANGES IN THE PERIOD OF THE HUNDRED WAR I337-I4S3 I. Gradually. however. 253 proved an important factor and rail- . teenth century England still consisted of hundreds of small — each with its local customs. The War and its Effects on France In the early years of the four269. it The telegraph. 270. been little (§ 225) and to receive their charters from the king. king emerged triumphant. intermittent here Mention is made of the newspaper because . For the first time the people began to their idol. the baron. Thus far there had that favored national unity. or how little. — Meantime the king of France had centralized his power by repressing the feudal lords (§§ 208 f. It was only natural that the towns and the king should join forces Finally the in subduing their common enemy. ' arms to repel the English This was the beginning of the long. 211). telephone. to increase The king was his and when he attempted dominion through conquest in France. Their world was bounded at most by the county in which they lived. Beginning of the Hundred Years' War. likewise conscious of their nationality. feel that they were a nation. flew to invaders. the entire nation heartily supported him.

From Album historique.' firearms began to be used in war. who served on foot and carried long bows. but in time they were so improved as to complete the ruin of the knights and of the feudal system.254 struggle force Hundred Years' War known as the Hundred Years' War. received its death-blow. About this time. long . and consisted chiefly of -farmers. Henceforth common freemen. . armed with guns. The English was small.' squire is ' decaying through other causes. Th6 archer drawing the string of his great bow by means of a crank. At first they were inefficient. for the most splendid knights of Europe proved no match for drawn from the lowest class of free citizens.great numbers down. were archers to constitute the military power. Holding such soldiers in contempt. in which feudalism. too. the French knights charged in the hope of an easy victory but the English archers shot. This battle may be taken as typical of a new mode of warfare. an axe with long handle. A large army of French knights met the invaders at Crejy (1346). A The is Sqtoke and a Ceossbowman carrying his knight's halberd. and turned the rest to flight.

— The tide of victory ebbed and flowed at intervals. and destroy their crops. in Action fifteenth cen- dty with mortars.making Instead. pretended to be king of France. and her heart was — — with " pity for the realm of France. had given her the task of defeating the English and of conducting Charles to Rheims. The castles and the walled towns they could not take. therefore. prosperous country into a desert.France 255 Though Edward his claim good. of deter- mined never 271. Arc. but finally Charles. she said. led Dauphin heir to the throne who should have them to battle. Paris. sent her with an army to the relief of Orleans. led their armies through most of France. of those districts III. looking upon the English invaders as ing heartless savages. Or'le-ans. the The From a MS. brooded long upon the wretched condition of her country. to which came into his power. the entire country." God. He and his eldest son. he allowed his burn their houses. of treating well the people soldiers to seize their property. where according to custom the kings of the country received their crowns. in the National Library. the Black Prince. they had high hopes of completing the conquest of Finally ' they If Cannons Besieging a tury. he had little hope of evej. sovereign of England at that time. At first no one would believe her story. but for half a century the English gained territory. She gave the French what they needed filled — faith and enthusiasm. Meanwhile Joan of Arc. and Frenchmen. With great spirit they drove the . convinced that she had some extraordinary power. French were discouraged. reached they could take this great city. Joan to yield. Charles. a French peasant girl. gave himself up to pleasure and indolence. everywhere plunder- and ravaging till they temporarily converted this fertile.

army for all France. The Ravages of War. By permission of the Mentor. the king. Made by Princess Marie of Orleans and erected in the city of Qrleans. While granting the levy. great taxes sums of The king. killed or to live in wretchedness. he forbade the nobles the exercise of their old right to levy and Instead he made one by officers whom he appointed. appearance. The EngUsh condemned her as a witch and heretic. were deserted. where he was crowned. many of the people. were overits Many years passed normal before the country resumed Joan of Arc With corselet and sword. trade was streets and the roads and grown with weeds. Meanwhile the French estates general (§ 211). French kept ally their courage. however. The powers of the war. 272. continued to increase . The invaders seized or destroyed every- thing in their paths. made no effort After her death the in her behalf. which corresponded to the English parliament. Estates General. Hundred Years' War (1453). and left the rest to starve The farms destroyed. maid led the prince to Rheims. this body insisted on declaring how the money should be spent and on having a voice in other public affairs. expelled the and graduEnglish from the whole country with the exception of This was the end of the Cal-ais'. armies. Her countrymen. needing money for carrying on knew that he could collect more easily if he should secure beforehand the nation's consent to the levy. — France the suffered dreadfully from the ravages of the war. whom she had saved. For this purpose he often summoned the estates general. and burned her at the stake. command commanded For the support of this national .256 Hundred Years' War Then the inspired English back from Orleans. Not many months afterward Joan fell into the hands of the enemy. Her helmet and gauntlets are at her right. was gaining influence.

army he persuaded the estates general (1439) to levy a permanent land tax.England 257 The Estates General Session of 1576. While rural England 274. With the money thus received the landlord hired men to do the work on his estate. the lord preferred to receive cash payment rather than the usual feudal services from his tenant. He still paid fees to his lord. As he now had sufllcient revenue. It was the first wage-earning class since Roman days. Great Economic and Social Changes The End of in England the 273. He engaged not only former serfs but strangers from outside the manor. of In this way there grew up a large number workmen who were dependent on wages. II. — Meanwhile English peasant was beginning to shake off the bonds of serfdom. With — s . was undergoing these changes the Black Death came. and as a result the national assembly was for a long time discontinued. he rarely called the estates together thereafter. The Black Death (1348-1349). but his time was free to spend on his own little farm. it made the farmer independent. Paris. When in financial diflSculty. As this system came more generally into use. Serfdom in England. From a print in the National Library.

Everywhere we hear the same story high and low. rich and poor were alike records of the various manors deaths. the deportation of plunder. slaughter of inhabitants. : The .' our skilled physicians and careful sanitation. Coming from China. .2s8 English Economy and Society Pillage of a Captuked City Hundred Years' War. From a MS. this mysterious pestilence reached England in the spring of 1348. 1382. and spread over the country so rapidly that before the following summer it had devastated f^ar of epidemics. a ifew buildings. ' Chroniques. It shows the double line of walls supplied with round towers and gates. we have little But plagues were not rare in those days. show us the number of In a certain manor in which ordinarily five tenants died annually we find that within eight months this pestilence swept away a hundred and seventy-two persons. and the Alost. of Froissart. all parts of the British Isles.

. The laborer was also forbidden to travel to look for work. unlike his cousin across the channel. but they either land to remain imcultivated resulted in a total loss. — men. Thus it came about that the unharvested crop of the year 1349 caused an unusual shortage of grain. — The English peaswas quick to resent ant. to receive more The Statute of Laborers. ous efforts to avoid paying higher wages. the Plague 259 England was desolated. fatal year. which provided for the same scale of wages as before the pestilence. The War 277. The people of this time had no great warehouses in which to store food supplies against the time of need.After assailed. had to yield or to allow their and such neglect would have There was another reason for the rise in wages. Naturally the lords did not wish was soon to rise a — to increase wages. They persuaded parliament to pass a law called the Statute of Laborers. and the workingmen had 276. . The price of food increased enormously. a better and more prosperous England. — perished in that there than one half of her population 275. The Peasants Prepare to Revolt. — The landlords made strenufrom place to place it for their labor or starve. As laborers had become scarce. famine followed the plague. and children From this gruesome condition new order of things. Taxes were laid upon imports and exports. it is safe to say that more women. Those who survived were accordingly in a position to demand good pay for their services. Effects of the Plague. The bench's ignorance of the laws of supply and demand accordingly brought many hardships upon farmer and laborer. debts contracted by the state in the Hundred Years' placed an added burden on the shoulders of the peasants. and a widening breach between rich and poor. declaring that The judges took the side of it was unscrupulous in a person to turn another man's misfortune to his own profit. and a heavy poll tax on every adult. the fields were idle and there was a great demand for workmen. Violation of this law carried with fine. As usually happened. either imprisonment or a heavy the lords.

from the same r6Ie. for their victory marked the downfall of organize to secure their rights. The Peasants' Revolt (1381). In fact poultry was a valuable possession. and geese. The " Stock and Land Lease." of serfdom went the collapse of the manorial system. its . Wherever they went. Few cattle were fattened for the table. faster than the news could fly. In this way the commands of leaders could be rapidly carried to the peasants throughout the length and breadth of the land. the peasantry of England rose as one riian against their masters. They denounced the evils_ committed by the upper and they taught that servants and tenants may withdraw their services and rents from their lords that live openly a cursed life. Along with the fall 279. they wandered through all the villages. however. for the owners of land could not pay high wages and make a profit. He also raised many chickens. Every tenant. In those days when magazines and newspapers were unknown. with passwords and a secret language of their own. Violence and bloodshed followed but the peasants gained their point. In many instances the lord preferred to let a parcel of his land with some stock to a tenant. They were at last free. When finally the storm broke. The latter was furnished with oxen which he used for ploughing and for other work in the field. Gradually therefore the peasants became conclasses verts to these hew social doctrines. English Economy and Society He -had learned the dignity and power of labor and importance in the life of the nation. an important They served — serfdom. they won the heart of the honest j)easant. as beef could not be preserved through the winter. ducks. teaching people how to live a simple Christian life. sources that they should In this work the friars played as messengers between different parts of the country. these ideas were spread throughout England by the poor priests and friars. The peasants learned. Clad in coarse. which furnished him 'with enough salt pork to last through cold weather. for the farmer could use it as easily as money in — . undyed woollen garments. 278.26o injustice. had a large pig-sty. .

the farmer who pays the rent and takes the profit. along with other freeholders.Farming 261 exchange for what he needed to buy. the modern system of the landlord who takes the rent. As yet they 280. his profits were handsome. For four centuries they were the backbone of rural England. planting. Thus we find Manor House and Field Labor Fourteenth century. were known as yeomen. From a contemporary miniature. — This new . The Yeomen. class of tenant farmers. The system here described is called the Stock and Land Lease. When the tenant took good care of his little farm. and seeding. and the laborer who takes wages. The roadways divide the land neatly into fields. In the background a large turreted manor house surrounded In front the labors of ploughing. with a wall well furnished with gates. In that case he would generally rent another strip of land and hire a workman to help him.

he had complete control of all the land occupied by his peasants. From Vigne. — sheepfarming. Metiers des tisserands. required no longer had a place. The woollen works of Flanders brought great wealth. The process stretches the newly woven yarn of wool. though by no means an enorlease returned a mous. In days when labor was scarce and expensive a few shepherds could take thousands of care of sheep. how- a large amount of land on which his flocks might graze. he drifted into the towns in search of employment. and could do as he pleased with it. It was the peasant. and winds it neatly on spools preparatory to weaving. ever. his only consideration . chose the coroner. Whereever possible he forced his tenants to leave. the sheriff's court. Sheepf arming substantial. and enclosed his whole estate in one large pasture. This A Flemish Waeping Machine branch of agriculture was very lucrative. to pasture their was that the rents he received were small compared with the profits of sheepfarming. The stock and land Enclosures. Greedily he took over the common pasturage.262 English Economy and Society could not join in choosing members of parliament but having the right to vote for county officers. ' The lord. An equally important fact is that they were ever ready to bear arms for the honor and glory of their sovereign. and actually formed the strength of the English army (§ 270). according to the law of the time. The lords accordingly grew immensely rich. to keep It made no difference his sheep inside and intruders outside. Then he " enclosed " it by putting a fence about it. and attended politics. . Operated by a woman. who suffered from this arbitrary treatment. they were a power in local They served on juries. In ever increasing numbers they turned their attention to 281. . Robbed of his land. profit to the landlords. as usual. because there was little expense connected with it. to his tenants him that flocks. of his tenants.' Fortunately for himself.

Englishmen of that time. . however. a master artisan with two or three men could make and sell cloth with profit. Many of the older said. the long foreign wars which England had been waging. They were not to be compelled to join any guild of weavers against Full and speedy justice was to be done retheir will. as English workmen did not know how to make the raw wool into cloth. The Creation of New Classes." . In — ' Abrams. " where we shall be undisturbed. not only as an aid to our industry.Industry 282. In times of excitement this disUke rose to fever heat. the capitalist employer. English Manners and Customs in the Later Middle Ages. " By patent he granted aUen weavers the right to dwell in England and perform their craft safely and securely. — Sheepfarming caused a Hitherto this commodity had been shipped abroad. a new factor into the economic world. 105." ^ This new industry did 283. were hostile to aliens. maintaining that foreigners were neither on a level with them. not develop in the old towns. but as one who is to become an American citizen of equal rank with ourselves. where the guilds with their many useless restrictions held sway and where the taxes were es" Let us carry on our work. From what has been said it is evident that the king took a radical step in his effort to build letters up Enghsh industry. As there were no factories in those days. — towns became almost deserted as manxifacturers saw the disadvantages of these places. 263 great increase in the The Manufacture of Cloth. or even in country districts. Formerly when the market was small. This industry brought 284. This condition the king sought to remedy by encouraging skilled Flemish artisans to settle in England and to teach his people the art of manufacturing cloth. Avoidance of the Old Towns. and on such occasions the lives of aliens were not safe. the cloth-making business could be carried on in small villages. . amount of wool. garding losses and injuries inflicted upon them." cloth-makers pecially heavy. nor worthy of This feeling was the more intense because of their society. At present in our own country we welcome the foreigner. .

they formed. At the same time there arose a new class of men whose capital made it possible to hire a large number of workers. ingly several distinct classes. in this way. In time this class became the most powerful element in parhament and . The rise of this moneyed class is the most The members ocstriking social development of the period. Parhament passed laws carefully regulating industries. and in addition to unskilled hands. often called upon them for loans. The king. including merchants. . therefore most influential in shaping the policies of the nation. The Lower Classes Political and : Social Standing. the manufacturers. The scheme meant wealth to the capitalist and merchant and a Uving to the artisan.264 English Economy and Society time this method of manufacturing failed to supply the increasPrbduction on a large scale became necessary. The Middle Class. manufacturers. It comprised chiefly the wealthy sheep farmers. or well-to-do farmers. but always in the interest of the merchants and manufacturers. noble ladies. In the interest of their business they desired a strong government for the maintenance of domestic peace and for making the 286. and he had to work for wages fixed by parhament. — Below the middle class in rank were the yeomen. name of England respected abroad. and who were not nobles by birth. so to speak. were now joined in a group described as the Middle Class. This legislation was unfavorable to the workman. cupied a high social position. and the merchants. He could not leave the district in which he hved. whose meagre political privileges we have already noted (§ 280). amassed fortunes. In return the king made some of them knights and granted them permission to marry. StiE lower in the scale were the artisans and laborers. and they often had the honor of entertaining his Majesty at banquets. In the working world there came to be accordartisans. who were permitted to take no part in the government. an aristocracy of wealth as opposed to that of birth. Not only the cloth industry but other trades were organized ing orders for goods. — when financially embarrassed. Men who by cleverness had 285.

It is true that wages were low. it was not always wholesome. they were quarrelsome. They chose their own hours. while growing stronger. for example. for they were paid by the piece. It was most difficult to gather together .Society 265 In spite of these unfavorable circumstances the condition of was on the whole good. We hear that " loyalty and truth were cast aside for the sake of money. In other cases we find people imprisoned for no causes whatever. frequently go impunished either because they were too poor to tuidertake prosecutions or because imprisonment would cost the conununity too much. too. People ate few vegetables. Even in these unfavorable conditions we discover an advance in the standard of living which difficult to meat and salt afiEected all classes. . They preferred to settle disputes by brute force rather than to bring them before a court. This condition was due to the fact that the central government. This period therefore saw a new growth of the vice of covetousness. . Growing Power of Money. carried on their work at home.. they had plenty artisans of fresh air in those times food and a garden. however. and not freed until they had paid a ransom. Living in the country or in villages. — There were many deeds of violence. Like their ancestors. was not yet its. came it in winter. The spinners and weavers.laws. Merchants were not afraid to burden their consciences with^usury. both men and women. and were warned against salads and raw fruit as dangerous to the health. . The chief hardship to the poorer classes when the scarcity of hay and vegetables made keep domestic animals. Slow Progress of Law and Order. assault. Local authorities. Large quantities of salt fish were consumed. and murder. men desired to make more and more money. such as eteaUng. In this period the 287. Even when food was plentiful.. In order to obtain the able to enforce let oflEenders — increasing luxuries. but was correspondingly cheap excepting in years of famine. . 288. although it was condemned as a Lawyers defended unjust causes for the heinous crime.. sake of money. EngUsh made slow progress in law and ^order.

: . and music. They were usually polite." ^ The attitude toward themselves and others is best expressed by a patriot of the time " The English are grf at lovers of themselves and of everything belonging to them they think that there are no other men than themselves." ^ Swindling and cheating took place on a large scale. Good Qualities. in their speech. 28. 93-7 Gardiner. Social England in Pollard. national and voluntary enlistment. sailors. 266 an honest English Economy and Society set of jurymen. and merdiants worked in the face of perils and diflSculties on land and sea. they say that he looks like an Englishman. mercenaries. 427-36. too. Above all. 265. Political songs showed a popular interest in public affairs. Readings. Source Book of Mediaval History. Abrams." its its . Kendall. History of England. and whenever they see a handsome foreigner. . and popular feeling is voiced in the poems of Chaucer. Adams. . not of feudal knights or foreign. but always in the open. The — . 2 ' Modern History. . In a childlike way they displayed a quaint humor. Growth of the French Nation. 114 f. — ' Abrams. and that it is a great pity that he should not be an Englishman. Devastation of France. selves for the great gifts — . The battles of his country were " fought with a national weapon wars were financed by the national wealth of the wool trade armies were formed. but were slow in learning to appreciate art. I.ve they fought and killed. Soldiers. . and no other world but England. 472-5. II. I. many estimable virtues.' . I. and generous to the poor and sick. Topics for Reading Battle of Crety. 240-2 Terry. In spite of their faults they had 289. particularly in the dehght afforded them by silly cartoons. Source-Book of English History. 466-70 Ogg. Uterature. They were brp. 22-23. History of England. but by . Factors in the Fifteenth Century. . Robinson. They were especially fond of horses and dogs. 362-8. the Englishman was intensely patriotic. Robinson. as they continually perjured themwhich they received from the parties to the trial. Ogg. . 436-9. They were hospitable to strangers.

What were the contents and effect of the Statute of Laborers? ers? How did they prepare for it? 10. chs. Explain briefly how Additional Studies I. ch. Why were the 9. England's Industrial ment. 2. What new social classification did the industry bring about? 17. Why did the peasants revolt? Describe the revolt. The Black Death and the Peasants' — Kendall. Mention some of of industry affect the English love of money? the good qualities of EngUshmen in this age. Allsop. Gibbins. 6. In what degree was law enforced and order maintained? 20. 371-5. Describe rural the results of their revolt. How was serfdom abolished in England? 6. 3. English parliament. I. 5. Collect from this chapter all the causes mentioned as having helped the the estates general with the overthrow of feudahsm. Cheyney. Enclosures and Poverty. English Develop- Review the English people became conscious of their national unity. Short History of England. IV. efiect had the Black Death on the condition of laborers ? 7. — . Introduction to Industrial History. 11. Industrial and Economic History 0} England. . What political changes took place in France because of the war (§ 272) ? 5. What was the political and social standing of the lower their degree of comfort in home life? classes? 19. Compare the new systems of 10. Describe the standing of the middle class. Compare From an earlier chapter describe se:fdom. What and from this chapter explain its overthrow in England. Give an account of enclosures. and why? . 267-9. Gardiner. Explain the character and working of the Stock and Land Lease. by these new systems. Why and in what way did the manufacture of cloth arise in England? How were foreign tradesmen treated? 15. 12. 243-50. When did the Hundred Years' War take place? How did it begin? For what is the battle of Crecy famous? Describe the English treatment of the French and of their lands. xvii. How of did new feeling of nationality express itself in the relation Englishmen with foreigners? In the Hundred Years' War? 3. How did the growth 21.Studies III. 248-50. 403-12 102-9. peasants discontented? benefited 8. 96-134. 4. Explain the change from feudalism to nationality the (§ 269). xxi . XX. Cheyney. What cl£»sses most economy with feudal economy. 9. 2. 7. 267 Rebellion. What effect had the plague on the quantity and price of food ? on the condition of labor8. Industry in England. Give an account of Joan of Arc. and in what way? 16. By whom was this industry carried on. 14. Terry. 96-107 Innes. 4. 18. Who were the yeomen? What was their political condition? 13. Describe the Black Death.

14. and how did they differ from the Were Englishmen growing worse or better morally? 13Did the majority now live more comfortably than under the feudal did Why old? 12. . Write an essay on one of the reading topics. 15. Write a syllabus of this chapter like the one on p. English Economy and Society new towns grow up. 231. system? Give reasons for your view.268 II.

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They farmed intelligently. This little country. Europe which were now showing most enterprise. that they helped to centralize England. and raised large and grapes for wine. is admirably suited for commerce. Spain. France. and Portugal These were the nations of into strong political powers (§ 205). As we have seen. There were almost no manufactures. The peasants were forced to work hard. and for that reason few artisans. In the time of which we are speaking a majority of its million inhabitants were poor. They had dared travel where the most reckless of the ancients had into the unknown ocean beyond the Strait of feared to go quantities of olives for export. OF SPAIN 1400-1600 THE SUPREMACY The Crusades and the Commercial Nations. They had furnished the impulse to 290. The Crusades had done more than anything else to broaden man's mental horizon (§ 206 f). the early work of discovery. It is — bordered on two sides by the Atlantic. scientific — and literary activities in the " Revival of Learning. for the arid soil afforded but a scanty living." They had opened up communication between East and West. and has a number of excellent harbors.CHAPTER XrX DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS. Portugal was naturally fitted to carry on 291. — 269 . however. Most of the people on the coast were fishermen. smaller than the state of New York. In their little barks they had often ventured far out of sight of land. It is an important fact. for the land and money were in the hands of the nobles and clergy. too. there was an enormous business transacted over the permanent trade routes between these regions during and after the Crusades. Portugal.

At this juncture Prince of converting the East to Christianity. sober. but he was sturdy. The slaves were set to work on the farms of Portugal. The population was teeming with energy. brave. Local jealousies were swallowed up in national pride and ambition. Above all. and his straightforward speech inspired his people with confidence. It was a Portuguese 292. It was his wish to crush the Moors of northern Africa so thoroughly that they would never again prove a menace to Christendom. who turned this ambition in a practical direction. His honest face. far He lived a from all social pleasures. He was well equipped by nature to endure the hardship as well. The Portuguese peasant or fisherman was illiterate.270 Discoveries and Explorations Gibraltar. The Portuguese were devout Christians they had furnished men and supplies for the Crusades they had arisen as a man to help drive out the Moors. Africa. Prince Henry the Navigator. — prince. is About him were gathered the chiefly Prince Henry's place in history due to the fact that he put exploration upon a scientific basis. and industrious. . securing the wealth and trade He established accordingly a nautical station for the study of geography and navigation. known life to history as Prince Henry the Navigator. which gained a foothold in northwestern Africa. peculiar in his lonely castle. Henry conceived the great project and incidentally of of the Orient for his country. so that many citizens were . — Under his direction several expeditions Exploration and Colonization of the West Coast of set out along the coast of Africa. giving Portuguese names which still remain. he was an earnest Christian. as the good fortune which was to fall to his lot. For this purpose he persuaded his father to organize an expedition. . to the places they passed. greatest scientists of the day. 293. These religious movements had served to unite all classes and all districts into one nation. This enterprise was the beginning of Portuguese power in Morocco. Never did he drink wine or give way to passionate words. though ugly. On return trips they brought back booty and slaves from the Dark Continent.

Meanwhile the Portuguese slowly but surely extended their supremacy along the west coast of Africa. who was displeased at the smallness of their value. At once he repaired to the palace and made presents to the king. ' Thou southmost point the joyful king exclaimed. whence he hoped some future navigator might continue on to India. In this work the city 'Civitates orbis described as 'the most famous portiDf " At Lisbon's court they told their dread escape. remained a blot upon civilization until it was finally wiped out of existence in the free to join the exploring movement. in consequence slavery. the A-zores'. the slave trade quickly grew enormous. Calicdt With harbor India. a barbarous system of labor. And from the raging tempests named the cape.' 1573. planting military and trading stations on the way.Portugtiese Discoveries 271 made Proving lucrative. Eight days later he was permitted to go ashore. and who thought gold and silver should have . and the possessions which she retains to this day. In 1488 Diaz reached the southern point of the continent.' in the foreground. is terrarum. and nineteenth centilry. Cape Verde islands About ten 294. Opening of the Water Route to India. From Braun and Hohenberg. years later Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope and the coast of Africa — — — finally anchored before Cal'i-cut. " Cape of Good Hope be thou forever named ! ' ! ' ' By off this time Portugal had set up trading stations on the islands the Ma-dei'ras. India.

From an engraving of the'sixteenth century. One servant holds a sunshade over him. girt with sword. They heaped great honors on the successful navigator. The joys of the Portuguese Portuguese Governor of India Travelling in state. while beside the horse walks a little page. accompanied by his staff. however. for the freight he carried had paid the expenses of his voyage sixty times over. His return to Lisbon. for northern distribution. From that port vessels conveyed to Antwerp. while another endeavors to keep the steed moving at a desirable gait. been His goods were but only after con- siderable opposition on the part of native traders. He was perhaps more pleased with his material reward. the wares of the Orient.272 Discoveries sent. Lisbon became the commercial centre of the West. for overland routes were gradually abandoned. squire. This voyage marked the decline of Venice. . and Explorations finally landed. A were unbounded. proved the existence of a water route between Europe and the Indies. precedes his master.

too. and to sell the natives into slavery. He understood the native mind. and as — she wished new mistress of the seas clung to the old idea of such had the sole right to dispose of it. His compelling' personality filled the Orientals with awe. washed. and carded it. In 1508 the Portuguese appointed Al-bu-quer'que governor new lands. Unfortunately the — monopoly all the trade for herself. They were permitted also to confiscate whatever land they wished. He built fortresses and naval stations therefore at strategic points. and established trading posts in convenient places. Above all. which occupies the larger part of the 296. and proved to be its master in His orders were just. he intrigue. In this rugged country hardy shepherds tended their flocks of sheep. Gifted with remarkable foresight. won the affections of those about him. Spain. as their sovereign. Most . he saw that in a few years other nations of Europe would rush madly toward the East. and claim as their own all lands eastward and southward as far as the Indies. Once a year they cut the wool. Christians believed that the pope was supreme lord of the earth. China. As he had but a small army with him. a world market where all nations might meet and trade. Spain. his swiftness of action appealed to their imagination. had to make the position of Portugal secure. The Portuguese Colonial Domain. were granted the right to search out. He was well fitted for his task a man of wisdom and character. A glance at the map will show that by the middle of the sixteenth century the Portuguese had extended their commercial supremacy over an immense area Gibraltar to Canton. The Portuguese. combed. who had always been friendly to the pope. as well as firm.Tke Portuguese Domain 273 Here. — the entire coasts of Africa and Asia from the — to the cities in the valleys to be straits of Iberian peninsula. fearless and intelligent. he used diplomacy in of their — great persuading the native princes to recognize the king of Portugal In this task he succeeded remarkably well. including many near-by islands. is mainly a plateau. Accordingly she applied to the pope for a title to the new lands. discover. In those few years he. at last was 295. Then they sent it made into cloth.

274 Supremacy of Spain .

and who had invaded the country from Africa. the most industrious. which alone were fertile. was stunted by her religious pohcy. The political unification and the suppression of non-Christians greatly intensified the national spirit. mentioned above.Growth of Spain 275 of this cloth was exported to other cities on the Mediterranean. they alone remained productive. After their expulsion the Spanish farmers took possession of these lands but indolent by nature and despising work. the Moors nearly the whole peninsula. and enterprising classes of the population. The Unification of Spain. however. In 1469 the unification of the Christians of Spain was completed by the marriage of King Ferdinand of Arragon with Queen Isabella of Castile. chiefly the Jews. which with the Spaniards assumed. For centuries the southern and eastern parts. The war on the Moors continued. with a few petty Christian kingdoms in the mountains of the north. we find. affairs in the fifteenth century.' Diuring the early centuries of modern time the Christians gradually expanded southward. till a final effort of miUtant Christianity seized Granada. . with which Spanish merchants carried on an active trade. had found their coun. they gradually allowed their farms to fall to ruin. the last Moslem stronghold in Spain (1492). belonged to the Moors. in the Middle Ages. all non-Christians. Such was the condition of Looking further back into the in possession of — past. Her economic development. The new sovereigns. which aimed . The Moors stiU remaining in the kingdom continued rebelhous till and the numerous sect of Jews were their expulsioi^ in 1609 given forthwith the alternative of baptism or exile. As the vineyards and olive orchards required little care. intelligent. who were Mohammedans. They cultivated the soil with great dihgence and skill by means of implements which they had perfected. Surrounded on three sides by water and provided with excellent ports. the form of crusading rehgious zeal. uniting more closely with one another and driving the Moors before them. Spain was admirably fitted for colonization and commerce and for maritime empire. at the extirpation of who were 297.

We know little of the early life of Christopher Columbus. Fortunately the charts of the time prpved conclusively that Japan was on the same the Indies could be reached . — line. Gaining control also of the armies of various religious orders organized for the expulsion of the self for Moors — — the king made him- time commander-in-chief of all the military Lastly he employed the Inquisition to deal with offenders whom he could not reach through the ordinary The measures of police administration and the cencourts. hands added extraordinary from a feudal state to one of the modern type. He believed that six-sevenths of the earth's surface was land hence the ocean journey between Europe and Asia would be comparatively short. who were little better than bandits. the Correctors. which formerly had enjoyed great independence. He was acquainted with the views of the ancient Greek scientists (§ gi). and brought to justice those nobles who had opposed the will of the sovereign. .276 Supremacy of Spain ^ try on the verge of anarchy. turned the ambitions of this country toward the sea. and enabled it to undertake efficiently the work of colonizing and of controlling vast regions beyond tralization of power in the king's it strength to the state. The chronic disturbers of the peace were the barons. the first forces of the state. and was therefore convinced that the earth was a sphere. Had he known the real distance. His mates called him a dreamer because he believed that by sailing westward. At the age of fourteen he was a sailor'under the Genoese flag ten years later he entered the Portuguese service. whose principal service was the levy and support of a mounted police. Ferdinand prudently formed a Sacred Brotherhood of the chief cities. Columbus. changed in fact the seas. In places where evil-doers abounded the government established another class of police officers. who put down lawbreakers with surprising efficiency. who 298. This force mercilessly swept the country. a Genoese sailor.. it is likely that his courage would have failed him. About the same time the national legislature. Here he learned scientific navigation from men who had no superiors in that . . It was a foreigner. was made subordinate to the king.

277 Naturally no one underOn the contrary maps showed the alluring proximity of Japan. India. for the Spanish in 152 1. agreeing to his terms. thus completing the first circumnavigato see a foreign advention of the globe. he pleaded his cause for years." great Finally Queen Isabella. the Victoria. of the He discovered gold as well as cotton and pepper. however. 300. He and his descendants were to be viceroys of India forever. It was one of the Ba-ha'ma islands. After his death in that region one monarch could not bear of his ships. Poverty-stricken. the East was noted. iitted him a fleet of three vessels. he called the natives Indians. the butt of — court wits who scoffed at " the dreamer. continued on to Spain. and reached the Philippine Islands repudiated. The Naming — Soon after the discovery New World others began to make voyages of exploration . distributed at convenient distances. After visiting several other islands he was convinced that he had found Asia. which Columbus christened San Sal'va-dor. knew no more than his contemporaries. with islands along the route. he dared put his conclusions into practice. Columbus stood that an entire continent lay between. so that mariners might have a place to anchor every night. this bargain was In 1519 Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships. products for which Thoroughly convinced that he had reached of America. Unlike them. Later. The westward journey was long and tedious but land was finally sighted. with onetenth of all the profits of governing and exploiting whatever territory he Magellan's Ship might conquer.Columbus parallel of latitude as southern Spain. txurer sovereign of a vast realm acquired under the patronage of Spain. Columbus sought to 299. The Discoveries of Columbus. prove to the inonarchs of Spain that his plan was practical. however.

1 1 i tugal (1580). Born in a mountainous country. in its Latin form America (feminine of Americus). Cahfornia. and independent. its — The work of conquer- ing this vast area and of civiUzing paralleled in brilliancy their and daring. made them brave. and courteous. the possessions of both countries were temporarily united.278 Supremacy of Spain In three or four of these expeditions the in the same direction. „ _ Brazil alone on the Western con- From an Aztec . spent on the field The greater part of their lives they had of battle. The work of exploration was pushed so rapidly that before the middle of the sixteenth century Spanish sovereignty had been proclaimed over the West Indies. "Florida. was given to the new continent. Mexico. and natives of the coast that came under his observation. proud. r. who divided the world into two parts ing the . Spaniaeds Battling with Aztecs — leaving the Eastern half to the Portuguese. and the whole seaboard of South' America. they were by nature hardy. and their warlike exploits. -S and when Spam absorbed Por. to the pope. therefore. 301. . part of astronomer was taken by A-mer'i-go Ves-puc'cij an He Italian in the service of Spain and afterward of Portugal. Naturally Spain did not wish other nations to share in her new possessions. . tment was granted to Portugal: '. along with their knightly education. with the exception of Brazil. diawing. rather than that of Columbus. millions of Indians is unThe " Conquerors " with bands of soldiers seem like a race of supermen. Spanish Conquests in America. abstemious. and giv- West to the Spaniards. Their love of adventure and their imagination had been fed on the romance of chivalry and their practical experience had given them the pioneer qualities of observation and . the arbiter of international affairs. In the general igno- rance as to the real discoverer the name Anierigo. She appealed. animals. wrote an account of the plants. .

had to work two . could conditions be permanently improved. and thence southward to the Straits of Magellan. of the savages for They contin- ually exposed their Uves to danger.Colonization of America alertness. possessions. since they thought only whom they were working. besides cultivating his own land. however. by the discovery of gold in Mexico and Peru. over plain and mountain. an outlet in the New comfort. The seven hundred years of 302. Each Indian. and building fortresses to protect their winnings. Gold and the gospel furnished motives fully as strong as that of glory. through dense jimgle and forest. In this way alone. — They could not help regarding the imbeliever in Catholicism This intense religious zeal found World. they thought. and friends to five in the wilderness. 279 Their varying fortunes in the wars had brought them endurance and a dogged resolution. Occasional failure and defeat served only to whet their determination. Thousands who aspired to wealth were attracted to the new It was a bitter disappointment to find unclad savages and dense forests instead of mountains of gold. This was an industrial school where the pupils were taught simple arts. Its teachers were the friars. fighting as they went. who wiUingly left home. The Christian Motive. Missionaries sought not only to convert the natives but to scatter among them the seeds of European civiUzation. Gradually they worked their way inward from the seacoast. struggle against the Moors had created in the character of the Spaniards an intense reUgious as well as political ardor. many of whom had been plain Spanish peasants. Discipline was strict and the day's work began and ended with prayers. and eventually to give them the niastery over the lands and peoples that stretched from Porto Rico to San Francisco. Drooping spirits were restored. as a foe to God and Spain. Those who were intelligent and eager to learn were brought together into a mission. where milUons of souls might be saved for Christ. Countless numbers migrated to those countries in the hope of finding a quick and easy way to fortune. This work was entered upon with burning enthusiasm by all ranks of Spaniards.

in time universities were founded. Many hospitals.28o Supremacy oj Spam hours a day on the mission farm. to-day the Spanish missions in CaHfomia stand as monuments Other schools and_ to the work of these self-sacrificing friars. permission of the Mentor. once a powerful agency Present appearance. Such establishments became very prosperous and productive. San Jose Mission San Antonio. pro- vided for the needy and the sick. In an age when the brotherhood of man was not a generally accepted principle. Spanish efforts for the betterment of the subjects oversea were unique in the movement of colonization. Texas. They are the greatest conEven tribution made by Spain to the development of America. . too. By for the civilization of the Indians.

too. The harsh legal codes of the day had hardened men's sensibiUties to suffering. home and difficult to colony. Their inhuman treatment of slavery the American natives therefore flected only spirit re- the of the table time. Nor were even the best officials always guided by humanitarian motives. and to to force From De Bry. that Spanish domination was an unmixed blessing to the natives. Not only were they cruel to subjects but they sometimes even sold into — or put to death their fellow countrymen. punish Colonies 304. have usually been regarded as a means of producing raw mate- — . they had come to feel a contempt for human life. 303. Naturally rascals and rufl&ans stole their way into government service.' found it far more proficheat and rob the Indians. torture. The object of many an officer was to return home hving. them into slavery. Offlcials Negro Miners Slaves in the Spanish colonies.Misgovernment 281 It must not be assumed. Thousands of miles from home. 'Voyages. From the prolonged warfare at home. they felt themselves free to use their own devices for extorting more and more wealth from the Indians. Other Obstacles to Colonial Prosperity. however. just as speedily as possible to squander his booty in riotous It is true that the king of Spain devised rules for the fair and treatment of natives. Particularly common in the gold and silver mines were floggings. but the cumbersome machin- ery of government. and manslaughter. the great distance between and the slowness of travel made it extremely erring officials. Administrative Abuses. than to spend their time in improv- ing the country.

Unfortunately. her vast empire in the World. The vast tracts of fertile lands. made httle appeal to settlers. The indolent now began to forsake all work which did not yield a large return with Note. Bullion kept pouring into Spain. point. too. and unmarried adventurers usually took to themselves native wives. however. The Colonies Sacrificed to Imperialism. The Spanish possessions were well fitted for this purpose. Few families came. injury befell both America and Spain through the political World policy — ambition of the king. the gold and silver mines blinded newcomers to Spaniards all else. The result was a mixed race and a lower civilization. V was the son and successor of Charles whose European dominions are indicated on Philip 11 little effort. for the temperate zones of America are notably productive. Early in the sixteenth century this Besides made Spain the greatest power in the world. yet only to produce an un- healthy condition of economy. Her king ruled the Holy New . He did not use the bullion from the New for improving internal conditions but for strengthening his prestige in Europe. and Naples were imder her control. (§ 321). It is true that Spain was a small coimtry and so sparsely populated that the officials and priests who emigrated to the new world proved a serious drain. the Netherlands. Manufacturing at home and agri- culture in the colonies waned almost to the vanishing. . Spain could hardly spare more of her people for permanent settlements. The gravest 305. this map. Austria.282 rials to Supremacy of Spain feed the factories at home.

Spain was economically unfit to enforce this poHcy. to be sure. At a later date this precedent was followed by the other colonizing nations Holland. France. He toiled early and late on matters of routine which would better have been left to his helpers. Goods which the colonists needed they were permitted to buy from the mother country alone. Many had deserted the Catholic faith for other behefs which were continually becoming stronger. with her rich East Indian empire was soon to fall to her lot. there were not enough Spanish — . Then. but of a suspicious nature. were worked at a great disadvantage. but looked to God to bring order out of chaos. The Spanish people firmly be306. Philip was conscientious. Such work required a genius. It was during these wars that the Dutch Netherlands threw off the Spanish yoke and became an independent nation. his assistants. and England. They were permitted further to export their wares to no other country nor in any other than in Spanish vessels. tries — lieved that their new possessions existed for their benefit alone. men of action. The Spanish sovereign Philip II (1556-1598) was not capable of ruling over so vast an area or so many different peoples. which proved to be a serious financial burden. and at ridiculously high prices. Throughout his realm this persecution led to constant religious wars. Trade Restrictions. His European subjects were giving him great trouble. When affairs went wrong.Sacrifice to Imperialism 283 Roman Empire (§ 190). PhiUp felt it his duty to stamp out these Protestants. too. Many of the Protestants who were forced to so restricted his orders that they by In this way home induswere deprived of their best workmen^ and Spain was left a poorer nation. The most powerful of Catholic monarchs. and the demand therefore came to be filled more and more with foreign manufactures. too. flee the empire were skilled artisans. Portugal. too. To the ambition of ruhng and extending this vast empire all hopes of internal improvement were sacrificed. Her factories could not supply the large colonial market. PhiUp made no attempt to find the reason. as they were called (§ 326). On the other hand.

not a mere medium of exchange. With her commerce and her income shrinking and her expenses growing. — . 284 Supremacy of Spain ships for this carrying trade. In those days the precious metals were thought to be wealth itself. Then. and to purchase their surplus stocks. Large profits lured the swift They were ready to seU merchandise to the colonists at reasonable rates. I. Part of her fortime went to other countries in exchange for food and clothing. It is clear. light vessels of other nations to smuggling. As long therefore as galleons continued to return from America with large amoimts of gold and silver. her people had explored and opened up a large part of the New World. the development of the colonies was sacrificed to djnastic interests on the continent of Europe. ture. The possessions which -she had taken from Portugal were soon lost to other nations her American colonies. the Spaniards thought themselves prosperous.. Topics for Reading Those who are using this book are advised to read first Hayes. . had rendered a great service to the world by helping Columbus Through their desire for advenin the discovery of America. In the first place she attempted expansion on too large a scale her vast endeavors overtaxed her Umited financial resources and drained her of men. This easy method of gaining wealth placed a premium upon idleness. their crusading zeal. Summary of the Economic Decline of Spain. 49-69. The rest drifted abroad to pay the debts of war and of an extravagant court. the very mines of the New World proved a cause of decay. Through this cause the legitimate trade of Spain with her colonists shrank to a relatively small volume. Industry and agriculture stagnated. she retained until the opening of the nineteenth century. however. however. Spain 307. and Spain was no longer self-supporting. Spain even in the sixteenth century began to decline. too. Political and Social History of Modern Europe. and their longing for wealth. that she failed to take advantage of the wonderful opportunities which lay within her grasp. Lastly. and afterward the following authors.

Give an account of Columbus. Describe the explorations along the western coast of Africa. What restrictions were placed on trade. Spanish Colonization. 9. How were the Spanish 16. I. v. iii. of the Crusades as given in §290. Western Civilization. Enumerate 8. 7. What was the character of Albuquerque. What arrangements were made for him by Queen Isabella? Describe his voyage and discoveries. Was the idea of sailing west to India new to (see earlier ch. History of Commerce. islands did Portugal acquire in that region? How was the water 5. I. 129-38. 14. What were his ideas and hopes? 10. and with what difiiculties did he meet? 15. II. Webster. Why did she precede England extensively? Describe the conquest of Spain by the Mohammedans (earlier ch. How was the unification of Spain brought about? 9. Cheyney. 115-21. How did the Spaniards look upon America and its inhabitants? 13. and what did he accomplish? What 7. Cunningham. What 4. 231. Keller. ch. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics like that on p. route to India opened? What was the effect on Venice ? 6. Portuguese Colonization. Write a syllabus of this chapter the causes of the decline of Spain. chs. were the occupations of the Spaniards? What was their condition? 8. 11. Studies 285 I. What was the extent of Spain's power in Europe? What was the character of Philip II. iv Morris. Why given above. . xvi. European Background of American History (American Nation). 3. ch.)? What was there in the situation and civilization of the world? 5. 230-59.). Morris. 2. What made it possible for early modern naviga3. What brought Spain to decline? object and result? Additional Studies did the limits of navigation remain unchanged through so many centuries? 2. — — Webster. and of his work. Portugal that made her the first country to navigate the Atlantic in this activity? 6. 11. Give an account of Henry the Navigator. I.. Describe the effort to convert and to civilize the Indians. the commercial activities of her people. Summarize the effects. Review I. I. Describe the situation of Portugal. and with what 18. Colonization. Why was America so named? How were the conflicting claims of Portugal and Spain adjusted ? 12. 183-90. In what occupations did most of the colonists colonies treated? engage? 17. II. What tors to extend their voyages to unknown parts of the world? products of the Far East did the western Europeans especially seek 4. History of Colonization. Why was Portugal supplanted on the sea by Spain? 10. How was a Portuguese empire built up? Describe its location. 199-229.

The German Princes. the study of which is all the more bewildering because most of them comprised patches of territory lying separate from one another. Nominally this great region continued to be ruled by one supreme lord . Though in name a unit.CHAPTER XX THE PROTESTANT REVOLT ON THE CONTINENT I. empire was hopelessly cut into small states. There were many principalities. who preferred the safety and enlargement of their own realms to the fiscal — 286 . however." as did the (§ 190). In fact almost any ruling prince had to cross a neighbor's land to visit the outer portions of his realm. but was elected for life by seven powerful feudal lords of the empire. While other counwere developing into powerful nations. In exercising these functions the great feudal princes were real kings. sovereigns of France and England.the Holy Roman Emperor He did not reign by the " grace of God. This circumstance proved especially disagreeable to German-speaking people. and in whose minds plans were forming 308. often it was filled by a foreigner. It was free also to enter into relations of war and peace with foreign states. — tries to achieve national unity. The Revolt in Germany 1517-1SSS Political Condition of Germany. The office of emperor accordingly was not hereditary. the 309. Germany remained feudal and disunited. such as Saxony and Bavaria. in whose hearts patriotism was beginning to awaken. Each of the more powerful states. had its own supreme court and its own system and coinage.

Improvements in Germany unity of the empire. 287 Theirs were the only strong governments Chtirch. The visitor to Nu'rem-berg saw " many houses that befitted kings. They filled these dwellings with gold and silver plate.a monopoly of trade. came to be exchanged for eastern goods. 310. unite their strength. wrought great changes in town life. they attempted to administer justice and collect taxes within their boundaries. This precious commodity the states needed to pay their expenses. They asserted their freedom from the temporal rulers. At length German wares. — condition. This advantage enabled them to buy in large quantities and to themselves. In this way we make everybody else rich and remain beggars ourselves. By driving out small competitors they gradually built up . and that the king of Scotland was not as nobly housed as a Nuremberg merchant of the second rank. An economist of the time deplores the fact that " pure good gold and silver money is sent out of the land . claimed that they owed allegiance to the pope alone. in Germany. goods had to be paid for in gold and silver.. Naturally the princes did not wish to allow a large part of the community to remain beyond their control. who were poUtically no more than great feudal princes. Meanwhile the merchants who had grown wealthy in this trade began to 311. The Princes and the — Little by little the princes quelled the free nobles and absorbed the free cities within their domains. As manufactures were few. fix prices to suit The capitalization of industries here described gradually broke up the old guild organizations. In spite of its disunited Germany began to trade with the East. 312." Fortunately people turned to manufacturing. however. The growth of a inerchant Improvements in City Life. It was difficult. and industries grew up. to combat the mighty power of the Church. The abbots and bishops. Economic Improvements. to buy silks and satins from India which are of no use to us. their class — . rather than German money. To them it was an additional grievance that the Church government at Rome was constantly demanding more and more German gold. and with costly Venetian glass..

Museum of Nuremberg. of the fifteenth century. and costly tapestries decorated the walls. 86. but for luxiuries in dress and living. Nuremberg Famous for its beautiful streets. who was to play an important role in the breaking up of the mediaeval church. many of them fit for princes. — It is evident. the encircling wall strengthened by 183 towers. So Lindsay. His complaint sounds distinctly modern. the imperial castle on the apex of the hill. 313. 'that the German merchant used methods which were decidedly unfair. and then suddenly field. chambers of commerce. dinners.288 furniture Protestant Revolt was adorned with delicate wood-carvings. " The monopolists succeed in driving out the small merchants by bu)dng up large quantities of goods. From a MS." With an intense civic patriot- ism they " built great churches."^ Unfortunately this wealth was used. and a population industrious and happy. where they had their public dances. . and other kinds of social entertainments. and assembly rooms. not for solid improvements. Oppressive Monopolies. raising the prices ' when they are left masters of the I. too. Bislory of ike Reformation. The leader in protest against such conduct was Martin Luther. its rows of dwellings with high-pointed roofs.

Not content with the Eastern trade. and wine. raise and lower prices at fishes. just as a great pike swallows and oppress and up a lot of little then justice . or by producing artifiThey put the good quaUty on top and bottom and cial colors." 314." Agitation against these evUs. the bad in the middle. meat. — Nevertheless life. Mittelalter. The Peasants. or weighing. If monopolies are permitted to exist. Luther tells us that merchants were none too scrupulous. ruin small dealers. Dishonesty Prevails. little of th^ir life. however. For business purposes they wished a strong central government. were the peasants. There On German Peasants the estate of a count.. counting.Culpable Business Methods 289 these monopolists have everything in their hands and do what- ever they wish. including the very necessaries of Prices they raised until as grain. They allied themselves accordingly with the powerful princes. damp vaults in order is increase their weight. From Kleinpaul. and wealth meant power. the merchants obtained control of domestic goods. In the centre are swine feeding on acorns. 315.' ' not a single article out of which they cannot make an unfair profit through false measuring. — The great majority We know of the population. farther back are deer and one large hare. in and to saffron. gradually died.. they made it im- possible for the poor man to hve. and righteousness must vanish. ginger. however. " They have learned the trick of placing such spices as pepper. Their occupations and the character of the buildings are evident. for . working and feasting. monopolies con- tinued to prosper and expand. will. The merchants continued to grow wealthy.

The Peasant's Cottage and Garden. — wine. through a locked and carefully-guarded gate. oatmeal porridge. and one or two The rude copking utensils were hung here and large chests. whey. Outside the fence was dug a deep ditch over which was a drawbridge. The small group of houses was surrounded by a wall or a fence made of strong stakes and interlaced branches. If ambitious. The chimney was of wood protected by clay. In fact these unclean conditions led to the passing of a law which ordered that tablecloths be washed at least once a year. or beer. as well as the family. the peasant hung dried meat and fruit and baskets of his store of provisions' grain. The house of 316. xxi. There was but one entrance. and hemp apples. In the village were a small church and a town hall. plums. there on the walls. and lettuce poppies. After mass on those occasions the girls and pipers spent their time at the " dancing place. Amusements.' The monotony of farm life was broken 317. ch. Here the peasant raised cabbages. Dishes were of coarse clay and were seldom washed. His food was substantial but plain coarse bread. The furniture was meagre a table. His drink was water. for the farmer was so dependent on his landlord that the character of the proprietor counted for much in the condition of the people. fuel. and cooked vegetables. life Village generally prevailed. About each house was a small garden enclosed by a fence.' . Under this one roof were sheltered live stock. Peasant life must have varied to a great extent. and grapes.ago • Protestant Revolt chroniclers of the time considered the nobles and merchants with their wealth and luxury all-important. — food and fodder. sour country — — . a few three-legged stools." The men and lads hastened to ) — Compare the similar features of life in France . . where the village council met. This body settled disputes among the villagers. it attempted also to adjust feudal assessments. On the rafters above. greens. garlic. by the Church festivals which occurred with amazing frequency. he had in addition a beehive and a pigeon-house. the peasant was a wooden frame filled in with sun-dried bricks and thatched with straw.

and drinking whey and sour country wine until some one sank under the benches and there was such a jostling. shortly before feet Luther. His parents were pious folk who wished their son to share their devotion to the Church. Wilt thou not give this baby mine. he was taught the Apostles' Creed. bawling. and roast pork. Master mild. such reckless ways that the onlooker thought they would all fall down. 291 where they became busily engaged in " eating head. too. roundings that Martin Luther grew up. Since thou wast once a little child. gathered at the dancing place. the Ten Commandments.The Peasants the town hall. and the Lord's Prayer. While he was yet an infant his mother sang to him From the time of a pen-sketch. "The ' men whirled off their partners and spun them round and round or seized them by the waist and tossed them as high their feet as they could . I." ^ It was in these sur318. Master. shoving. Thy grace and every blessing thine? Oh Jesus. (1505)1 Lindsay. scratching. * Ibid. meek and mild. while they themselves threw out leaped their and in In holiday Geesian Feasants attire. received his Master's degree from the University of Er'furt his early education at the village school. of his time. — : — " Oh Jesus. 94. and singcalf's . Protect my little child! " As soon as he could talk. liver. tripe. . He received where like other boys he endured harsh treatment at the hands of his Though poor he continued his studies and finally teachers." In the evening they. Martin Luther (1483-1546). black puddings. ing that not a word could be heard.

He Breaks with Conventional Religion. Peter's Eetum charter it In which Luther studied. 319. however. On a sudden impulse he entered a Here after the manner of monks. where — he preached this rare doctrine. that these " good works " brought him no comfort. In his mind the old them the right to sin. that the pope should not have the sole right to interpret Scripture. — . and in accordance with the custom of the time. the purchaser of an indulgence was partially freed at till i8i6. In the face of this evU Luther could not long keep quiet. From a institution from punishment for his sins on conUnfor- dition of sincere repentance. He believed. sketch. His Protest against Indulgences. Finding. A few years later Luther became professor of theology at the University of Wit'ten-berg. he expressed his protest in Latin on a Wittenberg church door (1517)Forcing hirn. when it was disused and the endowment applied to other objects. As a loyal son of the Church. the natural result.292 Protestant Revolt his During college course Luther's jovial disposition and honest nature made him popular among his fellow-students monastery. too." The pro- ceeds from their sale were to go toward the rebuilding University of of St. At that time various monks were travelling through Germany "selling indulgence papers. By contributing money for this worthy cause. and won many friends. into (debates. 'he became convinced that the only way man could be saved was by faith in God and His promises. Its wa^ granted in 1392 and continued as an educational Rome. 320. therefore. his skilful critics proved that Luther disagreed with the Church in its most important teachings. he strove to save his soul by fasting and scourging himself. In his opinion the pope was only a human being. and like other men could make mistakes. tunately some people thought that the purchase of an indulgence gave In their case a low morality was.

The face on our left is 'ti^^' of St. Imperial pariiament. convinced.Luther distinction 293 between clergy and laity gave way to the principle that the " Christian priesthood consisted of the whole body of believers. On his too. and abput. (Bishop). on our right that of Paul. but now a simple monk defied the pope." He was . The seal was attached to the document by a string of red and ydlow silk or hemp. Diet of Worms (1521). — Luther's disobedience soon became a question of national importance. From this time Luther began. Sanctus PaulusEpiscopus From 'Al- these evils crept in despite the teachings . now sided with Luther in the hope that reform might be brought of the bum historique. It is to be noted that all Apostolus. and citizens. Church and that many who loved who had never thought of opposing it. St. students. It is a fact that largely through the incompetence of priests reUgion had lost a part of its virile power and had become to a large degree ^ ° ° merely a matter of ceremonies and outward observances. was the public conscience which protested against most serious scandals and abuses within the Church itself. to be settled by the This Jbody met at Worms. too. Hitherto powerful monarchs alone had dared to pursue such a course. the sacraments of the Church therefore were usefor reUgion was a personal matter between man and God faith and no machinery should be allowed to intervene. to This decree the latter proceeded burn in the presence of faculty. The letters Many of the higher clergy. On this occasion its streets were crowded with princes and their retinues.' the Church. pope about 1200. 321. artisans. that salvation depended upon less. In reply the pope issued a Bull of Excommunication against Luther. above are an abbreviation of Sanctus Petrus moreover. People flocked to the support of the man who had dared to stand true to his personal convictions. The document itself came to be called a bull. Peter. with nobles. one of the oldest towns of Germany. to make an impression beyond the immediate circle of his acquaintances. . were dominated by a love of power and wealth. A Seal Papal Bull (bulla) of the side.

and ItaUan merchants returning from the big Frankfurt fair. . From Lacroix.294' Protestant Revolt and peasants. The from the were eager to provisions for ending the get sure made private classes wars which . in the middle. . disturbed trade all were anxious to provide for' an effective central govern- ment when the emperor was absent from Germany. " Men were talking about the need of making an end of the papal exactions which were draining Germany of money. type-inking."'i When Luther refused to recant. None were to shelter him or give him food or drink problem of all ' 1 Lindsay. Type-setting in the rear. On all sides crowds were excitedly discussing the problems of the day. printed sheets. local statesmen felt the need of putting an end to the constant A Printing Office disputes between Church authorities Sixteenth century. I. Les arts au moyen slge.' ' and in civil many. was To take notice of the books and descriptions made by Friar Martin Luther against the Court of Rome. talking. deputies cities . French. disputing about. est Gerbut the hard- and the one which every man was thinking. in front. To these throngs must be added Spanish. 268. he was condemned as a heretic His hfe was to be forfeited and his writings were to be burned. and the air was full of rumors of what the knights might attempt and whether there was going to be a peasant ' revolt. .

" bold words of Luther appealed to those who felt the burden heavy and the yoke galling. Literature. . The work of spreading these doctrines was carried on through the most remote country districts by poor priests. and the equality of all men before God. but his fellow-workers as well as opponents. He was skilled in Bible lore and Church history he knew as muchj The too. or public proclamations. It is important. turned out scores of pamphlets. they found they could appeal to a larger group of readers. too. too. By using the German language instead of Latin. The next five years witnessed a tremendous increase. employed to flatter the vanities of the uneducated. almanacs. of his followers to interpret the Bible for him- In fact the this religious movement may be German book trade. saw how great was the popularity of not as yet destroy the hero of his new subjects. and the printing press made it possible for even the poorest self. It broke down all barriers between priest and layman it taught the brotherhood of man. was never been elected Luther and dared — It was not till some years afterward that Bible into his Luther completed the work of translating the own tongue. Appeals to the Peasants.Literature and Pamphlets of fact this edict 295 under severe penalties. enforced. who had just emperor. Not only Luther himself. . but his work proved to be a masterpiece of German prose . In their pages the German peasant was glorified. His thoughts written down on the spur of the moment were couched in strong phrases. He was represented as an upright and simple-minded though intelligent person. . . Artists. As a matter of Charles V Spain. said to have created more than fifty books the most part popular — . who sympathized with the people in their troubles or by poor students on their way from university to university. " What a great and difi&cult task it is to make the Hebrew writers speak German " he exclaimed. Pamphlets were skilfully 323. of Christian doctrines as " three priests and more. Up to 1518 not were pubUshed annually they were for works on medicine. that at first his message was democratic. There were ! earlier translations. 322.

drunken priest. and pastures be free to all. or in the public . 329. Thereupon a suddenly began and spread like wildfire throughout Germany. For this we shall pray to God. whom he happened to know. In the name of religion the — They formulated demands in manifestoes.• 296 travelling " in to another. 324. Their chief request was that oppression cease and their burdens be Ughtened. and burial day. Merchants and patriots complained that every year Church officials were demanding more and more German gold. fuel. I. . the Peasants' Revolt. When reformers denoimced the corruption of the higher clergy. . . and labor be paid for in wages. their to be so. baptism. and revolt He alone. way the smoldering hatred of peasant for priest was fanned to a blaze. In like manner the peasant thought of the burdensome tithes and. since He can grant our demands. and led by sympathizers." Naturally these demands were flatly refused. Bands of armed men roamed the counburning and plundering." 1 In this demanded by his own parish priest. . whose trained troops soon routed the disorganized definite try. They read They talked the rude language of the people. which discussed the burning questions of the found their audiences Ume trees. These articles asked that each community might have the right of choosing and dismissing They demanded that serfdom be abolished its own pastor. . Protestant Revolt German fashion from one centre of their trade on the village green under the houses in the lower parts of the town. to excited audiences small pamphlets. of the fees for marriage. Their excesses aroused the authorities. The Twelve Articles (1524). " It is consistent with Scripture that we should be free and should wish discontented sought to gain their freedom. The time was ripe for revolution. The peasants were roused to action. the most important of which is caUed the Twelve Articles. They insisted that wild game. . it brought to the peasant's mind the thought of some evil. There was no plan of attack. printed in thick letters on coarse paper. attempted to gain their rights. 'Lindsay.

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outside the Catholic faith. He rebuked accordingly the greed of the landlords and expressed his approval of the Twelve Articles. Denouncing the rebels as murderers and thieves. there to remain until the nineteenth centiuy. and were therefore called Protestants. he asserted that " the great battles are to be fought with the pen against the pen. They removed the civil power of the Church. Protestants this against Catholics.use. Luther's Attitude toward the Peasants' Revolt. from motives of rehgion or conscience adopted the principles which Luther preached.— The Peasants' peasants. or Protestant Compromise. Luther. — ca." His attitude toward the peasants' revolt was therefore iinfavorable. Social Reform and the Reformation. ^ movement. Their first step was to confiscate Church property and appropriate its wealth to their own use. the From time forward the reform. Others for purely material reasons followed the same course. Revolt 297 The quelling of the revolt was unusually cruel and no fewer than 100. " To rebel against the princes is to rebel against God. Empire at Speyer." ' 325. Although he beUeved in reform. he urged the princes ruthlessly to crush the uprising.000 peasants lost their hves. A Christian should bear injustice patiently. 1529. On the contrary services and dues became more onerous than ever before. was of genuine peasant stock. It was small comfort that " aU were equal before God. The authorities made no attempt to cure the ills. 73. all Western Christians ' 2 A diet of the Holy Roman . It is only natural that he should wish the peasant to have a comfortable home and plenty to eat. Many German princes protested against the Hence this name came to apply to decree. was in the hands of the princes. issued a decree for checking the movement against Catholicism." In fact Luther beUeved that the excesses committed by the peasants had nearly ruined his bloody . as we have seen. and were now masters of their own dominions. attempted by force to restore Schapiro. however. Those princes who remained faithful to CathoUcism. The German peasantry sank into a condition of hopeless despair. 326. Many rulers as it was called. and that the brotherhood of man was of more importance than human legislation.

Institutes of the Christian Religion. himself " There were preachings and tumults. These doctrines may be found in his work. Rulers were allowed to retain Church lands which they had confiscated. the breaking and burning of images." 328. II. Evidently there was no place as yet for the individual who wished to hold views of his own. When accordingly the king determined to put an end to heresy among his subjects. The choice of the ruler between Cathohcism and Lutheranism bound all his subjects to the same faith. He was the son of a well-known Frencfi lawyer. and was brought up in an atmosphere of refinement and luxury. armed camps. It was a victory for the Protestants for it meant •freedom from Rome. Lutheran princes were granted the free exercise of their faith. His early social training made him a polished gentleman. Organization of Geneva (1536). While professing hberty of conscience. Calvin. ize the community according : afterward said to the new faith. Protestant Revolt For many years Germany was divided into two The war ended in the Rehgious Peace of Augsburg (1555). he belonged by birth to the educated class. In the double capacity of — . the Lutherans were intolerant even with those Protestants who disagreed with any of their doctrines. for hberty of conscience. — estantism hshed church.298 the old order. In 1536 he arrived at Geneva. Unlike Luther. however. but I found no Reformation. where he accepted Protestantism with certain changes made by himself. Calvin fled to Switzerland. at that time in chaos for the new religion had been adopted. The Revolt Outside of Germany Beginning 1536 Another branch of ProtJohn Calvin (1509-1564). but no citizen had the ability or the power to organ. While a student in the University of Paris he joined the ever-increasing number of Frenchmen who felt inclined to imprqve rehgion by revolt against the estab327. Calvin was well fitted for the work of organization. is named after John Calvin. It was not a victory.

too. The most potent factor. In like manner jailbirds often became officials. showed great energy in arresting offenders. The police. a powerful influence in enforcing these laws. Everyone had to attend the daily church service unless he gave a good excuse for absence. he prepared a confession of faith which all citizens agreed to uphold. A catechism. A contemporary says " He succeeded simply because he was the most Christian man of his generaBy law and example he was able to create an atmostion. laws commanding the housewife to make her purchases in the market before ten a. or to carry watches at their waist-belts. The Enforcement of the Rules. was made ready for the instruction of young and old in the elements of religion. ' . however. Foundations of Modern Democracy. magistrates of one year become prisoners the following year. too. It is true that he strictly controlled the — : — ' Lindsay. however." ^ GambUng. or in extreme The usual cases whipping. dancing. but never more than he himself performed in the course of his daily life. The Gospel exerted 329. and other worldly amusements were regarded as the worst sins of aU. laws as to the number of courses which one might have at dinner. It seems para330. laws as to the stuff of which different classes of citizens might make their clothes. were penalties for evading laws. In Geneva this was not a disgrace. A firm believer in discipline. for almost aU the leading citizens spent part of It was not an uncommon thing to see their Uves in prison. exclusion from civil privileges. " regulating the furnishing of the houses and dealing with the pictures on the walls. doxical to state that the dictator Calvin laid the foundations of modem democracy." phere in which nothing but righteous conduct could exist. was imprisonment. laws forbidding ladies to put grease on their hair. banishment from the city. in commanding obedience to the law was the character of Calvin himself. made Life outside the church was as carefully controlled.m. 338. punishment. Calvin political leader 299 and chief pastor he gave the city a thorough' housecleaning. He demanded much from his followers. Calvin laws. A rebuke.. II.

' Calvinism became international in its influence. This freedom thought stimulated the spirit of inquiry and the criticism Adherents of this faith came to fear no knotty problem. on the other hand. Calvinism was the first modem effort to grant the common the rights due him. Congregational. inen. he was permitted to govern himself according to his own reason and conscience. They were thinking of of existing institutions. They were taught the importance of choosing as pastors good men who had the interests of all at heart. In time they began to turn their attention to poUtics. The noble had not granted the peasant a "share in determining public policy. and bold. The Church ' forbade laymen to criticise its teachings or challenge its discipline. laut of society as weU.^ Calvin founded a university which 331. was due to his personal liberty harmed not only the individual but the community at large. trade. and natural science.300 conduct of belief that ' Protestant Revolt This policy. — Protestant faith made a far wider appeal • Only wheii the word church applies to the whole of western Christendom is it capitalized in this volume. Calvinism. It worked out to the fullest extent the doctrine of the brotherhood of believers. self-reliant. Because of the elastic character through which it could adapt itself to any circumstances. recognized the importance of the individual. Laymen had the controUing power in its church. however. ' It is the parent of the present Presbyterian. . too much individual. The Calvinist was encouraged to discuss religious matters. and Reformed churches. International Character of Calvinism. We find another democratic element in the fact that Calvin conducted his government with the consent and approval of a majority of the citizens. This form of than did Lutheranism. Upon them " man rather than upon the priest fell the burden of responsibility. It is in fact a recognized principle of democracy that not only the interests of the citizens. ought to be served. The town with its exclusive guild system did not permit the stranger to help make its laws. as dictated by the Word of God.

In countries whose kings were ever becoming more absolute in power. they brought with them the spirit of popular rights. day. and in which democracy was at its lowest ebb. Parish priests were • Lindsay. the beUefs of the latter to the faithful ought to shun. creasing power of the Protestants. whether to France.'' ^ Wherever these teachers went. Council of Trent (1546). Scotland. They took especial pains to defend those doctrines which had been bitterly attacked and often misrepresented by zealous Protestants. fearless. or England. in restoring the influence and authority of the be absurd and heretical. They were wise. the Century Religious Wars 1546— 1648 of Aroused by the ever in332. such as The most important force. In this way Calvinism rapidly gained as firm a foothold in France and the Netherlands as Lutheranism had already obtained in Germany. Delegates This Council clearly defined and explained the doctrines of the church. . The Council The abuse of indulgences of Trent succeeded in correcting evils. " Pastors educated Geneva. ready to give their Uves for their work. the Netherlands. .Expansion of Calvinism attracted in 301 men from all parts of Europe. They declared. indefatigable. lost. . their pure and simple method of living contrasted with that of the greedy nobihty and court. that aU might know and understand. went forth from its schools to become the ministers of struggUng Protestants in the rest of Europe. the CathoHc Church sum- — moned from its forces to regain the. The Catholic Reformation. ground it had all parts of Europe met at Trent. and of excessive tithes was reformed. 11. III. taught by the most distinguished scholars of the who had gained the art of ruUng others in having learned how to command themselves. . how- Roman church was the reform within the church itself. too. ever. whose luxuries and scandals were notorious. 133.

The Society Catholic church. resolved to " serve God alone and the Roman pontiff. They did not . the first white men to explore the They were not only preachers but educators as well. Loyola (1491-1556). Many eager disciples flocked to his of life. became a — powerful fighting force. Here they beckoned with their hats and called aloud to the passers-by. he vowed to regenerate Christendom. his vicar on earth. When a small crowd gathered they began their talks. Through pos- and efficiency which it still 333. Catholic church. as the few simple rules members are called. a Spanish Endowed with the religious faith and ardor which dis- tinguish his country. On the contrary the Council declared : " Let them all distribute their revenues among the poor. Ig-na'ti-us Loy-o'la. whose members were to chief soldiers of the become the pope in checking the these brotherhoods losses to Catholicism. religious revivals among peasants and townsfolk. They were forbidden also to strive to enrich their own kindred or domestics out of the revenues of the church. of Jesus." In view of set the improvements introthe Catholic reformation duced in this period we must down as equal in importance to the Protestant revolt. the It was infused with a new reUgious The moral energy thus aroused brought about founding of several religious orders. founded soldier.302 Catholic Reformation directed to give carpful instruction to their flocks in the doctrines of the church." In many ways . distant lands they spread far and wide the teachings of the Many were attracted to missionary work in for example. this reform it gained a unity sesses. and Loyola alone is credited with the founding of more than a hxmdred schools and colleges. new society. but not misapply or waste the church's goods for their own sakes. enthusiasm. They stood on the curbstones at the corners of streets. The higher clergy were advised to be content with modest furniture and a frugal table and diet. Adopting a the Jesuits. It was a part of their work to conduct impassioned Mississippi valley were Jesuits. and confessors. The thus reorganized and reformed. The foremost by of was the Society of Jesus.

the district now occupied by the kingdom of Belgium. Phihp's attempt to crush the Protestant revolt in the Netherlands. in bringing many wavering German princes back to the fold of Catholicism. as soon be explained. ' — provinces — A crown is five English shillings." The southern part of the Netherlands. A Venetian ambassa335. — . crowns ^ yearly from its butter and cheese. too.commodities. Owing to the frequent changes in the wind. one has warm weather and cold several times in the same day. In order to stamp out heresy in his own vast dominions he revived the use of the Inquisition (§ 191). This institution was set in operation for converting or exterminating the Moors. converted the arid slopes of Spain iato productive Through the persecutions industries and agriculture were well nigh ruined. dor of that time tells us that " the Netherlands comprise thirteen provinces. and Protestants of his realm. will made little headway. or about $1.The Jesuits. or farmers who had fields. The atmosphere is heavy and the sky ahnost always overcast.000 of the country together. Artois raises more grain than all the rest HoUand enjoys an income of 800. Many of these people were skilled artisans. but produces no wine. It swarmed with men who practised all the useful arts. where religion became a political question. In France. CathoUcism found 334. Character of the Netherlands. . however. for much As a result the Dutch were of their land was below sea level. hand. . Philip II 303 preach theology but told of the Ten Commandments. Philip II of Spain (1556-1598). Jews. This region remained faithful to the Catholic church. Flanders abounds in various . — Some were put to death and others fled from the country.21. . Jesuits entered pohtics and became confidential advisers of the king. the inhabitants of the seven northern On the other were for the most part farmers and fishermen. They Holland had always been obliged to struggle against the sea. and Spain was deprived of a large class of her useful citizens. another champion in Philip II of Spain (§ 305). was noted for its manufactures. His dearest hope was to reunite Christendom. Their efforts succeeded.

Her downfall may be traced solely to mismanagement at the hands of her rulers to their persecutions and their wrong economic poUcy (§§ 303-7). While Philip 338. but she failed to develop the industrial life which alone could insure true national pros- — — . The Calvinists of this country were called Hu'gue-nots. angry at Eng337.harshly that the Dutch finally declared their independence (1581). thanks to timely aid from England. lish interference in the Dutch rebellion. Religious Wars in France (1562-1598). — It chanced that rival families contended for the throne. from this time on she sank rapidly into a second rate power. Although she continued to hold her colonial possessions. was waged on both sides with relentless fury. sent his enormous navy. against a hastily gathered fleet of English merchant vessels. For many years afterward she continued to receive her revenue from the riches of the New World. His answer was to send a stern general with orders to exterminate the guilty rebels and to confiscate their property.304 ' Religious Wars hard-working and persevering. Founding of the Dutch Republic (1581). Finally they achieved their independence (1609). . the Dutch more than held their own. known as the Armada. As the war went on. The command was carried out so . Their numbers were made up largely of converts from' the nobles and the wealthy middle class. In his these people Protestantism had made great headway. Thus they possessed in their own character something better than material prosperity. Meantime Philip. was conducting these dreadful persecutions in his own domains. Among 336. The Fate of Spain. The thirty-years' struggle between the Dutch patriots and the most able generals of the mighty Spanish army. but the stubborn heroism of the sturdy Dutch has hardly been matched in all history. a religious war was raging in France. and they therefore constituted a powerful element in the state. The excesses of the Spaniards were especially brutal. attempt to suppress heresy in these provinces Philip met with stubborn resistance. The utter destruction of the Arniada by the swifter and better-manned English ships (§ 372) forever weakened Spain's supremacy on the seas. — perity.

ascended the throne. Henry IV proved to be one of the greatest and most beloved of French kings. and certain garrisons were handed over to them as security for their rights. There ensued a long civil war. The education of the younger generation. Half the popvdation and two thirds of the personal property had been swept away. before the war. The fine arts. disappeared. the effects of the war on industry. learning. Roads and canals were built. a treaty was drawn up at West-pha'U-a by representatives from — . flict Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). remained wretched for two centuries longer. marked on both sides by terrible slaughter. This long bloody struggle was fought almost wholly on German territory. and vice openly Civilization. the Thirty Years' War came to involve every important nation in Europe. Moral laws were forgotten. was now resumed with such energy that it made wonderful progress. After the war had 340. — Originally a con- between the Cathohc and Protestant princes of Germany. and industry. new trades were fostered. 339. Farmers ceased to labor when they found that year after year their crops were seized by marauders. In this way he ended the civil war and gave peace once more to his distracted country. but at the same time accepted Catholicism. which survived the war.Wars in France and Germany 305 one supported by Huguenots with some Catholics. The young Huguenot leader. While in this way agriculture came almost to a standstill. too. which had made encouraging gains prevailed. Treaty of Westphalia (1648). Henry IV. The condition of the peasants. and the cities which were their home. drawn to a close through the exhaustion of all combatants. which had been abandoned for forty years. Trades were no longer pursued. and morals were even more disastrous. By the Edict of Nantes (1598) the Huguenots were granted full toleration. He set about the restoration of prosperity to his country after its long and desolating civil war. received a check from which it was slow to recover. while the remaining Catholics sided with the other. The result was a compromise. was neglected. It is dif&cult to imagine the wretched condition of this country at the close of hostilities.

The same treaty marked the end of the period of religious wars. The political provisions of the treaty were also of vast importance. Lindsay. Schapiro. ch. 189-416. the Renaissance and Protestantism. ch. .3o6 Religious Wars almost every European power. Robinson. Martin Luther. . II. I. For a Catholic view — . Robinson. Lindsay. 124-39. Savonarola. Short Robinson. Cambridge Modern History. II.. or Lutheranism. Cambridge Modern History. ch. . II. chs. It provided that each reigning prince should be free to choose Catholicism. or Calvinism for the religion of his subjects. and this position she held till early in the nineteenth century. History of the Reformation. 61-135. II. Sedgwick. The Catholic Revival. 156-65 V. ch. Luther. Those. John Calvin. I. Robinson. see Contents. II. — . II. II.vi. This event marked the decline of Spain and of the Holy Roman Empire. The independence of Switzerland and Holland was definitely recognized. Countries had taken their stand definitely for or against Catholicism. Social and Economic Conditions in Germany. Lindsay. Beard. At the same time France acquired the province of Al-sace'. Thus it was by no for hberty of conscience. III. iv. II. ch. — — . I. I. bk. II. Renaissance. Lindsay. 53-93. I. Hayes. means a victory Topics for Reading The CalhoUc Church. . A. Political and Social History of Modern Europe. Martin Luther. as they remained substantially unchanged for two centuries. ch. History of the Reformation. History of Italy. 94-108. 139-48. see Contents Smith. and long afterward Lor-raine'. Hayes. see Contents McGiffert. xi Stone. Social Reform and the Reformation. of Germany. xxix Stone. however. Reformation and Renaissance. C. IV. xii of the following topics. v Symonds. Baudrillart. who were unwilling to conform to the state worship were to be allowed to emigrate within five years. see Contents. see Contents. viii. and the people were no longer disposed to fight over the question. the Man and his Work. 158-63. Readings. France became the chief power on the Continent. I. Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany. ix. With the dechne of Spain. — . Cambridge Modern History. v. 112-34.

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Who was John Calvin? 21. feudal? What are the What was the Holy Roman Empire? 3. What were the provisions of the Peace the Thirty Years' War? What is the importance of this treaty? of Westphalia? effect What had city life? 6. 22. 29. What were the nature and effects of 33. What were his experiences as a monk? 12. Trace the rise of industry and commerce. this development on the condition of cities and of Give an account of the monopolies. characteristics of feudalism (earlier ch. 2)? mise was brought about between them and the Catholics? 20. What comprorevolt? 19. Describe the religious activities of Philip II of Spain. Describe the system of government which he devised for Geneva. 3. xvi)? 4. 5- (ch. Who were the Protestants (p. 7. and of its work throughout the 27. Sketch the rise of the Dutch affected by the religious question? Republic. What Describe the growth of the book-trade.studies 307 Review Contrast the Germany of this period with France or England. the village and its government. 5. What were his recreations? II. Collect the several Germany was passing from mediaeval to modern In honesty how did the German merchants compare . 10. 30. Give an account What were its effects of the extension of Calvinism outside of Geneva. What criticism does Luther make on the dealings of the merchants? 8. What was the work of the Council of Trent ? 26. How far is the explanation economic? 4. What was the outcome? 32. world. I. abroad? 25. What differences arose between him and the Church? 14. What were indulgences? Why did Luther protest against them? 13. Describe the Netherlands and their inhabitants. 9. Explain the attitude of the princes toward the Church. Give an account of the peasant's cottage and garden. What was Luther's attitude toward the the peasants' revolt. Describe the life of the peasants. How were they 28. Additional Studies What do we mean by the statement that Germany remained I. 297. How were the rules enforced? 23.)? 2. What was a diet? What were some of the questions that engaged the Diet of Worms? How did it treat Luther? 15. 2. What contribution did Luther make to German 16. Through what causes and to what extent was Spain declining? 31. literature? appeal was made to the peasants? How were they roused against What were the Twelve Articles? Describe 1. Describe the early life and education of Martin Luther. Give an account of the Society of Jesus. What goods did Germany probably import from the East hidications (§ 310) that conditions. Give an account of the religious wars in France. Describe the political disunion of Germany. n. priest and prince? 18. What were the elements of democracy in this system? 24.7.

Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics. Would a union of all Christian sects now be beneficial to the world? Give reasons for your opinion.3o8 Religious Wars witt the English? 6. character. 15. Which was the more widely influential? 12. and what were the political and economic causes? Which were the more weighty? 9. In what degree was the Catholic reformation due to the Protestant revolt. . What was the religious cause of the Protestant revolt. 17. 10. What were the political effects of the reform movement? 16. with reference to causes. and in what respect? 11. and in what degree to the general causes that were everywhere making for reform? 13. How did the peasant life of Germany in this period compare with that of the Middle Ages? What indications 7. Which was the more did Calvinism difier from Lutheranism? democratic. Write a syllabus of this chapter. are there in this chapter and elsewhere that in this period the son of a peasant might become educated and influential? 8. and results. What was the religious outcome of the whole reform movement ? What are the advantages and the evils of a disunited Chistendom? 14. How . Compare the peasants' revolt in Germany with that in England in the Hundred Years' War.

too. The king extended his protecting hand over the entire realm and for that reason it was no longer necessary for the nobles to maintain strong defences for themselves and their dependents. where in course of generations the kings were making their capital. leaving the poorer their class The Average Rural Nobility.CHAPTER XXI SOCIAL LIFE IN FRANCE From the Middle Ages to the Revolution About 1350 to 1789 As the power 341. gradually concentrated in the hands of the king with the passing of centuries. In a were the certain castle of this description the furniture consisted simply 309 . . Abandoning the greater part of the castle to ruins. city. — behind them. they occupied a limited group of rooms. This was especially true of France. Since the Middle Ages. Paris. deserted their castles to flock to the royal court. Migration of the Nobles to the Capital. the rooms cold and damp. a great change came over country life. Nearby muddy duckpond and the dilapidated sheds for cattle and fowls. Thus it was that many nobles. the constant attendance of a throng of lords and ladies. putting their country estates in the hands of stewards. which they kept in poor repair. The floors were bare. — The mediaeval castles accordingly fell to ruin. The average noble family of the country lived in meagre circumstances. the king had been building up a magnificent court. The servants clattered along the floor in wooden shoes. They were usually the more wealthy or the more ambitious who migrated to the and the more conservative famihes of 342. to be described hereafter (§ 423) and for his society he needed . a brilliant city.

Rarely could such a family afford For finery the ladies wore thd brocades inherited tapestries. The ordinary dress was homespun. however. and perpetually soiled with the filth of chairs. The visitor from the city to his country cousin. or was disturbed by the awkwardness and uproar of the servants as they chased the farmyard. a few pewter plates. education was held in contempt. salt-cellar. from their grandmothers. and welcomed guests with dignified hospitality. Dilapidated Home A copperplate tion. and the children barely learned to read and write. Perhaps he sat before a fireplace furnished with logs too green to yield aught but smoke. Life in France a goblet. These people kept their pride of descent. found Uttle comfort in his entertainment. and a new suit made an epoch in a man's life. A In France. engraving from a sketch made shortly before the revoluIt well illustrates the decay of rural life. His children grew up half-clothed. . two a and three silver spoons. There were few if any books in the house.3IO of a table.

intelligent." The enterprise. Often the lord had to be absent in war. on the other hand. a goodly number of nobles who were educated. Another during the absence of her husband rode about the estate wearing a sword with which she fought robbers and on one occasion punished an insolent knight. It is clear that much and want on the manors described above was — due to the ignorance and sloth of the owners. whose estates were wellkept. — lord nearly the same dues and honors as lived in a cabin sided It The peasant family and thatched with straw. they were no longer bound for life to the soil. of the discomfort The Progressive Rural Nobles. and the entire village lying on or near his estate. or how she resisted the encroachment of neighbors on her land. Those who could afford it had their castles made over in the style of the day. so that she was able with the proceeds to buy twelve ivory-handled knives. and enterprising. with high-pointed roofs. By careful attention to their lands they were able to sell their produce in the markets and fairs so that considerable money came into their hands. In her diary one tells how she made up her old dresses into clothes for the young son. The lord. Country Nobles 311 through the living room the goose that was to be served to him for dinner. rendering to the . while the lady manfully supervised all the labors of the estate and attended personally to the varied business. or how she let out a part of the castle to merchants for storing goods for a fair. up with rough boafds was windowless and dark. in the Middle Ages.. and buy a few luxuries for the house. tenants. There remained. though the majority were still obliged to live as tenants. varied the labors of the farm with a hunt in the woods and in the evening by the blazing fireplace he sat reading to his wife "some good book that pointed out the fair road to virtue. clothe them neatly. and far more comfortably furnished. Gradually most of their Cottages.and good will of such a man were revealed in the prosperity and happiness of his servants. and . 344. and thus they could educate their children. The Peasants the peasants of western Europe were freed from serfdom. 343. when at home.

and unleavened bread was generally baked in thin flat loaves that they might be used as plates. barley. on which other foods could be placed. from the time of Charlemagne were garlic. onions. spade. and say their prayers. beans. The Peasant's Livelihood. and wheat. kettle. and monks. — parsley. Among his tools were an axe for cutting wood. and the stable for the Near the dwelling stood hay and cattle. People thought that vegetables lacked nutrition. millet. and scythe for tilling the fields and gathering in the crop. had to subsist wholly on them. like that of the noble. The peasant cultivated oats. Physicians recommended bread in part or whole of rye for health and for the preservation of beauty in women. In like manner his wife usually took her dough to the lord's oven to be baked. in brief nearly everyits from America after Indian corn and potatoes were introduced discovery. and a cupboard. The peasant — ground his grain by hand at home or sent it to the village miller. the walls like berths in a ship cabin. peas. On one side was a large fireplace.312 Life in France mere den as we should and the ceiling scarcely higher than the peasant's head. hoe. the granary. The floor was of earth. gathered on a winter evening to keep warm. one or two benches. Bread could be made from all these articles. Among the vegetables grown 346. Before the end of the meal they were so soaked with juices that they could be eaten with relish. artichokes. far scantier and poorer than that of the noble. . The furniture. cabbage. A diet of barley bread was a punishment imposed upon ill-behaved monks. 345. lettuce. known . to talk. Here the peasant family. and meat-hook. and a plough. furnished with its pot-hanger. when compelled to extreme abstinence. jugs. In like thing to us. but wheat bread alone was considered palatable by the well-to-do. Sometimes there was one huge bed in which parents and children slept together in other houses cots were let into in winter extremely uncomfortable. Yeast was hardly known till the sixteenth century. a call it. baskets. included a table. For such services the peasaint paid a tax. rye. Vegetables and Fruits.

pears. Meat. figs. particularly pears. was made of plums. 'Manners and Customs. as well as apples.. pork. In addition to wild cherries there were several domestic varieties. where throughout the summer they picked up a meagre living. The most valuable was the quince. He drove his flock into the woods. in developing fine varieties of fruits. and the Gauls and Germans while still uncivilized had been extensive acorn-eaters. and Milk. other crops failed. and producing a poor quality of Nuts. Other nuts. and have been cultivated throughout western Europe from that day to this.' From Lacroix. Raspberries and strawberries were but gradually introduced into gardens. into southern Olives. and apples. ^The When same oak was a common forest tree. to Europe but had been Oranges were introduced Europe no later than the fourteenth century. The vine had been brought times. and apples were cultivated in Greece from In the course of centuries great progress the earliest times. are his FlSck of light half-wild. A Swineherd and The animals weight. 347. Articles of Food 313 of the fruits of the temperate zone known to us to-day grew in the garden of Charlemagne. were dried for winter use. people of this period resorted to the food. of all fruits which was preserved for winter and used in seasoning meats. and grapes. and other fruits. were Chestnuts were transplanted from Italy to France and Germany. to France from Italy in ancient and many varieties were now cultivated. manner most The greater number were not native transplanted from Asia and Africa. and in the autumn grew . a miniature. plums. Wines were made. as the pistachio and filbert. The meat in most common use from earliest times was pork and the peasants of every lord included at least one swineherd. introduced from southeastern Europe and Asia.

however. " If I were a lord." It rarely happened that he got meat any day but Sunday. " I would eat pork soup every day. Generally these were the families that owned the lands which they tilled. ducks and geese were reared. and the feast day of his patron saint. acting as willing scavengers of and it was with the garbage thrown out from the dwellings great difficulty that the French king eliminated the pigs from the streets of Paris. were the exception rather than the rule." Such peasants could eat meat every Sunday. The hogs of the tradespeople and nobles roamed at large through the streets of villages and towns. and in poor districts a man could have it only on Shrove Tuesday. silver. but mainly for the lord. and find it stocked with " shining tin saucepans. which was kitchen. brought about great differences in prosperity. The hogs were then killed and Every peasant family that could afford Often a village rented of it killed and salted one pig. and any kind of dress unbecoming their condition. From the time of Luther and John Calvin many French peasants salted for winter use. Easter. The peasants kept sheep and had milk from the goat or cow. but beef and mutton belonged to the nobility." exclaimed a peasant epicure. and the cheapening of books it was possible for the well-to-do and the more ambitious peasants to learn to read and write. there were degrees of ability. Rural Education. dining-room. reached down to so low a sociaj class that townspeople demanded that " servants and maids be forbidden to wear silk. and at weddings and wakes they could add a little wine to their repast.a year. fourposter beds hung with colored serge ciu-tains. Degrees of Prosperity. In some districts the traveler might enter a peasant's living-room. among the rural nobles. the dining table covered with a cloth and even furnished with napkins. Among the peasants. After the invention of printing 349. and bed-room combined. .314 fat Life in France on the abundant acorns. Chickens. however. — — ." massive corniced cupboards. the lord the privilege of herding swirie in his forest. and this fact. added to other helping or hindering conditions. Luxuries. as 348. Luxury and prosperity.

. they were to learn reading and writing (1698). Professipns among the Peasantry. The great majority. however. too. ' XVHtme si^de. it doubtless gave a little encouragement to education. From Lacroix.' the more promising boys of their parishes. — The schoolmaster to was himself a peasant. and thus with violence he in- . remained illiterate. too. instructed A SCBOOLEOOU In France before the revolution. Although the poverty of the country prevented the order from being well carried out. Here. who gave the summer farm labor and the winter to the instruction of the village children. 350.Education deserted Catholicism for the 31S new faith — that is. The priests. After a time Louis XIV by proclamation ordered the estabUshment of a school in every village. he administered blows in plenty. they became Huguenots. where the peasant children should learn the catechism and other essentials of Catholic religion. and from our own point of view would be considered exceedingly ignorant. including those of the lord. He was the possessor of perhaps a half dozen books. Lacking skill in teaching.

' people. who applied his knife or shears with equal to defects of the body. and ranked with the servants rather than with the lords. for the negligent and slothful were at least not harsh taskmasters or stern creditors. cramped their intelli- gence. was somewhat above the He sat in church rest. or priest. Such men were poorly paid. . it is winter. and they are suffering from the cold. and superstitious many of their were sympathetic. Their clothes are in tatters. The notary. overburdened the laborers. As a rule life was more endurable on estates — whose masters were at hand. From Lagniet.3i6 stilled in his pupils Life in France a wretched smattering of knowledge along with a horror of books. Greater Misery than Happiness. The weight of taxes and other dues. help- A Poor Man and Boy ful leaders In France. while sacred nobles birth the aristocrats knelt. made it their business to exact as much as possible with a minimum of outlay and their dealings with the peasants revealed neither sympathy nor mercy. The cu-re. and robbed them of the better elements of human nature. ignorant. trifle above their fellows. however. They have wooden shoes stuffed with straw. were of the same class. but outside the building the compromised between his peasant and his position as ambassador of God. though a peasant. The _ stewards of absentee lords. 'Proverbes joyeux. distributed. too. . 351. which helps protect the feet from freezing. unfairly . Some were village priests lazy. and the physician men whose learning placed them a The surgeon was primarily a barber skill or hairdresser.

allied to the earth. Lacroix. animation. At night they get them away to their dens. scattered over the country. they show a human face.Misery 317 A contemporary writer describes them as " wild animals. Ignorance and Dulness. with vigor to keep them otherwise. ' On XVIII™« sifede. Round the table sit the parents with a notary arranging for the dowry. BoOTGEOis Marriage Conieact .' thousands of inhabitants. poverty. water. an articulate voice and when they rise to their feet. — : A In France." On the eve of the revolu352. which they search and rake up with invincible persistence. It has already been explained (§225 ff.) that the change from of England." 353. livid. and not a newspaper to be seen by a What traveller. thus writes of a " Here are two parishes and some place which he visited . stupidity. and want of circulation This people hardly deserve to be free and should there be the least attempt ! . A family of the middle class often aimed to gain through marriage either wealth or social position. To those who have been used to travel amidst the energetic and rapid circulation of wealth. tion (1789) an English traveller. even in a moment when all ought to be anxiety. black. it is — . They are in fact men. and sunburnt all over. The Growth of Towns and of the Bourgeois Class. our right is the engaged couple in front are two little girls of the family. and roots. as it were. They have. where they live on black bread. Arthur Young. and intelligence not possible to describe in words adequate to one's feelings the dulness and stupidity of France. it can hardly fail of succeeding. male and female.

the most striking feature was the extent to which life was passed Children were in the streets.3i8 mediaeval fAfe in France to modern life consisted largely in the growth of towns and cities. and hawkers of every description shouting the praises of their wares. millers. bourgeois (collectively bourgeoisie). as it is even now in Naples. or a washer- . shopkeepers 900.cities were recruited from the country. population 1 of i nearly . over the cobblestone pavement. est Paris. a description of which may serve as typical Paeisian Twes of city life for to right: (i) a water carrier.000. There were youths and girls engaged in flirtations. From Lagmet. was Paris. nobles 1 m moving about on foot or in carriages. discussing trade. Thus they became burghers. (2) a cobbler who has made a purchase. were let out to families or to individuals. There were small bourgeois There were in the peasant vUlages. as over other countries of western Europe. Most of the buildings were six or seven stories high. Wagons. rumbled. unfurnished or ill-furnished. Apartments or single rooms. The women think the cobbler a left From now under consideration. and gossiping. the period of it Frengh city. Proverbes joyeux. shopkeepers. Necessarily the . some lodged 50.000 houses. 354. towns that grew up over — — the entire realm of France. (3) a woman pedler of cloth. loaded with provisions. playing and screaming. (4) a fishwoman. — The greathowever. bespattering bystanders with mud from the gutter. To the visitor. the had dmice to have made so poor a bargain. and the peasants with the ability and inclination for the various urban employments abandoned the fields to swell the population of the towns. and other artisans families of the same class but of far greater wealth and importance in the numerous. sewing. and the development of an urban economy founded on commerce and industry. smiths. exchanging compliments and court news. At the beginning seventeenth century g. women knitting.

000 people of this class. the abundance of dogs. They were organized in societies so strong as to defy the police and military power and to commit murder in daylight.' light. The roughness of the street. about the middle of the seventeenth century. 'XVIIime sifede. they A An artist is Street in Paris moving his residence. Under cover gave but an occasional and feeble great white ways of this total or partial darkness thieves and robbers plied their trade unchecked. ruined the new clothes and costly feather of a local fop. He and his wife and furniture are conveyed in a cart drawn by young men. At night the streets were dark. and even when street lamps were introduced. and the attitudes and occupations of the various persons form an interesting study. was its insecurity. At one time there were nearly 10. More dangerous than these professional assassins men . contrasting with " the " of the present electric age. From Lacroix.Crime 319 woman. The Prevalence of Crime. emptying her soiled soapsuds from an upper window. Another feature of Paris 355. The regu- — lation requiring the people to keep a lighted candle in every window was neglected. recruited especially from discharged .soldiers and without work.

each restricted to its narrow field of businessi All were under minute regulations and paid fees poisons to — to the king. chants were banded together in guilds according to their vocation. and on state A sits Potter at Work He Sixteenth centviry. He slept in the bare attic of his master's house or in a . Little was done to shorten the day of the laborer.the same time guilty of member word or act was liable to they acted as mutual aid societies in cases of sickness or death. and should not close later than 9 P. too often their fraternal meetings degenerated to drunkenness. No one was admitted unless he could prove for himself an honorable name and reputation. with his wheel before him and holds admiringly a shapely vase. thus giving him seventeen hours. The guild strove to maintain not only an excellent quality of its wares but a good moral character for its members. Naturally these high ideals were not always maintained. is His shop prodhis- they appeared together in public with their appropriate uniforms and emblems.' a serious fault in a fine. flogging.320 Life in France were the sorcerers and fortune-tellers who sold philters and men or women who desired to win the love of another or be rid of a husband.M. In the case of a certain guild it was provided only that he should not begin work before 4 a. The Guilds and the Artisans. in which the members discussed their common interests . including mealtimes.m. Each society held periodical meetings. or rival. At . A occasions well stocked with ucts. The artisans and mer356. Not- withstanding these regulations there were interminable bickerings and lawsuits among tradespeople over their rights. From 'Album torique. wife. and bribes to his deputies for the privileges they enjoyed.. or expulsion. Such intrigues were carried on in the court and even in the household of the king. In the seventeenth century there were in France more than fifteen hundred associations of the kind.

Lyons. and engaged — A French Tavern From an edition of Vergil.' pedigree-mongers and painters to prepare a family-tree and a gallery of ancestral portraits for themselves. The masters them3S7. Not content with fine houses sumptuously furnished. selves generally lived in comfort with their families. for their daughters. As a substitute for genuine enjoyment they made their lives as artificial as possible. Master Artisans and Merchants. Negligent Treatment of Children. used by Lacrolx. His ambition was to save money so as to set up a shop for himself. and the successful merchants piled up wealth. sons. even though penniless. peculiar condition may be found in the lack of sound education of the court. — . A reason for this 358. they sought noble husbands. tried to pass themselves ofi in the bers of the nobility. and daughters. 1517 . 'Manners and Customs. while their wives. and subsisted on bread and vegetables. by aping the mannerisms and fopperies crowd as memThese extravagances brought many a household to financial ruin.Artisans similar 321 room elsewhere. but too often he drank up his earnings on Sunday and the numerous holidays prescribed by the Church.

these conditions the majority learned to read fact is that very few persons in this age imderstood that child- hood was the formative period of life. sometimes going to the extent of . hold your heads up " Her only desire was that they might learn the artificial ! Under and write badly. adaptable. that it was anything but a negative valueless stage of existence to Taring the child through with the least possible trouble to others. selfish. The University was too. so as to appear well in society. and nothing more. morning and evening. A great centre of learning was the University of Paris. lawless lives. the education outrivalled by the Jesuit colleges. controlled. . — street riots. were a few parents who treated their children with wisdom and affection. The course of six years was devoted mainly to the classic Latin authors. Here. and selfjoyed their work. but the instructors were able to make it attractive. and violent in temper. Naturally there 359. mainly Aristotle. ate. however noble or wealthy. A certain noble lady saw her children but twice daily. The manners of the time. when she would say to them merely " Stand straight. Some parents did not know their children even by : sight. Education University and Colleges. was mainly Latin. bestow more than an occasional thought upon his children. and studied. they grew up egotistic. in which the youths lodged. Rarely did a parent.322 Life in Frafice and in the general neglect of children. Flattered and indulged by those in charge. so that they emerged perfect gentlemen. In spite of severe regulations the students lived slovenly. who were themselves too ignorant and too bent on their own selfish pleasures to give proper attention to those under their care. so that mariy students actually en- Along with their book learning they received careful training in habits and manners. with some Greek literature in the higher classes. there were some even among the poor who were determined to give their sons the best possible education both elementary and advanced. This course could be followed by a two-year study of philosophy. polished. Usually they were placed in charge of nurses and governesses.

Education of Girls. and were necessarily ignorant The standard of attainment was of household management. Girls 323 Far more restricted was the 360. she possessed accurate knowledge . of any subject. From Lacroix. education of girls. was difficult to find instructors qualified in character and knowledge for their duty. Those who married at fourteen or fifteen could talk on no serious topic. exceedingly low. boys It Many thought. should make some mistakes and if in spelling in order not to appear pedantic. she should conceal the fact for no one liked learned girls. girls by governesses. and those who were well fitted received scant respect from their employers and pupils.. — A girl who could spell correctly. 'XVIII™e sifecle. All were of the opinion that the intellectual capabilities of women were distinctly inferior to those of men. .' children were privately educated. it was <jOVERNESS and PtTPIL by preceptors.

.Two.. in France Archbishop Fen-e-lon'.- Notice the foppery of thedoctcfrs and From a'contemporary engraviiigj aflerward the sad .'. century.:.'-' ' Middle of the eighteenth". About the same time agreat lady at the court. He explained set forth principles for their instruction A .that: the" education of theyoimg "should bermade^afbekept well andhappfy. - ' further.. Fablfes. findmg the women of society ignorant.324 Life. ".„ - .' :.. He wished them to have knowledge that would be helpful to them in the household and in social conversation..condition. yet not enough to make them appear pedantic..lKah.. used in the illustration of La Fontaine.. Patieni AND.'that the teacher should strive to make himself loved by the pupifs: These were relatively new ideas. "that the child should . of the sfck.. Physicians . France.. which for that age were wholesome.. who in her younger days had suffered from tractiye.

A bishop. The Medicine and Hygiene. etc. The younger sons sought high positions in the Church. or cardinal required little special education.v. — Lowell.Professions poverty. and often enough to Topics for Reading I.. Young. founded a college for poor girls of noble birth. I. ch. The pupils were watched over strictly and urged to enter a convent. for the cure of lameness a certain lady buried a bunch of herbs twice daily in her garden. Hayes. doctors were introducing scientific methods of administering drugs. European Society in the Eighteenth Century. to physical insanity. and for fever a reputable physician advised applying a split herring tail downward to the patient's backbone. ii Lowell. — II. there were plenty of scholars to do their learned while entertaining the crudest notions of hygiene. ch.). ch. vi. but the girl who finished her course and went out into the world was given a moderate dowry. He eldest son in a noble family was destined for the army. — — . viii . xi Young. and medicine. see page-headings. Desirable Careers. IV. Rheims. 89 £E. xii. chs. Lyons. ch. and was wholly ignorant of his duties. brought them to pre- mature old age. Hugon. — archbishop. The Country and the Peasants. Lowell. Hugon. device was to confine the patient in a closed A common mitted neither air nor light. chemistry. however. The neglect room which adof hygiene by all persons sick and well and the excesses to which nearly all. for work for them. Seventeenth Century. chs. In general. Paris. ch. — . Hugon. Marseilles. xiii. were prone. vi. 287 fi. i. III. The Nobility. Travels in France (Bohn Libr. In spite of intellectual slothfulness advances were made in botany. Provincial Towns. 361. and Social History of Modern Europe. Social France in the Lowell. Superstitious cures were still common. Eve of the French Revolution. until a reform was instituted requiring all to have a year of military training before becoming officers. Poliiical V. according to their means. It 325 was conducted on principles somewhat inferior to those of Fenelon. ch.. . A. bought his commission as an officer. collapse. xiii.

had the condition of the ' I. meat. Describe their vegetables and fruits. What contrast does Arthur Young draw between them and the common people of England? 14. In what respects. peasants improved since the Middle Ages? What is in general 7. How were children treated? 20. To what professions did the peasants rise? How was this professional class regarded by the lords? 12. and milk articles of diet ? How were hogs reared and fed ? What meats were especially reserved for the lords? 9. What was the character of the guilds. What were the old ideas as to the education of girls? What improvements were introduced? 22. Why was there more illiteracy in that period than there is at present? 10. 4. What provision was made for lighting? What was the extent of crime? Why was there so much of it? 17. life in the streets. What were desirable careers for the younger sons of nobles? What was the condition of the natural sciences ? of medicine ? live stock did the peasants produce? Additional Studies Where did the nobles live during the Middle Ages? Why in the beginning of modern times did they tend to gather in the capital of the kingdom? 2. 7. dom consist? 6. Why were the English peasants in better condition than the French? 11. Describe the elementary education. To what extent were nuts. What are the most obvious differences between city life of that time and of the present? 12. How did towns grow up. the advanced education. Describe the appearance of Paris. and who formed their population? 15. 6. Describe the eduof condition were there among the peasants? cation of children.326 Life in France Review 1. and hospitality of the average rural nobility. How far were the peasants subject to the lords? What grains and Describe their bread. Describe the dwelling. Did the attitude toward children have anything to do with other disagreeable features of the age? 13. Describe the comforts of master artisans and merchants. What differences 10. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics. Compare the life of the average rural noble with that of the average farmer of to-day. 19. 14.of the noble family in the main depend? In what did freedom from serf5. Why were some peasants more prosperous than others? 9. Describe the houses of the peasants. 4. the difference between wild and domestic fruit? Why did not Europe have more native fruits ? 8. dress. 5. 16. 3. . if in jny. Contrast the condito tion of the progressive nobles. 21. and what did they accomplish? 18. On what did the prosperity . 11. What •facts point to " greater misery than happiness " in peasant life? 13. Why did the country nobles hold education in contempt? 3. Write a syllabus of the chapter. What changes in country life marked the transition from mediaeval modern history (§ 341)? 2. furniture.

This policy had the moral support of thie powerful middle class. which for them meant — — pirosperity (§ 285). It was even a worse grievance that. In the first place the teachings of Lutheranism were finding their way across the Channel and were already pertxiry there arose in suading a considerable number of people that Catholic doctrines were fundamentally wrong. were on political and economic grounds. Others believed that the clergy particularly the bishops and abbots needed a moral overhauling. Its officials could not be tried and punished in the ordinary courts of the realm. who established a real despotism under the cloak of constitutional government.CHAPTER XXII ENGLAND UNDER HENRY VIII AND ELIZABETH 1509-1603 362. tion. nor did the king have control over the bishops and abbots. on pretext of regulating the morals of king and people. The chief objections. Briefly. the pope maining could interfere almost at will in domestic 327 politics. the pope. tired of civil war. — Early in the sixteenth cen- England a general feeling of hostility toward the Catholic church similar Ln most respects to that on the Continent. while Its vast wealth the sole obstacle to the supremacy of the was almost wholly exempt from taxaits a large part of revenues constantly flowed into the coffers of a foreigner. who. Outside the church her great barons had been subdued and brought completely under the sway of the king. a . At this time England was no longer a loose federation of feudal states in perpetual turmoil. wanted peace. however. The Break with Rome. the sole refeiidal lords. The church was king.

and cared more for increasing their revenues than for their religious duties. too. The pope could not see his way clear to grant this request. completed the breach with Rome. Then.and glass. which divided a large part of — the gayeties of court among favorite courtiers. too. The estates were confiscated by the Crown. Henry ordered that the monasteries be dissolved. were sold as building materials. thfe Act of Supremacy (1534). and had his parliament pass a series of laws. One of them. involving a break with Rome. and still refused to recognize the Act of Supremacy. The lead. — . had lost both their religious devotion and their loVe of learning. It was only gradually that Protestant doctrines made headway and came to supplant Catholic teachings. together with the roofs and walls. Many conscientious monks and nuns were deprived of shelter and livelihood. . stone. At that time many of the monks were wealthy landowners. sUver. which transferred the control of the church iri England to himself. was partly due to He appealed to the pope for a divorce from he might marry a beautiful lady of his court. of attitude. however. was now convinced of the tyranny of Rome.328 Eenry VIII ^ clash between the international policy of the church national policy of the state was inevitable. So far the break with Rome had been solely political. it The gold. granting Henry the title of Supreme Head of the Church in England. Henry's chief motive. 364. was his need of funds to pay for life. His orders to destroy the monasteries were carried out ruthlessly. for Henry was at heart a Catholic. and the In the early part of his reign Henry VIII (1509-1547) zealously defended the Catholic cause and received from the pope His complete change in reward the title Defender of the Faith. these classes had firmly opposed Henry's break with Rome. and precious metals were taken to the royal treasury. personal interests. and were now mere beggars. The Destruction of Monasteries. Many friars. The Establishment of a State Church. To a cer-' tain extent their day of usefulness had passed away. his wife that Two years later 363. Henry. irritated by the refusal.

they were called church. In order that the church might be truly national. could never A third class believed that Her skirt is sus- should be pended on enormous hoops. Puritans. however. About her neck is a necklace and an ample ruff made stiff with starch and wires. was established to ferret out ish heretics. Finally there was compUed a Creed of ThirtyNine Articles (1563). however. To dissent to differ from was the Anglican belief — — treason as well as heresy. This kind o£ dress existed before. or Episcopalian. wished to purify the Anglican but Elizabeth greatly exaggerated it. made. a uniform doctrine to which every clergyman had to subscribe. including a vast quantity the latter of jewels. 365. many Cathoreligion lics termed — contemptuously " papists " — who be reconciled. A standard prayerbook was adopted. laws were passed to make all subjects conform to the new faith. From a contemporary engraving. and half a century later were destined to play an important part in English hisfurther changes Because tory. vigorous young woman. Queen Elizabeth She wears a crown.Religion 329 In the reign of Elizabeth the Church of England became definitely what is known as Anglican. Over her breast is a long-peaked stomacher. who cared for than did the people on the Continent. and punfact this As a matter able to the of idea of conformity was accept- mass of Englishless men. a national unity in church and state was practically established for the time being. There were. Generally speaking. They constantly increased in number. Queen five Elizabeth. and is covered with decorations. A special court. whose forms had to be followed by all worshippers. daughter — . resembling the Inquisition. At the age of twentyintelligent. an Elizabeth (1558-1603).

she tickled the back of Leicester's neck his earldom. She had received a thorough education and possessed therefore a background of general knowledge.' 1607. From Geffe. and speak equally. She was the centre of a brilliant court. Latin. were fined for swearing. III. In this period a silk industry began to develop in England." ^ In fact those. . amusing word that rose to her lips. tious sovereign when he knelt to receive rapped out tremendous oaths and uttered who wished all ' Elizabeth was a conscienher subjects to be prosperous and — happy. and Italian. Elizabeth spat at a courtier whose coat ofEended her taste. it was considered evidence of genius to invent new oaths. 366. This condition she thought might be brought about by Traill. The strong personality of Elizabeth was reflected accordingly in the conduct of her subjects. on the other hand. Social England. For this reason " manners were at times unbecoming. Several natural filaments from the cocoons are gathered up and twisted in one continuous thread. she boxed the ears of another. In the same Their spirit they sought pleasure and amusement. distinguished for humor and repartee. 'The Perfect Use of Silkworms. ascended the throne. Industrial Regulations.33° Qiieen Elizabeth of Henry VIII. In their gayety and lightheartedness the observer might detect a lionest lack SiLK-WIKDING ^ of refinement. they were extremely practical in religious > and political matters. It is customary for people to idolize their sovereign and to emulate his virtues and vices. well French. II ^^ III IJ"^-r4ir'l»iiiillllllll!^^^SI lU llllllSlll!^ business was ^^^^^y conducted for Itrofit. Like their sovereign. Peasants. 384. she every sharp. A splendid linguist. write. nobles who did not swear were thought to be efEeminate. One of the chief methods of spinning silk thread. she could read.

which forbade the importation of grain and thereby enabled the farmer to grow grain and sell it at a profit. Elizabeth and her legislators showed a deep interest in their 281) laborers . and shoe-. These officers had to take into consideration " the price of food in the future . such as haberdashers. industry. re- specting the advancement of prices of all things belonging to the said servants and laborers. (§ Statute of Laborers (1601). "built A building. Busi- ness men began resvdt to resent strongly this interference. up a rope-making town " was like to The roof is A bam-like thatched with straw. Crown attempted to restrict certain manufactures to certain towns.' be utterly decayed owing to the competi- tion of people in the adjacent parts. for the regulation of industries.Economy 331 government regulation. Minute laws were passed. Merchants. saddlers. — Because of the enclosures had lost their little gardens and were now dependent on wages alone but they received so little for their work that in many cases they failed to make a living. In a certain town the citizens." 367. Peasant's House who had previously In the reign of Elizabeth. and for this privilege they paid a substantial fee. The to was that they transferred their business the country regions." Those who wished to manufacture on a larger scale applied to the Crown for a charter. " No person using the feat or mystery of cloth-making shall keep or have in his house any more than one woollen loom at a time on pain of a fine of twenty shillings. The Statute of Laborers admitted that wages " are in divers places too small and not answerable to this time. In like manner the dealers. were forced to do the same thing. For the benefit of small farmers she proclaimed the Corn Laws. too. curriers." This measure provided that wages were to be fixed by the justices of thfe peace. complained that their From 'Albvun bistorique. many welfare.

that the judges then were not so independent A majority were either employers While they were often good-hearted. The innocent traveller on a country 368. Age of Ehzabeth. Laborers without land or means of travel were forced to accept work from the nearest employer. a convenient proportion of wages.' 332 Queen Elizabeth and other circumstances necessary to be considered. however. it is true. Too often In many their pocket-books got the better of their generosity. a majority of the laborers were in fair condition.' 1369. their fellows." Crystal Glass of the Christian Reformation. however. a legal offence. instances therefore this plan caused a decline in wages. In the case of such unions members were induced to turn traitor and betray raise "The etous . Furthermore the workers were not permitted to join together It in self-defence. Poverty and the Poor Laws (i 601) While the nobility and gentry became constantly richer. It. or their friends. The breach was gradually widening^ between rich and poor. man signifieth a proude ijian covthe poor man signiiieth the povertie genrich ' whose petitions From Bateman. erale. . Rich Man and Poor Man was a conspiracy. there were many undeserving beggars who became a nuisance to society and good order. both in the time of need and time of plenty. however low the pay. In times of peace they formed gangs of marauders who terrorized the countryside. They bore a hatred to all and were always ready to join in any riot or disorder. of such are not heard. for them to enter into any association to the rate of wages." In many instances this plan worked well. Property and life were insecure. for there was growing up a class "of paupers. it was to their interest to keep wages as low as possible. Among them.must be remem- make bered." and to the scheme " yield the hired person. — . and so fair as they are to-day.

At the same time wages tended to drop and prices to rise. Her predecessors had been in the — 369. her country was in an unsound financial condition. until early in the nineteenth century. . In 1560 the Queen asked her people to bring her Their response was hearty and loyal. and relief for those who could not. 'Social England.. the shilling of." of laws was an admirable attempt to lessen a great social evil. Each it became a compulsory tax upon the people of the realm.. parish now had its poor rate for which property owners were assessed. They remained in force Elizabethan Coin . Currency (1560). and clothes and food became very dear. These laws ordained further that " work was to be provided for those who could work. As a result poverty became more common. Giving to the poor was no longer an act of Christian charity. Reform of the A shilling. The general Those who had good coins saved them or melted them down. public naturally felt confused by the irregularity. When Elizabeth ascended the throne. Humanity demanded that the deserving poor be assisted. Wages and Money 333 road was constantly in danger of being stripped of his valuables by one or more of these sturdy beggars. habit of filling their empty coffers by using For more and more by the Grace of God Queen of England and of Ireland. were worth less than others. their impure money. looked askance at the bad coins. too.' alloy in their coinage. Foreigners. example. while there was an equally strong feeling that rogues and vagabonds be punished. of the inscrip' tion signifying Eliza- beth. poor children were to be trained to some craft and the idle were to be punIn spite of its defects this group ished. silver crowned head queen Latin .1551 weighed as much as that of 1527 but contained only one seventh as much Necessarily business men understood that some coins silver.' From Traill. for prices rose by leaps and bounds. The Poor Laws of Elizabeth resulted from these sentiments. Hence they charged different prices for their goods according to the coins that were offered them. The debasement of the currency was detrimental to the laborer.

capitalist farmers. Piers were built. Early Efforts in the New World. could be armed and used for fighting. for suprem- found acy on the Cont^inent would profit little. Because England was surrounded by water. and therefore . Fishing. was encouraged. They were buccaneers. Elizabeth aimed further to make England a power in world affairs. both going and coming. merchants. cost of refining ment undertook the and recoining.334 for they Queen Elizabeth were willing to bear their share of the loss. The early story of English expansion in the New World is filled with the attacks of the " sea dogs " of this period upon the huge Catholic power of Spain. but they believed that in making their attacks they were doing a . and channels marked out with buoys. ships became privateers. adventurers were especially energetic. to sell negroes. and alike. — There increase in wealth during the reign of Elizabeth. too. " To break through the Catholic monopoly of the New World. were in to kill Spaniards. In this way a powerful navy was built up. if necessary. They were light and swift in comparison with the heavy Spanisb galleons built to carry gold. National expenditures were kept down. The governIn this way was a great Elizabeth averted a national disaster. to sack goldships. 370. People were forced by law to eat fish on Friday " so that the fishers should be set on work. . She therefore encouraged the construction of merchant ships which. however. rich and poor Manufacturers. Elizabeth reasoned that its strength should be on the sea. — service to the cause of Protestantism. England. She saw. it is true. The debasement of the coinage came to an end. The government could now be trusted to pay its debts promptly." Shippers also were aided in every possible way English ships alone should be used in foreign trade. was at peace she took Uttle part in the religious conflicts then raging on the Continent. that it would be foolish for her country to continue its ancient struggle with France. too. Often the merchant 371. it easy to borrow money at low rates of interest. An Era of Economic Progress. harbors repaired. due in large part to the intelligence and activity of her people.

Elizabeth tapestry in the House of Lords. they were in perfect trim Roused by the danger . emeralds. men of all faiths rose to defend their country against the hated Spaniard. Queen Elizabeth knighted the adventurer. they sailed the EngUsh ships were. Philip II felt accordingly that the conquest of England was necessary for the security of his dominion across the seas. His mighty Armada of a hundred and fifty vessels. ' Green. and diamonds taken from captured Spanish galleons. . For his romantic daring as well as for his spoils. Short History of England. English vessels were engaging in a smuggling trade with Spanish colonies. Destruction of the Spanish Armada (1588). There 372. He loaded his bark with the gold dust and silver ingots. The English " Small as fleet met the " invincible " Armada off Plymouth.War Drake became the with Spain ^ 335 these rAen's minds a seemly work. had lent aid to the Protestants of Holland in their revolt against Spain. " the strongest combination that was ever gathered in Christendom " down to that time." The name of Francis terror of the Spanish Indies. 415. set sail for England. so near at hand. — The Battle With the Armada From a too. were other causes to irritate Spain. Then. with the pearls.

336 two . who had been the first to break through the charmed circle of the Indies Frobisher. Described as a 'perfect Elizabethan gabled house. For Spain the defeat of the Armada meant a serious loss of prestige. and above all Drake. the Spanish their only safety. others were burned. 419. Raleigh's House at Youghal. It gave Holland her freedom (§336) and assured her merchants a share in the lucrative trade with the Spice Islands. Short Biftory of England.odb hardy seamen. too. however. With him was Hawkins. democracy in the England of Elizabeth the people had little to the rest of the fleet. the hero of the Northwest passage. ' Green. It embarked England. The People and their Sovereign. . they were manned by 9. Firom a photograph. and most of the remaining galleons were wrecked. who Held command of the privateers. . There was little 373. A — . Fearing the flames might spread scuttled. on a policy which was to make her the greatest colonial and commercial power of modern times. It marked the end of her monopoly in the East and West." ^ Some of his ships the English Philip was utterly defeated.' Sir Walter was chief magistrate of Youghal in 1588-89. Qiieen Elizabeth feet for the Spaniards one. and here according to tradition he raised the first potatoes ever grown in Ireland. commanders thought flight storm overtook them. and their admiral was backed by a crowd of captains who had won fame in the Spanish seas.

ch. Reformation and Renaissance. Describe the character of Queen Elizabeth. x (social legislation) xii. chs. Source Booh of English History. I. . trial Development. II. commerce. to the fortunate circumstances in which it was at that time placed. . How far did the English church depart from Catholicism? Who were the Puritans? 4. Traill. — Robinson. 369-420. At the same time Elizabeth aimed to keep in touch with the wishes of her subjects and in return the people were loyal to their sovereign. — . 5. Gardiner. England had become a great and prosperous nation and the reign of Elizabeth was the most successful thus far in its history. — — . II. Hayes. 315-67. Political 148-54 Lindsay. Pollard. 2. Review free from the Give an account of the What was done with the spoil? 3. Queen Elizabeth. she was so able and so popular that she usually had her own way.Studies share in the government. and Social History Modern Europe. II. Stephenson. Topics for Reading 137-46. Short Lee. xi. Cambridge Modern History. xi. of her subjects. destruction of the monasteries. Henry VIII. and industry. History of the Reformation. What were the provisions What conditions were they to remedy? 8. of iJeaiii»g^. x. 337 Although the Queen's power was checked by parUament. The Elizabethan People. . eh. What conditions gave rise to the Statute of Laborers? What were its provisions? its effects? 7. ix. What industrial regulations did she introduce. III. iv. xix History of the English People. Warner. Innes. History of England. Green. II. Social England. 428-80. pope? z . chs. and with what results? 6. History. II. Social Conditions under Elizabeth. 420 Stone. whose first object was to understand her people and to take advantage of every circumstance for adding . This success was due to the character of the nation. to their prosperity and their greatness. xii. xiii. Landmarks of English Industrial Traill. I. England's IndusIV. and not least to the Queen. Religious Questions under Elizabeth. chs. III. the state sought to direct individual enterprise in agriculture. Deof the Poor Laws? 1. see Contents. ch. Far from being directed by the people. Lindsay. Social England. xviii. 385III. Under what circumstances did England become Trace the steps in the process. ch. ch. Factors in Modern History.

Give an account of the destruction of the Armada. What are the advantages and the disadvantages of governmental regulation? 8. Spain. What was new in the occupations and in the social and economic condition of the English? 6. . What connection has this revolt with nationalism? 3. What were the relations between Elizabeth and her subjects? For what is her reign famous? Additional Studies progress had the Protestant revolt made in continental Europe before Henry VIII's break with Rome (ch. 9. and Venice. Write a syllabus of this chapter like that on p. Compare the English currency before Elizabeth with that of the late Roman empire (earlier ch. Greece. 11. What effect had the destruction of the Armada? 13. in addition to Henry's personal wishes.). In what respect was the reign of Elizabeth an epoch (turning point) in English history? 14. 12. Compare the condition of laborers under Elizabeth with their condition during the Hundred Years' War with their condition to-day. In England what influences. Were English manners less refined than those of France? Give reasons for your answer. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics. 231. been made thus far in nationalism in Germany.338 scribe the evil plight in Queen Elizabeth which Elizabeth found the currency. 15.' In what directions was progress being made? What was her international policy? her naval policy? 10.) ? 4. France. 12. Bescribe the enterprise of her people in the New World. xx)? 2. were at work to bring about religious changes? 5. What was there in the situation of England that aided or encouraged commerce and colonization? Compare Phoenicia. What occupations were Englishmen finding outside their own country? 11. 7. What progress had. I. ' What . and England (see earlier chs. 10. How did she reform this evil? 9.

with possessing unlimited power. the monarchy was ordained by God for the goverimient of men. while the defects of Charles were even more pronounced. They lacked. IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY The Struggle for Parliamentary Government We have seen how Elizabeth. It was therefore sacred. unaffected in dress. and his son Charles I (1625- 1649). James was weak and vacillating. They rejected the tradition that there was a contract between the king and his subjects. In the first place the Stuarts were a foreign dynasty. gradually excluded parliament from a share ia the government. for in those days the Scotch were distrusted as heartily as the French. The 375. his meanness and ingratitude even toward his friends. the too. as they asserted. Various causes served to arouse opposition. 339 . It was only natural that her successors 1 should* continue this policy. Opposition by the Puritans and Parliament. and his hopeless obstinacy and untruthfulness. but he was not compelled to do so. however. In their opinion it was good policy for the king to follow the law as an example to his subjects. His subjects berated his lack of decision. through sheer force of personality and popularity with an influential middle class. In fact. opposition was largely centred in the Puritans a group rapSimple in speech. 374. They were not content. charm and ability of Elizabeth. the personal — — — > James I (1603-1625). idly increasing in numbers and importance. but philosophized and theorized about it.CHAPTER XXIII ENGLAND I. and to resist the king was not merely a crime but a sacrilege. fonnerly king of Scotland. and austere in their keeping of Sunday. Kings by Divine Right.

Charles found many supporters. was impossible. Political and Social History. he tried to raise funds by compelling his subjects to lend him money which he never intended to repay. I. and that the matter had the to be settled by both parties plunged the conntry into civil war (1642-1646). In this temper parliament refused to grant Charles I the money he wished. The most . Irritated on every hand. . 270. Their prosperity depended to a large extent upon the expansion of England. manufacturers. pest. loyalty was almost sword. in which they composed a majority. but. to defend their interests against the despotism. and the exercise of martial law in time of Petition A NONCONPOHMIST MINISTER About 1700. referring to James I. ' From Tem- Cryes of London. he had no intention of putting it into effect. This abuse and others of like nature led parliament to draw up a of Right (1628). as may be imagined.bitter. Those who refused were imprisoned. In fact it soon became evident that agreement — Charles The Civil War (beginning 1642). The stubbornness of ^ Hayes. The conflict between him and parliament therefore grew continually more. It forbade imprisonment without due cause. lack of interest in commerce and coloniza- tion therefore touched the pocket-book of the Puritans. and traders. granted this petition. restrictions placed upon their worship. and so wasteful a man squander their money. were of the middle class merchants.' peace. for there were many to whom. 376.340 King and Parliament Puritans were " grieved to see so sinful a man sit on the throne of England. too. the Puritans looked to parliament. a document which clearly defined the rights of every individual. Undaunted. The king's influential of the Puritans." ^ They chafed under and under the the pro-Catholic activities of the monarch. arbitrary punishment.

were indifferent. Charles was captured. organized a brigade known as the Ironsides. The majority were drawn from the higher ranks of life such as the nobles. and beheaded. Oliver Cromwell. were concluded with the Dutch and the French._Baptists. tried. At first the two sides were almost evenly matched. Then a Puritan gentleman of fiery eloquence and energy. little part in the struggle. too. and took 377. and his encouragement of trade and the crafts. meant domestic prosperity. the clergy. this body proved to be corrupt. became in fact a military dictator (1653) The able general proved . . Cromwell. Their fashion of cutting the hair short gave the name of Roundheads to their party. In spite of the fact that these 378. In every battle they routed the royal troops. They were God-fearing men who fought with a fierce earnestness and a firm conviction that their enemies were the enemies of God. The Cavaliers. In the first place a strong dislike of military govern- — . and Congregationalists. The Restoration (1660). high ideals. Nothing could withstand their determined attacks. — — . His enforcement of law and order. heretofore a monarchy. Cromwell — accordingly dissolved his legislature and. now called herself a Commonwealth (1649-1653) with the reins of government in the hands of Cromwell and a parliament. many of whom were merchants and manufacturers from the towns. They went into battle praying and singing psalms. as his partisans were called. the English annihilated one of the fleets of Spain and snatched Jamaica from that country. Favorable commercial treaties. were times of great deeds. the majority of Englishmen were becoming restless and discontented. were mostly Episcopalians members of the English church and Catholics. as Lord Protector. incompetent. and the well-to-do country gentlemen. and impossible to cooperate with. On the other hand the parliamentary party was strongly Puritan in their numbers were Presbyterians. a masterful statesman. The great mass of artisans and yeomen. and strong feelings. England.Civil War 341 a religion. In spite of its vaunted piety. however. His foreign policy resulted in added prestige to England powerful once more.

342 King and Parliament ment was growing up. well offered the nation zealots. Then. This was one of the measures of a Bill of Rights. Finally it became evident that no satisfactory adjustment could be obtained. To avoid the possibility of another long struggle. In order that it 379. Parliament Gains the Upper Hand. he proved to be one of England's greatest and ablest rulers. ' Charles II (1660-1685). England has no written constitution. . that neither bail nor nor punishment should be excessive. Strange as it may seem. This document secured to parliament the supremacy in the state and to the citizens in theory at least the right to life. in the Puritan regime a minority party was enforcing its strict discipline and narrow The death of Cromreligious ideals upon the country at large. which declared further that the king had no power to set aside the laws. Its form of government is the result of gradual growth. and through the enactment of individBill of tions. fines All subjects of the realm were granted the right to It was provided.. including that of the The Originally the king had all powers of government then documents such as the Magna Carta (1215. or to keep a standing army without the permission of — parliament. might remain secure in the possession of its newly won powers. pursuit of happiness. and continued without interruption for almost thirty years. an opportunity to be rid of religious These consideratipns led them to welcome the return of a Stuart to the throne. too. to levy taxes. parliament invited William of Orange (Holland) ^ to occupy the throne on condition that he give heed to the people's representatives. however. liberty. parliament provided that it should be convoked at frequent intervals in order to make laws and to control taxation. foreigner though he was. through the unconscious adoption of new customs. Rights forms the basis of most written constituUnited States. and the petition the king. too. William was worthy of the confidence. followed by James II (1685-1689). therefore.^ • The old trouble between king and parliament broke out anew. and ual laws. § 198). 2 William III (1689-1703) and Mary till 1694.

— The actual work of government was carried on by the ministry. or cabinet. If there was any doubt as to which party really represented the wishes of the people. too. his power of veto. a first officer of the nation. election took place. became the He lost. He in tm^ chose his colleagues from the same party. Hence one party or the other always held a majority. and the Bill of Rights (1689). but had to take into accoxmt the leaders of the party in power. in which the ' Not offidally so called till the twentieth century. \vho wished to restrict royal privilege and to give greater power to the individual were called Whigs. — The parliamentary practice thus established has evolved other principles of modern govern- ment. Those. no longer a ruler. This division into parties brought about the growth of the cabinet system. It came about that the members of a party voted as a unit on all matters. The Growth of Parties. If at any time parliament lost confidence in the government. the king chose a Prime Minister from the majority party in the House of Commons. one necessarily who had the support of the Commons. Cabinet Government. it could say so. has remained unchanged to the present day. . therefore. devised in William's reign. privilege which even the President of our country still possesses. During the eighteenth century it gradually came about that parliament was divided into those who favored and those who opposed certain measures. It so happened that the king could no longer hold his own personal views on politics. This ministry. and a general In all its essentials the cabinet system. At first these parties were based on conflicting views of government. on the other hand. Those who favored strong powers in the hands of the king were called Tories. the king dissolved parliament. Briefly England was to be governed by parliament. 380. In order to put through his policies. appointed by the sovereign but responsible to parliament. 381. so powers as to make him subject to parliament. acted as a unit in all matters of general policy. Under the new plan the king. Then the ministers resigned and the king chose another Prime Minister.' The Cabinet 343 restricted his the Petition of Right (1628).

A fatted . In like manner pillows and cushions. They lived in beautiful manor houses such as still adorn the English landscapes. During this period a 383. In this way there came to be many squires. and in neighborly sociability. These new homes. There were chimneys and glass windows. no longer considered effeminate." This means that a large amount of capital was now being invested in land and used for : — improvements. II. in filling local oflSces. and passed their lives in hunting and other sports. The House of Commons represented but a minority. The artificial pastures thus produced enabled him to feed his animals during the winter mpnths^ — The improvemait of fodder resulted in better stock. were comfortably furnished. rarely left them to go to London or to travel abroad. century agriculture became a fashionable pursuit. Furthermore the farmer was rapidly becoming acquainted with rye and with clover and other grasses. there were carpets. Improvements in Country Life. Instead of the filthy flooring of rushes. as the owners of large estates were called. much had been gained. Brick making was rediscovered and the houses of all but the very poor were now made of that material or of stone. Vegetables for winter consumption had already come into general use. The well-to-do country people. too. great revolution took place in farming. in managing their estates.344 Agricultural Revolution House Although of Commons held the control of finances. A writer of " The farming tribe is now made up of all the period says classes. from a duke to an apprentice. England was not as yet ruled by the majority of her people. A Revolution in Ageicultxtre Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries In the seventeenth 382. They preferred their homes to all city attractions. who possessed these luxuries. for only the wealthy could vote for its members. found their way into every respectable home. It was not until the nineteenth century that the progress of democracy was to make the English a self-governing people in a far better sense of the term. Improvements in Agriculture.

were devised. first He discovered. however. Little farms no longer paid under the old system of agriculture. or fence. He lost valuable time. he would have to follow the old routine. he contrived a system of crop rotation. be divided into small strips. clay. all. chalk. From a contema porary engraving. Large and Small Farms. too.Farms 345 ox of this period weighed eight hundred pounds. not exist in open fields (§ 216). hedge. and in the background trees and houses. could 384. The farmer learned how to employ scientifically such fertilizers as manure. the soil need not remain fallow at Scientific farming. Better methods of tillage. too. turnips the second. Then. from the that if inferior stock of his neighbors. His bitter experience his fields had shown him that lie idle is if grain alone were grown. how- ever. RuitAL Scene herdsman and his flock a hunting party. — . and the new involved an outlay which the farmer his land continued to . The farmer found it impossible to breed a better class of animals unless he separated them — A Showing arable fields. and lime. in travelling from one piece of land to another but the greatest motive to the revolution was his desire Before the end of the cento do as he liked with his own land. that grain grown the year. It was the up-to-date farmer 385. and clover the third. tury therefore England became a country of fields separated from each other by a ditch. Separate Fields. no matter how absurd it seemed to him. with plenty of money who profited by this arrangement. too. mounted travellers speeding along the road. In hke manner the weight of a fleece of wool increased fourfold. He had continual quarrels over boundaries. He discovered. The system accordingly brought about the decay of the small farmer or yeoman. too. had if to every third year. whereas formerly it had not averaged half that amount.

three carps in a dish.346 Social Life Dispossessed and in dire of scant means could not afEord. unworthy Indian custom. a base. dress. Daily Life. 386. a great dish of a side of lamb. Social Life and Customs . — During this pe- riod the average artisan and farmer continued It to sleep. a leg of mutton boiled. — and all things noble and to my great content." There was in addition an endless variety of drinks. about one o'clock. We gain an intimate knowledge of their lives and habits through the diary of Samuel Pepys. Water was scarcely ever drunk. butter. which was the lowest grade of nobility. a dish of roast pigeons. good wine change even in court . families of thfs class were often forced to pack up belongings and tramp to town. an age of hospitality. Tea was slow in making its way into polite society. It was the custom for even the most 387. The important meal was dinner. Excessive drinking and gambling tended to rob it of all attraction. even the youngest children were accustomed to beer. We need not dwell on how they trudged the rutted and muddy roads. Business men were wealthy and influential in fact many of them received from the king the title of baronet. Social Customs the Trading Class. and i eat as he had for the -last three centuries. and dissipated. After dinner it of several sorts. poverty. Breakfast was usually hght and consisted of a draught of ale with bread. a dish of anchovies. III. On one occasion Mr. In a later chapter (§ 530 ff) we shall see how these outcasts furnished cheap labor for the new industries which were springing up. life. Pepys served a " really grand dinner " to several of his friends." This was. a lamprey pie (a most rare pie). The period is chiefly noted. often begging their way. " Fricasse of rabbits and chickens. which no Christian family should admit. and radishes. fashionable to rise early. for the growth of the trading class. . who was secretary to the Admiralty. They were rapidly becoming the backbone of English society.M. Merchants went to work as early as six A. There was little remained frivolous. however. extravagant. too. It was still considered a " filthy practice. .

too. Coffee-houses. " The host of the coffee-house was the gossip. Social England. for here the great literary and poUtical celebrities met and discussed the questions of the day. . which were still too expensive for individuals to buy. observed a lack of polite manners among Englishmen. to smoke. Here drank chocolate or coffee together and exchanged gossip. and with this he cleans his teeth and washes his hands. and at the end of the meal each dips the end of his napkin therein. The guests took it for granted that everyone was to express his opinions freely. news have you. 660. it — After to ad- the early dinner was a com- mon custom tliey for the men journ to the cofEee-house. that newspapers." 388. Master? and the -host tells ' him what he has heard tailor of say. too. Furthermore " on the EngUsh table there are no forks. and to tell stories. They had the bad habit. and usually wore their hats.Manners and Customs was the custom in the evening. At table guests were seated on chairs without backs. IV. poHtical agitation. Showing the furniture and fashions From a contemporary jest-book (1688). A beaker is set before each person. until remain to play cards and other seven or eight o'clock Foreigners. They were eagerly read. first made their way. recipient of aU the town entering ' Each guest on asks ' the What threadbare question.' " * the barber to the a great courtier's man In time coffee-houses veritable hotbeds of A COPPEE-HOnSE became the of the time. It was into the coffee-house. of guests to 347 games. however. of spitting. although it was felt that they made • Traill.

On Sunday games and sports as well as the selling of wares were forbidden. Puritans could scarcely endure the sight of a gentleman. too. It was believed that 389. tables. and swearing were prohibited. ." was compelled to forfeit twice his winnings. London. were suppressed.348 Social Life the public " too familiar with the actions their superiors. or any other game. collar.' any game upon the Sabbath or fast day should pay half a crown or sufEer imprisonment. Tight knee-breeches were the custom. 'Cryes of From Tempest. or playing at and a high steeple-crowned hat. In dramatic performances were not allowed to take place in fact actors were whipped as common rogues. shovelboard. Drinking. When Pepys' yriie bought a new muff. bowls." and counsels of Social customs of Puritan and Cavalier Contrasted. A law stated that anyone found idly standing or walking in the street in sermon Newswoman Selling the London Gazette. The vest was girded with a sash. On the other . gambling. a plain linen time. wore a dark cloak. Any person " betting at cards.their long flowing hair and their bright clothes. century present an interesting contrast. her husband used her old one. tennis. this — society should be held together by a common moral disciphne. In this period were worn the garments which have become the modern coat and vest. dice. The cravat was of lace and it was stylish for a man to wear a muS suspended round the neck by a ribbon. Horse like races. hand the Cavaliers presented a picturesque appearance with. Under the Puritan regime life was xmdoubtedly abnormal. and the coat was ornamented with a row of gold buttons and with gold edging along the seams. manner . Their greeting to a welldressed man was " French dog." Men of Puritan faith cropped their hair short.

. and — . looked very much alike. her robe of red velvet." Ordinarily they had little part in the choice of a husband. and their powdered hair. repeatedly taking off no fewer than tbree Her bodice was of gloves. for it was the business of a good father to find a young man who would be a suitable mate for his daughter. hned with yellow muslin. A courtier tells us of an elegant dame who Mfore " some fine diamonds on her fingers. they practised the art of healing. It was almost impossible for them to enter a business or a professional career. were accustomed to hard work. partly by quaint charms. Others were excellent singers or could play the stringed instruments of that age. The wife and daughters were responsible for the brewing of the beer and the salting of the beef. too. many of these marriages resulted unhappily. 349 Women's Occupations and gave a large part Social Position. — The ladies time to household duties.Women 390. In spite of these disadvantages there were many women of refinement and culture. The ladies of the court with their 391. with broad stripes of pure gold. They were of great assistance to the men in making cloth. partly by herbs. which were worn one over the other. In the absence of the country doctor. her petticoat of gold tissue with stripes. their excessive rouge. at a time when that industry was carried on at home. Girls were usually married while still in their " teens. Women's Dress. nor could they of this period of their obtain an education at the universities. As may be supposed. They used their artistic skill in tapestry and embroidery. yellow satin. Even the wealthiest preserved the garden fruit and did their own sewing and mending. masks. At other times they did the lighter routine tasks of farmwork. As a rule EngUshmen respected their women and did not wish them to become mere beasts of burden. In harvest time the mothers put their babies to play together in the busy field. They appeared in magnificent costumes. She wore an apron of point lace of various patterns her head-tire was highly perfumed. richly embroidered. too. while they helped gather in the crop. and there were frequent rimaway matches. as were many on the Continent. as well as for the daily cooking. Countrjrwomen.

too. wide. . women wore ments." ' On the other hand the women of lower Little tailoring rank dressed simply. was uncovered. The amusement. was orderly and civil.. and deep lawn or Outdoors peaked beaver hats. "Your England. and the audience. A Woman Under the op the Stuarts. • Traill.' glass coach will to Hyde Park for air. short sleeves. and . plain pet- sometimes with panniers. rich or poor. and when a hailstorm came on. . Middle Class Everyone. the suburb fools trot to Tottenham your sprucer sorts of citizens gallop to Epsom . formerly rude. 320. and ladies and gentlemen continued to sit on benches without backs. wide tippets or folded kerchiefs ticoats. 169.stage and the aptscribed in the text. coarse material. .' theatre ' urably better than ever before. As a rule they " were wearing plainpointed bodices laced in front. Social England. was needed to make garments of the cheap. There were few comforts. the collar of white satin beneath the delicately wrought struck me as extremely pretty. Amuselace cuffs collars. the theatre was emptied. sought the open From Traill. ship (§ — Under 378) the restored kingthe became once more the most A Lady of the Coxjri popular form of The XJnd^r the Stuarts. costume of her dass is de." ^ 392. or a black hood and coverchief tied under the chin. 35° Social Life ruff. From ing were immeasTraill. The central dome. . ' Ibid. IV. 'Sodal air on holidays and Sundays.

to Tennis and pell mell were favorite sports of the gentry. ) ' ^^^ ' ^ 1) the battle of the bears and dogs. each with a child in his arms.* trades. which was ^^^^^^^^^^^^'^^g^ -» . too. Here he was known as Jack-of-all- In the time of Shakespeare. young man While still a poverty at home drove him to London and the stage. 351 affection. greatest literary genius of modem all time — perhaps of A Stage time. Peculiar are the form of the stage. A spectator at the arena gives sword is us a graphic description of the dangerous sport of fighting. and the balcony in the second story. fought the following day in the same place.The Drama your mechanic gross Islington. to witness cock-fighting as well as fencing and boxing. should in ' have had more pleasure seeing ^ ^ . The scene represents the front of a three-storied house. From Albright. Gentlemen often went to the latter the arena." IV. LlTEEATOBE AND Science 393. In game the object was to hit a ball through hoops placed at the ends of a long alley. reflects Literature. " For kill my think there for an inhumanity in permitting men to I part I each other diversion. showing much conjugal strut before their Wives. for in a short time he plajrwright. became part owner well as actor and from the country paints a brilUant picture of a theatre as In Love's Labor's Lost this lad of the court life of the . of — The period des- literature the the contrasting life features of social In WiUiam Shakespeare (1564-1616) the age brought forth the cribed above." fellows. the two doors on the ground floor. 'Shakesperian Stage.

His PilIt Progress describes the journey of a Christian from the City of Destruction to the Heaveijly City. may be compared . its most celebrated allegory. with darkness and with danger conipassed round. who is the Spirit of Good. John Milton (1608-1674) was the product in it is of a later age. His filled with adventures and practical jokes. the blind faith in the in the soul itself. as weU as prejudice and unfairness to foreigners. of They hard reflect vividly English national character . however. By playlovers of aU time and countries. Though a narrow poems. he is most admired for his powerful tragedies. In like has given to the world grirn's manner John Bunyan (1628-1668). its unreality. From a painting. Puritan. the Spirit of Evil. he was not His early the coarse festivities bouts of encourage blindness composed John Milton plead against and drinking the time. In stately measure it narrates the disobedience of man and the victory of Satan it tells how " the world has fallen on evil days and evil tongues.'and extravagance. another Puritan. It depicts the eternal struggle between the Archangel. but the conflict of emotions and passions fighting. but they simple pleasures. pity for the fallen.. behef. with entertaining sketches of manners and customs. for Puritani ism had finally been defeated.. In and old age Milton Paradise Lost. the love triumph of goodness over evil. Hamlet and Macbeth. It is an epic of a lost cause. They show not only struggles between great characters. true. Perhaps Shakespeare has endeared himself most of all to his own covmtrymen through such historical plays as Richard III and Henry other comedies are V. and Satan." Many critics consider it the most splendid example of English poetry. 352 Literature and Science time with its witty sajdngs.

Just as the apple was pulled toward the earth. From a Dutch edition of 'Pilgrim's Progress. Hooke made the microscope . by the tendency body to move in a straight Hne. Scientists became courtiers. and is knocking at the gate. made a (1646-1727) discovery of far-reaching imporOne day he noticed an apple falling to the ground This phenomenon. a force that must be at work throughout the imiverse. To gain new knowledge a man must observe the facts for himself. must make countless inquiries and conduct many experiments. Science. Animated by this spirit. By reducing his discovery to a formula of the earth eclipses Newton made it possible to determine the orbits to foretell and planets and with great accuracy and the return of comets. The pursuit of science was made popular by the institution of a Royal Society (1662). and under this stimulus discoveries followed in rapid succession. Worldly Wisdom.Bacon and Newton with the Bible in phrases. of blindly accepting what others have told or written. because it describes one's own thoughts and so well. men of this period turned Francis Bacon (1561-1626) showed the futihty of taking things for granted. life 353 its its clear yet forceful style and in it quaint Indeed. Briefly it placed astronomy and physics on an exact mathematical basis. he argued. Halley investigated tides and planets. he reai was caused by an invisible force. Isaac Newton tance. It is restrained from faUing upon the sun.' however. 394. so must the earth be pulled toward the sun. has become one of the best-loved books in English literature. which he called gravitation. of a The Reiuening Cheistian After wandering from the narrow way on the advice of Mr. he has returned. — Other brilliant their attention to science.

In fact it was a period Children began their studies as early as two years of age. viii. ch. What led to the Petition of Right? What did this document contain? 3. and astronomy.' unsurpassed in tual initiative intellec- and energy —the parent. Political and Social History of Gardiner. 354-401 . whereas a few preferred private instruction. so to speak. i)? What view did they take of their power? 2. I. History of England and of Greater Britain. II. Traill. By utilizing the air pump Boyle reduced experimental chemistry to a science. other fields of study. Milton. — . Lee. England. 'Social England. Latin. and inven- Topics for Reading For a general survey read Hayes. see Contents. ch. Many wealthy parents sent their children to school. Eurojjean Literature "). arithmetic. vi. and were pushed rapidly in French. What 5.354 Literature and Science available for research. V. 547-604. as mineralogy. of the present great age of discovery tion. What caused the civil war? Who formed the conflicting forces? 4. Cross. Innes. Cross. Social Conditions and Customs. took the character of sciences. History of England. Cromwell — — . geography. History of Commonwealth. Cambridge Modern History. Who . 339. and the I. S39-74. Describe the composition and character of his army. Give an account of Cromwell. xxii. First Half of the Seventeenth Century. (" Periods of 391 fE. II. Modern Europe. 180 ff. a. Review Why did despotic government work well under Elizabeth? were her immediate successors (p.. III. xxix-xxxi. Green. xxxv Social England. Grierson. What was the outcome of the war? What form of government did he establish? 6. A Schoolroom botany. IV. chs. Saintsbury. Why and in what way did the English return to kingship? I. . Short History of English Literature. In a similar way many physiology. From Traill. Source Book of English History. and zoology. ch. ch. Short History of the English People.

and for what are his works severally noted? 21. What earlier document in English history may be compared with the Petition of Right. Who supported the king and who opposed him? Give reasons for this alignment. 8. duced? What life social class was rising to scribe the daily of the period. 12. 15. science ? Additional I. What developments were taking place in country life? 11. why England did not remain a commonwealth. Were any forIf so. Give count of the recreations of this period. Describe the formation of parties. office of prime minister. 5. In what respect does this period form an epoch in English history? 18. Studies does despotism work well in some instances. Which seems the more democratic? 10. xxii) ? 11. xxv) ? 2. and in others not (chs. Compare the meals of the period with those of our own time. Can you give any reasons why country life was now growing more prosperous (ch. DeGive an account of the coffeehouses. Who were Milton and Bunyan? What did they respectively write? 22. Compare cabinet government with that of the United States. Contrast Puritan and Cavalier. By what means did news circulate? call the Cavaliers "French dogs"? 17. 231. What is the importance of the Bill of Rights? Did it give equal rights to all Englishmen? 9. What were separate fields and why were they introprominence? 14. Describe the occupations of women. 8. Why . What is the cabinet? What is cabinet (or ministerial) government? 9. 14. Explain the open-field system and the change to separate fields. 20. why? eigners more refined and polite than English people? 16. 16. Describe an ac19. What improvements were introduced in agriculture? 12.Studies 355 was the Bill of Rights? In what way did parliament gain control of the government ? Describe the 7. 17. Why did the Puritans 15. How does the government change from one party to the other? 10. Explain the cause of the civil war. What did Shakespeare write. and in what respect ? 4. Why did men with religious principles make better soldiers than others? Give reasons 7. xxii. Who were the Calvinists and who the Puritans ? 3. their dress. Who was the greatest scientist of the age? What progress was made in 13. 18. What were the advantages of the new system? 13. Write a syllabus of this chapter like that on p. 6.

lands achieved their independence of Spain (§ 305). Sumatra. while her energies were absorbed in civil war.CHAPTER XXIV THE STRUGGLE FOR WORLD EMPIRE 1688-181S I. while efficient business methods brought large profits. reputation for honest dealings won them many among the natives. Enterprising Dutch merchants Everjrwhere their friends therefore turned to the East Indies with the intention of secur- ing for themselves the valuable spice trade. Meanwhile the Dutch secured for themselves the monopoly of trade with Borneo. and even with Japan. Holland had threatened world. Dutch Trade with the East. their commerce with the East Indies almost ceased. made several feeble attempts to gain a foothold in the East Indies. with little or no success. England. Rivalry between Holland and England. On — In fact. they were forced to abandon their share in the carrying trade from Lis- — bon to other European ports. From their first trading post in Java (1603) they rap-. which forbade the carrying of goods to and from England except in ships built and owned in England or her colonies and manned with English or 3S6 . zation When the United Nether395. and before the middle of the century. to capture the entire carrying trade of the Cromwell attempted to prevent this disaster ty the Navigation Acts (beginning in 1651). England in Conflict with Holland Financial Organi. wrapped up in internal affairs. 396. idly extended their control over the Spice and Banda Islands. and the neighboring islands. every hand the Spanish and Portuguese had to give way.

in case of disgrace or failure the blame was placed on 397. By enlarging the number and areas of the colonies they increased the prestige of the mother country. for example. England finally blockaded the ports of her rival. including Japan and Ceylon. men. and commodities for use in the regular navy. Politically they were invested with the power of ruling over the natives in the name of England commercially they were expected to extract the maximum of income with the minimum of expenditure. for they owed their privileges. . 357 Holland felt that such laws made her position For a quarter of a century (1651-1674) there were waged furious struggles in the Channel for trade and dominion in the East. insecure. expansion but by chartered companies.Colonizing Companies colonial crews. The English. The fortunes of perhaps thirty such companies fade into in- . It was their duty not only to conduct a profitable commerce but to injure political rivals. There they founded little settlements which inevitable. Similarly they were to furnish material in ships. and thus shut off all trade. on the other hand. At the same time they were to maintain a favorable balance of trade and to add to the public revenue through the pa3Tnent of import and export duties. In England. They served to increase shipping facilities and to supply the state with an unofficial navy. cities in India — Mad-ras'. War was afterward became the chief bay'. not by private traders. Bom- and Cal-cut'ta. financial support in crises. The success and. the very life of the little nation. They were permitted to take possession of the territory in which they traded and rigorously to exclude aU interlopers. were to restrict their efforts to the coast of India. They were under direct control of the government. glory accrued to England. each company received a charter from the king to operate in a given locality. the company. The Chartered Companies. and even their very existence to the Crown. An amicable settlement was arranged whereby the Dutch confined their trade to the islands. In fact the resources of Holland were not sufficient to withstand the power of her larger rival. — This work of was carried on.

for its credit was poor. A further impetus to 398. — In ." It alone was to have the this privilege pf issuing notes in its own name.000 pounds at eight per cent interest. Origin of the Bank of England. it has always taken care of the state funds not in actual use. founded late in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. During the seventeenth century. Now it became easy to borrow money for great undertakings. The system involves some disadvantages. At that time the government usually had to pay a high rate of interest on loans. Then it was that the national debts came to serve the wealthy as a means of investment. During the trade wars of the eighteenth century England had to pay for battleships and for the equipment and support of her troops. world trade was the rise of a national banking system. In this period it began to ask loans of citizens who had surplus funds.. Relation of the For that reason it has maintained a close relation with the government.200. people naturally were incUned to leave money in their keeping. private bankers became common in England. In 1694 King William III (§ 378) found his position on the throne insecure. Hitherto the government had been in the habit of paying. As they had valuable property of their own to guard. tion called the " Bank of England.by taxation expenses as they arose. 399. and in return has lent money to the government when in need This institution brought about a great change in of funds. and for two centuries and a half to enjoy in its own right an almost imperial power. In return for this favor he permitted the lenders to form a corpora. England became a national concern. for governments have often borrowed money for of way the Bank Bank to the Government. In this way the goldsmiths obtained a large 'number of deposits which they were — willing to lend at interest. unless he could obtain money to pay his soldiers.358 England against Holland significance when compared with the East India Company. finance. Most of them were goldsmiths. It was destined to build up a vast empire for Britain in India. According to custom William appealed to the London goldsmiths to lend him 1.

in time of need. Other banks have followed lead and have bank offers security to popular. in India. 243-4. small investor. England Acquires the Leadership 1689-1784 401. too. — The eighteenth century witnessed a momentous struggle between England and France for colonial power. Finance foolish 359 become so easy to borrow up a tremendous debt which future generations will eventually have to pay. however. and the government by thwarting French colonial ambition. by colonizing America. " As safe as the bank of England " for its credit has never its been shaken. It is only natural for a person to trust a bank in which his govern- ment places confidence. has become a proverb. At the same time the fleets of England and France were striving for victory because a command of the sea would leave the colonies of the enemy at the mercy of the winner. Banks. stations. Through credit. in the West Indies. 400. A become immensely both the large and the money n. War was waged simultaneously on the Continent. in India Her Conflict with France (1689-1761). too. and the government alike were able to extend their operations. manufacturers. by establishing British rule in India. (1642). its It was not long in establishing a the chief of which was Pon-di- Early in career the ' Company entered upon a Warner. and by building up a naval power which destroyed its competitors.. Under the patronage of Louis XIV a French East India Com- pany was organized number of trading cher'ry.so that Britain was finally projects. Advantages of Credit." ' ^. and in America. the manufacturers by taking advantage of the new inventions and working on a scale hitherto unknown. Every dollar invested is itself earning it is always available. have encouraged thrif tiness in individuals. It has and wasteful that every nation of to-day is rolling — without a rival. the merchants and ship-owners by spreading Britishmade goods over the world. " merchants. .

his personality and ability would Fortunately for England.. in making the name of England feared. a wider army than any of them.pany's service. its rivals. . the French governor in India. He required the obedience of Indian princes. He proceeded to organize an army of sepoys for he. a fact that was enough to discourage rebel" The Company itself had become a sovereign more lion. From a contem- English East India Company had ceased to be a mere business corporation. To of the Company's Power." ^ Warner. porary drawing." With their help he hoped to win over the entire country for France. how- ever. and with the fall of Pondicher-ry (1761) the power of France in India was forever ended. this At among the native princes. and a more effective with as large a revenue. 36o policy of conquest. soldiers. appreciated the value of native . too. bring For a time it seemed that him complete success. With his magnetic personality he succeeded in gaining the confidence of many of the natives. Hyder Ali Khan Lived 1728-1782. — The princes of among the warrior India. a clerk in her Com. No longer was it content random to trade here and there or establish a settlement at nor would it yield to the disapproval of nabobs. drilled and his officered by Europeans. It assumed the character of a state. this emergency produced a hero in Clive. One of the ablest and most formidable enemies of the British energy and skill in directing his campaigns belongs the credit of England's victory. 254. 402. Under Clive and his successors the of subduing the natives went on. England in India time India was torn by civil war This condition offered an opportunity for Du-pleix'. too. Everywhere he was successful. Culmination and Decline . Such soldiers are called " sepoys. He succeeded. work formidable than territory. whom he enlisted in his army.

Maryland.Colonization in America 361 Meanwhile the Company was growing so corrupt that the English government felt compelled to cut down its power. the Pilgrim of Puri- On the streets of London. An act of parliament (1784) subjected it to a Board of Control appointed by the Crown. place the early Stuart monarchs were makit decidedly uncomfortable for those who rejected the beliefs of the AngUcan church or the " divine right " of kings. Then came new motives to colo- nization. in the hope of making their colony a bright example for the rest of mankind From this date similar colonies were rapidly established (i 620) throughout New England. in fact powerful forces arose to induce men to leave native relatives for land and permanent homes In the ing in the first New World. was founded . however. a band tans. . — highly prized spices. settled at Plymouth. together with the governorgeneral. This board. 'Cryes of London. virtually ruled India.' 1711. in. and to vain searches for precious metals and for a northwest passage to the land of . Prior to the 403. From Tempest. also appointed by the king. Inspired by this motive. Fathers. Beginnings seventeenth century England's activities in the western Atlantic had been confined chiefly to privateering. English Colonization in America Beginning 1607 the Religious Motive. To escape religious and political per- secution therefore hunPouLTEY Seller dreds turned to the New World. Massachusetts.

dissatisfied with Cromwell's government. teenth century the English had secured by colonization or con' the streets of London. — The thousands (§ 367 f. as a refuge for persecuted Catholics. Here' a large majority remained workless. Economic motives induced many Economic Causes. on the other hand. came and the Carolinas. Such colonies as Virginia (James- Georgia. offered to those town. mountains. a permanent pauper This condition class in slums.' The majority of Carolina settlers. thus deprived of a livelihood thronged to the towns in search of emplo3ncQent. were wealthy Englishmen who founded great plantations. others to emigrate. Chimney Sweeps who had From Tem- failed at home an On opportunity to begin life anew. due mainly to the change from tillage to pasturage to Virginia 404. strip along the Atlantic coast stretching from Maine to Georgia and bounded on the West by the Alleghany This area was occupied by the thirteen colonies formed the original United States of AmerThe following table shows their geographical grouping. dates of settlement. Toward the close of the century Pennsylvania was opened by William Ptenn as a new home for an oppressed sect of Puritans called Quakers. and founders whether English or Dutch. Cryes of London. led economists to believe that England was overpopulated and to recommend colonization as a remedy. At the close of the seven405. ica. 1607) and accordingly. It was a period of great distress at home. — quest a narrow. The Thirteen Colonies. which in later time . At the same time many Anglicans.).362 England in America under the patronage of Lord Baltimore. pest.

OHI£S List op the Colonies .The Thirteen Colonies 363 A COI.

however. garbage and ashes were dumped into vacant lots or even into the streets. These plantations produced large and indigo for the distant markets of Europe. The crew. tobacco. and men sought to make use of other natural resources. Whales. own ships. Sometimes the authorities permitted hogs to roam the streets as scavengers just as they did in the Old World (§ 347). Their schooners and square-riggers dared to plow ev^ry sea. nor the sagacity of English enterprise ever carried this perilous industry to the extent to which it has been pushed by this resolute people a people who are still in the gristle. Boston. — needs. of manhood." Yet not even Burke could imagine how great a nation these fishermen and peasants were to become. crops of rice. were the greatest industry of New England. The inhabitants sold salt fish either to the southern plantations or to the Catholic countries of Europe. land was not so fertile nor was the climate favorable to agriculture. a great Irish statesman. There. Men of the North 407. cotton. too. It was a glowing tribute that Edmund Burke. There were no sanitary arrangements. from captain to cabin-boy. furnished for lighting purposes an oil which proved superior to the lard oil or the tallow dip of the day. and Philadelphia.364 often found England in America unhealthful. In the North were many small farms. Unsanitary Conditions. Each house had its own well. Forests were a great source of wealthy especially as they made possible the development of a ship-building industry. however. Fisheries. there to breed disease. Paved streets were few and th'ey were poorly kept. were partners and shared in the profits of the voyage. not yet hardened into the bone. nor the the fishermen activity of France. whose water was often contaminated . It need hardly be said that they differed greatly from modern cities. Often enterprising business their men of a little town united their savings and built They were skilled and hardy sailors and dependent on no one. paid to " Neither the perseverance of Holland. From this activity there had grown up the enterprising towns of New York. Towns had already begun to manufacture on a small scale for local : — .

There was a quack who advertised his ability " to minister to feminine beauty by limiting the munber of pits as desired and locating them wherever on the face the patient might think becoming. Most physicians of the time made use of charms. Conditions in America were worse even than in France (§ 361). . which he became a fully equipped physician. Smallpox pittings were considered ornamental. for they were not acquainted with more than perhaps a dozen drugs. Georgia. Typhoid and smallpox were visitors in every' household. and still less chemistry and hygiene. . that he failed to diagnose and cure diseases. It was easy for a young man to become a doctor. He knew little anatomy.' Medical science. had themselves inoculated. He could attend a few lectures in a medical college and receive a diploma or he might prefer to " ride with a doctor " for a year or so after . was full of superstition. still in its infancy. then. We can easily understand therewas appallingly high. From 'Album historique.Towns and Cities 365 fore that the death rate by cesspools and surface filth. The Founding of a Colony Savannah. and went through the experience in one another's company. Small wonder." A number of friends sometimes organized themselves into a smallpox party. 1734.

Grace was said before each meal and thanks afterward. They made a great effort that " ye learning may not be buried in ye grave of our fathers in ye church and commonwealth. — The American colonists were not too busily engaged in earning a living to neglect education. Men like Samuel Adams. however. The service . Religion and Morals. the population was too scattered to maintain many public schools. I. . each with his musket or firelock. Yale. ring the bell. or I Paris to study. etc." writing. 291. to take charge of the School. Cambridge.. The more wealthy were often sent to Oxford. and Patrick -Henry. His tasks were " to serve summons. Young people were usually tutored at home. In the gramniar school pupils could learn reading. The duties of the New England schoolmaster were many.yho wished to study further and who had the means. Everyone spelled words according to his own taste and fancy. they marched in good order and each set his arms down near at hand. King's College (now Columbia). To them belongs the credit of establishing good schools supported by all the citizens and open to all members of the community. Religion played an important 409. and the keeping of accounts. and perfprm whatever else may be required. It is only recently that correct spelling has become a sign of culture. England in America Education. dig graves. and half a dozen other institutions equally well known. Thomas Jefferson. part in the lives of the New England colonists. In every hoiisehold prayers were held both morning and evening. For those. American History told by Contemporaries. People were ex- — pected besides to attend Church services. In the South. Men of Plymouth were wont to assemble by beat of drum." ^ The writing of the time was filled with eccentric spelling. ' Halt. there were Harvard. Princeton. were masters of the English language. arxd placing themselves three abreast.366 408. as also to conduct the services of the Church. however. and to sing on Sundays. They composed with a grace and a vigor that writers of to-day might well envy. in front of the captain's door they had their cloaks on.

a council. and an assembly. and in winter the temperature often fell below zero. idea resulted in a complete separation of church and state. gradually the colonists came to tolerate men of all sects. This condition naturally resulted in a lower code of public morals. The wisdom by Europe. In that section drunkenness and prof am' ty were common.Religion and Government 367 was often prolonged ble. nor upon any other person's Land. With some changes this system became the basis of our state and national government. New England especially was democratic. however. — In these years Americans began It to learn the lessons of self-government. In the South. for happiness itself was a sin sure to be visited with punishment in a future life. for the for several hours. As early as 161 9 the settlers of Virginia an assembly which made laws In time each colony came to have a governor. They passed laws con- For instance. to join in saving the ship and cargo. for them. Religious devotion was so strong as to forbid public amusement. In time enthusiasm for Puritanism began to die down and . which corresponded closely to the king. Laws and morals were exceedingly severe. It was Roger Williams who likened the but could require all state to a ship on which This the captain could not compel the passengers to come to prayers. Town meetings were elected their representatives to held at frequent intervals and all members of the community took an equal part in the proceedings. religion played a lesser part. and the commons of England. The colonists were allowed even freer scope in local affairs. 410. was only natural that in working out these problems they should follow English customs and tradition. and private life was rigorously controlled by statutes. " It is voated and ordered that from and after ye first day of aprill next (17 21) noo Geese shall be Lett goe upon the Common or in the highways nor in the water within this township of Providence. except those that own the Geese cerning the most petty matters. of this step is only now coming to be appreciated Self-Govemment. the lords. . Comfort was impossi- churches were without heat.

412. of the — While life of the present time.' supplying corn. This distinction was commonly won by office-holding. fence-viewers. . Only one fourteenth male inhabitants possessed the title of gentleman. American History told by Contemporaries. the poor persons are soliciting for the privilege of A Nosegay Macaroni Toward the end of the colonial period there broke out among wealthy EngUshmen a great rage for a foppish attire. . . Among those chosen were the town clerk. which was imitated in America. I must inquire a great deal polls before I shall the per- and estates." 411. my attendiffi- It a thing of some of . the fop was called a macaroni. hog constables. most beneficial method is expending . Town oflacers.3^8 .. meat. When the town meeting was not in session it was the duty of the • executives to administer ness. and hemp-viewers. of aU the inhabitants. England in America on the penalty of the ^ . the government was democratic. the scho6l money.. Another . poundkeepers. forfeiture of all such geese that are so found. town sergeant. The schools are one great object of tion. overseers for the poor. . — There were many officers. II. A know and third and the greatest is the assessment. England. Because this tone of style came ultimately from Italy. Great attention was paid to social rank in assigning seats in meetingthe basis of social was ' Hart. surveyors of highways. etc. real From Traill."-^ This system was the forerunner of city government Social Life. packers and sealers. its busi- John Adams found that brought him " a multi- his office plicity of new is cares. 215. 'Ibid. 'Social sonal. aristocratic. the poor with wood. great object . 223. culty to find out the best. two town councilnien.

It was only natural. as well as in preparing lists in college commencement programs. and true. gance. To a certain extent that feeling remains to this is day . . The wealthy colonial dames attempted to make their gowns as rich The Bno] of Fasadise of extreme fasMon. strong. wearing an enormous headgear and a correspondingly elaborate dress. humdrum and hard must not be imagined that colonial work. On the contrary their deeds have shown them brave. and stylish as those of their A woman fitting English cousins. each state proud of its own institutions. and clothes j. for styles did not change so rapidly then as now. With the increase of wealth and the growth of cities. The Conflict in America 1690-1783 We 413. ii. for each settlement to develop its own customs and institutions with little regard for those of its . afford it 386 period.sodai England. Dances were frequent. It is a strange fact that finery did not tend to make these people effeminate. — neighbors. of finery. Theatres were opened. Colonial social life and customs It life was altogether were patterned (§ after ff.). and could Those men who dressed in rich garments. or faced with white satin and trimmed with lace gold embroidery. people began to seek amusement. Macaroni. jealous of its . English tated in America.' fashion From were in fashion untU worn out. IV. have already noticed that the colonies were founded separately. of was a fashion. Separatism Wars with the French and Indians.1 of reckless J extrava1 A match for the Nosegay imiTraill. how- an age . then. ever. • It was not. those It of London luxury.Society 369 houses and places at table or in processions.

A long. There was little inducement to form settled communities. gladly have sought homes in the New World. and desirous of limiting federal control.37© The Conflict in America neighbors. the raw soldiers of the colonies fought side by side. no wish to be confined to their narrow strip of sea coast. Ever3rwhere victory was with England and her colonists. As they began to expand westward over the Alleghanies. Large grants of land were made to a few individuals and the peasants were expected to serve these proprietors as tenants. Events began to take place. In the first place most of the resources of France were engaged in securing her supremacy on the continent of Europe. of Mexico. In many instances they outdid the well-trained British troops in valor. Lawrence river. places. claim to the basin of the St. hard struggle ensued. Why France Lost. they came into conflict with the French and their allies. fighting the English colonists. fishing. The only sound policy would have been to give the lands in full ownership to the peasants. the Indians." as who would America was called. Little serious attention was paid to colonization. Before 1763 they had secured the greater part of America north Much of this area remained to be explored. the French were not a commercial people. which alone make for success in a new country. reasons why success did not crown her efforts. French explorers discovered the Great Lakes and the region of the American continent drained by the Mississippi Naturally the English colonies had river and its tributaries. Then. ness. In cases where farming was attempted. There were many tunity to found a great colonial empire. were The majority of those who emigrated were engaged in fur trading. France completely lost her oppor414. the feudal system was introduced. too. however. The persecuted Huguenots. Others endeavored to convert Indians to Christianity or took part in forbidden to leave France. United by the common danger. She had founded Setting oiit from these colonies at Quebec and Mon-tre-al'. or hunting. which tended to bring these France had laid colonies into sympathy with one another. . Their nobles despised business they liked their fireside far too well to leave it for a journey to the " wilder- — .

and other naval supplies. rather than EngUsh. They were encouraged to grow rice. tobacco. the colonies EngUsh manufactures. Conditions changed. As the mother country had undergone considerable trouble and expense to defend her oversea possessions. however. This purpose explains why she seems to have treated her colonies as property to be exploited for profit. it is easy to understand their irritation at this drain on their purses. England's Treatment of the Thirteen Colonies. too. American Discontent. When one considers that the colonists could manufacture wares at one half the cost of imported articles. as Englishmen. Undoubtedly it was her commercial policy which brought about the loss of her thirteen colonies. when the French were finally conquered. Then. sugar. and indigo as well as to furnish timber. Briefly these were the products which could not be grown at home. As long as the colonists needed 416. not in foreign vessels. They were loyal therefore not to Eng- . led the colonists to different — The new state of affairs ways of living and thinking. The understanding was that the colonists. pitch. Finally the increased business with the colonies was intended to swell the volume of English trade. Throughout the eighteenth century the ambition of England was to found a self-sufficing empire one that could produce all materials necessary for its existence. were looked upon as an outlet for Hence they were not allowed to make goods even to supply their own wants. but solely in those that were owned by Englishmen and manned by English crews. could themselves engage in shipping. the colonists were not permitted to sell such goods to — — foreigners. That this benefit might accrue to England alone. they were willing to bear such restrictions. In this way alone could she hope to be independent of rivals in time of war. she naturally expected some sort of payment in return. By this time the majority of them were native-born Americans. protection from the foes on their frontier.Oppression 371 415. It was ordered therefore that they should export and import. but were required to purchase them from England.

They wanted fair treatment and a share in the making of their own destinies. It set up an absolute military government in that province.with stubborn op- known as the The attempt to Opposition. the mother country sent over an army of soldiers to enforce the obnoxious restrictions. it was a matter of principle to take a penny implies the right to take a pound. In order to raise money for the support of these troops. Orators like Otis and Henry awakened the public to resistance. The Stamp Act and customs duties were therefore repealed. The story of the Boston Tea Party (December 16. With " the right the latter. It promised little revenue to Britain. From Massachusetts to 417. tions They chafed at the restric- which compelled them to furnish her with cheap raw materials. and in return to buy expensive manufactured goods from her. : — ." Patriotic families decided not to drink tea as long as it meant submission to tyranny. Still later they were to arouse in the people a resolution to win their independence. Increasing " Taxation Georgia Americans echoed the cry of James Otis without representation is tyranny. 1773) is well known. Every ship with tea in its cargo wfis forbidden to land. is and for other objects. the Enghsh parliament passed what Stamp Act. hardship to the colonists. Parhament decided that Massachusetts should be punished for this outrage. not a single stamp was ever sold. For a long time the colonists had evaded these laws with impunity. which taxed enforce this law position. Now. This act served only to cement the union dollars' . and little. It ordered that no ships should enter or leave the port of Boston. but to the land of their birth. Men of Massachusetts disguised as Indians boarded some British ships and emptied ninety thousand : worth of tea into the water. a small duty on tea alone was retained. legal documents." Patrick Henry declared the General Assembly of Virginia alone had the right and power to lay taxes upon the inhabitants of that colony. Needless to say. aroused hatred and met . however.372 The Conflict in America land. however.

and on one occasion they murdered five citizens. War had to come. Many Americans. In spite of British prohibition she had learned to make all necessary articles. and 419. It placed its army under the command of George Washington. His experience in the French and Indian war was to prove most valuable. to unite all in a spirit of resistance. remained a considerable number of the colonists who. 1776. For a time the fate of the colonies hung in the balance. imder the inspiring and steadfast leadership of Washington. On July 4. who had occupied New York after some success in Massachusetts. Washington. Her resources were amply suflScient for her needs. 418. There neutral. the Continental Congress.Revolution 373 between the colonies. Many others were refused to join in a war of independence. The Revolution (1775-1783). as Britain claimed a right to tax them. Pohtical independence was sent delegates inevitable. after serious discussion. confident of the justice of their cause. resolved of the thirteen colonies to carry the matter through to the bitter end. was compelled to withdraw across the Hudson and to retreat before a force too great for him. declared the independence — which had imited in the revolt. Soon it became evident that no compromise was possible. For many months he barely held his own. On the contrary her measures tended to widen the breach. some because they believed that England would be sure to win and some from pure love for their mother country. colonies The Eve of the Revolution. redress Stubbornly England refused to hear complaints or grant of wrongs. to — Twelve of the thirteen a Congress held at Philadelphia They declared a boycott on English goods as long (1774). prepared to make terms with the winning side. Help and sympathy came from far-away Georgia to the stricken port of Boston. Troops were quartered in the homes of the colonists. a rich yoimg planter. At last America was economically free. meeting frequent defeats and . the Continental Congress of 1775 prepared for the inevitable.

fleet. the prindpal force of some colonies in the early part of the war. now the United States of America (1783). now and declared war on England and sent valuable aid to the struggling colonists. . A British army.374 only The Conflict in America then restoring the courage of his supporters by a Then a great victory came. His surrender with all his force practically ended the war. At last the army of Washington. Gradually the British armies found that they were A MrmjTE Man . Soon afterward France briUiant exploit. marching down from Canada toward the Hudson. A man who in the Revolution was ready for service at a minute's notice. and acknowledged the independence of the colonies. holding the ground only on which they camped and fought. England gave up the struggle. was surrounded and captured at Saratoga. cooperating with a French caught the main British army under Lord Cornwallis in a trap at Yorktown.

colonies . the gateway to the vast. their marked the deathknell of the old colonial policy. war . England 1. previous success. Success of the East India Company . honesty. She captured the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch. Colonies began to be governed according to managed as if they were branches of a great trading firm. the French company. achievements of Dupleix. with its command of the entrance In addition an to the Mediterranean. final agreement. It continued to expand until to-day it is the greatest empire the world has ever known. further history of the English company. II. profits. England 1. and not long afterward a large part of southern Africa became British. in conflict with Holland. in conflict with France. Her claims in India were becoming even more firmly estabUshed. IV. had fallen into her hands. and its advantages. credit Origin and character. ideas. lesson loss 375 Growth of the British Empire. Australia. entire continent. England learned a from her troubles with the American colonies. Their " — accordingly system. III. of England. and less took its place. a valuable country. 2. Relation to the government. had already (1770) been claimed in the name of her king. She retained Canada. 'Warner. tion Acts ." ^ The colonial empire of England was not shattered by the loss of her American possessions. 261. East India Company composition and objects. . The Bank 1. the mistress of the seas. resources of the great Northwest. The impregnable fortress of Gibraltar.Studies 420. In India. A new ment. instead of being own Syllabus of the Struggle for World Empire I. She remained the supreme naval and commercial power. based more on patriotism and sention material considerations of profit and loss. England gains the upper hand. 2. Profiting by past mistakes. Rivalry of the Dutch. Naviga- . the new British empire was to be even vaster and more glorious than the one England had lost. Clive.

government social life. Customs and Amusements in the American Colonies. . chs. independence recognized. i. Lessons from the revolution . Colonial Earle. a. English colonies of various character occupaeducation. Life in the — Eighteenth Century. : Conflict in America . VI. 3243. in America. Wars between English and French English success. in cdfiimittee. Directions for the Study of this Chapter I. . xxvi. chs. viii Andrews. xii. I. c. George Washington and the army. Declaration of Independence. The war. American History told by Contemporaries. I. health. b. 3. The In America tions. American Revolution. Fisk. trade re- 3. Religion in the American Colonies. Colonial discontent and opposition. especially chs. xviii. . I. Colonization of III. Write an essay pn one what you know of the topics of the Reading Topics. Short History of the English Colonies the New World. Dames and Good Wives. ix. selfreligion and morals. New acquisitions. Hart. of the British empire. xix-xxi. strictions. xi. V. Colonial Self-Government. and Soc. I. ch. Hart. xiii. 2. ix. of Modern Europe. Earle. C. viii.. tell in their order. French aid. chs. French colonies contrasts with English settlements. the Continental Congress of 1774. Lodge. — — . Hist. Eggleston. ch. Fol. x. Reading Topics For the whole subject read Hayes. may prepare a set those at the end of the last chapter. . chs. 423 ff. viii. With the syllabus before you 2. England's attitude toward the thirteen colonies. iv. new colonial policy. M. increased by new and oppressive restrictions. Two or three members of questions similar to tire class may o£ the class. xx. Home and Family. I. . Growth 1. and the en-^ take part in answering them.376 2. II.

Laws of War and Peace. felt the need of joining together not merely to prbtect for the themselves. new had war. 377 1583-1645. it would be unwise again to allow any monarchy to become so great as The new international principle is to endanger the rest. Louis XIV and his Nobles. By consulting this work. but also to share in the spoils of victory balance of power provided that no great state should be enlarged without a corresponding enlargement of the other great powers. as now. statesmen found that they could often settle their international disputes without recourse to war. New questions to be settled as to the rights of ambassadors. the proper attitude of neutral nations. too. — With the Peace of West- 1648 (§ 340) Europe finally came to appreciate the fact that Spain had lost her leadership. The system thus arising gave a new impetus and a experience brought public men to the conviction that . For a century she had threatened to absorb the other states of Europe and this . the others had to combine in self -protection . France retained her 422. too." As France was now the strongest power on the Continent. phalia. termed the " balance of power. a strong nation always wished to become still more powerful. The larger states. direction to negotiations and alliances.CHAPTER XXV THE AGE OF DESPOTS 1648-1789 421. . and the treatment of prisoners of These questions Grotius ' answered in his text-book on diplomacy. for then. leadership in European affairs throughout the long reign of — 1 A Dutch scholar. The New State-System. Any pretext served for seizing and annexing a smaller neighbor.

They were. The annual expense of maintaining the royal household including the nobles fortunate enough to find a place there. others solemnly marched in front of his food in its roundabout procession from the kitchen to his table the duty of another was to hand him his napkin. Louis buUt a new one at Ver-sailles' a suburb of Paris — — more magnificent than Europe had known since the — days of the Roman emperors. Driven from their estates. All the other acts of his . Some two hundred persons were present at his rising in the morning. In spite of all his variety of affairs and amusements. and the servants was enormous. In fact the king never enjoyed a minute of freedom. The Court at Versailles. and the several articles of his dress. they passed their time at court in idle luxury. officers of the army. Unfortunately this table ceremony was so prolonged that the food was always cold by the time it reached the royal family. with an almanac and a watch one might tell three hundred leagues away exactly what Louis was doing at any time of the day or night. their simple habits continued with little change throughput the sixteenth century. When they finally overcame the feudal lords. how- ever. Earlier French kings had lived like ordinary nobles. They vied with each other in performing servants' duties for the " Grand Monarch. This was especially true of Louis XIV. the nobles gladly accepted a home at the court of their sovereign (§ 341). In peace. they naturally wished to make They surrounded their superiority clear to all men's eyes. In forming an idea of this sum we must remember that the purchasing power of money was far greater then than it is at present. The nobles had been deprived of their last shred of power. themselves accordingly with elaborate etiquette and ceremony. There were nobles who attended to the function of carrying the king's sword when he walked or rode." Disliking the old palace of 423. the Louvre. The building vyith its furnishings cost a hundred million dollars. Various nobles attended to bringing him water for washing — — . regulated. as formerly. Everything was minutely. and many feudal castles had been demolished.378 Age of Despots Louis XIV (1643-1715).

Religion. Louis. They were often discontented. . no longer a condition of the soul. From Pardoe. they willingly enslaved themselves to fashion. The men of the They preferred outward show. however. His queen and dauphin (heir apparent) were surrounded by similar formalities. who were allowed to remain at home Versailles. time lacked originality and substantial minds. however. The king. ^ Versailles Described in the text. The wealthy business class Life — bourgeoisie imitated the mere pretence.Court Life daily life 379 functions pomp. rendering them powerless. too. Louis had made of the nobles courtiers. and enjoyment a was a formality. The nobles — king at imitated the noble. as though they were religious and Louis a god on earth. the higher classes were pleased with formalism. entirely to blame. 'Louis XIV. had made himself a slave to ceremony. and jealous of each other court life was filled with intrigues. was not 424. Formalism and Servility.' of the age. An elaborate court life suited the nobles. too. was artificial. for he did little more than direct the spirit called for equal .

may seem. and education. and that he was His representative on to To disobey the king was disobey in the God hands (§ 374). Absolutism. the French people accepted these teachof their and were wiUing to place absolute power Unlike the English they did not know what liberty really meant. that flood of verse in his praise. or on horseback at the head of his troops. II. Their parliament. Louis had " the very figure of a hero. So much for his exterior. Insincerity and imitation per- According to Saint Simon. ' too. events these words well express the subjection of all things to the royal will. Long ago that body had fallen into Louis was every inch a king he was hand. and the insipid and sickening compliments that were continually offered to him in person and which he swallowed with unfailing relish. In fact 425. Then. that form of government was the most common throughout — Europe said. . 285." ^ Louis was an absolute ruler. God to rule." as historians have asserted whether Louis really but at all . of memoir writers. disuse. a perfect countenance. . He excelled in all sorts of exercise. No fatigue nor stress of weather made any impression on that heroic figure and bearing. 286. which has never been equalled nor even approached. Louis thoroughly believed that he had been ap- pointed by earth. To secure his favor.. his mistakes of judgment in matters of importance. vaded the writings the most eminent authority. " I in this period.. hence those opera prologues that he himself tried to sing. Strange as it ings king. hence his distaste for aU merit. had never controlled the state funds." ^ We find the reverse of this picture in an author who complains that " Louis XIV's vanity was without limit or restraint. how- had to flatter him.380 Louis encouraged ever. Robinson. and the grandest air and mean ever vouchsafed to man. the estates general (§211). He was as dignified and majestic in his dressing gown as when he dressed in robes of state. proportions such as a sculptor would choose to model. and above everything else.. a jealousy of his own of the period. Readings. intelligence. * Ibid. It is doubtful am the State. they Age of Despots men of letters.

kept him from going into bankruptcy. he next attempted to crush the little Dutch Republic. Unfortunately his ambitions were not peaceful. He looked with longing eyes upon the Spanish Netherlands. Louis had to draw so heavily upon his private income that his fine estates were ruined. We have seen the bright side of the Grand Monarch's reign. We need not follow in detail his many 427. The treasury was empty. and the life of the upper classes — with their wealth and luxury. Although he cared little for industry. He died in disappointan extreme old age (1715). which he attacked with his magnificent army. all Europe united to resist France. He wished to maintain the leadership of France in European affairs. To this end he reorganized his forces and began to make unjustifiable attacks upon his neighbors. 426. ment at — . Another ambition was to add glory to his name and to France by the sword. On the other hand. The most splendor. and no longer able to pay for the luxuries of Versailles. and possessed a pleasing personality. She was crippled by her loss of fighting men and of money. commerce. he wished France to be wealthy. France was allowed to preserve her own territory and some of her conquests. however. was broken. a general lack of progress in every walk of life. he was some. too. and Louis was finally compelled to conclude peace. though surrounded with — was in fact poverty-stricken. conflicts with other countries. in appearance a true type of majesty. These unfortunate conditions were due not only to the extravagance of the wealthy. Louis's ministers 428. or colonies. The tide turned against her. The important offices he had put into the hands of competent business men. The Finances under Louis XIV. Successful there. He believed. but to the foreign conflicts of Louis's reign. Awakened to the danger of a master tyrant. however. Her power. Exhaustion. The country was impoverished. the masses were hopelessly poor (§ 351). Poverty and War. The grand monarch. and had rewarded able service with grants of nobility. There was. that the best way to make her prosperous was to reduce her neighbors to poverty and distress.War and Exhaustion 381 In short.

Reckless wars. to mention some of the smaller nations which rendered important services to Europe. He France a commercial state to finance . In a spirit of religious fervor he had revoked the Edict of Nantes (§ 338). to transfer her ambition wished to make from war to manage her policy on sound business principles. Her citizens were men who had been trained in the hard school of necessity. because his master cared less for commerce than for military glory. The abuses of this system may easily be imagined. Although Colbert dared not abolish the lease of taxes. in this effort he did not receive the steady sup- port of the Crown. In order to pay expenses. Sweden. and withdrew all privileges from the Huguenots. and revenues increased. efficient of these ministers was . court extravagance. All they could extort above the amount of the bid belonged to them. Their rate of taxation 429. Sweden had aided the cause of Protestantism in Germany when it seemed about to fail. In every way the absolutism of Louis failed and he was himself responsible for the lasting damage which his policy inflicted upon his country. minister protested frankly against the expenses of Ver- that it would perhaps afford the king. he placed the system under strict supervision. They carried with them their skill and thrift. warlike.382 Age of Despots Col-bert'. With his careful management the lower. The king kept pouring out money ever faster. The sailles. and the neglect of colonial affairs were results of Louis's mismanagement. Hitherto capitalists had bidden for the privilege of collecting taxes. Although Colbert attempted to introduce failed only He new industries. pleasure and amusement. which forms a large part of a nation's strength. Many thousands emigrated to countries where they might worship God according to their conscience. In our study of this period it is necessary 430. greater amounts had to come in. Absolutism in France. their departure left France poorer and weaker. but would never increase his glory. and ambitious. became of Failure — . They were austere. — . As a majority of them belonged to the middle class. Under her absolute rulers she became for a time a great power.

239) finally captured Constantinople. It was a hopeless task even for this new Alexander the Great. to civilization was performed by Poland. The strength of Sweden was broken by constant warfare. He was. he displayed one great fault. Russia. Strong in character and courageous. 383 first At the age in the Comicil He The young King Charles XII took part and showed a judgment far beyond his years. and put an end to Turkey's hopes in this direction. a position which she holds to-day. Gradually they extended their sway westward. / / honor and fair play. Little did western Europe know how its whole civilization had been threatened.Sweden statesmen were military and n^val organizers of the rank. Rapidly Sweden sank to a third-rate power. courtesy. Here the armies of Poland finally checked them. A far greater service not only to Europe but 431. Prussia. — . piety. but now divided among the Russian. They already held the Balkan peninsula and were preparing to conquer central Europe. of fifteen their virtues ascribed to of him included truth. then a powerful nation. a reckless daring in thinking out and in executing brilliant but dangerous plans for the discom- and a sound sense fiture of his enemies. At that time the nation was in the throes of a struggle for internal reform and unable to defend herself against foreign attack. Under him Sweden reached the height His whole reign (1697-1718) was filled with wars. and assailed Vienna (1683). however. Taking advantage of this condition. and of her power. but a magnified type of a people who had breathed the virile atmosphere of Sweden. was a precocious genius in both war and statesmanship. Poland. In 1453 the Turks (§§ 202. who after a romantic career was killed by a cannon ball. Every artisan and one of every two peasants had been taken for soldiers. A century later the work of Poland was forgotten. At first he defended his country with wonderful intelligence and success against a combination of all her neighbors. and German empires. Austrian. War's effect on industry and agriculture need not be described. Then the savior of Sweden attempted the conquest of Russia.

In order to become acquainted with the customs of civilization. for he offered large. — From off the thirteenth to from western Europe. and the House of Parliament. that he was always kind in the treatment of his guests. Peter with his uncouth barbarian suite visited western Europe. The wanton destruction of a state by avowedly Christian neighbors remains a blot on the history of civilization. but they were quick to grasp new ideas. He was a true child of his race. .384 Age of Despots Austria seized the country. for between her and the Black Sea lived the Tartars and the Turks. museums. His genius and energy were directed toward modernizing his country. It must be said to Peter's credit. These barbarian rulers so repressed all attempts at progress that the Russians ceased to wish for better things. The ideas of western Europe came to them but slowly overland. and they were too ignorant and too downtrodden to welcome intelligent visitors. a man of hot temper. printing presses. Such was the condition of 433. inflamed by excessive drinking. Peter the Great (1689-1725) Russia when Peter the Great came to the throne.^ 432. who coming from Asia. hospitals. The Beginnings of Russia. With chUdlike wonder Peter and his retinue visited factories. each of the three kingdoms receiving a share (1795). The Russian nobles were jealous of these strangers who usurped their place in the favor of the. For these reasons she had little to do with the rest of the world. She had long been held in subjection by the Tartars. — . Her neighbors tried to keep her civilization at as low a level as possible that she might not rival them in war or in industry. She had no seaport. had overrun the entire country. resist. however. inducements to foreigners to settle in his country. For years they quarrelled over the division of the spoils while Poland remained powerless to Then a final partition was made.Czar. Their experiences were amusing. whereas the Swedes and Poles barred her from the Baltic. He must have been deeply impressed by western arts and industries. the sixteenth century Russia was cut — ' In the autumn of igi6 the German emperor proclaimed the restoration of Poland evidently a war measure to secure the military service of the Poles.

too. Peter in- Determined to obtain a seaport terested himself in naval affairs. The act was barbarous. When he returned home. who on Peter's accession had hoped to These soldiers he destroyed in seize the reins of government. thus satisfying his naval ambition. and modelled his government after that In a few years the Czar knew to a penny of a western state. and en- couraged manufacturing and mining. 435. but it served as an object lesson. who had often interfered in civil matters and had seriously inconvenienced ideas into Russia new the government. he took with him an experienced corps of shipbuilders. and how every penny was spent. drew up a code of laws. Peter's Reforms — In our own time reforms are brought about gradually. The Founding was the founding of his of Petrograd. one massacre. to take charge of church affairs. Russia. Here he wrought much with his own hands and made all about him work at the models of ships. Peter appointed a committee. introduced a school system. With this object in view he spent much of his time in the shipyards of Holland. and upon his power vanished. for Russia was rich in He built roads and canals on a huge scale. natural resources. was in a state of anarchy due principally to the insolent and arrogant miUtia. succeeded in wresting a large strip of the Baltic seaboard from Sweden. — Peter's greatest task He had . introduce Peter understood. called the Holy Synod. He was a born mechanic and wished to acquire a personal knowledge of shipbuilding. capital. To this end he rid himself of the Patriarch of the Russian church. that to for his people hated foreigners would be like planting a mine. the amount of all his income. In this way the Czar of Russia became head of the church. 434. The militia he replaced with a well-disciplined force modelled after western armies.Russia 385 for his country. all restraint Peter could issued a now enforce his reforms upon his people. however. He new coinage. He was determined to be an absolute ruler in fact as well as in name. and foreign customs. For his place of residence and his principal seaport he chose an island at the mouth of the Neva.

fearing that they could not enter heaven without their beards. " There were many old Russians. Readings. in order to have them placed in their coffins. 309 f. to adopt the French fashion of coat. when the ice was so strong that it could bear any weight. who. too.. had to discard the nativ6 costume and to put oh the gowns and tight bodices of western Europe. as we have seen. after having their beards shaved off. Then." ^ Noblemen had to forego their long Oriental garb which reached the feet. retained the native dress. of to-day. vest. and stone. Peter forced his 436. . thus giving the empire dominion over the Black Sea. saved them preciously. The Czar set armies of men to work at this huge task. Russia shared in the seizure of Poland. All peasants. Petersburg. Russian armies subjugated and annexed the Cri-me'an peninsula. formerly St. *Ibid. her boundaries in Europe ap- proximated those. is a worthy sea. Before the close of the eighteenth century. " He went about it in winter. As a punishment for disobedience the guards were ordered to cut off the part of the robe that fell below the knee. Pe'tro-grad. monument to the energetic spirit of its founder. Peter and his successors were conquerors. Trees of about thirty feet in length and about fifteen inches thick were taken and joined artfully together into chests ten feet high. in the month of November. — ' Robinson. as it made them appear more agreeable to the fair sex. causing it to carry materials such as timber laid. The Adoption of Western Customs. too. Under penalty of a heavy fine the Russians were compelled to shave off the beards which they cherished so much. subjects to adopt western social customs. and to adorn themselves with silver and gold according to their means." ^ The marsh was soon transformed into one of the most splendid capitals of Europe. Noble women. and knee breeches. II. these chests were filled with stones of great weight which sunk down through the The foundation was thus and made a very solid foundation.386 Age of Despots The ground was low and swampy and the work of filling it in stupendous. The young men followed the custom willingly. however. 311.

He was successful in inkingdom by a third. From Radnet. one of the many states of the Russian Peasants A young man and woman are performing a folk dance amid a group of neighbors. Prussia. as in the West.' She was aggressive. The mightiest of this line of rulers was Frederick the Great (1740-1786). He inherited with the throne a full treasury and an army of fighting giants. — Prussia was somewhat slower in becoming a great power. to which those only were admitted who were dressed in the Western style. showed He was a father of his people and labored his true greatness. and receptions. Holy Roman Empire. 437. met in social but in future they were to mingle in the same hall on the occasion of weddings. Peter set the example in all these changes. Such entertainments usually closed with dances and concerts. and here he.Prussia 387 rarely Under the old custom men and women festivities . For the beginnings of this nation it is necessary to go back to Bran'den-burg. Her ruler then became the king of Prussia. A characteristic rural scene. The greater part of his reign was peaceful. men of unusual height and strength whom his father had selected with the greatest care. Napoleon declared him to have been one of all time. however. and absorbed the neighboring duchy of Prussia. 'Le costume historique. the greatest generals of creasing the size of his . banquets.

too. in imitating it. the rival of Austria. roads. '• . exercised complete control over their realms ' For social life in France. polished and perfected The Commons and the Benevolent Despots. — benevolent because they sincerely tried to better conditions. The strong characters we have been studying are called benevolent despots despots because they life." language. His administration was efficient and economical. class power. factures. I fear." Frederick hoped to unearth a genius and to encourage hini with royal patronage. but throughout the length and breadth of Europe. Frederick deplored the lack of a German literature. and the whole audience transported with delight by these absurd farces." he declared. French gallantry frivolity. Their lack of progress was due to the constant warfare among their sovereigns and to the ever-increasing extravagance of court 438. and the masses were but silent actors in the dramas which their rulers directed. and canals. Once he said. we will come to a French death. " In order to convince yourself of the bad taste that reigns in Germany you have only will see to frequent the theatre. There you presented the abominable plays of Shake- speare translated into our language. xxi. and. The French cannot devise anything so absurd that the Germans. for our sins deserve no other. of kings. In this we have had little to say of the common people.was accordingly a struggle between great' persona:lities. and our by our writers. German " Some day. As a rule they were poor. They were men of genius and ability and may be considered partially successful. trade.^ Their condition was about the same as it had been during the two or three preceding centuries. Undet him Prussia became a firstimprove their condition. will not make it and still more ridiculous.388 to Age of Despots He encouraged agriculture. not in court circles only. fit only for the savages of Canada. will be spoken. manuAt the same time he made many improvements in bridges. ." He complains further of " French music. "our neighbors will learn German. — chapter People placidly accepted the theory of the divine right The age. see ch.

Charles XII. There were many others whose aims were — high. and international law made a great advance. The progress of peace. This well-intentioned man died broken-hearted with the discovery that his life had been a failure. for their people were not permitted a share in the reform work. Joseph II of Austria (1765-1790) . sway the nobles became and the lost ^ intellectual class were so given to formalities that they for the time their sense of truth. for in many cases their reforms were of permanent benefit. however. In — this period a new state system. but who were not born figures in all history transform his leaders. Joseph proved to be the last of the benevolent despots. money and energy idle spendthrifts Louis XIV. Absolutism. and how they succeeded the many ideas. wasted the of his people not only on war but also on the frivolities of his court.Austria 389 439. to be enduring. who waged wars for the conquest of neighbors. in their 440. the most brilliant type of a despot. Long experience has now taught the world that improvements. End of the Benevolent Despots. Europe owes much to them. was retarded by despots. In the following chapter we shaU see how the people awoke to their responsibilities. One of the most pathetic was Joseph II of Austria. generally without compensatory gains. and Peter the Great. came into being. He aimed to dominion into an ideal state. work of reform. — mere Under his burdens upon the nation. At the same time they were hampered by being despots. must spring froni the people. This end he failed to bring about. language. The commons were the sufferers to such an extent that they could make neither economic nor political progress. was an advantage to Russia in that it . like Louis XIV. Summary. These conflicts were destructive of life and property. He lacked the tact and wisdom to take into account the prejudices of the different peoples who composed his kingdom. His impatience caused unrest and his reign was a constant turmoil of revolts. He wished to make and races under his rule one in customs. on the basis of the balance of power. however.

ch. I. though benevolent in purpose. What impoverished the. S. 366-79 Europe. vii. What were the effects of his wars? 11. chs. Describe court life at Versailles. vii Robinson and Beard. i. Development of Modern Europe. What is meant by the balance of power? Wh^t were the circumstances that led to its growth ? Who was Grotius. II. Readings. Robinson. What was the character of the Swedes? Give an account of the career of Charles XII. Review I. What 17. What was the state of his finances. 273-96. Adams. Summarize of the aims of Joseph II of Austria. I. § 11. What contrary opinions of this king were set down by his contemporaries? What is the " divine 5. How. Robinson and Beard. Robinson.. What was the character of Peter the Great? How did he prepare himself for th^ improvement of his country? 14. and with what result? 10. . How did Louis treat the Huguenots. 390 Age of Despots It forced her to adopt western civilization. Describe the formalism and servility of society under Louis XIV. Give an account of the ideas and the achievements of Frederick the Great. 'Years of Russian History. I. 15. ii II. What 12. — — . and through what causes? 3. Louis XIV.. Readings. Describe his reform. Give an account Why did he fail ? 20. xiii I. Give an account of the founding of Petrograd of Peter's conquests. also to the Germans in founding the strong was an advantage kingdom of Prussia.' What was the great achievement of Poland ? What was her fate ? was the condition of Russia before Peter the Great ? 13. Political and Social History of Modern Peter the Great. Genuine reform was to spring from the hearts of the people. Describe western customs did he introduce. . Topics for Reading Hayes. E. In Austria despotism. chs. 18. and for what is he famous? 2> What change took place in the habits and ceremonies of the French kings. What part had the common people in this age? Who were benevolent despots? 19. I.' .s. iv. ch. 4. wholly failed in its objects. A Thousand. What is absolutism? right of kings? " What made the French willing to accept this doctrine? 6. 8.great majority of Frenchmen? What were Louis's views and policy as to increasing the greatness of France ? 7. i6. viii. Hayes. the tendencies and conditions of the period. . II. Growth of the French Nation. Give an account of Louis's wars and their results. and by what means? the beginnings of Prussia. ch. '303-12. and what remedies were attempted? 9.

Why has Poland not figured more largely in the history of Europe ? 10. Why did despotism prevail on the Continent during the period 1648-1789? 3. Compare the French method of taxation with the Roman method. Did the introduction of Western dress into Russia contribute much to her civilization? Give reasons for your answer. what power took her place on the Continent? on the seas? 7. Was there any connection? What were the specific results of Louis's reign? 9. Why did Peter the Great succeed so well while Joseph II met with absolute failure? II. 2. Why did not the impoverished and oppressed masses revolt in this period ? 4. Write a syllabus of this chapter. 13. . As Spain lost her leadership. 12. Why was life in Paris under Louis XIV more formal than it is to-day? 5.SHtdies Additional Studies 391 Write a brief history of Spain from the discovery of America to the time of Louis XIV. including the causes of her greatness and decline. Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics. What is wrong in Louis's theory of war? 6. I.

— Judged Condition of the Peasants. as this plan is called. The peasants were no longer bound to the soil. or forced labor on bridges and roads. has proved successful at the present time. There were frequent disputes between tenant and landlord regarding profits and amount of work to be done and in all such misunderstandings the owner had an undue advantage. It was usually when his fields needed cultivating. an English country gentleman. sober. the conditions of that age were not favorable to partnership. Among the gravest abuses still inflicted on the peasantry was the corvie. In many places the traveller found farmers working their land on half profits. France in the eighteenth century presented a wretched picture. respect they were free from serfdom ject to the 392 .CHAPTER XXVI THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON 1789-181S 441. These freeholders corresponded to the yeomen of England.forth by Arthur Young. Its unpleasant details are best set. the Corv6e and the Game by the standard of our own age. In many cases he had to travel . He found that less than one fourth of the arable land was owned by the peasants themselves. who kept a diary of his travels in that country. and in that . that the corvee demanded his services. hard-working farmer. but they were still submost vexatious burdens of serfdom. It laid hands not only on him. but on his team of horses and his plough as well. For this r'5ason it tended to demoraUze the honest. Their lot was comparatively happy. or his crops were ready for harvesting. Laws. While cooperative farming.

When it the peasant returned from his often happened that he found that his newly work on the roads. for each province had its own laws. customs. the king would have been unable to remedy this evil. Although this work had to be done and all had to contribute to it. there to spend several days in swamp. in that age a tax was collected at the boundary of each province. for the pigeons were owned by nobles. however. Another serious fault of the old system was that the financial burdens fell most heavily on the peasant. The privilege of collecting the taxes was leased to the highest bidder (§ loi). and government. sown seed had been devoured by the flocks of pigeons. too. In the first place roads were poor and often impassable. so long as each district continued to pay its quota of — taxes. hold was obUged to purchase annually for every member of his . for at best crops were scanty. pensive to bring suppUes to a famine-stricken region from a neighboring province. Naturally local famines were of common occurrence. It was both diflScult and ex442. This system gave rise to all kinds of favoritisnl. of the nobles were permitted to roam at large through the fields of the peassant. It was inevitable that his crops should be damaged. This added expense eventually came from the consmner's pocket. As a matter of fact the king cared little. In a commercial sense at least. which the public had to make good by increased burdens. France was not a united nation.oppression 393 to a distance of twenty miles. Burdensome Taxes. There was a land tax and a poll tax. the oppressive method of distributing the labor meant a loss of ten times the repairing a bridge or filling in a gain. The most vexatious of all. Although at the present time customs duties are collected only when goods are brought from a foreign country. The hares and deer. seems to have been the salt tax. Had he wished. In France at that time the government made the traffic in salt a state monopoly for the purpose of Under penalty of a fine the head of a houseraising a revenue. Unfortunately he could not protect himself from this outrage.

they knew well. the exactions of their stewards became more oppressive. were far better educated and more intelligent. Paradoxical as it may seem. Absent Lords and their Peasants. although they formed the bulk of the nation. The peasants. The French peasants. It was the Peasants' Intelligence. The nobles and clergy escaped many burdens which other citizens had to bear.394 French. al- ready described (§§ 341. had no privileges. greatest weight on those who were on the peasants a poverty and misery from which there could be no escape. and had no right therefore to the feudal dues. The whole system inflicted . 351). 444. They did not have to pay the heaviest taxes they did not have These privileges to work on the roads or serve in the militia. grew greater year by year. however. Although many nobles were newly created by the king.ring it. 443. and therefore more sensitive to the wrongs inflicted upon them. Unequal Rights becoming more and more evident that the poverty and wretchedness were due to a miserable system of despotism and of feudal rule. In fact many nobles had bought their title of the . The personal bond that had once united the peasants to their lord was broken. for instance. family several pounds of so much. they exacted them illeLittle they gave the peasants in return. those of Germany. The price was exorbitant. as we have seen. As their luxuries at court increased. and who. It seems clear that in spite of all these afflictions the peasants of France were freer and more prosperous than. Revolution salt. ing upon the emigration of nobles to Paris — The and evils follow- Versailles. cared nothing for them. All Frenchmen -^y no means enjoyed the same rights. the nobles as feudal lords had enjoyed for centuries. — . their better condition and their intellectual advance over the masses of central Europe roused among them a more intense disctontent than could be found elsewhere on the Continent. It became more and more odious to them to perform services for a master whom they had never seen. and thus prepared them for revolt against the oppressive system. gally. and the burden although they did not need nearly fell with least capable of be£|.

for the land belonged to God. We must grant that it performed important public services. His palace contained seven himdred beds. well-to-do. It paid no taxes. although they received hardly enough to keep body and soul together. Some were great feudal nobles and enjoyed huge incomes. Besides the income -from its own possessions. In this period men 446. These men did nothing to earn their income they neither taught nor exerted themselves to improve the condition of the unfortvmate. Cardinal de Ro-han' had a princely income. For example. ments of Versailles. ment of the Catholic church with political and social affairs. and was paid by those who tilled the soil. not a tax. — — — — entertain at one time two hundred guests with their servants. The peasant cannot be blamed for chafing 'under this heavy burden. He had fourteen butlers and could . however. and therefore had no claim whatever on the loyalty of their peasants. This was a tax of about ten per cent on the produce of the fields. by the village priests the curates and vicars. that this was a gift. Unfortunately the French had little experience in managing their own affairs. and his stables had accommodation for a hundred and eighty horses. and for revolting against the church as well as — against the political system. Furthermore the Church owned one fifth of the land of France. the church derived a large revenue from the tithes. and He was not subject to taxation. The Need of Reform began to understand in a general way that conditions were wrong and that reform was necessary. . They were corrupt and useless. This work was done. Occasionally the church granted a sum of money to the state it was clearly understood. Voltaire. Its schools were the best in France it took charge of the sick and the poor. and spent most of their time at the amuse. The estates general (§ 211) had not been called during the century and a half before the time of which we are now speaking. however. Evils in the Church. It was the upper clergy bishops and abbots who were. ' Others were not far behind him. — . Another evil was the entangle445.Evils in the Church 395 king for money.

They used every opportunity. . 'however. medicine." ^ A master of ridicule. a influential man of his age. Di-de-rot'. and a poet that barely missed being immortal. lio men trained in mak- ing constitutions and in carrying on the representatives of the nation. The Encyclopaedists. so that they could treat of mathematics. In their enthusiasm they went too far. they produced the first French encyclopaedia. a good historian. We see on the 1 Mathews. definite remedies. or Charles XII of Sweden. now he writes a history of Louis XIV.. if not the complete abolition of rehgion. but failed to propose . — Even more radical in their views were the Encyclopaedists. good scientist. Nothing was foreign to his restless mind. They of believed that every government was "a mere handful knaves who impose their yoke upon men. French Revolution. In this work they attempted to bring together all that was known to man. to attack Christianity though they did not question the existence of God. One minute he is urging that dead people should be buried outside cities at another he is an enthusiast for vaccination now he writes volumes on physics. of priests. . In political afiairs they were radicals. philosophy. Religion had lost its hold on them. In like manner he made known the evils of the social and economic system. whose charm men cannot yet escape now he is a poet and a dramatist. 396 'Siace then there French Revolution ' had been no leaders. imdoubtedly the most " He was a good philosopher. 447. work of government as About the middle of the eighteenth century there was born a new school of French thinkers. He urged complete separation of church and state. In other words they were deists. In seeking to rid men's minds of superstitition he destroyed their faith and failed to put anything else in its place. now he is experimenting with light. he directed his satire and sarcasm against Catholics and Protestants alike. for they declared religion an imposture. history. The ablest of these critics was Vol-taire' (1694-1778). a living sham. 59. Led by an able scholar. and physics without theological bias.

in anarchy or in the tyranny of the mob. political Ufe of Paris began to afford an exciting spectacle. Europe. Every citizen should vote on every Naturally such theories would never work. was his Social Contract. The sum of all wisdom is contained in these words " Observe Nature and follow the path she traces for you !" Of greatest importance. Revolutionary Literature 397 face of the globe only incapable. Man should be taught. Connecting itself with social discontent. At first a devout Catholic.. In this book Rousseau created a modern state based on liberty and equaUty. government. He believed that every good quahty in man is stifled by the absurd social institutions forced upon him. Civihzed man is born. The . Rousseau's Social Contract. unjust sovereigns.he beUeved that his faith could be simplified by clearing away the overgrowth of errors. The government is merely the machinery which executes laws and maintains liberty. however. Rousseau (1712-1778). out in question. — — writer explains the state as the result of a contract between men. and education. he is fettered by our institutions. in which each will of the sovereign man is subject to the general is will. By biting sarcasm such writers made clear the wretchedness and suffering which existed in France. At his birth he is sewn in swaddling clothes at his death he is nailed in a coffin and as long as he preserves the human form. morals. Yet there was a kernel of wisdom in his thought of a society that could reason This principle he succeeded in spreading throughout for itself. luxury. The though not always wise. people right. dies in a state of slavery. but how really to live. by and without talent. corrupted flattery. weakened by Ucense. From that time forward the 450. 449. it came to mean either reform or revolution. was a man of great reverence." On the other hand Rous-seau' 448.: . not some career chosen by his parents. Revolutionary Agitation. lives. Most of his attention he turned to social conditions. depraved through unpunished In this way writers with a brilliant style and a wealth of learning began to urge the abolition of all government. — . His view of popular sovereignty could only result practice. or good qualities.

who from chairs or. The ministers he appointed proved to be excellent. ing presses were running night and day. Louis XVI (beginning 1774). financial system and it is probable that he alone could have prevented the revolution. cannot easily be imagined. pamphlets increased by leaps and bounds. At his accession he was not even acquainted with the magnificent pubhc buildings or the which alert nor diligent.' for he and friends to had a weak will. Un. . 452. His personaUty lacked magnetism. preached : economy to the court " No more dosing. as he was shy." He hoped to build up a sound. retiring. the clergy and nobility. and to be called Louis the Sincere. Neither he proved incapable of attending to details. he showed a kindly disposition and economical habits. hstening to certhe spirit that coffee houses in the Palais tain orators. He wished to be considered one of his people. and the thunder of applause they receive for every sentiment of more than common violence against the present government. He was is easily influenced by councillors act against the interest of the state. to be king. But the Royal present yet more astonishing spectacles. but other expectant crowds are at the doors and windows. French nation had confidence cere in his — On in its the whole. the new king. however. brilliant literary circle of Paris. ' From Arthur Young. a serious defect in an absolute monarch. He was unfit. Religious and sincere. Tur-got'. he always tried to do what he thought to be the best for his country. and disinclined to mingle with men. must thus be raised among the people. for he was sin- dream of reform. they are not only crowded within.398 French Revolution issue of The Print" Nineteen. On the whole his private character was admirable. the eagerness with which they are heard. tables harangue each his little audience. Public Finances Fail." ^ In such an atmosphere 4Si. Though headstrong. and he utterly lacked imagi- — nation. His education was poor. Louis XVI ascended the throne. no more drugging.twentieths of these productions are in favor of liberty and are commonly It is easy to conceive violent againsj. the controller of finance. however.

bakeries. Peaceable citizens as well as ofl&cials were paralyzed with fear. Crowds. or to collect heavier taxes imtil Louis was amazed from a people who had ment. From a painting at Versailles. Neces. or as styled. and taverns. lost confidence in the govern- Meeting of the 453. . Consequently among the Parisians the spirit of discontent was quickly ripening into open revolt. Their extravagance added half a billion francs ' to the national debt.rank in that age. which continued to swell to learn that the nation was on the verge of bankruptcy.The Estates General 399 fortunately the king's good resolves wavered and he dismissed the able minister. Estates General. Destruction of the Bastille (1789). Absolute as he was supposed to be. he compelled to ask the help of his subjects. mostly of beggars and desperate men. From that time the frivolity of the queen and her court held full sway. Soon. It was impossible to borrow money. began to prowl through the narrow streets ransacking gunsmith's shops.3 cents. they were threatened with General. The greater part of their early sessions was spent in airing petty jealousies and in settling points of order. a coin worth 19. sarily its members were inexperienced lawmakers. however. — This national discontent finally felt Louis foimd himsdf unable to avert. For the first time in more than a hundred and fifty years they to elected their members be the it Estates came to QdEEN MaKIE ANTOmEITE National In the elaborate costume of ladies of her Assembly (1789). Gain' Franc. the violence by the court party.

felt this new spirit and arose against their oppressors they stirred up riots. celebrated throughout Europe. too. To them it was ing mob set out for the Bas-tille'. Peasants. the prison. . July 14.400 French Revolution the had heard underground dungeons. the symbol of oppression. into which no fresh air or light could enter. and for this reason they have made July 14 their national holiday. The Taking of the Bastille Described in the text. for they tales of its momentum. and of mysterious human bones which workmen had found quite by accident. 1789. the very bulwark of the old order. was razed tothe ground. . The event was it . of nameless tortures. in which churches and castles were burnt. The mob finally succeeded in gaining entrance. Abolition of Privileges The National Assembly was not slow to feel the Property. the Constitution Church 454. — . To Frenchmen meant the birth of a new nation. the BastUle.

the freedom of employment. Decree after decree was passed for the equalization of penalties. The possibility of losing their new liberties and the humiliation of being called rebellious . the abolition of feudal justice. Its immense income from feudal dues and." each with the its own assembly and officials. Many of the leaders of the Revolution became extreme and hysterical. of his privileges. special privileges of towns and provinces. This was the great work of the French Revolution. During the following year other reforms were adopted. the customs at the eligibility to office frontiers of the provinces. They hoped accordingly to suppress the revolution in France. It was only natural for them to feel that their subjects. length news came to Paris that Prussian and Austrian soldiers were about to invade France. in which the king remained the chief executive. and the mobs in city and country broke out in frequent riots. Freedom. Within the nation itself the king and many of the nobles looked on with increasing anxiety and fear. The Assembly then proceeded to confiscate the property of Roman church. dovecote. The most anxious observers. but was powerless without the aid of a popularly elected Assembly. tithes was henceforth to be turned over to the state. 401 On the famous night of August 4 noble after noble in the spirit of self-sacrifice proposed the abolition Rights of chase. was evident that 455. would seek reform and eventually freedom. guilds. the old provinces were aboUshed and the country was divided into " depart. clergy were placed on a salary The state — in other words they became servants of the nation. were the absolute monarchs of Europe. — It and were appointed by the changes so sweeping could not be carried into effect without trouble. and special were abolished.was carried so far that it meant anarchy and disorders of the worst kind. and serfdom. tithes. too. Invasions and Terror. ments. however. In order to be rid of local jealousies and abuses.Reform and Terrorism pulse of the nation. pensions. In fact it seemed to conservatives that France had gone riiad. At so as to remove the temptation from their own subjects. There was drawn up a constitution that made France a limited monarchy.

broke treaties.402 French Revolution Patriots began to assemble in Paris. country destroyed all that was left of self-restraint. Those who were in the prisons of Paris on suspicion were taken out and murdered by the mob. The king and the queen. Gradually. \ . Soon the French armies were fighting with enthusiasm for their new freedom. a member of the Assembly. among whom a company from Marseilles introduced the wild and stirring song of liberty known ever since as the Mar-seil-laise'. and proclaimed that they would help all peoples to free themselves from tyrants. Na-po'le-on Bo'na-parte. . and were more than holding their own. Soon they found themselves at war with nearly all Europe. The actual beginning of war (1792) and the invasion of the childroi aroused the French to action. men. the French people recovered their sanity. In their passion the French hurled defiance at the kings of Europe. were killed without remorse. At the same time they turned savagely to the task of A Guillotine ridding France of those whom they susAdopted by the French pected of disloyalty to the republic govemment in 1792 at the The king and queen with hundreds of suggestion of Dr. and order was once more restored (1794). Then they began to view with disgust the crimes that had been committed in the name of liberty. and named after him. The king was deposed and a republic was declared. who had secretly attempted flight." It has been remembered with such horror that to many the French Revolution means only massacre and_ bloodshed. This success was due in large measure to the brilliancy of one of their generals. This period of pitiless bloodshed is known as "The Reign of Terror. however. Those responsible for the Reign of. were imprisoned. The rumor spread that the nobles who had remained in France were plotting with the invaders. others. women. innocent and guilty. Guillotin. Terror were punished. and children.

1804. In youth he was sent to a military school. he soon became emperor. Napoleon I and his Conquests.Napoleon 403 456. Austria was beaten into submission. . Ten and soon proved himself the years later he was ruler of From being chief magistrate of the republic. disliked games. ament easily ^ swayed to passion by personal and selfish consid- erations. He committed another fatal error when he antagonized Russia and Great Britain ' 1802. peace. This success was due in large part to the personality of the He was a typical Italian. he rose rapidly. He was gloomy. ablest general in Europe. Other characteristics. When — war broke France. treatment of such nations as Prussia and Spain. pure Italian 'in blood but a French subject. and travel in order to understand the conditions of the world in which he lived. At the same time " he was perhaps the greatest egotist the world has ever seen. geography. Prussia was conquered and even Russia. but always longed for His first critical mistake was his insolent still greater glory. ' ^ohxisVon. Napoleon.^ out. His intellectual. short and swarthy. Upon graduation he received a commission in the artillery. $. after a fierce struggle. Napoleon was a Corsican by birth. He was given to violent bursts of temper. the occasional outbreaks of a nearly superhimian mental energy and of a temperpressive. emperor. sole consul for life. as well as his inspiring rhetoric." Unfortunately for himself and for -France. and therefore found himself unpopular among his fellows. man. where he made little reputation as a scholar. features and some might consider handsome his head was large and his steel-blue eyes were brilliant and ex. his acute perception. his machine-like calculation of chances. He acquired a vast and minute knowledge of history. his mastery of details. gladly made . During that time he had won repeated victories. were of immense value in his military career. his powerful imagination. His mental powers were remarkable. Napoleon was never satisfied with his achievements. with the result that he often applied his indomitable will and magnificent qualities to very low aims.

he gave up fall of Returning thence for one Elba near Corsica.404 Napoleon which otherwise might have been friendly. too. had rendered impossible an empire Under these circumstances the NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE 1810 L.Vl 1^:6 task of holding Europe in subjection as rapid as his his throne. rise. — nations all his With quickness of perception. he failed to understand that the growth of nationality of the ancient Roman type. and met retired to the little island of last and . too great even for a Napoleon. he summoned his old soldiers to his banner once more.LP0*TE8 Cftiti. and the by brute strength was the Emperor was Defeated and driven to bay. attempt to regain his power.

His only claim to the gratitude of posterity lies in the fact that " wherever his influence extended. the enormous loss of life that Napoleon brought upon Europe. A society without religion is like a vessel without a compass. This agreement was destined to control relations between the church and state in France for more than a century. Effects of the Revolution. a single set of laws. .As a -Statesman 405 crushing defeat at the hands of Wellington and his Prussian allies at Waterloo (1815). feudal privileges." ^ This era witnessed. the birth of political economy. and the pursuit of happiness. Religion alone gives the state a firm and stable support. Utterly exhausted. was something more than that pf a mere adventurer or soldier. — The French Revolution in a moment of frenzy had abohshed Christianity. however. the misery. For this reason Napoleon came to an understanding with the Pope. believed that " no society can exist without morality. French Revolution. Under his direction Napoleon. for the Preserving the chief reforms of the Revoluhas remained to this day a working model for legislation the world over. known as the Concordat. tion. 285. It was Napoleon. the right of every ' Mathews. and Europe was at peace. the Code. The Concordat (1802). the suffering. — enjoyed so generally by western Europe. liberty. it brief. was drawn up the Code and humane. — — His marvellous 457. as well as in man to life. It is impossible to condone 458. who preserved the influence of the Revolution. and there can be no good morality without religion. too. success. absolute monarchy. entire country." The majority of Frenchmen were at heart Catholics. however. we must see the results of the bloody years of the French Revolution. abuses of many In their places there were eventually to come sorts vanished. In these political equality and constitutional government. France accepted even welcomed a king again. Henceforth it has been understood that government finances blessings. Napoleon. too. It reestablished the Catholic church as official without preventing those of other beliefs from worshipping as they wished. clear.

Universal ownership gives security to property. The peasant was now confident that he would no longer be distressed by game laws or the exactions of his landlord. for a higher degree of prosperity. accompanied by an increased interest in hospitals. and improved methods of agriculture have yielded good crops. ever working for liie posses- more land. destitute was no longer to be upon private philanthropists. is aind pauperism almost unknown. oil. cider. — fertilization. sober. admitting of no room for injustice or plunder. A glance at the France of 459. Rural France of To-Day. for compulsory public education. shows what marvellous changes have been wrought since the time of Arthur Young. parlor. . It was evident that the peasant could not be deprived of the land which had been taken from the priests and nobles. sion of are patient and frugal. torday. homemade remedies. too. oflBices. The farms are well stocked and cultivated. The wise poUcy thus adopted has resulted in a wonderful change in the shouldered serious prosperity of country districts. kitchen. and museums. poor houses. honey. but became the work of the state. vinegar. and the signs of general contentment and well-being delightful to contemplate. and four airy bedrooms. There was serious agitation. but irrigation. They and honest. The care of the sick and the asylums. In many places the soil is poor. We hear of peasants building themselves villas with eight : rooms a flower garden.4o6 Napoleon should be conducted on a business basis. The fact that they earn more than a living from the burdened soil is evi- dence of a remarkable industry and thrift. and wine of his own making. for instance. As everybody produces crops. Now many peasants till through- out Europe their own the farms they and all are masters of own lives. In fact a pledge was given that the old order would never be restored. The majority are shrewd. nobody pilfers his neighbors. The desert that saddened Arthur Young's eyes may now be described as a land overflowing with milk and honey. the people are neatly and appropriately dressed. The peasant has stores of homespun linen.

What Louis XVI? 12. I. Life of Napoleon. Cambridge Modern History. Why did the former and not the latter revolt? 4. French Revolution. Mathews. Reign of Terror. i. Equality and Liberty. What were the services performed by the church? How had it grown oppres6. The Estates General and Work. What vestiges of feudalism remained? I. I. Studies Topics for Reading 407 For the whole subject. French the ii. Why was reform in France more difficult than in England? sive? Who was Voltaire? On what subjects did he write? What was his view of religion? 7. — Johnston. Johnston. What reforms were brought about by the assembly? Who were re15. What is the significance of this event? 14. V. xiii. chs. were the taxes collected? What was the salt tax? 3. Hayes. Napoleon. II. chs. 2. xv. 224-65. ch. xi (general — — . What did they accomplish? 8. ch. What views 10. Napoleon at the Height of his Power. ch. Constitutions and Documents. xvi. xix . Who was Rousseau? In his opinion what was the condition of civilized man? What was the remedy? 9. Rousseau. xi. Why was the What was the character of this assembly? estates general called? Describe the destruction of the Bastille. What inequalities of rights existed among the social classes? Compare the condition of the peasants of France with the condition of those in Germany. policy). chs. 1-15. Describe the country life of present France. ch. Review What conditions of landholding did Arthur Young find in France? Describe cooperative farming. French Revolution. Mathews. Who was Napoleon? Give an account of his education Why did he ultimately fail? 17. What was the condition of the peasants on the estates of absent lords? What did the peasants think of absent lords? of the new lords? 5. Describe the corvfie . iv-vii. Hayes. ch. — Lowell. Europe. IX. its Revo- lution. ch. Deof the state and of society did his Social Contract set forth? II. Belloc. — Lowell. ch. Belloc. Political and Social History of Modern xviii. Eve of French Revolution. xvi Hassall. What were the causes of the " reign of terror? " sponsible for it? How did th? French come into war with nearly all Europe? 16. the game laws. What was the condition of his finances? remedies were attempted. I. . ch.. Anderson. Describe the Encyclopaedists. and with what result? 13. What was his his rise to power. Describe the customs duties. What benefits religious policy? his agreement with the pope? did Napoleon bring to Europe? What were the permanent results of 19. IV. the revolution? How . vii Johnston. 18.ix. What was the character of scribe the growth of political agitation. III. 102-81..

11. Compare Napoleon's religious views with those of Voltaire and the id. much of feudalism affecting them had been abolished. gent than those of Germany? 5. write a history of their condition from the feudal age to the revolution. How . How are the vexatious customs duties to be traced to feudal conditions? 4. May the achievements of a man be independent of his moral purpose and character? Illustrate your opinion by the case of Napoleon. What do you think of Rousseau's advice to " follow Nature " ? Does this mean that we should imitate the habits of tigers or of swine? What is the essence of the French 7. Write a syllabus of this chapter. 9. What were the abuses in the church How far was Voltaire that tended to undermine belief in religion? justified in his hostile attitude ? 6. Why were the French peasants more intelliI. xvi-xxvi. and how much remained? 3.i. Revolution? How is it distinguished from the "reign of terror?" 8.4o8 Napoleon Additional Studies Combining the material on the peasants in chs. . Write Encyclopaedists. an essay on one of the Reading Topics.

however. It — was long delayed because for centuries people had worked in a world of habit. From that time forward progress was to be more rapid. and that the Renaissance made them acquainted with the beauties and learning of ancient At the same time an increased interest in the civilization. though peaceful. that By the Fireside the discovery of the New World and contact with new peoples From a out of the old grooves print. with political and rehgious changes brought about through centuries of bloodshed. Such a next roused no ambition to strike out new paths We shook have seen. in autumn the reaping. outside world brought about a revival of science and a series men Old-fashioned spinning.: CHAPTER XXVII THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION About 1760-1830 . one process followed another in monotonous routine there was the ploughing in spring. which showed people how to do things in new and more ef&cient ways. for instance. We are now to consider the Industrial Revolution. The preceding chapters have had to do 460. There were abundant reasons why the changes which we call of inventions 409 . which. In farming. for life and the finally the preparation ploughing. has exercised a vastly greater influence than any war on aU aspects of civilization. of thought. Causes.

made by hand. Early in that century. 'Social Before the eighteenth century the tools cloth. nation. eighteenth century. and with an abundance made internal communication good harbors essential to ocean In addition she possessed valuable natural resources. was a hand attached by a string to a handle which the weaver held. however. Manufacturers. with the . as iron and coal. The next improvement faVored the spinners. the chief materials of industry. found themselves unable to supply the many needs of the new empire.. This invention. Although the weaver's task was now physically more difficult.. navigable streams which easy. used were the ancient spinning wheel to make the thread. Improvements in Spinning and Weaving the Cotton Gin. During the England was acquiring a colonial domain so gigantic as to dwarf the possessions of every other A vast market was now opened to her goods. EngUsh ships were nearly monopohzing the commerce of the world. for their products were still slowly 461. however.Protected by a powerful navy. This — deficiency Aekwright's Spinning Jenny in the was felt chiefly manufacture of From England' (aiter spedfications in the British Patent Office). trade. too. he could make wider cloth and treble the output of his loom. John Kay improved this loom by devising a means of catching the shuttle at each end of its passage (1738). 4IO Industrial Revolution the industrial revolution took place in England earlier than elsewhere. Fortunately nature had blessed that country with of broad. the fly-shuttle. which continued to revolve in its new position. and the equally old handloom to convert the thread into cloth. Traill. It happened one day that James Hargreaves accidentally upset a spinning wheel.

This circumstance suggested the idea of using one wheel to revolve a number of spindles. A few years later (1769) Arkwright brought into being the " water frame. His power gin cleaned a thousand pounds of cotton daily far better than the handworker could clean six pounds in the same time (1793). too. 'History of Weaving. -the " mule.spinning and Weaving 411 thread remaining in the hands of the spinner. This enterprising man travelled through the country. Edmxmd Cartwright rendered a similar service to weaving (1785). and finally by steam. for as many as one hundred spindles could be attached to one machine. It was the inventive genius of an American. seeking sites for factories. named — enabled a person to spin as many threads as there after were spindles (1767). and CapCAKTWiaGHi's Power Loom first worked by draught-animal power. The power-loom of them.' itaUsts wilhng to build and operate his machines and pay him royalties for the use of His looms were ited Thus it was that he alone of this group of inventors profby his genius. The output accordingly multiplied." so called because it was operated by water power rather than by hand. For the first time it made possible the production of firm durable cotton cloth. From Barlow.* • for the ever hungry new For its effects on American history see § 495. It worked fast and combined in one operation aU the processes necessary for converting the raw product into yam. which furnished a rapid way of cleaning the raw cotton. then by water. This machine. . could utilize all grades of cotton and could thus supply the demand machinery. his wife This invention — the spinning jenny. EU Whitney." It produced harder and finer yarn than its predecessors and started the manufacture of muslins in England. In 1 779 Samuel Crompton combined the good qualities of the two inventions in one machine.

the In some respects water power proved unsatisfactory. and in dry seasons very scant. and required a power far greater than that of the hand. Inventors. From number of years. Safety Valve. Industrial Revolution the In earlier time when Water Power and its Effects. The favorite site for was the bank of a river or of a mountain stream where water power was available. work was done at home. however.412 462. Often he was required to serve for a work at home. 'Lives of the choicest sites were soon occuplied. Although the principle of the steam engine had been known to the Greeks (§ 90). and seek employment wherever there chanced to be a mUl. He could raise a fifteen-pound height in the cylinder by steam." and for the sake of economy placfed them together in one building —a factory. His problem was to work the stopcock by machinery rather than by hand. evils and benefits will receive attention later (§§ 530-2). This was the beginning of the factory system. a Huguenot refugee from France. and lower it by opening the stopcock at the side. its. and was treated cruelly by his master. were too expensive for the ordinary spinner. No longer could the spinner He was compelled to journey far. Often therefore men of means purchased several " mules. The Smiles. its practical value was not discovered until modern times. Papin (1647-1712). In these peaceful valleys these factories arose bare. hastily constructed mills which made no pretence to beauty or comfort. A Digester Beginnings of Steam Power . An early experimenter in this direction was Dr. the laborer usually owned his — tools. The new machines. A small Papin's digester used by Watt in experimentation. — — — . year in and steam year out. were finding out how to use a newly discovered^ force for running machinery without pause.' the less desirable for late comers. leaving Engineers. In London his work attracted the attention of the 463. as laws had not yet been passed for his protection. however. For them the supply of water was apt to be none too plentiful.

Its short life therefore made it too expensive for common use. men in the Hunterian Museum. it forced the first safety valve. he threw the empty on the fire. it principle actually worked (1698). could not long withstand the tremendous pressure of the steam. Thomas Savery belongs the — To credit of having built the first workable steam engine. . Glasgow." This was a covered vessel which retained the vapor of the boiling water and thus increased its temperature. lives saved more which has than any other single device. however. The Steam Engine. His most ingenious device was the " Digester. This specivessel by the neck and plunged its is mouth into the water of the basin. 464. During an experiment the digester burst. To avoid the recurrence of this accident. and Papin discovered the powerful expansive force of steam. This rude contrivance was the boiler. In this machine a piston is moved by the force of steam in a cylinder. Roughly made. He tells us that flask after drinking a flask of wine at a tavern. In such a vessel he could extract nutriment from the bones of animals which formerly had to be thrown away as useless. the water was immediately driven up into the flask by the pressure The engine which he constructed on this of the atmosphere.Steam Power 413 Royal Society. which found an immediate use in the collieries. he inserted a cork in the cover so that when the pressure became too great for the safety of the cork out and permitted the steam to escape. When the steam. he took the Described in the fext. condensed. which engaged him to make experiments. Far more practical was the engine of Thomas Newcomen. Then perceiving that the Uttle wine left in the flask Newcomen's Engdje changed to steam.

When the first successful the kind was built in 1776 its fame spread like himself exclaimed. the steam hammer. for it did its work effectively. Watt " The velocity. In time. ' Lives pf the Engineers. who fitted the parts so closely as minimum. and horrible noise of the engine give universal satisfaction to the beholders. violence. was capable of striking three hundred blows a . an instrumentmaker of Glasgow. it was possible to bale out the water by hand-buckets. It was becoming increasingly difficult to obtain coal because miners dared not venture far below the surface for fear of being drowned. Boulton." At any rate the Watt machines worked with great rapidity. Till then there had been found -no adequate means of pumping out the water. It was not a toy. From Smiles. the upper strata were exhausted and it became necessary to sink as to use deeper shafts. for instance.414 Induskial Revolution Early in the seventeenth century the English so overcame " their prejudice against the " unsightly and -uncleanly coals them for fuel in separating iron from the ore. for wind had proved unreUable. however. magnitude. In fact until the last few years that tj^e of engine has continued to be used for •\ 1 - ^ A Watt Engine angle-acting steam engine for pumping in the mines. Newcomen . discovered hoW to check the waste of energy. tt- His.' A pumping. ^ t> i^ secured skilled to reduce friction to a machine wildfire. but now the engine filled this need It was indeed far from it worked slowly and with a great waste of power. of (i 70s) perfect . While repairing this engine James Watt. however. when operated by a man or even a boy. As long as the mines were of no great depth. of workmen. partner.

too.Bridges. For a long time remained smelting the separation of metal from the ore — We — — because charcoal was used in the process. paper. . it works. Furthermore it works without a grumble. • 415 Manufacturers of every kind of product hastened to install these willing workers. Even more important for the future of manufacturing were the workshops for producing machinery itself. As 466. printing.Various Industries minute. Various Industries. great cities grew up in the heart of the manu- — facturing districts (§462). for example. however. needing to carry on a continual exchange cases of great bulk village ' Iron which under intense heat can be hammered into any desired shape. coimtless new industries which sprang up on every hand. a better means of smelting became available. the secret of making coke from coal was discovered. All these new centres of population and industry required continual supplies of food. Since that time the steam engine has come to be more and more the able servant of man. Soon afterward it was discovered how to make malleable iron ^ from pig iron. ready to make one or a million articles according to his pleasure. Improved Waterways. The time of the self-sufficing had passed. from other parts of the country. need not dwell long on the 465. with a precision and accuracy which arouses the envy of the most skilled artisan. giving place to the manufacturing town and the busy seaport. people flocked from the country to find employment at the new machinery. whereby the output was increased fourfold. and this circumstance proved a great boon to industry. they also sent forth ever-increasing quantities of goods. earthenware. in some and weight. In rapid succession great iron works were founded in localities where nature had conveniently placed both iron and coal. and cutlery. more efficient tools were available for all manufactures. glass. it does for him work which an army of strgng laborers dare not attempt. China. day or night. at the beck and call of man. and . and in many cases of raw material. Roads. As the quality of inferior iron and of workmanship became better. When. came to employ thousands of machines and men.

4i6 of Industrial Revolution districts. tion of the were converted into durable turnpikes under the direcfamous engineer Ma-cad'am. To one . could be sent An Old Method Preceding tEe railway. In like manner the " sloughs of despond. with other towns. the government undertook the work of dredging rivers and building canals. of Tkansporiation Smiles." as the old roads may be called. commodities at once with the rural foreign countries. or in any one of a thousand details. Travel by water was popular because it was cheap. and with We may easily understand that the. might mean disaster. though slow. therefore. An equally skilled engineer.. Along these waterways barges heavily laden wound their way. Its construction was fraught with many dangers in the first place it was a huge structure a flaw in : . Telford. too. Heavier goods. such as coal and building materials. conceived the idea of a suspension bridge. the slightest fault in the joining of the parts. question of distributing goods became increasingly serious. During the latter half of the eighteenth century. 'Lives of the Engineers. the iron.' From by water more easily than by stage or pack horses.

From Smiles. 'Lives of the Engineers. as it ran only four miles an hour. Railways.still later he produced the 'Rocket. It was George Stephenson who first succeeded in portation. Though their undertakmgs may seem unimportant to us.Transportation by Land 417 Telford's Bridge Across the Menai Straits. Prodnot be could ucts months shipped until after their first was of little locomotive was built in value. 570 yards in length.' for which he was given a prize. 2£ . and to revolutionize civilization itself system. A considerable advance was production. From a photograph. it was the that the genius of that has men like Telford made possible such engineering feats as the New York Aqueduct and the Panama Canal. roadway 100 feet above water.' — • Built by Telford across the Menai Straits in North Wales. was very slow. was being evolved. but it road or canal was cheap. it appeared Menai bridge ^ was more like the work of some great magician than the mere result of man's skill and industry. which was destined to outstrip all. previous the railway methods. 467. with a. distribution — Though it by The Rocket Stephenson's 1814. of made A new means trans- in 1823 (see text) and. however. of the visitors who flocked to view this wonder.

From Traill. . . and oats and hay be rendered unsaleable commodities. Appealing to the public in pamphlets and . . There would no longer be any use for horses so that the species would becontte extinguished. showing that a mountain was tunneled through in the construction of a great waterway." In spite of all skepticism..' newspapers." Canal companies and landowners strongly opposed his project to construct a railway between Manchester and Liverpool (completed 1830). The time is coming whe'n it will" be cheaper for a working man to travel upon a railway than to walk on foot. The poisoned air from the locoihotives would kill birds as they flew over them.' 4i8 Industrial Revolution He prophesied producing a locomotive that would work (1823) that his sons would see the day when " railways will supersede almost all other 'methods of conveyance in this country. they declared the railway would " prevent cows from grazing and hens from laying. . . Beidgewatee Canal emerges from Harecastle Tiumel. however. the engine with its train of queer little cars succeeded so well that in a few years England was covered with a network of railways which were paying large dividends. 1785.'Social it As England. With heavier rails and better engines a speed of fifty miles an hour was attained.

which dewinds. In a it world in which " time is money. had often found it diflScult to cross sea. This was the forerunner of a regular transatlantic serv- ice (1838). Its chief claim to success Ues in the fact that sengers moves pasand goods quickly. From a photograph supplied by River." the high raiboad rates are willingly The Clermont Robert Fulton's steamboat. 468. Robert Fulton. A few years later a steamship crossed the Atlantic in twenty-five days. placed a steamboat on the ' Hudson The Aqthtaota great Cunard liner equipped with all the conveniences of sea travel. with a regular run A between New York and Albany (1807). fickle — In by plied to conveyance pended on the hke manner steam power was apThe sailing vessel. if only a few hours are saved. Unfortunately the cheaper but slower travel by canals fell quickly into disuse. Steamboats.Transportation by Water 419 The success of the raiboad is shown by the fact that at the present time there is hardly a town in civilization which. Only in recent years in fact have they begun to be used once more for the shipment of non- perishable goods. world The rejoiced therefore when an American inventor. .has not its railroad to connect it with the rest of the world. the Cunard Steamship Company. the Atlantic or even the English Channel. paid.

of In In In In In In In In Industrial Statistics Effects. The growth of nationality and of imperial- As .000 pounds 33.000. .000 it J^ to the effects of the industrial revolution. . In fact steamships have made travelling on the seas far easier and safer. into close contact with each other.000 £32. and intellectual development of the world from that time to the present. by bringing and colonists men. they bring vegetables and fruits. 469. Lastly the steamship encourages nations to their business know each other better. tourists.: : : 420 Industrial Revolution It is true that steamships were still of wood. .000 £58.000. which woiild spoil on traffic. for exof their speed and punctuaUty. saiUng ships. They are especially valuable for passenger and for carrying perishable freight because From foreign climes. we may say that has proved one of the most powerful factors in the political. 2. .000. and that they tended to shake to pieces with the vibrations of the heavy engines.000. that paddles were not suitable These defects were remedied by later for rough weather. social. which may be most clearly illustrated by figures.000. It was found. too. — The obvious feature of the industrial revolution was the vast increase in volume production. 740 1740 1789 181S 177s 1 815 1786 1807 1 there was no true cotton industry importation of cotton amounted to importation of cotton amounted to importation of cotton amounted to .000 pounds yarn cost 42 shillings a pound to spin yarn cost 8 pence a pound to spin the selling price of yarn was 38 shillings the selling price of yarn was 6 shillings 9 pence (There were gains in other manufactures) In 1740 the total value of exports was In 181 s the total value of exports was In 1740 the total value of imports was In 1815 the total value of imports was £8. ample.000 10.000.000.000 £71.000 Revenue 1740 181S Population 1740 iSis 6. improvements. .000.000. .000 pounds 100.000.000.000 £4.000 £6.

. 112. xv. 116-98. Social Progress in Contemporary I. What was the origin of the factory? How was water power applied ? What change did the factory system bring about in the life of the workers? 4. ii-iv. Mackenzie. What are its advantages ? 9. see Contents. Evolution of Modern Capitalism. Mention and 8. T. 108-31 Gibbins. the cotton gin. ch. and Factory Acts. England's Gibbins. xix. Industrial Development. . 5. xxvii Hobson. ch. ch. Nineteenth Century. ch. ch. vii . How and by whom was the first steam engine invented? What improvement did Newcomen introduce? For what was it especially used? What contribution did Watt make to the development of the engine? 6. 3. Warner. Industrial History of England. Trade Unionism and Labor Problems. Describe the process by which the growth of cities brought about improved means of conveyance and transportation. chs. Slater. ch. — . Making of Modern England. 132-40. Mention and describe some of the industries created or stimulated by the growth of steam power. Explain the origin and growth of the describe these various means. Innes. Allsop. — . — Innes. condition Topics for Reading City Life and Activities. V. In what way does the industrial revolution differ from the polit- time? What were its causes? Why did it begin in England ? 2. Studies 421 ism. Landmarks of English Industrial History. chs. . Describe the digester. ii Ogg. Industrial Revolution. Give an account of the invenrailway. 7. see Contents. the spread of European civilization over the world. For what purposes is the sailtion and development of the steamboat. xxviii Gibbins. and the temporary degradation and gradual improvement in the laborer's owe a great part of their origin to these changes in English industry and their extension to the rest of the civilized world. Factories. chs. xxi Mackenzie. Innes. chs. Some of the effects here summarized are traced in the remaining chapters. vii-ix. H. IV. Modern Factory System. the wonderful inventions of the past hundred years. . xxv. xxiv Commons. What were the earliest improvements in weaving and spinning respectively? Describe the water frame the mule. the earliest safety valve. Trade Union Development. Taylor. 71-98. Trade and Trade Combinations. Allsop. boat still used? ical and religious revolutions of earlier . xx.. — Europe. Wood. Industries. Review 1. ch. xxiii. . Industrial England in the Middle of the Eighteenth Century. III.

11. What did. Were the manufactures before the period sufficient for the people? If so. Write a syllabus of this chapter. What was 2. there a. the Greek's know of steam power? put it (earlier chapter) ? 6. 12. need for an industrial revolution. What was the effect of the industrial revolution on the growth of population? 9. and draw whatever inferences you can as to the immediate effects of the industrial revolution.C. why was. What were the three or four leading manufactures that developed during this period? To what use did they S. Examine the statistics in § 469.422 Industrial Revolution Additional Studies the principal occupation before the industrial revoluwere the industries developed in Europe before this period (gather material from earlier chapters)? 3. and what became of the surplus wares? 10. tion? How fat . Write an essay on one of the Reading Topics. 8. Why was there so little industry since the third century B. . I. Could the digester be called an engine ? Why is it mentioned here ? 7 Examine the illustrations of the various machines in this chapter and describe them one by one. ? 4.

So universally is this principle admitted. easier.. An Industrial and a Political Revolution. that since the French Revolution there has been no serious attempt to restore the old restrictions on liberty. The French condemned tyranny and the divine right of kings. CHAPTER XXVIII GROWTH OF NATIONALITY From I. xxvii). Man has discovered that he is master of his destiny. but after a century-long struggle it has finally been adopted by every civilized country. These chapters should be studied in connection with the maps. At the same time in the political sphere radical ideas were taking root. but its last vestiges were swept away by the French Revolution. is noted for a series which have made every-day life safer. teenth century. 423 ." as this idea is called. The purpose of government is to make and enforce such rules. 1815 to the Present ' Liberty and Nationality The nine470. At the same time for the protection of society as a whole. The of inventions — " sovereignty of the people. as stated above (ch. and insisted that the people should have a share in the government. must conform to certain rules of conduct. Feudalism had denied man social and political freedom. and that he has certain inalienable rights which no power on earth can take from him. happier. is in fact the foundation of modern politics. when dealing with others. " It is now believed that the ' Chapters xxviii and xxix contain an unusual number of geographical names but they are names with which every intelligent American should be familiar. Naturally rulers by divine right opposed this principle. and on the whole. the individual.

its Spirit (1815). It was France which during and after the revolution first proved the might of a whole nation acting as a unit. 472. They announced 2. what wonderful deeds might be achieved in times of peace! However beneficent. was the most brilliant Europe had ever known. For many years the collective French people remained superior to an entire continent weighed down by the old idea. If so much could be won by a nation in arms. and that it is better for a nation to make mistakes in the course of its self-government than to be ruled. as this assemblage is called. the principle of nationality is universally recognized. this In the midst of ' task of reconstructing the gayety they entered upon the difiScUlt map of Europe. and of Spain (§ 456). Revolutionary Europe. During the period of the meetings there was a continual. of Russia. . of Germany. To us it seems only natural that people 471. WhUe the process is not yet com- — plete. She was conquered only when her iarmies were forced to meet the people.round of social events representatives of various Waterloo . During the autumn of 1814 accordingly their representatives met at Vienna to bring order out of chaos.424 Liberty and Nationality government should be directed by the people through theh representatives. countries vied with each other in the extravagance of their receptions and entertainments. Yet this idea has been persistently disregarded." Nationality. by an irresponsible monarch. The Congress it of Vienna. The Congress of Vienna. Stephens. be ' it ever so wisely. Here gathered many crowned heads as well as the greatest diplomats and statesmen of the time. this idea has gained ground only through hard political struggles and through many wars. rather than the sovereign. of the same race should form a nation to control their own affairs. In such cases untold misery and suffering have resulted because no allowances were made for the character and ambitions of another people. — After was inevitable that the affairs of Europe should pass into the hands of the great monarchs who had overthrown Napoleon. The most infamous case was the division of Poland among three grasping neighbors (§431).

with a wise regard to the wants of the European people. in the spirit of a supreme regard to personal interests. . . Nineteenth Century. France was reduced to her boundaries of 1792 a mild punishment for the unscrupulous aggressions of Napoleon. and Norway was united with Sweden. well-molded features and charming tone of voice. The movement was Prince Met'ter-nich His graceful bearing. his ability to act. They felt it a duty to themselves to prevent the spread of these leader of this reactionary of Austria. too. and his commanding personality made his diplomatic career a marked ' Mackenzie. They were blind to the new impulses whiclvhad risen to unsuspected strength. customs. The Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) were joined with Holland. and were henceforth to shape the destinies of Europe. In agarbitrary-a^ma. and hope of unity was long deferred. They took no account of the vast changes which the war had caused. Italy was again cut into fragments. It was not a reconstruction of Europe which they sat down to accomplish. Then. Vienna therefore resolved itself into a scramble for territorial spoils.figure. Prussia. and religious liberty meant only the and terrorism. and religion. It made little difference that the people of such unions had no common bond of language. In its deaUngs with the smaller countries this congress utterly ignored the principle of nationality. They met to They met satisfy the demands of a horde of bereaved princes. Their avowed object was to restore to Europe as nearly as possible the work was to be done. and Austria received large grants of territory.nneiLthe^ongress firmly condemnedr the principIeFoFtibe French revolution. his new ideas." The Congress of 473. The Congress of Vienna its Work. . while England's claim to her already great colonial empire was oflScially recognized. — — Russia. To the rulers of the time in consequence her constitutions and civil guillotine.' Congress of Vienna to the world the lofty spirit of self-sacrifice with 425 which the "Unhappily the monarchs who then held the destinies of Europe in their hands did not rise to the greatness of their opportunity. pohtical arrangements which existed before the war. which were placed under their former rulers. bloodshed. 68.

too. (§ against the mother country 301 ff). had once tasted freedom and enlightened laws did not welcome a return to the old order." ^ As may be imagined. The and declared their independence Metternich proposed to send over an armed force to restore their allegiance. gave notice that no attempt of a European power to interfere with the affairs of the western hemisphere would be tolerated. and Austria. At home. they maintained order by a rigorous police and spy system. The United States. On this occasion II. they quelled the revolutionary spirit in both Italy and Spain. Unification of Northern Italy. This step England vigorously opposed. Those accordingly who were dis- — with existing conditions revolted against their oppresabsolute monarchies. Liberty and Nationality self may be compared with that of Napospeaks of himself as being born to prop up the decaying structure of European society. New Revolutions. p. Meantime the Spanish colonies in South America revolted satisfied sors. moreover. the great powers recognized the independence of this little state \and guaranteed its neutrality. Russia. This is the famous Monroe Doctrine explained in § sag. Prussia.. By such methods the growth of nationality and of constitutional freedom was momentarily checked (181 5-1 848). Through his foresight and diplo- matic cleverness. under the leadership of Prince Metternich claimed a right to put down either at home or abroad any change of government which threatened the " interests of Europe. . people who 474." Thus joining hands. whose every word even diplomats and kings considered full of meaning. Unification of Italy and Germany During the first half 475. 21.426 success. Europe since iSi. he came to be regarded as the great oracle of Europe. too. He feels the world His love of " He resting upon his shoulders. of the nineteenth century the spirit of a united Italy was kept alive — by secret ' societies known as Carbonari — " charcoal 2 Hazen. leon.^ In the same period Great Britain and France encouraged Belgium to a sucThrough their influence cessful revolt against Holland (1830).

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intelli" The women found his light gence. 171. As it had already been shown to their satisfaction that Sardinia could live under a liberal constitution and that her soldiers could fight. only to be crushed under the iron heel of Austria. The victory of the allies was decisive and resulted in the unification of northern Italy with the exception of Venice (i860). . and winning manners. This state was now enjoying a constitution with a parUament and a responsible ministry." Italy 427 Hot-headed. a pattern for the rest of Italy. Cavour proved himself the wizard of diplomacy. hair. blue eyes. he had made Sardinia a model state. one of their little kingdoms. Daring to ally his httle country with powerful England and France. It consisted of the island of that name and in addition Pied'mont in northwestern Italy. Gradually it became evident that success depended on a united effort. The story of the welding together of the Italian nation is as thriUing as a romance. Builders of United IkUy. — Holland.New burners. Victor Emmanuel. patriot Gar-i-bal'di who liberated the South. Italians It was the and Sardinia. and happy temper charming. While 476. Sicily. His career reads like the pages of a novel. he furnished aid in their struggle with Russia (§ 482). the men of the time valued his keen insight into questions of current interest. England and France gave the little state their sympathy and granted aid in a war with Austria. blessed with wit." ^ Together with the king. He was a diplomat of the old school. and when the terms of peace were made (1856). their country won a place in the councils of Europe. For their leader began to look hopefully to Sardinia. its great statesman. emotional. Here the Sardinian soldiers distinguished themselves on the firing line. For a time he lived the life of a roving sailor. and too impatient to await the opportune moment. they broke out into frequent revolts. At the first opportunity Cavour convinced his new friends of the wrongs which Italy had suffered from Austria. which required discipUne. These democratic institutions had largely been obtained through the efforts of Ca-vour'. Union of Italy. for in his blood was the spirit of adventure.

It was in a small town of Birazil that Garimet the woman who at first sight so charmed him that he immediately wooed her and won her for his wife. shirts open. where he took a prominent part in the many wars for independence. irregular fighting. it ' Holland. . others were trudging sturdily along in their loosest manner. Whereas at present war is mainly a question of the biggest guns. In the autumn of 1870 the Italian forces entered Rome.428 still Unification of Italy • Italy. The aUied forces were victorious and Italy received Venice as a reward for her services. This island he won for his king and country. In these turbulent years he gained valuable experience in rough. Arrested and condemned to death. through its own inherent weakness and corruption^ despotic rule in Italy collapsed. then at war with Austria (§ 479). and their rugs rolled across their bodies. the Neapolitans welcomed with open arms the man who they thought was bringing about the millennium. Thus rapidly." when they came to battle. and the dream of a united Italy was realized. Garibaldi took command of the volunteer forces and the campaign started with the old enthusiasm. he escaped to South America. a young man he became imbued with the spirit of a new and took part in several insurrections. — men — called he raised a volunteer army of a " redshirts " from the garb they had In 1866 an alliance was concluded with Prussia. This success was in large measure due to the brain of Cavour and the sword of Garibaldi. Their informal style of marching attracted this comment from an eye-witness " Some of them were lying at full length on bullock wagons. Anita followed him through all his adventures on land and sea and showed throughout a devotion and courage unequalled by any baldi of his soldiers. with their red ^ But was hard to withstand their terrific onslaught. Thus it was with Garibaldi's veterans. Bmlders of United Italy. When he crossed from there to the mainland. 162. smoking. Upon his return to Italy thousand adopted and set sail for Sicily. in those days it was tinged with the romance of personal heroism. with their : rifles decorated with roses at their sides.

Excluded from political affairs. These petty princes were allowed little opportunity to determine the policies of the confederation. — Germany that Sardinia had performed for Italy. — Meanwhile the agitation for a national German state was on by university students who drank to the freedom of their land and to its patriots from Luther down. Attracted by the hope of high wages. which hampered his father in 1810.Prussia 429 The story of 477. Their progressive spirit alarmed such champions of the old order as Metternich. established by kind in the world. and obedience cities. too. With a plentiful supply of coal and iron. the making of modern Germany is scarcely less romantic. In this work she used every effort to further the progress of the industrial revolution. the of its most famous . Naturally merchants strongly objected to these restrictions. The great natural resources of the country. Their efforts raised the standard of scholarship and made them the world's leaders carried ' branches of learning. The Congress of Vienna had provided for a German Confederation. then in its infancy. but of their rulers. Newspapers and institutions of learning therefore were forbidden to criticise existing customs. Hence it came about that the In northern first step toward union was along economic lines. workmen rushed to the The German quaUties of patience. factories sprang up on all sides. which was in reality not German. Nor was it a union of different peoples. Alfred Krupp made the steel foundry. to authority contributed to the estabUshment of business relations over the entire world. Germany after the Congress of Vienna. order. Prussia and the Industrial Revolution. were exploited on a large scale. for it included people of other races and languages. Germany alone there were more than seventy different tariff systems separating one district from another. For the first time capital was made available for founding new industries. but were cowed into submission by the military power of Austria. professors and students began to make remarkable conquests in the fields of science. In time it became evident that Prussia was to render the same service to in many 478.

. of a well-trained and well-equipped army. to resort to smuggling. but Bismarck felt that they were directed to a worthy cause. Austria was completely eliminated from the German political system (1866). Another act of William. To many his methods seemed unscrupulous. The states of northern Germany were now united economic objects. — . scarcely second in importance. Prussian Militarism and the Unification of Germany. Thoroughly beaten in war. In this union they learned the advantages of cooperation and of Prussian leadership and they came to understand that they could live much better thus than when politically bound to Austria. several diplomatic posts where he gained a thorough knowledge of international affairs. Hia plan was to force quarrels upon those who stood in the way of this object. In order to live. Prussia established free trade within Next she drew the neighboring states into a customs union (ZoUverein) which brought about a rapid growth her boundaries. At all events the policy of " blood and iron " was highly successful. which alone was profitable. In the following year all the northern states were organized in a federal union. of industry. and made markets uncertain. He was a thorough soldier who readily convinced himself that the future of Prussia depended upon the creation. For for . In accomplishing this task he introduced compulsory military training. With the marvellous Prussian military machine at his back. and to this day every ablebodied German citizen must serve a fixed period of years in the army. too. was to make Bismarck his chief adviser. this man had entered politics and had schooled himself in the workings of government.43° Unification of Germany many had commerce. In fact it was the rapidly increasing power of Prussia which aroused the fear and jealousy of the south German states. He had filled. In his younger days a robust and boisterous country squire. His whole energy therefore he directed to bringing about this result. King William I from the moment of his accession (1861) turned his attention to military affairs. 479. Bismarck determined on a policy of compulsion to bring about German unity. though not as yet politically. which Prussia dominated. Abolishing these evils.

To pay for their extravagance. farmed out to rapacious oflScials. In Europe itself Turkey was a great power for she was sovereign of the entire Balkan peninsula. forced to France. many members of the For centuries they paid their tolls to the greedy Turkish tax-collectors. As expected. oppressed the people. for both peoples were eager to fight. and . — A century ago the Turkish em: pire extended over a vast area in Asia it embraced Asia Minor. taxes. III. and great Slavic race. The sultan's European subjects were an odd mixture of various stocks: Roumanians. and Arabia . He found it convenient accordingly to pick a quarrel with his neighbor across the Rhine. Turkey about 1800. the southern German states joined the union and the king of Prussia was proclaimed Kaiser (emperor) of a united Germany. who claimed descent from the . Al-sace' and Lor-raine'. Syria. was pay the enormous indenmity of one billion dollars. foresaw that all the states would unite in a single nation in case of danger from a common enemy. The finances were in a wretched condition. At times. however. and to cede to her conquerors the valuable provinces. Albanians. In return for this money they were granted certain liberties including the free exercise of their religion.. Greeks. It was an Oriental state. The result was an overwhelmFranco-Prussian. this reason they held aloof from the new union. ancient Romans. The Balkan States 480. ruled by a sultan who had power of life and death over his subjects. It required little provocation to bring about a war. practically the entire northern coast except Morocco. in Africa. and in some cases their local magistrates. The Franco-Prussian War 431 r Bismarck. his liberty and very existence were threatened by his undisciplined and turbulent army. 1870 of the war — — ing victory for the Germans. however. There was no system of bookkeeping or budget and the sultan and his friends removed funds from the treasury at their pleasure. absolutely crushed. laws.

Russia and the Turkish Question. and the bloody struggle with Turkey was ended. and with its heroic struggle for liberty. it — vated people throughout the world sympathized with the coimtry from which they had drawn a great part of their intellectual life. The fact that they were Christians. — 1 Great Britain. would not admit infidels to a share in the privileges it enjoyed. In 1829 they recognized the independence of this new state. The Greeks were the first to rise successfully against their oppressors. however. deprived them of every political right and placed them in an inferior social position. They were convinced that the rule of the foreign tyrant was doomed and that soon they should be permitted to govern themselves. was a war of extermination. which had been corrupted in various ways. Greece Wins her Independence. soldiers. Early in the nineteenth century their wealthy merchants began the custom of sending their sons to study abroad. 481. For a time. so that they could. however. Throughout the western world societies sent money. breaking out in 182 1. In their hearts lurked the hope of liberty. the Turks were everywhere triumphant. and clothing but it is chiefly to the cooperation of the great powers of Europe ' that Greece owes her political freedom. Often women and children were butchered in cold blood. The ruling class. The revolt.432 Balkan States customs. in which both sides perpetrated massacres. Russia saw her opportunity . 482. — Under these cir- cumstances no one could expect the Christians to remain faithful subjects. . France. Instead it treated them with contempt and oppressed them on every hand. which was Mohamme- dan. Hence it became possible for all Greeks to read their ancient classics. foAnd schools at home. At the same time Greek scholars reformed the spoken language. When they came to understand the part their race had once played in the world's awakened the national spirit the desire to create a modern Hellas. and Russia. Fortunately ciiltiaffairs. arms. People now began to call the sultan the " sick man of Europe " and to prophesy the speedy collapse of his empire.

In return the sultan promised to bring about certain reforms. and Sardinia. . known as the Crimean war (1854-1856). where they massacred thousands. however. Constantinople. SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE Lbout 1914 " ^A N SEA was decided to keep that country intact. where representatives of all At the Congress of Paris it (1856). These reforms were never In fact conditions became unbearcarried out in good able Turkish troops were turned loose upon defenceless villages of Bulgarian peasants.." No longer did she dare defend 483. France. which of Asia would include a large part Minor and the much needed seaport.Liberation from Turkey 433 to seize a share of the spoils. faith. in which Russia was badly worsted by England. Christians were to be freed from burdensome taxes and were to have representatives in the councils of the empire. The rest of Europe. strenuously objected to this dangerous increase of Russian power in the Mediterranean. States. The Bulgarian atrocities (1876) Europe indignantly proclaimed an " affront to the laws of God. the great powers met. Since that time Europe has been troubled^by the question as to what should be done with Turkey. There ensued a short but bloody struggle. The New Balkan — .

hemisphere south of the Rio Grande may be designated as Latin America.Bulgaria (1908). Austria formally annexed two prov-^ ' . France. It was settled in the sixteenth century by Spaniards and Portuguese. Distracted by internal troubles. spread rapidly over Central and South America till every colony had declared its independence (1821). -Her__ELext and Her-zej^OzYi^naj^i^eS^r states. ^~ ^ambition was to control Serbia. Independence of Latin America. As a result of this policy several independent states have been created: Roumania and Serbia (1878). Spain found herself unable to check these revolts. It was hoped that they might unite to. The fate of this territory has not yet been decided. to reduce the hold of the^ The Congress of Berlin (1878) deterTutk oh Europe to narrow . however. The flame of liberty. By the help of the great powers therefore the Balkan states have achieved independence.t war beginning in 19 14. While they were in this weak condition. Until the beginning of the last century they were by the njother countries.There remain of European Turkey part of Macedonia and the district about Constantinople. Montenegro (1878). The New World mined . •*. The New World The entire western 484. whereas England and the United States joined in preventing the armies of other nations from landing on the shores of America. After achieving independence they organized ruled despotically — . and Russia. For these reasons the colonies were left free to work out their own destiny. limits. rv. .X'this aggressive policy. . who intermarried extensively with the natives. and was the most obvious cause of the grea. protect themselves from foreign enemies but in fact each state has attempted to extend its " empire " at the expense of neighbors. which threatened-to-swaHtrvnip-the'Iittle Balkan aroused the ire of Great Britain.. 434 the Turkish empire^. inces intrusted to her care (Bosnia . which granted them no share in the government. These conflicting desires have made the peninsula a scene of continual intrigue and bloodshed. kindled by the French Revolution. and.

The great mixed race the mestizos ' a blend of European colonists with the native Indians. has made of the population. form the bulk of the population. 20 per cent are negroes. Population and Politics of Latin America. Latin America republics similar to the United States. The vast majority were totally ignorant. a nation of 20. has The bulk no share in making laws. and understood fighting and looting better than voting. The pure whites are comparatively few. and the Indians 35 per cent. Indians form the bulk of the inhabitants of the states along the western coast. a Spanish word meaning " mixed. that the French needed almost a hundred years of experimentation before they finally established a stable and progressive repubUc. The functions of government are exercised by the whites and the better class of mestizos. At the same time we must remember. totally ignorant.000 inhabitants. The remainder are Indians and negroes. the mestizos 50 per cent. 30 per cent are mestizos. To under48s. for example. well-ordered common- — — — wealths. Enock." It is diflScult to estimate the exact proportion of races. the whites number 15 per cent. In Brazil.. 17 . whereas in Argentina the tide of European immigration tends to make the white race predominate. and Africans. however. and the remainder Indians. Indians. till 435 Brazil was a monarchy With the exception of that 1889. Conspiracies and assassinations have often marred their public life. Mexico. Theoretically they • Mestizos. During the last twenty-five years Argentina and Chile have enjoyed a stable government and have made wonderful progress. Democracy. stand this chaos in government we must keep in mind the nature of the population. 40 per cent are white. Political knowledge they have gained through a century of ruthless bloodshed. Republics of CetUral and South A merica. state. those countries have passed through long periods of revolution. S'lid afterward a republic. civil war. The long dictatorships like that of Diaz in Mexico (1877-1911) are in fact tyrannies. which is little headway. The people of Central America are a varying mixture of whites. None of them had any experience in government before the wars of independence. and disorder. In the next largest state. In like manner the Latin American states seem gradually emerging from chaos into firm. but they have often proved useful in checking anarchy and in establishing law and order.000.

Those of the upper A Peon From class class are of of refined in Ploughing ' manner and those speech. they give their chief attention to the care of children and household duties. in liberty. When a new man comes to the presidency or the dictatorship. courtesy.. catching votes. Doubtless in time they will imitate their sisters in other parts of the world who are exerting themselves to improve social 487. Mesdco. they are easily moved by senti- — ment and feelings of love or hate. In outward form at least. Latin Americans are 486. . 436 The New World and equality are firm believers in the rights of man. His wagons cannot traverse the forests. Rural Economy the Peons. . dense jungles. is unfavorable to the average European. Bserlein. . too. The women have earned a reputation for beauty as well as for intelligence. With a deep love home and family life. 1j"his condition is due in large part to the restrictions which Spain had placed upon her colonies (§ 304 fi).conduct of the poorest. and hospitality. Highly imaginative. The climate. Character of Latin Americans. but in practice these words are used by demagogues merely for.' the lower modest and respectful. idealists. They take great pride in their refinement. but they soon find the old political corruption at work in their midst to enrich ofiice-holders at the expense of the community. This spirit is reflected even in the. they are a race of gentlemen. people believe that the millennium is at hand. As a result they have taken little part in the affairs of the world about them. or lofty mountain ranges nor is it safe or profitable for him to work under the sweltering — and political conditions. In economic matters Latin America has lagged behind the rest of the civilized world. who are polite and neigh- borly to those about them.

Quick to see the vast profits which accrue from developing the resources new continent. The country has 488. therefore. labor conditions call for immediate reform. Wheat and meat. and gold and silver for currency require only to be taken from the hills and fields. and peppers. Laborers for hire. and Peru. Wealthy natives possessed no mechanical genius for transforming raw ore into — machinery and railways. Mexico. who have performed difficult and dangerous toil mines of Chile. clothing and building material. the necessary forethemselves of the idea that a dollar invested without immediate return was lost. The result is a heavy death-rate and a rapid destruction of the working popuFor the sake lation. ill-treatment of natives in Latin barities did America is notorious. which cannot be replaced by Europeans.. fuel and stimulants. Economy and Resources tropical 437 districts. of economy. consisting of beans. too. The continued these uneducated but hard-working people . The building of railways and the opening of banks and mines therefore have been of a left to the initiative of the foreign capitalist. great natural resources. metals for industries. In time of peace they are mere beasts of burden to earn money for the wealthy in war-time they are food for cannon. for bar- not cease when Spain lost control. is meagre and their clothing insufficient. moneyed classes of all countries have . Their diet. corn. Natural Resources and Industries. comprising Indians and mestizos. Although one would expect so rich a continent to produce populous industrial centres. rice. In a country where there should be a farm for every peasant own almost nothing of the sou they till. sight and could not rid They lacked. are termed peons. sun or in the rarified air of mountain These conditions therefore have developed a servile class of workmen. from Mexico to Argentina. The majority of them industriously till the fields from early morning to for centuries in the late at night. the fact is that the industrial revolution did not find its way into South America till late in the nineteenth century and since that time it has made slow progress. all the necessaries of life lie ready at hand. In almost every state. if not for humanity.

i . expansion. who could not without great hardship exchange the freedom of outdoor life for the confinement of the city and even the condition of the oppressed peons is preferable to that classes. In return for their 489." has prevailed since the world began. too. to and labor. in irrigation and drainage. At the same time under this constructive program there is still a vast number of opportunities for foreign capital to operate under of the ruling class. the growth of democracy. however. and in showing them better ways of tilUng the soU. the industrial revolution.438 The New World hastened to contribute both men and capital toward this work. Valuable assistance could be rendered them in building good roads. but is not morally justifiable. and the war between capital It is noteworthy. 490. They can be taught to make at home enough to supply their simple needs. known to us as "dollar diplomacy. legitimate restrictions. The : environment of these changes. The United States and the Articles of Confederation. of the sweat shops of New York or London. This free delivery of valuable national assets should be checked before the foreigner has monopolized all the natural resources." foreign capitaUsts have been given thousands of acres of land. on the pretence of protecting these citizens in time of revolution. nor should the foreign capitalist be permitted to exploit the working — introduce the slums. have often resorted to intervention and conquest. The Needs of Latin America. This poKcy. were those of contemporary Europe unification and nationalism. Great Britain alone has invested five billion dollars in Latin America. • is different in many and then The more powerful and progressive states have systematically encouraged their citizens to engage thus in business in weaker and less progressive countries. In a general way the forces at work in the United States which — brought about present conditions. The future of Latin America depends solely upon the wisdom Their greatest task is to improve the conBetter than the building of large cities would be a system of compulsory education for freeing them from ignorance. . that most of the people are farmers. dition of the laborers. work in " building up the country. and imperialism. or have been' allowed to purchase mines and oil wells at nominal prices.

known as Continental. This conflict was directed by the Continental Congress a group of patriots. A the text. — As difficulties at . They taxed heavily the goods of neighbors which passed through and treated as aliens A Continental These condiConsiderably reduced tions were made worse by the war. In the midst of these difficulties Congress attempted to perform the duties granted it by the Articles. In which Benjamin Franklin had drafted. their own territory residents from other states. It could only ask the states for contributions. to this day "not worth a Continental " remains a proverb. as the danger of a had been removed.) we reviewed the struggle by which the thirteen Enghsh colonies won the right to control their own destinies. the Con- federation showed many signs of weakness. They gave but little. however.The United particulars States 439 aris- from that all of the Old World. At in size. The want and suffering of the people were intense. § 413 £E. and found it impossible to enforce treaties." As soon. the central government failed to win the respect of foreign nations. This weakness was keenly felt by the northern states. and the problems ing from them are peculiar to the Western Hemisphere. but failed largely through inability to collect money for the expenses of government. who unselfishly devoted their energies to the liberation of their country. Lacking support. 491. Toward the close of the war (1781) the colonies one by one adopted the — Articles of Confederation. The Making of the Constitutioii. the states were united in what was intended to be a " firm league of this way friendship. for each was jealous of any power out-^ side its own boundaries. Described in flood of paper money. its close business was almost stagnant. In another chapter (xxiv. foe common however. whose people depended mainly on commerce for a livelihood. In the first place the states were jealous of one another. depreciated the currency. Civil war became an imminent danger.

closed it to our commerce. but the as Louisiana (1803). bankers. How these wise and able men finally reached a compromise and drew up a constitution forms an interesting chapter in political history. This territory they generously ceded to the Confederation (1780).44° The New World to see the need of a this home and abroad increased. and those who wished to retain sovereign rights for the states. Hamilton. The original thirteen states formed a narrow strip of land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Ap-pa-lach'i-an Mountains. This acquisition doubled the area of the United States and proved to be one of the most valuable tracts of land in the world. From this huge from Napoleon for $15. In addition several states possessed sparsely settled areas extending westward to the Mississippi. From the outset the assembly was divided into two factions those who favored a strong central government at the expense of the states. The most 492. To bring about object a group of merchants. May. When our title to the Oregon country was secured of area fourteen states have been created. After the cession of Florida by Spain (1821) the United States included all North America east of the Mississippi and south of the Great Lakes. Philadelphia. During this period our lands in the Mississippi basin proved : — of little value. By a fortunate stroke of diplomacy President Jefferson was able to purchase not only New Orleans. This splendid array of talent included such men as Washington. Madison. . which proceeded to organize it into new states. 1787. the acquisition and colonization of a territory nearly as large as Europe. belonging to France. and Patrick Henry. for at the mouth of that river New Orleans.000 entire region then known In 1845 the Republic Texas was annexed to the United States. Westward Expansion of the United States. remarkable feature of American history has been the rapid growth in size. every one began strong national government. leaving as little power as possible in the hands of the national government. manufacturers. The Constitution went into effect in 1789.000. and planters met at Independence Hall. Jay. and California and New Mexico were acquired by conquest three years afterward.

.

.

'

Westward Expansion

441

(1846), the territory of the United States practically reached
its

present limits.^ The work of expansion was accomplished through the wise forethought of statesmen, through wars of aggression, and through sheer good fortune. Meanwhile Americans 493. Colonization of the West. were devoting a large share of their energy to the task of colonizing their new acquisitions. The advance guard of hunters,

fishermen, trappers, and scouts acted as explorers and

made

known

to their friends at

home

the vast opportunities which

awaited them in the new lands. An Eastern family of small means, eager to improve its condition, would pack up its belongings, and venture into the wilderness. A covered wagon, humorously named prairie schooner or ship of the desert, drawn by oxen or horses, carried the baggage and the women of the household. Other members of the famUy took turns driving the herd which they brought with them. In this way they would journey a few miles a day. When they reached an attractive spot, they unpacked their goods, hastily constructed a rude shelter, and prepared to till the soU. Often groups of these pioneers found it convenient to band together for defence against the dangers of the wilds; the Indians, the savage beasts, or the forest fires. At the same time they good-naturedly furnished each other aid in building homes and in ploughing or reaping. In the same spirit they
often joined for mutual helpfulness and social intercourse in husking or logging " bees." In such pioneer communities

any man who could handle an there was no question of rank There axe or guide a plough was the equal of his neighbor. was little need of political organization justice was summary, and wrongdoers were severely punished.
;

;

enterprising continued to

As the lands nearer home became thickly move onward, and

settled, the

more

the never-ending

procession of prairie schooners advanced westward to conquer

the unknown forest and prairie. Emigration was hastened by the construction of railways. The discovery of gold in California lured adventurous thousands to that far-off region. A
»

Alaska was acquired in 1867. The oversea acquisitions are mentioned in

§ 529.

442

The New World

few became fabulously wealthy, while many failed utterly. The majority, however, who c^me filled with money-lust, remained in the wonderland they found there. Decline of our Merchant Marine. 494. The War of 1812 While still in its infancy the United States became embroiled in the bitter struggle between Napoleon and England. Each belligerent forbade the carrying on of neutral trade with the
:

The swift, wellmanned ships of the United
other.

States had built up an immense foreign trade,

which suffered especially, for both belligerents felt themselves free to prey upon American commerce.

The

greater

provocation
British,

came from the
directed

who
of

the

captains

their cruisers to stop

and

American vessels, and to remove those whom
search

they considered deserters.

Such
The
Constitution

persons,

many

of

whom

Nicknimed Old, Ironsides, the most celebrated ship in the history of the American A frigate of 1576 tons capacity and navy. carrying 44 guns, she was built in Boston harbor and launched in rygy. For a third of a century she was in active service, and was in her time perhaps the best warship afloat.

were Americans, they impressed into service This in the British navy.
unfortunate state of
led to
affairs

war

(1812), in

which

our land forces for a time suffered ignominious deMeanwhile our feat, but in the end gained a brilliant victory. few warships scoured the seas individually or in small squadrons, boldly encountering superior forces of the enemy and almost always winning the mastery. The Treaty of Ghent (Christmas

Eve, 1814) closed the war.

The war
business.

It

thus closed marked an important epoch in American was the beginning of the decline of our merchant

Commerce, Industry, and Slavery

443

marine, for the carrying trade of the world was now passing into British hands. At the same time we discovered that it was no longer necessary to depend on British manufacturers.

Even home

made to encourage were formed for this purpose, premiimis were paid, and tax exemptions granted. At the same time the government aided home manufacturers by charging high duties on imported products. Under these favorable conat this early date every effort was

industry;

societies

ditions industries necessarily flourished.

495. United

Growth

Slavery.
had
its

of

The
now

States

to face the

difficult

most problem of
history

entire

the question of slavery.

This

evil

was a

heritage

of

colonial

days,

when

shiploads

had been brought from the junof negroes
gles of

Africa.

The
The Cotton Gin
One form
of
it

majority became the

property of Southern

in operation.

From

a print.

plantation owners, who found that under the hot sun they could work betteri than white men. In the North they were unprofitable and soon disappeared. Even in the South some slaveholders, such as Washington and Jefferson, considered it wrong to keep
fellow-creatures in bondage, while others permitted slaves to

purchase their freedom. The Constitution, however, allowed the institution to continue despite the fundamental principle, No more of our government that " all men are created equal." slaves, however, were to be imported after 1808, and statesmen felt that the problem would be settled by the gradual dying out
of negro. families.

444

The New World
entire situation

was revolutionized through the invention Whitney (1794 § 461). This machine made the production of cotton very profitable, and established the institution of slavery more firmly than ever in the South. the number of slaves increased In thirty years 1790-1820 from 700,000 to 1,500,000. During that period the great Southwest, hitherto a wilderness, became a land of large cotton planSoutherners understood the evils of slavery, but uptations. held it for die sake of its profits, and because their industrial life seemed to admit of no better system of labor.
of the cotton gin

The

by

Eli

;

The question attained The Question of Abolition. In the vital importance as the nation expanded westward.
496.

North the Abolitionists, who demanded the extinction of slavery in the name of Christianity and right, were becoming a powerful
political force.

Others were as firm in their defence of the in-

_stitution.

Whenever new territory was about to be acquired, accordingly, or new states admitted, heated discussion arose in Congress between the friends and foes of slavery. It became a bitter struggle of the North and South for the control of the

West, giving rise to a series of compromises. The South, need of keeping political power, succeeded in maintaining as many slave as free states, each with two senators. In 1850 a compromise attempted to settle the question finally by granting generous concessions to the South. It is true that California, was admitted as a free state and that the
feeling the

Columbia was abolished. At the same time the entire district ceded by Mexico was opened to slavery. It was provided, too, that federal officers should seize and restore to their owners those slaves who were attemptslave trade in the District of

ing to escape through the northern states to Canada.

As Congress continued
the
abolitionist

to yield to the

demands

of slavery,

Men

sentiment increased by leaps and bounds. of culture and wealth joined their ranks, among them

Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, then the most influential newspaper in the country. Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe portrayed in Uncle Tom's Cabin a simple story of the terrible evils of slavery. While its picture was only in part

Civil
true, the sale of the

War

and Reconstruction

445

copies.

Its importance as a poUtical

book reached hundreds of thousands of pamphlet Cannot be over-

estimated, for

it taught thousands to oppose slavery with uncompromising zeal. In this way it hastened the inevitable conflict between North and South. As a result of this agi497. The Civil War (1861-1865). tation there was formed a new party the Republican which avowed its hostility to the institution. In i860 its candidate, Abraham Lincoln, was elected President of the United States. The Southern states, angered at the loss of the power held for so many years, withdrew from the Union and organized a new Confederacy. All attempts to conciliate the seceding states failed and the United States became a " house

;

divided against

itself."

Lincoln accordingly called for volxm-

The campaigns of the four terrible years which followed and the final victory of the North need
teers to restore the Union.

not detain us here. In this great struggle President Lincoln issued the famous Emancipation Proclamation, which freed three and a half milUon slaves of the seceding states (January i, 1863). This document was prompted partly by the dictates of humanity, to weaken the rebellion by departly as a military measure priving the South of its laborers. At the end of the war the thirteenth amendment, prohibiting slavery throughout the length and breadth of the United States, became a part of the

Constitution.
498.
;

conflict

Reconstruction a Better Union. Now that armed was over, there remained the serious question of restoring the Southern states to the Union. At this crisis the hand of an

assassin robbed the nation of the services of its ablest states-

man, Lincoln.

The work

of reconstruction

was carried on by

men many

of

whom were honest and patriotic, but unacquainted

with real conditions. Not understanding the ignorance and the crude character of the negroes, they granted them full Naturally these freedmen were incapable of performsuffrage. ing their newly acquired function. Hence they became the tools of unscrupulous poUticians, who swarmed from the North

446
over
all

The

New World
make their fortunes by securing They are aptly described as

the Southern states to

pohtical control. to the blacks.
carpet-baggers.

There followed, then, instead of wise, conand anarchy. This condition of affairs plunged the states farther into debt, and awakened a bitter race conflict between blacks and whites.
structive legislation, extravagance, fraud,

The people of the North atteinpted to correct the they had wrought, but ^nally left to the South the
task of solving the race problem.

mischief
diflGicult

In self-preservation the Southerners have disfranchised the negroes; and they will probably remain in that condition until they become sufficiently educated and trained to exercise the franchise without injury
to the country.

Gradually the old wounds have healed, and the North and South have come to appreciate how indispensable they are to each other. Railroads and telegraphs have served to bring distant regions near together, and have perhaps done more than anything else to rid the country of sectional jealousies. The individual states, too, have seen the wisdom of dropping local ambitions for the good of the nation at large. In this way there has gradually come about since the Civil War a United States truly " one and indivisible." The Civil 499. A New Economic Life in Country and City. War, too, marked a new epoch in the industrial life of the

country. The new industries had long displaced the oldfashioned methods of working and living. The raihoads were recognized as the arteries of the new life. Congress made large grants of money and land for the building of a transcontinental road. The construction of the Central Pacific, running east-

ward from San Francisco, and of the Union Pacific, extending westward to meet it, was carried on with tremendous haste. The driving of the last spike was attended by elaborate ceremonies throughout the nation (1869). The rapid settlement of the distant West ensued. The government furthered this immigration by granting a free farm to any one who would promise to work it. Stock-raising, however, was usually foxmd more profitable and for that reason great herds of cattle with
;

.

Country and City
their picturesque

447

Its vast prairies, too,

cowboys have ever characterized the West. encouraged the cultivation of grain on a
could feed the world.

large scale.

If necessary, this district

In the East, where mineral resources were more plentiful, the factory system sprang up. This development meant the growth of large cities, in which centred scores of railroad systems. The city brought with it many serious problems. Too often these questions were left to the self-seeking politician to solve for the majority were too busy making money to attend Only to-day people are beginning to appreto such matters. ciate the importance of
;

-expelling

the

" bosses "

with their corruption and
inefficiency

from the

city

some extent these rogues have been replaced by men of
government.
great ability, often experts
in
Ufe.

To

the problems of city
Citizens spend time

and money in making their town a good and pleasant place to Uve in. Much
but much more attention must be
has been done
.

Cowboy and Steee
Pulling a steer from the mud, a common From Roosevelt, occurrence in ranch life.

;

,

,

.

,

R""';* Life and EunUng Trail, by permission of the Century Co.

given to transportation, public parks, wider streets, schools, playgrounds, pubUc bathing places, better health laws, purer milk, better water, a more efficient and comfortable system of housing the poor, as well as to the protection of life and property from the dangers of fire, and the improvement of sanitary
conditions.
500.

The Trust Problem and

the Labor Problem.

— Since
as the

the Civil War men have made large fortunes in exploiting such natural resources as coal, iron, lumber, and oil. Others have accumulated money by manufacturing. The growth of business on a large scale has produced combinations
trusts.

known

Often they have been guilty of

political corruption.

448

The

New World

and competitors by a series of wise laws, however, Congress has succeeded in transforming them into capable and efficient servants of the people. At the same time the attitude of the government has changed from open hbstility to one of friendliness. Boards and commissions have been created not only to secure a " square deal " for the public, but to assure to business proper returns on capital invested. In the United States as elsewhere the growth of industries has been accompanied by labor problems. Workers in most fields have organized to obtain what they consider their fair
of injuring or ruining small investors

and

criminal practices.

By

The strikes which achave caused much suffering, not only to the workers themselves, but to the millions of people who depend on their products. Both capital and labor, however, seem more willing than formerly to submit their questions to arbitration by an impartial board and to abide by its decision. It is hoped therefore that the laborer may thus secure not only a sufficient but a happy living, for his welfare -is the welfare of all. The principle of old-age pensions, employers' .liability, and the minimum wage ^ are rapidly gaining favor. The greatest problem stiU to be solved is the condition of women and children in the industries. " That children should be shut up for long hours in close factories, doing over and over again some little thing whose very repetition seems to stunt the body and dull the mind, can hardly be allowed permanently in a country which understands that its future is in the hands of its children and that no amount of cheap cotton or of cheap shoes is compensation for^stunted and benumbed youth." ^ In this chapter we have seen how the United States has become indeed a great nation stretching from the Atlantic to the
share of the profits of their employers.

companied

this struggle

In another connection we shall see how we acquired lands beyond the sea, and the duties and burdens as well as the benefits arising from our new empire,
Pacific.
• That is, legislation which shall fix the lowest pay at which any specified class of persons shall be permitted to work. 2 Simons, Social Forces in American History, 534. The evils here denounced will be to some extent eradicated by President Wilson's Child Labor Law passed by Congress in the summer of 1916.

;

studies
Topics for Reading
I.

449

Origin and Character of Nationality.
i
;

— Pollard, Factors in Modern
Nationalism and

History, ch.

Penwith, Lord Courtney
i.

of,

War

in the

Near East,
II.

ch.

Hayes, Political and Social History of 163-75; Hazen, Europe Since 1815, chs. x, xvi; Holland, Builders of United Italy, see Conteats; Mackenzie, Nineteenth Century,
Unification of Italy.
II,

Europe,
354-74-

III. German Economic Life. Von Bulow, Imperial Germany, 24889 ; Lichtenberger, Germany and its Evolution, bk. I, chs. i-iii Tower, Germany of To-day, ch. vii Perris, Germany and the German Emperor, ch. x; Howard, Cause and Extent of Industrial Progress in Germany, see Contents. IV. Education and Intelligence in Germany. Tower, chs. vi, x Richards, History of German Civilization, ch. xlvii. V. Franco-Prussian War. Smith, Bismarck, 43-61 Headlam, Bismarck, chs. xiii, xiv; Malleson, Refounding of the German Empire,
; ;

;

Cambridge Modern History, XI, chs. xvii, xxi. States on the Threshold of the Twentieth Century. Muzzey, American History, ch. xx Hart, American History told by Contemporaries, IV, chs. xxx-xxxiv. VII. Americanism. Hill, Americanism, chs. iv, v; Roosevelt, Fear God and Take Your Own Part, especially chs. iv-ix. VIII. Social Conditions and Prospects of Latin America. Enock', Mexico, especially chs. ix, xi, xiv-xvii Republics of Central and South America, especially chs. xv, xvi ; Bryce, South America, chs. xiii, xv, xvi.
chs. xi-xv.

VI.

The United

;

;

Review
revolutions have taken place since 1789, and what are 2. the effects of each? Why should the people of the world act as nations? Give an example of national disruption; of national success. 3. What was the character and spirit of the Congress of Vienna? What did it accomplish? How did it trespass upon the new national principle? $• What revolutions followed, and how did the league 6. Trace the steps in the uniof conservative powers deal with them ? Who were Victor Emmanuel fication of Sardinia with northern Italy. and Cavour, and what part had each in this achievement ? 7. Explain What part had Garithe formation of the present kingdom of Italy. 8. In what condition did the Congress of Vienna baldi in this work? Describe the aspirations and the achievements of the leave Germany? intellectual class. 9. Describe the Prussian revolution in industry. Explain the economic unification of Germany. 10. Explain the
1.

What two

growth of the Prussian military power. Who were Wilhelm I and Bismarck? How was the political unification of Germany achieved?

2G

4SO

The

New World

11. Describe the extent and the condition of the Turkish empire about 1800. How did the government treat the subject Christians? 12. Narrate the events which brought about the liberation of Greece. What 15. What designs upon Turkey were cherished by Russia? 14. What policy toward Turkey was adopted by the Congress, of Paris ? other Balkan states gained their independence, and in what way? What forms of g9vern15. Describe the liberation of Latin America. ment did the liberated countries adopt ? 16. Describe their population and their politics. 17. What are the characteristics of the Latin Americans, men and women? 18. Describe their country life. Who 19. Give an account of the are the peons and what is their cond,ition? Why has it not made greater progress? resources of Latin America. Are they 20. What have foreign capitalists done in Latin America? What checks should be placed on a benefit or an injury to the natives ? 21. What was the condition of their exploitation of the country? 22. Explain the the United States at the close of the revolution? formation of the constitution. 23. Describe the westward expansion; 24. How was the West colthe successive enlargements of territory. onized? Describe the frontier life. 25. Give an account of the War Why did our merchant marine afterward decline? 26. By of 1812. what process did slavery become a political issue of supreme importance? 27. What movements were made for checking and for abolishDescribe its general 28. What caused the Civil War? ing slavery? character and its results. 29. Give an account of the so-called reconstruction of the South. 30. In what way is "a more perfect union" now in process of growth? 31. What economic progress has taken place since the war? 32. What are trusts? How has Congress dealt with them? What labor problem has arisen, and what efforts have been made to solve it? What is the Child Labor Law?
I

Additional Studies
1. Expand the statement in § 470 as to the restrictidh on man's independence during the Middle Ages and his liberation through the French Revolution (by reviewing these earlier chapters). ^. Compare the modern nation with the Greek city-state. In what respects are they alike ? In what respect is the nation a higher development ? 3. Would a world-state be desirable ? Give reasons for your answer. 4. Mention a present European power which consists of several nationalities. Is this composition a source of strength or of weakness? 5. What geographical feature of Italy has contributed to her disunion through long periods of her history? 6. Compare the unification of Italy with that of Germany. 7. From a review of earlier chapters give an account of the origin of the Turkish empire. 8. Why has not Turkey shared in the general progress of the world? 9. What advantages or disadvan-

1

Studies

45

tages do the modern Greeks derive from the fact that they have illustrious ancestors ? lo. Why are the governments of the Latin American states less stable than our government ? ii. Every nation in the enjoy-

ment of good government has worked out its own system through long and painful experience. If left to themselves, what will probably become of the Latin states? 12. Why does their salvation depend so much on the ruling class? 13. What were the economic causes that
led to the formation of our Constitution?
14.

Compare the

territorial

growth of the United States with that of any European power. How far have we resorted to conquest? 15. What has been the part of railways in bringing about a unity of feeling in our country ? 16. When did the industrial revolution enter our country, and what have been its effects? 17. What are some of the economic and social problems
still
if

needing solution ?

any,

may we

18. What aid to the solution of these problems, derive from the study of history ?

;

CHAPTER XXrX
-

RECENT IMPERIALISM
From
1785 to the Present

I.

The Beginnings of Empire-building
1785-1826

In the Maintains Her Supremacy. which has brought about, the political condition of the world of to-day Great Britain has held the lead, chiefly because the industrial revolution first took place in that country. She could make and sell goods, more cheaply and of
501.

Great, Britain

work

of empire-building

better quality than

any other European

nation,.

Her

tools

and

clothing found a ready market on the Continent.

In spite of

the loss of her thirteen American colonies she still possessed oversea dependencies anxious to buy' her wares. Undoubtedly she could make further profit by adding to these possessions
this she could do, for she had the means of building and maintaining the most powerful navy in the world. Such was the state of afiairs when the French people through

and

(ch. xxvi) engaged in internal reform. Although the work was completed to their ow;n satisfaction, it antagonized the rest of Europe, and led to war between France and her neighbors. From the beginning the attitude of Great Britain was hostile. She granted subsidies to the enemies of France on the Continent, and at the same time she made the most of her opportunity to widen her colonial possessions, with their vast supplies of raw materials and their new markets for finished goods. To pay her military expenses she broadened her trade to the detriment of her enemies and of neutrals in

their revolution

452

lAL POSSESSIONS
OF THE

(PEAN
1914
I i

POWERS
iP^Bc/a^an

dJllalian
I '\

Hpaniah Portuguese
30

C^ DanMi

r^"' Aj^a,C^!^i^'°
dch

Jg/^lhttch
Lonffitude
CO

from

150

British Acquisitions

453

every possible way. It was a power collapsed (1798) and
transferred to Great Britain.

further,
its

advantage that the Dutch dominions were temporarily

Meanwhile the century-long struggle between the French and the British was nearing a climax. Napoleon made a valthe keystone of the British empire through Egypt. Having failed in this expedition he sold Louisiana to the United States (§ 492), and used the proceeds in the construction of a navy. In this way he aimed to win for himself at least the freedom of the seas. The destruction of his fleet at Tra-fal-gar' (1805), however, dispelled all hope of success, and Great Britain emerged triumphant, the first power in the world. Her gains included Cape Colony,
iant attempt to attack India

Ceylon, and
globe.

many

islands of strategic value scattered over the

France retained but a few colonial remnants, and five seaports in India. She and Holland ceased to be rivals of Great
Britain.
;

Australia. During all this time the British 502. India were busily engaged in widening their possessions in India. The home government showed a surprising lack of interest in these endeavors. By chance alone the work fell into the hands

and Warren Hastings, who had the best They understood, too, the Indian mind and how best to win the native princes, whether by a show of force or the power of gold. It is diflScult to match
of

men

like Wellesley

interests of their country at heart.

in excitement the struggle with the tribes of northwest India, ending in their subjugation. Progress, too, was made jn ac-

ga-pore', through

quiring not only the interior but the seaboard, including Sinwhose harbor all traffic between India and

China had to pass. Before 1826 more than a hundred million people were brought under British rule. These were long strides toward winning the vast Indian empire. A hardly less important feature of the period was the rediscovery and colonization of an entire continent, Australia, equal in area to the United States. Australia had been known to the Dutch since the early seventeenth century, but she had been ignored for the moire obvious treasures of the Indies.

454 Beginnings of Imperialism sion in the Captain Cook rediscovered the eastern coast and took possesname of the British crown. and famine was all too frequent. The difficulties of colonization were enormous. recognized these whole-souled efEorts in slaves (1807). Bay. The intelligence of the population was low. In such colonies vain attempts were made to convert pickpockets into farmers. Persons condemned for crime were sold into servitude for $20 a head and deported. Drought was not imusual. the real pioneers of colonization. English farmers. — Kind-hearted people throughout the English-speaking world formed societies to denounce the slave trade as a blot on ^Christianity. Hitherto the chief use of this area had been to supply black merchandise. and served to keep the Dutch settlers there from becoming predominant. which are the These men rather than the convicts were finest in the world. It was in this period that the thirteen colonies broke away . free settlers began to take advantage of the grazing grounds. began to find new homes in the extreme southern portion. and prosperous common- wealth. efEorts that Australia is and now a . Owing to the scanty production food v(fas at all times expensive. Africa and America saw the opening of Africa. afterward Australia took its place. Gradually. 503. and many of the military officers in charge were incapable and dishonest. men awoke to the rights of the individual. Summary. In 1798 a gang of the kind was landed at Botany. the last continent to be seized by Europeans. great it is largely due to their. The actual work of Up for settlement was the direct result of the American revolution. too. " to this time America had served as a " dumping ground criminals. Toward the close of the eighteenth century. This period. Another group founded what is now the prosperous city of Sidney. for tropical Africa. too. The by British government abolishing the traffic This act marked the beginning of a new era Societies were formed for the scientific exploration of the Dark Continent. however. however. For the time the profits of the slave trade hushed every question of right or wrong.

then. Russia. The suppres505. Their success encouraged other colonies to improve their conditions. In their place we find Great Britain. — During this period Great Britain remained the workshop of the world. Progress toward World Partition 1826-1876 504. for by a combination of accident had acquired many islands scattered over . of this stations new means of transportation the possession of coaling came to be extremely importaaL> In this respecrCfeat was most lortunate. '^Bntain and foresight she the waters of the globe that were suitable for the purpose.). In this period the steamship shortened distances and made communication with far-off regions safer and quicker. It was only natural. Africa sion of the slave traffic in Africa meant an annual loss of — a deficit which merchants hoped to make good $30. Effects of the Industrial Revolution. seemed inconceivable that she should have a rival iu making It was a further advantage to her that she controlled the carrying trade and the money markets of the world. she was content to hold what she already had. the master state. and France.000 by discovering and using the natural resources of that conti- — .000. Undoubtedly the opportunity of securing far larger transmarine areas lay at her door. Holland. Exploration and Partition. Spain. that the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in America should take advantage of the weakness of the mother countries to achieve their independence. With the advent it or in selling goods. and the United States with its prospect of absorbing a large part of North America. — The early years of the nineteenth century therefore were no: table for the elimination of the old colonial powers Portugal. which had already gained a hold upon Siberia. II. and the work of empire-building therefore suffered a temporary lapse. For the most part. however.New Colonizing Powers 455 from the mother country to form a new nation one that speedily entered upon the work of colonization and empirebuilding (§ 490 ff.

Meanwhile. in their South African possessions. which had just lost Brazil. The efforts of France in Lower Guinea proved far more profitable. obtained compensation in western Africa. Henry M. In 1845 the British asserted authority over this region. whereas the English insisted that their tongue be used exclusively. By force of arms she took possession of Algiers and the neighboring territory. The discontent of the Boers grew apace. the world. Stanley's narrative. the British encountered difiSculties with the Boers. Finally when negro slavery was aboUshed. Stanley under the auspices of the N-ew York Herald went on a search for him. with British approval. to whom therefore she the French conquest of Al-ge'ri-a. to World With this Partition impetus scientists and travellers proceeded Undoubtedly David Livingstone. fascinated the world and inexplore the interior.civilization. as the Dutch settlers were called. they wished their dialect to become the oflScial language. How I Found Livingstone. Their migration is known as the great trek. It was a further cause of friction that the Boers forced the natives. About the same time. Predominant in numbers. founding the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. to hard labor. The Engleft . creased the appetite for further exploration of Africa. however.456 nent. In Upper Guinea. the Boer farmers abandoned their homes and moved into Natal. His travels during a period of twenty-three years took him through almost impenetrable jungles and forests across the His explorations riveted the attention of entire continent. Portugal. and again the Boers trekked. a Scotch missionary. but because the deepening commercial interest of France demanded that the northern coast of Africa be kept clear of Barbary pirates. an extremely ignorant people. while the English missionaries were endeavoring to raise them to a higher state of . Without doubt the most important feature of the period was As a matter of fact this district was not taken for pure lust of dominion. and when on one of his journeys it seemed that he was lost or dead. accomplished more than any other person. she found it impossible to compete with the English. undisputed possession of that district.

recognition of an accomplished the title of Queen Victoria assumed was not a cheap title. cautiously feeling her The Near Orient and India. when a French engineer. De Lesseps. canals went on rapidly. as it rendered unnecessary the long trip round the Cape of Good Hope to India. of 87 miles waterway nations. and Australia. way southward — Meantime in an attempt a port free from ice through the entire year.Africa and India 457 lish in their process of expansion continued to follow them. but a stop was put to this movement before the Crimean war. Through a financial masterstroke (1875) English bankers succeeded in purchasing 177. The building of roads. when Great Britain recognized the independence of the Boer states (1854). Eng- Russia was to obtain Early in the period — land made region. China. direct route to the Orient. took place in the trade routes of the world. her power extended definitely across the Caucasus and in direct a country which showed every evidence contact with Persia It was merely a question of time before she of friendship. England therefore sought to obtain a controlling interest in the canal and in Egypt. that haste therefore to secure the neutrality of that it might serve as a buffer-state against the Russian the advance. lest some hostile power cut her off from her Indian possessions. the threshhold of India. the best part of the British empire. Forming a short. but a the end of danger from fact — . two centuries.000 shares of Suez Canal stock enough to secure British control. and Finally in 1877 It Empress of India. It — 507. too. During this period a radical change 506. constant improvement. The Suez Canal. By this act British control gained great military and administrawere undergoing Economic conditions. In 1869 this — was opened to merchant ships of all proved an immediate and wonderful success. In India itself Crown took over the reins of government for which the East India company had held tive efficiency. formed a universal stock company to build and operate a canal across the Isthmus of Suez. would threaten Af-ghan-is-tan'. it brought India. railways. within easy reach of Europe.

The latter were easily susceptible to bribery and permitted the importa- opium contrary to th^ orders of their superiors. the spiritual head. and along the northern border of China. For centuries that country had been under the feudal regime of the Shogun. The threat of war. whom they considered as inferiors. especially missionaries. There remained the arrogance and hostility that had grown through centuries of seclusion. For the first time we find it necessary to turn our attention to the Far East. The conqueror secured the right to occupy Hong Kong. During the first half of the nineteenth century China and Japan were forced by the onrushing tide of European expansion to let down the barriers which they had jealously guarded for centuries against the outside world.. of the state. Some foreign trade indeed had been carried on at Canton. In 1839 the government confiscated 20. to foreigners. The Chinese government refused to receive communications from European powers except as humble petitions. . the nominal sovereign. It continued further to maltreat foreigners. These incidents tion of led to the struggle between Great Britain and China. The Far — . The oflScial class was unreservedly hostile 508. East. that England was ready It showed in an vin- mistakable costs. as way to defend India at all an integral part -of the British empire. but it was monopolized by the Chinese merchants. and together with other countries received commercial privileges in certain ports. the home of the oldest civilization now existing and of one quarter of the human race. howof ever. The Shogun was not hostile to foreigners. which resulted in the opening of the latter country to the outside world. Japan bore a similar relation to the outside world. who lived where Tokio is now situated. and threatened the lives of the hated foreigners. to establish a diplomatic system.000 chests of the drug. and fit to deal only with the unimportant members of "their rank. and to grant greater commercial facilities to merchants.4S8 foreign states World Partition and from internal trouble. The Mikado. finally induced China to recognize the equality Euro- peans. was considered a deity.

In another place we shall see with what success this transformation was attended. to prevent the Teutonic powers from gaining a mastery of the World. the combined English. Thousands of farmers and stockraisers were attracted to this region lands and splendid sheep pastures. 509. the Dominion of Canada. While the ties of blood and sympathy connecting it with the mother country have remained as strong as ever. was beginning to attract thousands of Iftirdy pioneers. beginization. Meanwhite New Zealand. hitherto the home of seal and whale fishers. Their descendants have shown the world how in a practical way the benefits of democracy can be made to operate for the good of all the people.Unity of Britons 459 but afraid lest he be overthrown and replaced by the Mikado. French. and Canada. constitute the foundation of British power and of British civilAll have cooperated in the gigantic struggle. This event marked the beginning of a new era for Japan. New Zealand. When this agreement was violated. — With the abolition of all penal settlements (1853) the stigma was removed from colonization in Australia. New Zealand. and Canada have this in common. In 1867 Great Britain united her provinces north of the United States into a self-governing unit. along with Great Britain. Australia. ning in 1 914. In 1853 the United States sent Perry to inquire about the maltreatment of American sailors. A few years afterward the Mikado was restored to power. scent. . Dutch. therefore. Australia. the greater freedom accorded this colonial domain has undoubtedly served to quicken the work of expansion within its area. in which she became a national state of the modern European type. and American fleets forced him to jdeld. with its rich farmExpansion from the towns on' the east coast to the vacant lands in the interior may well be compared with that of the United States in the same period. that the great majority of their inhabitants are British by deThese countries. Thereupon the Shogun conceded that foreigners could reside in certain specified places.

nization . 511.' 460 III. have brought people relations. Hence each modern nation has attempted to win control of as •large a part of the world's surface as its energies and opportunities have permitted. The among men and nations. of the Transition from Nationalism to Imperialthe close of the Middle Ages to the period we reached the strongest force in European politics In the study of that time our attention was upon the struggles for independence waged by peoples who considered themselves in bondage. for seemed gresses of efficacious. and place with of little events all a common continue to take friction arbitration. These tendencies served to create the illusion that . The most obvious result of Imperialism. It was impossible to satisfy these ambitions in continental Europe except at the expense of neighbors ai!d the seemingly limitless areas oversea proved far more attractive than the chances of conquest at home!. and thus we have come to think and live in approximately the sanie way. in spite of the fact that it increased by leaps and Expansion so rapid demanded new lands for coloand new markets. Follow- ing the example of England. as this policy is called. ism. facexistence. been to bring about the growth of international Railroads and steamships. practically every such country engaged in manufacturing and commerce. has. and other features of the industrial revolution. In these struggles several nations were successful in gaining political Their new national life welcomed railroads. It was not long before a superabundance of goods was produced for the home population. of all countries more closely together. — From Review have now was nationalism. too. International Relations of Friendship and Enmity. Contemporaffy Imperialism CONTEMBOEAEY IMPERIALISM From 1876 to the present 510. . too.^ constantly riveted tories. The use the peaceful settlement of disputes holding of frequent international con- and expositions sought to emphasize the brotherhood man. — larity of life gave rise to the idea that that we will are part of humanity. This simibounds.

The trader accordingly found it profitable to follow Naturally the merchant was not content to rein his wake. unless perhaps a merely local conflict. Practically this meant the use of innumerable articles manufactured in Europe. is evident. but he taught them the benefits of European civilization. In many cases the missionary was the pioneer of expansion. and huge navies to defend coaling stations and trade routes. for each nation has set out to gain its share of land not already by other Europeans. however. Tradition has emphasized narrow national ideals in laws It will and customs. literature and art. his home government sent the diplo- mat. that nations brought closely together sometimes meet in an unfriendly as well as in a friendly way. Since 1876 the activity of expansion has been feverish. to the exclusion of everything foreign. is The German cherished of making territorial " penetration " of this perhaps the best example of type of col- . —A movement extend- ing over areas so vast and peoples so varied has brought into play various methods of winning territory. so that the facts of international politics are in absolute conflict with the theory of human brotherhood. If the latter failed to obtain fair treatment. To prevent his meeting with onerous taxes or interference in the transit of his wares. These rivalries are in fact the underlying cause of the great European war which possessed — broke out in 1914. These feelings are accentuated under the keen competition of Imperialism . Methods of Empire-building. the soldier. Another method of expansion has rested on a strictly business basis: in this case no hope is and poUtical South America acquisitions.Policies of Imperialism ' 461 there could never again be war.between the great powers has brought with it a vast increase in armaments large standing armies to protect the mother countries from possible attack by a jealous rival. main in the seaports. 512. the sailor. This competition . Not only did he convert the people of far-away lands to Christianity. but wished to penetrate to the interior. and big guns succeeded in winning recognition of the rights of Europeans.

462 onization. the commercial right serves as a stepping stone Finally. however. by annexation." 1 In areas in which several nations are seeking supremacy. and draws after him to his new home both relatives and friends. World Politics. Much and in bettering the condition of the natives. agricultural colonies are often A founded. ' Reinsch. Then. Then. by the side of their commerextends his business relations ercial establishments. Great Britain responsibilities of imperialism. but it is not permitted to exercise political supervision. Too often. 282. . known as a " sphere of influence. which began in 1876. — Early in this period. Through this policy she has maintained her leadership in transmarine exis undoubtedly the most successful colonizing nation of to-day. of sions oversea. and pursue a business monopoly. banking operations are carried on between the mother country and the colony. they have sometimes found it desirable to apportion the territory among themselves. Here it may obtain railway and mining concessions. and a wide scope in which to exercise initiative and enterprise. in constructing internal improvements. by founding branch houses in neighboring towns. By this division each nation receives a definite region. too." in which it has full liberty to do business. too. to facilitate the exchange of products to political control followed 513. awoke to the duties and The work of welding together has been carried on with has been accomplished in developing natural resources. confining their attention to the development of the country's wealth. Contemporary Imperialism " German merchant settles in some coimriimity. as in China. of protecting her vast possessions and unparalleled vigor. In the accomplishment of her gigantic tasks there has been a surprising lack of system. in fact they are granted great powers of discretion. The colonists avoid all interference in local political afiEairs. and proven character have been chosen to care for the possesFew restrictions are placed upon them. Fortunately men pansion. fully British Imperial Policy. As a consequence they generally enjoy the confidence and esteem of the populations among whom they work.

Imperial Nations 463 those colonies in which English-speaking peoples predominate have received the gift of responsible government. but unfortunately she found most of the ground already taken." ^ gradually occupying the vast region of Siberia. essential than ever before. she is not so far above the various tribes of the Asiatic plains as to misunderstand them. They know wheti to use corruption. The demanded an outlet. and forced the nation to enter on a career of expansion. just laws and equal opportunities for all have been consistent features of her policy. while through- out Britain's entire possessions. Herself semi-Oriental. too. when to use force. Russian Imperialism. With the advent of the industrial revolution the possession of an ice-free port became more the Balkans. — has become the leader in overland expansion. and at the same time a political system the splendor and concentrated majesty of which impress the Oriental mind far more than do the simple business methods of the Briton. In fact hundreds of thousands of German farmers have settled in the territory of other nations. World Politics. Germany became a colonial power. It has of farmers large surplus of goods I Reinsch.and when to soothe with honors and decorations. With astonishing rapidity a country was transformed into a nation of factories. have proved disappointing. Her few colonies.. — In this period. The Russians have an insinuating manner and great tact in diplomatic intercourse. too. she next turned eastward. BoUnd in by other countries to the west. . 515. At the same time this colonial " penetration " has been carried on with equal success by German business men (§ 512). 49/. she attempted to force her way through Checked on every hand. German Imperialism. converted many a wildernfess into rich farinlands. doubtless because her system of petty officials and her police-sergeant methods have hampered colonists and have induced them to go elsewhere. and have changed their political Here their natural ability and perseverance have allegiance. On the other hand Russia 514. " Of all European powers Russia is in some respects the most successful as a colonizer in Asia.

her admirable consular Then. — The early part of this period saw the complete partition of Africa. but to protect her trade routes and her subject^ in. for a colonial empire first arose The desire from the necessity of maintaining her national prestige. The annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina '(§ 483). Other Nations. Germany maintains a large navy not only to keep her possessions intact. — The last forty years has seen {he awakening of French ambition. service is always ready to lend a helping hand.464 Contemporary Imperialism been to their advantage that the home government has kept touch with her subjects abroad. pensation for losses suffered in Europe. Since 1898 she has definitively joined the ranks of other colonial powers. particu- and the Pacific. too. The Imperialism of. The recent acquisitions of France will be considered below. > Belgium also has made her advent as a colonizing country in the Congo region. Austria-Hungary has sought to extend her boundaries overland in the direction of the Balkan states. in rivalry with other powers. In this case the work was carried on for a. though Unable properly to utilize or govern them. time by a wealthy capitalist her sovereign Leopold II. States has larly in the Car-ib-be'an sea Finally the United "interested in oversea expansion. the final breaking up of the shadowy Spanish empire. This period has seen. Not since the sixteenth century has there been such an extraordinary scramble for new territory as that which has recently taken place on that continent. too. Italy. The entrance of a new contestant. are steps in this policy. 516. Germany in Africa. to prevent her from becoming a secondIn this way too she attempted to gain comrate power. in the field . too. to-day Spain retains merely what and Italy — she had before Cplumbus become — the Canary Islands — and in addition three slight possessions in Africa. and markets in which it is possible to buy raw stuff. Portugal has retained her possessions on the. when abroad. and her obvious attempt to control Serbia. tive has An additional mo- been that a colonial empire means trade outlets for manufactures. has entered upon expansion. 517. Germany. east and west coasts of Africa.

however. financially comparatively prosperous. her explorers trade began to develop there with astounding vigor. sums of — to build by offi- cial corruption. pianolas. accompanied by an organization so thorough and efficient as to cause discomfort in other commercial states. has become the property of England and France. an island Her chief efforts. Following them came merchants of Hamburg and Bremen. was still agricultural. Since it is impossible to build railroads through the shifting sands. 465 While that country and missionaries had done pioneer work in unclaimed regions. France desired the Morocco to round out her colonial empire. which is — dating a huge empire. thus winning In spite of ill-concealed opposition oh the part of Germany and Spain accordingly France estabUshed . The French suphim with soaps.In Africa has served only to intensify the rivahy. spent his time and money in gathering about him all the semblances of modern culture as a proof to the world of his civilization. to assist in suppressing revolts there. possession of For a long time. however. Its sovereign. however. The latter state has officially annexed Mad-a-gas'car. Their next step plied was political recognition. France in Africa. these colonies have proved and commercially disappointing. 518. With the exception of German East Africa. who carried on trading Then German manufactures and activities along the coast. and phonographs. The . she has confined to the northern and western parts of the conHere she has busied herself in occupying and consolitinent. The greater part of the continent. succeeded in colonizing several large Vast money have been spent to develop these regions and railways and schools a work unfortunately marred latter. the work of " peaceful penetration " has largely been accomphshed by automobiles. Areas along the Congo have fallen under her sway. larger than her home territory. districts along both the west and east coasts of Africa. By occupying the oases of the Sahara she has established her claim upon that region. England thought it churlish and inexcusable of the newcomer to compete with her monopoly whUe France regarded Germany as an upstart. who was weak and inert. however.

* The conquering country hopes by irrigation and other modern appliances to restore to this nearly desolate region a degree of the fertihty that it possessed' under the Roman empire. The Congo Region. a stimulated international rivalry. For the protection of her eastern coast. Asserting that her merchants in that province were hampered and mistreated by the Turks. As compensation Spain was allowed to retain a small area on the northern coast valuable for 519. her " Aspirations. 520. entered by the her career as an imperial power. she declared on the sultan (§ 480) a war. tributary of Turkey. In her immediate neighborhood Italy aims to " realize her national aspirati'ons " by acquiring the two Austrian provinces inhabited chiefly by people of Italian nationality. At the same time the climate is too hot to admit of their colonization by Europeans. The work of exploring the basin of the' Congo was carried on by an international association organized for the purpose. Won at great cost of lives and money. According to agreement this extensive area was to be neutral each nation was promised equal in Tri-est' — . As a first step in this direction she has seized and fortified Av-lo'na on the coast of the Balkan peninsula. It was with the vision of a larger Italy that she entered the great European war against the Teuton powers (1915). In fact it is partly an ideal her heritage df " glory " from ancient has led her to this conquest. Italy. in which she acquired the strip of coast extending from Tripoli to the border of Egypt. centring respectively in Trent (Trentino) situated in Rome — that — the eastern Alps. exceedingly long and diflEicult of defence. ' 1911-1912. its mines. . in Italy Africa .465 Contemporary Imperialism a protectorate over Morocco (1913)." — Meanwhile upon With this end in view she appropriated Er-e'tri-a" (1882) and So-ma'li-land (1889) on the eastern coast of Africa. More recently she cast her eyes across the Mediterranean upon Trip'o-li. she aims to gain complete control of the Adriatic. these dependencies have been of little value commercially and financially. and on the Adriatic.

521a. IJow the British acquired a vital interest in Egypt has been explained For a time this country continued under the rule of (§ 506). Gross financial mismanagement on the part of the Her troops. In 1885 accordingly he became personal owner and granted to 'certain companies the right of exploiting the natural resources of the Congo Free State. territory to the South nomadic population. the most valuable part of the British Empire. The natives. were reduced to a condition bordering upon slavery. Turkey. wished to be sole proprietor (§ 516). The civilized world shuddered at tales of the inhuman barbarity with which both men and women were treated. means vast stretches — — 1 Bord Cromer's work. The barbarities were promptly checked. These promwere not kept for Leopold II of Belgium. who had captured Alexandria and had occupied Egypt. work was finally annexed to Belgium (1908). Egypt is a land of untold possibilities awaiting the introduction of scientific methods of ritory — irrigation to utilize the overflow of the Nile. Great Britain in Egypt and the Soudan. All felt that a single government should assume the responsibility. Modern Egypt. this Even now by have been made very fertile. important to Britain. which in turn controls the destinies of India. officials afforded Britain a reason for intervention. and the Congo terthe of exploration. who had financed .too.^ In 1898 General Kitchener won for England and Egypt the vast the Sou-dan' with its semi-civilized. administrative reforms and internal improvements have been introduced. tells of other internal improvements carried . . she promised to withdraw as soon as order was restored and progEarly in the great European war which began ress assured. in 1914 the country was definitely separated from Turkey. In itself. and Possession of it is allbecame a part of the British Empire. A committee sent to inquire into these outrages confirmed the reports. Since that time. on under his direction. for it controls the Suez Canal. too. The business of these corporations was frankly to make money by every possible means.In Africa 467 ises trading privileges and the free use of the rivers. who were employed in gathering rubber and in building railways.

The demands of the British that their grievances be righted. mostly British.nd the Boer republics became a dependency of Britain . — — . Since that time several British possessions in South Africa have been brought into a close union (1910). .. but suspicious of people of other' too. for the control of the It is practically Crown is slight. numbers of These out- siders were forced to pay taxes and render military service. British entered lightly upon the contest with a few thousand Boer farmers but awakened by humiliating defeats. Contemporary Imperialism The British have met. 'With their scant resources drought mgans starvation to many and poverty to. settled among them. social customs and idealsj and forms of government. The Boers were farmers. they made war upon a scale hitherto unknown. self-governing. but were not granted the right to vote. — stocks. rapidly growing more intense. India must be considered not as a nation. all. Great Britain in South Africa. with great success in South Africa. rapidly growing Cape Colony reached the borders of the Boer republics (§ 505). India. the Union has become an aUy rather than a dependent of the Crown. Unprepared. Substantially. It even enjoys the right to make its own tariffs. The English have its are spoken. Nor has this vast region ever had a national life. Throtighoiit breadth half a dozen languages and several hundred dialects In race. The Partition of Asia . then. In the end force of numbers and brUliant generalship got the better of dogged resistance a. Early in this period the. (1902). 522. religion. The friction.' With the discovery of gold (1884) great foreigners. but as a continent for in both size and population it is almost as large as all Europe. met with a fiat refusal on the part of the Boers. 468 52 lb. — Perhaps the nlost is in- teresting feature of expansion in Asia British rule in India. stolid and freedom-loving. A quarter of a billion inhabitants many with only half an acre of land to the individual depend entirely on farming for a living. her people are just as diversified. The greatest difiiculty England has had to contend with is famine. peaceful. the finally led to the outbreak of hostilities.

India 469 spent millions in building and maintaining an irrigation system. men.000 miles of railway make possible the rapid transportation of food to districts in need. and money to improve the condition of its subjects. among whom a social as well as a religious bond affects every detail of daily life. Hospitals have been built to accommodate 25. Then. Their police have protected the widows and orphans and have assured every man the right to keep what he owns. .000 people annually. imagine the difficulty of helpfulness to one another hygienic. nor has any other conqueror been so liberal in spending time. one begins to understand dimly the difficulties inherent in any dealings with these people. There remain. many evUs to be corrected. a smattering of Western ideas. however. or military purposes. . so that i3. No empire so great has ever before been subject to a European nation. social.ooo acres are now watered by tanks. small groups of agitators have expressed dissatisfaction with British rule and have demanded self-government for India.000. the British have brought peace to a land disturbed by war and internal disorder. cannot eat together.000. the agriculturists. then follow the warin the distant future. and the serfs. .ocx). Each Hindu belongs to al- a particular caste. whether for Just as one example. and that as a rule no Hindu of good caste may eat food prepared by a man of inferior caste. wells. and that much the same rule obtains in regard to the drinking water. Indian Nationalism and the Castes. The rapid construction of schools is hastening to remove the blot of total ignorance from the native population. In addition 30. .000 letters every year. in which he and his descendants must ways remain. A glance at the social and religious life of its people shows that such a privilege can be granted only — Three-fifths of the people of India are Hindus. too.000. riors. The keynote of the system is caste the highest are the Brahmans or priests. Having acquired 523. or canals. " When it is remembered that the members of these differ- ent castes cannot intermarry.. They have assured justice to a country accustomed to arbitrary methods. The postoffice carries 1.

. —'The Asia 524. Japanese Artists the mosaic called cloisonne. 211. . is a whom social social religious degradation. met with in obstacle rise as Japan. imperilling not only one's ^ position but one's salvation." of These problems cannot be solved It is by the granting first the suffrage and a constitution. The product is very beautiful. which rethe individuality presses and ambition of its devotees and crushes their very lives.47° Contemporary Imperialism neglected and help-needing person when the and to touch. Afterward they will fill the interstices of the network (the cloisons) with enamel paste of various colors. Their Japan recognition as a great power. Since that war she has been a partner and a rival of the European nations in the work of partitioning Asia. Her immediate aim seems to be to gain control of China for her own advantage and to check as far as possible the exploitation of for success in this conflict has won that country by Europeans. its chief as they have partitioned Africa. The Rise of Japan. ambition of the Europeans to partition among themselves. They are now soldering a thin network of copper on a basis of solid metal. of necessary to uproot the tyranny and social snobbery Hinduism. 1 Collier. The West in the East. or to come in contact with in may be one any way. and they world. With armies of the modern tj^e they engaged in war with the mighty nation of Russia (1904-1905). Finally they will bake and polish the ware. is Their work have recently awakened to the need of adopting modern equipment. Her won a modern state has the admiration of the For centuries the Japanese have been a warrior nation.

As system of people who with pay difficulty obtain the mere necessities of life . and in brief the most important technical and scientific features of our age. Here. income in taxes. she has not devised a satisfactory governing the regions her soldiers have conquered. books. in no case has the respect of the natives been won. During the last half-century she has eagerly' sought to adopt Western industrial civilization. our traditions. landscapes and pictures. of the Chinaman and his peculiar manners. living force.Japan is one of the poorest countries in the world. Her art. In the last ten years the national debt has more than doubled. friends. Like the European states Japan has become a colonizing yet. she has remained Oriental in character She has not taken our religion. they like fame. have made him a mystery to us. however. belong only to the exterior. too.The Far East 471 Not only in the art of war but in every field of civilization has Japan borrowed from foreigners. Despite the wonderful growth of Japan. . our kind of factories. with half of its land devoted to the cultivation of rice. our family ties. Their standard of social life is the same. or any of the elements which make our civilization a powerful. however. She has acquired our tools. children. The placid countenance real hope of the East Jies in China. obey the same rules of morality that we do. the 525. our moral and ethical codes. Her own customs she considers superior. While Japan has imitated the outward features of our life. wealth. It remains only to estimate the cost at which the work of conquest has been accomplished. it is still largely agricultural. Uterature. a country which she has subjugated. They they are tolerant of appreciate a good joke and a good story are forced to thirty per cent of their total — . The nation. family life. An example is Co-re'a. nothing has been improved. often the very opposite of our own. It must be remembered that . and philosophy came to her from China. China. These Chinamen peculiarities. nothing invented. Naturally these faults time and experience may be able to remedy. A solution to this problem must be found before Japan can become a serious rival of the European powers. Her rule has been one of force and brutality.

. of their intellect. China. In the middle is a gatetower . In many cases they own and manage steamship lines and factories. hence they have become too self-satisfied. as well as shopkeepers and retailers. Wherever they go. It was necessary to pass in order to be eligible to office. on each side is a row of stalls for the candidates. they were unable to oppose his gaining a foothold and at last Chinese statesmen have awakened interference . The system was abolished in 1904. Several two-day sessions were required for the work. The . eating. The Chinese are proud of their race. When the foreigner finally came. of the East. physical discomfort An Old Examination-Hall Pekln. and writing there. to the fact that European institutions must be introduced as the only means of preventing the partition of the country among nation must employ the elements of physical strength which will safeguard her. Their honesty has made them the bankers and money changers. Steps have the great powers. The candidate remained in his stall '48 hours at a time. sleeping. their reUability is unquestioned.472 Contemporary Imperialism and contented with disagreeable conditions. and of For centuries they have lived free from their civilization.

mines opened. dent and his awakened. . to strive for. and China are no more Christian at heart now than before. To be on time.East and West already been taken in this direction. The West and the East. Only in this way is it possible to hold together the vast region in the interior. and sympathy justice." Furthermore it regards its own philosophy and religion as su- perior to ours . as a goal " Most of the best things of the West honesty. to pay visits. because for centuries the Chinese have been democratic in character and in social Although the individual has a great amount of liberty. so much so in fact that in spite of the century- long efforts of missionaries. to dress at certain times and in a certain manner. Railways have been built. the Oriental shrinks from as from slavery. demands. In 1912 China became a republic. to be severely accurate in money matters. This break with the past was easy and natural rather than abrupt. India. 526. From us the East has received material benefits how to use its natural But resources. life. It is now a race against time as to whether China will be able to take charge of her own destiny before her partition has been or to men curse of the country — has — completed. the government remains strongly centralized. Japan. . S3i- . and how to live better and more comfortably. — the East does not regard our civilization as superior. staff to The success of the republic in fact lies in the personal ability of the Presi- keep alive the new spirit that has been The meeting of The Meeting of East and West. the East dislikes mercy. and the soil is tilled in a modern way. 473 edicts Reform have abol- women are no longer permitted to bind wear queues. 'Collier. where the railroads have not yet penetrated. to answer letters. East and West has taught both many new things. impartiality. Opium smoking the been prohibited. to do day after day certain ' prescribed duties. ished ancient customs their feet. and exigencies of the social intercourse of the West. The beginnings of an army and navy have been made. — — and would rather be without. The East is fatigued and disgusted by the rules.

Russian Asia. centration.474 Contemporary Imperialism our part On of the to we have received from the ancient civilization We have come know the beauty of Sanskrit Uterature and the vast lore of the Hindu religion. Vegetarianism. she insists. to the nervous Westerner to acquire some of the Oriental placidity. and social economy has to arisen to solve the problems of the poor. which treat of the language and civilization of those regions. It would broaden the Western materialist to gain located in from the Orient an interest in spiritual things. meditation. Romanticists and poets were the first to write In time their study has developed into of primitive people. flowers. Egyptology and Indology. . In a varying degree these subjects have been stimulated by contact with the Orient. It isan additional gain that contact with the poverty-stricken Indians has caused a kindlier feeling toward the needy and the distressed at home . Eastern philosophy has become popular East many intellectual contributions. Then. The results are biology. animals. fruits New birds. and has turned her attention to Manchuria. for example. are become fads in the West. mental conand " new thought" are Indian concepts which have fact there. is racially a part of Siberia. mineralogy. Her claim is strengthened by the — . but far more than the rest the study of comparative languages and religions. the accurate sciences of anthropology and ethnology. too. breathing exercises. Russia is interested in Mongolia. zoology. and have teijipted lovers of nature make a systematic study of the subjects in which they are interested. aim to emphasize the resemblance between ChrisIt would be an obvious advantage tianity and Oriental faiths. many important cities of the United States and Europe. A working agreement has " divided " this area between Russia and Japan. and other natural sciences. In this process she has absorbed all Siberia. throughout Eurcipe. theosophy. which. been extending her railWays eastward in search of a warmwater port. In northern Asia Russia has ever 527. Contact -with regions oversea has furnished us with an impetus to the study of new sciences. Hindu missionaries among us their In Swamis.

the Turkish Empire. Great Britain's control of India has received attention above (§ 522 f. too. and the British almost the entire south of the continent. The northern part of Persia. has become a Russian sphere of influence. where the native tribes have come under her sway. Malay peninsula as far south as Singapore. and several localities on the way to Hong Kong are under her dominion. and over a large part of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia. In an agreement with Russia. France owns Indo-China and has interests in Siam. they own Java. as her sphere of influence. Lastly she is widening her influence along the southern shore of the Black Sea by railway and other concessions. Great Britain has received this region as a " sphere of influence. chi-stan' Bxirma. She has turned her attention therefore to the Turkish empire. also Tibet. Sumatra. and southern Mesopotamia to the the true China.Southern Asia fact that 475 China has been unable to exercise any real suzerainty over that region. From this starting point her influence has extended into the interior. Southern Asia outside of India. 1916) that her have promised her the possession of the Dardanelles. and her trading posts are even now extending to the south. Bal-u- — and the neighboring desert countries. the most of Borneo.'' English influence." while leaving northern Persia as a Russian sphere. though it is still imder the nominal rule of Turkey. the In brief the Rusdominate northern Asia. She has planned a railroad running from Hamburg through Austria. to take effect when this is wrested from Turkey.' 528. Bulgaria. a vast region that needs railways. has been excluded from a share in the spoils of Asia. She is accordingly in practical control of Arabia. ' Arabia is now (igi6) struggling to gain her independence of Turkey. Serbia. allies strait . Germany. too. sians ' The government of Russia has announced (December. is predominant ia southern Persia. though granted a few islands and stations here and there. Her occupation of Aden has made the Red Sea a British lake. Persia. and part of New Guinea.). canals. She claims further the basin of the Si-Kiang river. and modern machinery. -While the Dutch possess nothing on the continent.

and would make commxmication between Europe and Asia German more than British.. The minimum bottom width is 300 feet. to assume its success. It is too early as yet. the Contemporary Imperialism This plan. or to measure its effects.476 Persian Gulf. After her war with Spain (1898) annexations have followed with — — the of Pacific. The length from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific is 50 miles. The minimum depth is 41 feet. would turn trade from Suez canal. This canal was begun in 1904. The Imperialism of the United States. From a drawing. 529. however. The work of building and operating a canal connecting the Atlantic with the Pacific has been entirely in the hands of the startling rapidity in . then. Porto Rico. if completed. the greater part of Asia was divided either as possessions or as spheres of influence among the European powers. including -the Hawaiian and Philippine islands. becoming a great power in the ocean of She forsook her policy of the past both Atlantic and Pacific. showed her intention the future century that of non-interference in foreign affairs. and Samoa. Before 1916. and the average width is 649 feet. Guam. A few Pacific islands remained. Here it was that the United States — Panama Canal Showing a boat passing a locl^. Cuba.

in taking satisfaction to the injured nation. which . what they needed and what they could obtain. we are under moral obligations The process of construction.The United United States. to construct it States 477 it was decided Panama.^ involved the highest engineering skill the world has ever seen. which lasted till 1915. nize the Republic of fair price for the zone in which When this offer was refused President Roosevelt took advantage of a revolt on the Isthmus to recogPanama. has prevented foreign nations from making conquests in either America. and known therefore as the Monroe Doctrine. which included the desired zone. the European powers may in the near future feel themselves free to interfere in the affairs If therefore we wish to maintain of the American countries. This canal. By insisting on the " open door " all in China equal right of nations to trade in that country — that the — and by is. for through it warships can be sent quickly from one shore to the other. The Evuropean powers have understood it to imply that the United States has no intention of sharing in their Now that this nation has adopted an aggressive rivalries. Commercially the Canal will bring about a tremendous change in the trade routes of the world. will give the United States an overwhelming military superiority on the American continents. At the same time it is of strategic importance to the United States. The After many years of planning across the narrow isthmus of United States offered Colombia a the canal was to run. The seizure of the zone was an infraction of our treaty with Colombia . policy in various parts of the world. Her traditional policy formulated in Monroe's administration (1817-1825). and although in this matter we have only followed to give the precedents of other powers. for the protection of i we must at least assume responsibility European interests in the American contiof the canal is still will At the close of the year igi6 the use be remedied in time. together with the great navy inaugurated by President Wilson. her island acquisitions the United States has avowed her intention of playing an important part in the world's affairs. deferred by slides. the Monroe Doctrine.

. What brought an end to the slave trade? What were the contemporary happenings in the Americas ? What old colonial powers ceased to be colonial. — pt. Hazen. bk. Describe the exploration of Africa. — to the preceding). Imperial Germany. What advantages had Great increase of her empire? . IV. 415-26. 114-23. G.. III. Hayes. The Great Illusion. II. Germany of To-day (1915). — German Imperialism. xvi. 191 7. Hobson. G. I ism. April 6. S. vi. 42-66. V.. . ix (light but suggestive). The West in the East. — . XI.. Imperialism and Internationalism. J. 560-76. 682-7. Economicsof War and Conquest (reply I. America as a World Power. Review Britain for the maintenance and Describe her struggle with Napoleon. 59-87. iv Von Billow. . Bismarck.. Slater. Contemporary Imperialism and perhaps the time tection of the Americas may is not far distant when the probe entrusted to an alliance of the' American nations. Congress declared that a state of war exbetween our country and Germany. xvii. World Politics. P. Lichtenberger. 2. IV. and Russia in their stupendous conflict with the Teutons. Political and Social History of Modern Europe. ch. ch. isted On Topics for Reading Reinsch. xxviii. chs. Imperialism of the United States. see Index. H. Hayes. Making oj Modern England. pts. see Contents (argument against war) Jones. Reinsch. M. N. Italy. B. 192-201 FuUerton. III. chs. . .. Europe since 1815. iv-vi. Bismarck (Heroes). ch. Headlam. II. Reinsch. H. Refounding of the German Empire. ch. II. Cambridge Modern History. 365-439. The reason was Germany's continual violation of international law and of the rights of mankind^ In this way the United States became a partner of Great Britain. Ho w did she complete her subjugation of India ? Give an account of her acquisition and colonization of Australia. France. Imperialpt. and state its outcome. see Contents Angell. The Opening of China. II. pp. 691-7. Smith. MaUeson. xxii Hobson. ch. . I. 3.. J. Cambridge Modern History. Wliat were the several possessions of the European powers in Africa at the close of this period (1876)? ±. iii. How did the industrial revolution aid Great Britain's imperial position? 5.. Collier. Reinsch. pt. ch. and what other powers came to the front? 4. XII. see Contents. Germany and its Evolution. XII. Latanfi.478 nents .

Additional Studies I. What powers are influential in southern Asia outside India. 24. What effort did . Where have the Russians acquired territory ? 18. What were the possessions of Great Britain at the point of time Compare the struggle between England ? 2. What did England learn through her when this chapter begins . What are the French possessions in Africa? 22. How may the West and the East benefit each other? 30. . What elements of civilization has she borrowed. Describe the opening of China. Describe the process of acquiring territory. Describe the recent work of Great Britain in India. What is the newer imperial policy of Great Britain? To what is her success due? 17. What improvements did the British make in India ? How did they strengthen their hold on that country? g'. What demands were created by industrialism and nationality? How were these demands to be supplied? 13. in New Zealand. What is imperialism? 14. What are the posGive an account of the sessions of Great Britain in South Africa? Boer War. of the " open-door " policy in China led to the building of the Suez Canal. and how was she checked? 8. Explain Mikado Shogun. What territories has Italy acquired in Africa? What are her "aspirations"? 23. . 10.. What power controls Egypt and the Soudan? What is the importance of Egypt? 25. Studies 6. and what territory does each power hold or claim? 32. and Napoleon with the earlier struggle between England and Holland. and its result. Describe the encroachments of Russia upon the Far East. 26. Describe the progress of colonization in Australia. What are the causes and the characteristics of German imperialism ? ig. What were the results of these conflicts? 3. and where have they severally acquired territory? io. What effect had imperialism on international relations ? on armaments? 15. and the still earlier struggle between England and Spain. and from whom? What is her economic condition? What are the hopes for 28. What are the obstacles in the way of Indian nationalism? 27. Describe the visit of Perry to Japan. Give an account of the rise of Japan. 479 and what is its imporRussia make to reach the sea on the South and Southeast. the "Opium War" and its result. How has the United States become imperialistic. What progress are the Chinese making? their future? 29. 21. What tance? 7. What is meant by penetration? Spheres of influence? 16. What advance took place in the organization of Canada? Why are these three countries mentioned together? 12. 31. 11. Give an account of the Congo region. Describe the German possessions in Africa. Describe the Russian policy and give a reason for its succfess. What other European peoples are imperialistic. and what are her dependencies? Give an account of the Panama Canal of the project for a great navy of the Monroe Doctrine..

Show how the growth of imperialism inevitably leads to war. Which is the more important for the prosperity of a country. If the United States should liberate the Philippine Islands. ig. its natural resources or the character of its inhabitants? What class in England and America is chiefly 7.the country? 20. by imperialism? 8. If China awakens as Japan has awakened. Compare the Boer war with the American revolution. would the inhabitants gain or lose thereby? . what will be the 6. Compare the Suez Canal with the Panama Canal. benefited. 9.480 Contemporary Imperialism experience with the thirteen American colonies. what would probably become of. 16. 13. Usually a nation endeavors to protect its citizens who are conducting business in weaker or less civilized countries What do you think of the morals of this policy? 10. What will probably be the commercial and the political effects of the latter? 5. What is the chief cause of the decline? 18. What are the benefits that Great Britain derives from her control of India? 15. Compare Russian and German imperialism. Do (cf. " Trade (follows the flag?" Is it true?. § 512). and how did she apply this knowledge? 4. What is the meaning of the statement. What is the value of Africa to the powers that have occupied that continent? 14. If India were freed froin British control. Compare the first colonies of political bearings of such an event? Australia with tbose of North America. Bring together the facts relating to the break-up of the Turkish empire. nations consider themselves bound by the moral rules that govern individuals? Should they be so bound? 12. What is meant by the statement that a certain European power " wants a place in the sun? " -17.

in the early thirties. dish.. Multitudes of families accordingly left the country to seek work in these factories and to take rooms in tenements built for them in the vicinity. had to be housed in buUdings erected for the purpose. and returns home for half an hour or forty minutes to breakfast. REFORM AND GENERAL PROGRESS its Evils The Factory System. works in the mills from six till eight o'clock. This meal generally consists of tea or coffee with a little bread. Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes Employed in Manufacture of Manchester.Witness. and was only improved in the course of a century-long struggle. the Cotton 2 481 . 1842. when an hour is allowed for dinner. and a who 1 Kay. The operatives return to the mills and workshops untU twelve o'clock. domestic system in vogue a century ago people lived and worked in their own homes in the country or in small towns (§ 462). Amongst those obtain the lower rate of wages this meal generally consists This mess of potatoes is put into one large of boiled potatoes. mterestmg picture of Me in Manchester.. — In this way great industrial cities arose like mushrooms. and Their Remedies Under the 530... a woman dragging a loaded coal An eye-witness ^ gives us an <^'^t.F™™ '^^ report of a commission. a great factory town. however. In an economic change so rapid and on so large a scale a change in the condition of the individual worker took place unnoticed.. The new machinery introduced by the industrial revolution. 20...1 CHAPTER XXX SOCIAL I. The Evils Described by an Eye. melted lard and butter are poured upon them.. it became almost unbearaA Mine Worker ble. . "The population engaged in the cotton factories rises at five o'clock in the morning.

in cottages separated by narrow. arid there was nobody low. and in many cases brought early death. " Women and children were brought into the factories. where they continue until seven o'clock or a later hour. The population nourished on this aliment is crowded into one dense mass. unpaved. .482 Factory System iew pieces of fried fat bacon are sometimes mingled with them. The factoiry owners cannot be held entirely to account for this state of affairs. 215-6. for this was an age when little regard was shown for the health of the public. Wages were kept veritable prisons in • Ogg. plentiful. often mingled with spirits. These unsanitary conditions in home and factory caused a high rate of disease and death among the workers. Social Progress in Contemporary Europe. or they will all plunge their spoons into the dish. rooms poorly lighted a. accompanied by a little bread. and but seldom a little meat. Further Evils. Precautions in respect to safety and sani- tation were neglected. women. At the expiration of an hour they are all again employed in the mUls. because they cost money. because profits increased in pro- — portion to output. when they generally indulge in the use of tea. in an atmosphere loaded with the smoke and exhalations of a large manufacturing city. because they were easy to control. working until work developed disease and deformity. Sewers. Mills too often became which men. and each rapidly appropriates his portion on a plate. street paving and cleaning. At the same time the manufacturers failed to see that their permanent prosperity depended on the welfare of their workers. fifteen. and children toiled long hours. The hours of labor were drawn out to fourteen. and almost pestilential streets. relieved only by scant sleep in fetid and cheerless homes. and a supply of pure water and milk were products of a later age. The family sits around the table. and because they could work for lower wages. even seventeen a day." Their working hours were spent in 531." ' them because labor was to require to be exercised.nd ventilated. because they were able to operate the new machines as well as could men. and with an animal eagerness satisfy the cravings of their appetite.

Saloons hi the neighborhood were abolished. mills. and schools were His work proved to the world how built for the children. — who were disgusted with condiHis first resolve was to employ no more parish children. bacon and turnips for dinner. and the homes of the workers tidy and attractive. Often. The sleeping accommodations were miserable: the beds. was the — employment of pauper children. often in the same room with the machinery. People did not reason that the employer was in a position to enforce whatever terms he wished. were never cool or clean. The food was indescribably wretched water porridge for breakfast. to re- duce expenses the authorities disposed of them as apprentices Although the object was to teach them a trade. It was an age. Overseers were paid in proportion to the amount of work they could extract from their victims. Reform of reform The actual by Proprietors by Legislation. as a matter of fact it meant a life of slavery. Next he sought to make his factories light and airy. Little wonder that sickness and disease were common. which ran day and night. They were entirely at the mercy of their masters. and that frequent supplies of parish children were needed to fill the : vacancies. and to go where he could obtain the highest pay. when the worker was told to bargain for his wages. People feared also that the government which by lost its excessive interference American colonies (§ 419). such . was begun by manufacturers themselves. could not deal successfully with this complex problem. however. bread and tea for supper. 532. to the mills. The result was a deplorable state of affairs. It was the duty of the parish to care for these friendless creatures. Meals were irregular. The cruelty practised upon these unfortunate children was almost incredible. 483 Public Indifference. The old idea of regulation by the had state had for the time being dis- appeared. however. tions in their own . too. These conditions were tolerated mainly because they had come in so rapidly as to escape the notice of the public. Abuse of Pauper Children The most pitiful abuse of the factory system. as Robert Owen (born 1771).Evils of the System . work 533.

A royal comniission inquired mto conditions. the clubs came closer together. mill owners were At last public opinion wS. |l€«^ever7~c11t^^own profits willing to follow in thefootsteps of and few Owen. Trades-Unions. . Night work was forbidden. not more than sixty-nine. As this movement spread. and in newspapers. in fact a conspiracy. Before the middle of the century women and children had secured a ten-hour to itheN^actory . Its report led Act of 1833. forming nation-wide unions of workers in the same trade. and a certain amount of schooling was required. The Labor Movement and Socialism 534. the the Reforms were granted slowly and grudgingly.). nations have had to deal with the same problems.s in thp'pulpit. and to a great extent they have solved them in the same way. and those of the same tra&e accordingly formed local clubs. On the other hand workers were quick to see the advantage of joining hands in a common cause.484 Labor and Socialism better people would be if if much their hours of labor were shortof ened and they were rid b'f eyil associations. reform was demanded aroused on the platform/in pamphlets. An act passed a decade later still further reduced the hours and regulated meals and sanitary conditions. shall see how further legislation has safer aimed (§ make the lot of the worker happier and 540 Wherever the industrial revolution has come. II. was a criminal offence. the first attempt of the government toNprotect working peop(le from the kind of abuse described ab&v^ Children uhder thirteen were not to work more than fortj^*eiglit--h<5urs a week. those under eighteen. holidays were granted. . — Early experience with the factory made it clear that neither employers nor government would do much to improve the conditions of system. for as late as 1824 to it combine for raising wages. day. The work reform. Elsewhere we to fE. Traveling inspectors were to enforce these provisions. however. For another half century trades- . Their meetings were secret. workers.

as this organization is known. particularly in purchasing food and. clubbed together to purchase sugar and flour at wholesale rates. f. This is so often the result because the employer. — weavers. Like other firms. While idle the men are supported by funds belonging to the imion. who cares little for losing the services of a few men. it owns its buildings and grounds. suffers seve. and employs its expert buyers and clerks. In most European states labor is well organized but is less concerned with hours and wages.000 members. clothing.). In most cases they win a partial victory.Labor Movement ^ '485 unions were regarded with suspicion not only by employers but by the general public. advantageous to cooperate in other ways. Regularly the profits are distributed among the members according^to the amounts of their purchase. This cooperative movement is represented in America by the Granges. As a rule American trades-unions are content with recommending men known to be favorable to their program. with socialism (§ 537 factor. now has 15. and sometimes their success is complete.re financial loss when all his hands quit work. inspired by the teachings of Robert Owen. In most cases it has identified itself and has become a powerful political Workers have also found it Cooperative Societies. many which receive aid from the government. and vote to quit work until their terms are complied with. hundreds of other such societies have been formed not only in Great Britain but over all the Continent. Their chief weapon has been the strike the men decide on the hours of work and the wages they consider just. which are associations of farmers for buying their raw materials of . : It is more interested in questions affecting the social welfare of the laboring classes. The experiment was so successful that the Rochdale Society. Recently in the former country it has entered politics and now has enough seats in parliament to secure desired legislation. Cheered by this success. and does a business of over a million dollars annually. Trade-unionism has attained the highest importance in Great Britain and the United States. As early as 1844 twenty-eight 535.

At the same time wages rose little or not at all and working conditions were indescribably bad. The former finds that continual strikes are a serious in spite of aid from his union the detriment to his business In many cases latter has come to fear long periods of idleness. It is to arbitration has been successful in averting strikes. As the gap between 537. the industrial revolution brought in its new division of classes not based on family or tradition. The far-seeing employer does his part by providing a light. and by sharing with them his profits through the adjustment of hours and wages.486 . They hired men. the interest of both to create as fine a product as possible. In this way people are able to live better in large quantities at wholesale prices. practically abolished dis- Whereas the French Revolution train a tinctions of social rank. Dawning Friendship between Two Classes. the wage-earner was not slow comparing his unhappy lot with the good fortune of his In the great factory he had lost his individuality and had become a mere number. the wealth First and prosperity of the capitalists increased. As industry grew. less expense. It must be remembered that in those early days the government believed in leaving these conditions to shift for themselves. the has grown up between capital and labor. of business and at 536. Origin and Theory of Socialism. . The employe in exchange should devote his best efforts to his work. the classes continued to widen. It must be admitted. airy factory for his workers. Labor and Socialism The inunense volume conducted by cooperative societies has served to cut the profits of the middleman and so to reduce the cost of the necessities of life. from one to a thousand or more. however. The environment thus in — employer. — During the past two decades a better feeling . who devoted their lives to making such wares. who owned the raw material and vthe machinery. between employer and employe. were the capitalists. Capital and Labor. that little progress has as yet been ^ made toward this happy condition. to make the finished products which they wished to sell. The other class comprised the wage-earners.

planned communities each with about one thousand people. The early socialists One — ' modem There have been socialists from andent Greek times. From its begin- ning. In the new system private utfGties will disappear and become the common possession of all in brief. however. they proved unsuccessful. It was felt that others would imitate this model. and of their was to bring about this state were dreamers. humanitarians. demanded the It members in different parts of the world. For various reasons. men should cooperate. too. The great problem 538. demand that these evils be abolished. Robert Owen (§ 533). 487 This movement was a proIt right to live fully. but we may say that socialism began with the French Revolution. and in comfort. InSocialists. however. Earlier Methods of Socialism. then. will be owned and conNecessarily the people are to retain the trolled by the state. believe that want is caused by our system which permits the employer to make and keep all the profits. joyfully. control of the government. stead of competing against one another.^ test against suffering. all self-supporting. Work and leisure were planned for all the inmates. — — . Many a splendid one at New Harsuch colonies were founded mony. until the world would be made up of such communities. and self-improvement. Indiana. which it reg a rds as staiiding in the wayi)f prq^ess. The kitchen and dining room were to be in common. The keynote of this new state will Socialismrnain tains that if each person bejfflXijk. sible to define its is hardly posa creed which varies so widely in details among and injustice. — number. works at some useful occupation. . not property. In this case the socialist feels that liberty merely affords an opportimity for the powerful to exploit the weak. Each family would receive its own apartment in an enormous tenement accommodating all. recreation. of affairs. All socialists.Socialism created gave birth to Socialism. social order — pov it has always attacked the weak point of the erty. At the same time it permits him to hire his labor at the lowest possible cost usually a mere living wage. misery. the drudgery of the world can be finished in a few hours daily and the rest of the time may be used for relaxation.

the feeding of school children. AustfiaT'aM" Italy were rudely awakened from the new absolutism into which they had fallen." ^ They have entered parliament. a few have even won places in cabinets.. Socialism and Democracy in Eitrope. power of the state has ' The principle of violence in the labor movemfent is now called syndicalism. His influence. and in some cases they are in the majority. It has created the labor parties which have forced governments to legislate their demands not only to secure shorter hours and better pay for workers. . From dreamers they have become practical men determined to bring about reforms in a rational way. Recent Socialism. Capital. provided it is followed up with common sense and energy. 2 Orth. entirely to the goodness of The time was not yet human nature. but to deal constructively with such problems as the — ' : death-rate of infants. This new movement is called Social Democracy. and non-employment. they have entered politics. however. — As a 540. III. an international organization. The chief advocate of aggression was Karl Marx. Since that time all but a few 539. 256.' Instead. the^workthe middle class ing classes joined with others to secure that share in the govern- menTwhich had usurped- In consequence France. is the textbook of socialism. socialists have abandoned the policy of violence in every country of Europe.. the high cost of living. a German Jew (1818-1883). The New Democracy . New Character of the State its result of these new duties the Duty toward Children. and is represented by the Industrial Workers of the World. Throughout its activities in Europe socialism has been an efficient helpmate to democracy.488 Labor and Socialism gradually disappeared. it ripe for trusting In an age of revolution. -inspired the feeling among workingmen that~they must save themselves from slavery by class war and . His work. in the belief that " the power of the ballot is infinitely greater than the power of the bullet. could hardly be expected that tremendous changes could be peacefully brought about. Germany.revolution . During the years 1848-1850. accordingly. too.

Play centres and The Children free medical inspection. for instance. lo. At the same time the parent " must be made to feel more responsible for the wrongdoing of his child. — It is strange that in England prior to the seventies the state took then various acts have its cost has risen from £721. Let us see. are provided for. . weighed and in all schools and factories should periodically be measured. . little education. Courts have been established to rescue rather cruelty.000 in 1870 to £25. Herbert Samuel. " There is nothing that calls so loudly or so imperiously as the possibilities of social re- form. Since made education compulsory for aU children . 1908. During the last decade arrangements have been made to furnish meals for needy children in the elementary schools. Improvements in the Condition interest in of Children.Children 489 the friend as well been greatly increased. . A more important feature has been the increased interest shown in the welfare of children. overcrowding should be dealt with in the worst and ' Mr.000. Feb. for example." ^ land but other countries have carried out other features tending " Children to make better citizens of the coming generation. or whether it shall be cast aside as a waste product in the social rubbish heap." 541. Many new privileges have members. . what has been accomplished in England. wash his hands Not only Engof the consequences and escape scot-free. And yet it is the raw material upon the fashioning of which depends whether it shall add to the common stock of wealth and intelligence and goodness. as the ruler of its it has now become it has become the protector of people as well as of property. Act (1908) protects small children from drunkenness. too. First of all there is the child for whom heredity and parental care have perhaps done nothing or worse than nothing. They are allowed reasonable liberty. Commons. and having committed the grave offence of throwing on society a child criminal. negligence. It was Premier Asquith who said. He cannot be allowed to neglect the upbringing of his children. than to punish juvenile offenders. in the matter of picketing during strikes. been granted to trades-unions and still their members (1906).000 in 1907.

and boys' and girls' clubs. British Social Politics." ^ Cities all over the world have made it a matter of pride as well as expediency to places for real sunlight. provision should be made by the local authorities hygiene and the effects of for dealing with underfed children . 543. and beauty. in the second place. the slums and several steps must be taken. so that as the town stretches out into the country the workingmen's dwellings may not be dreary. playgrounds. and standards fixed to check the adulteration of all foods. 264. and juvenile ' smoking suppressed. It was finally recognized that " to deal with the problem In the first place. and compulsory classes urged . 1904. ' Hayes. alcoholism should be well taught in schools." ^ We have 542. 195. notably as to and ears be pressed upon the children. there remain without this pale a large army of unskilled workers. parks. Then. cleanliness should teeth. — Although skilled laborers. but pleasant cottages amply relieved by trees and shrubs and grass.. and recreation centres must be provided. pauperism. and a high deathrate. p. attention should be paid . or the health of their occupants. older unsanitary dwellings in the heart of the town must be removed. Tenements and Workingmen's Dwellings. both men and women. milk supply. physical degeneration. have gradually formed unions which protect their interests. . The English Trade Boards Act (1909) attempted ' Annual Register. Open spaces. The Protection of Unskilled Laborers. . and the newer tenements must be constructed with an eye to health. crime. comfort. adequate control of urban growth. They are often forced to work excessive hours under unsanitary conditions in return for unduly low pay. to children's games. who form the prey of unscrupulous employers. eyes. The filth and overcrowding bred drunkenness. .490 districts New Democracy by fixing a standard of persons per room in tenements Special attention should be paid to not to be exceeded. monotonous piles of brick. seen how the factory system brought in its train huge cities with their ugly tenements constructed as cheaply as possible — without regard to comfort or beauty. . bring about such conditions. there must be.

and returns from the rigor of this discipline to his work. to be sure. . life attended by a physician paid by the state he is christened by a state clerg3Tnan he is taught the rudiments of learning and his handicraft by the state. . he reaches the age of seventy. . the dread of workare cared for lessness is removed by the ample insurance commanded by If if his injury permanently incapacitates him. but yet enough to make him more welcome to the relatives or friends who are charged with administering the state even . If he falls victim to an accident. Democratic Taxation. Other laws 544. Socialism and Democracy in Europe. The difficulties of enforcing such a provision. have not yet been overcome and the problem of " sweated " labor is as yet unsolved. These varied activities are expensive and mean Utilities. Workingmen 491 to solve the problem by establishing a minimum wage and punishment for offending employers. and ing registers the birth of his children. . registers his place of residence. watchful eye of a state inspector. He is drafted by the state into the army. the state and city will do all in their And if by rare chance power to find work for him. The problem of budget makers has been to — • Orth. he will find the-closing days of his long life eased by a pension. The state gives him a license to marry. and from poverty in old age. increased taxes. however. through the grace of the state's strict sanitary regulations. In these endeavors Germany has taken several steps in advance " Here a workingman may begin of the rest of the world." ^ Public Ownership of Public 545. he should unfortunately become that most pitiful of all men. his suffer- assuaged by the knowledge that his wife and children and that his expenses wUl be paid during illness and he may spend his convalescent days in a luxiurious state hospital. the man out of work. who sees that the safeguards to health and limb are strictly observed. 169-170. follows him from place If to place. and by thrift and care. He begins work under the — . very small. Various Improvements for Workingmen. have been passed to protect the workingman from accident. small. from loss of employment.. is he falls ill. to his wants.

their street cars. the telephones. . Many cities in America and England own their electric light and gas plants. In many cases these utilities not only serve the public cheaply and eflBciently. New York City. the canals. ' Unearned increment is any increase in the value of an estate through no labor or outlay of the owner. railroads. but turn in a balance every year to help pay the expenses of government. From a photograph lent by the Pennsylvania Railway Company. their water supply. salvings In most European countries the state owns and controls the banks CONCSUESE In the Pennsylvania Station. life and so on the shoulders which can best bear The income tax and the tax on unearned increment* are brought into use for this purpose. and insurance. telegraphs.492 place this New new burden on Democracy the luxuries of it. and their markets.

Up its chief use has of a ship in distress. — On the whole. elevated to reduce crime. Cunard Line. Probably the most important feature of the present age has been the marvellous develop- ment of electricity. Some Features of Modern Progress Electricity. a century not only do A Motor Lifeboat make more the attrac- Of the Aquitania. which possible surgery. is have substituted cleaner. this new force has found many The telephone.Electricity 493 IV. The telegraph and cable news quickly and cheaply over all flash parts of the world. infancy. and Edison. the past fifty years have been marked by general progress. Marconi. 546. then. at first a luxury. . practical uses. Brilliant lights electric of have place the of taken the flickering gas-lamps half ago. has become a life necessity in the busi- ness and social of the world. railroads. for steam this means of locomotion. Electricity has made the use of the X-ray which is of immense value to The most ingenious device of all. — to the present been to promote safety at sea — the SOS. too. and subway lines are practically all operated by electricity. The work of invention. From a photograph supplied by the Cunard Company. but they serve Street cars. quicker. seldom fails to bring as rescuer some near-by Ship. Through the genius of men like Bell. Many . which preceded the industrial revolution. though still in its It uses the is without doubt the wireless telegraph. increasing the safety of travel by sea. has been carried on with ever-increasing brilliancy. the signal ether to and more comfortable. they streets tive. Morse. even if sender and receiver are carry our messages thousands of miles apart.

its cost has been reduced until it now possible for every family of moderate means to own and operate a efficient gasoline — has In business the truck — electric as well as supplanted the horse as a quick. So far the airship has been chiefly of use though in time it undoubtedly will be the development of another made to serve the uses of peace. The balloon of th^ mid-century. — The factory system has brought about a In the present age the small farmer often great change in agriculture. cheap. . From . driven by their own propellors. can ride against the wind with of — comparative safety. is Year by year. The same period has witnessed the new means of locomotion — automobile. for military purposes. The modern airplane and airship. it is It has passed through its stage of experimentation until now mechanically The First Ahoplane The first to carry a man and to be operated by motor-power Wright brothers. car. 548. too. ever at the mercy of a strong wind. modern invention has been the conquest of the air. Agriculture. constructed by the the 'Mentor. was a dangerous toy. Americans. Modern Progress Another striking feature Airships and Automobiles.494 547. and increase foodstuffs — The rapid growth of the cities have demanded more and more a demand which the small farmer alone could in population no longer supply. and means of hauling goods over both long and short distances. 1903.' perfect.

field in the old-fashioned way. which aim to accomplish as much work as possible with the help of the fewest number of men.or such fruit as apples. Modern Industrial Progress.000 acres. however. . has steam or electricity. he might finish sowing the seed before he died but though the preparing and sowing would occupy one man's lifetime. and return at night to the point of If a single man were to undertake to plough such a starting. . like other industries. for the near-by markets. and grapes. 209. 'International Harvester Report. 70. sort of it presents in thp season just before harvest the appearance of an endless sea of waving grain.' igii.000 to 90. 1 Cochrane.Agriculture 495 confines himself to raising vegetables. more profitably- operated on a large scale. By such means our vast wheat fields furnish not only us but a large part of Europe with bread. Plant. is a wheat field Some wheat farms measure from containing forty square miles. it would require sixteen years for him to complete his spring plowing. This is the wheat field of which the statement has been made that the men and teams breakfast at one end of the furrow. 300 modern steam harvesters and threshers can make comparatively short work of the harvest ^ Human ingenuity. As the ground lies almost in an exact square. " Near the town of Clovis. operated for the most part by then. From dinner at the other end. strawberries. take A Steam Plow Three 'Mogul' Tractofs drawing a combination of $$ individual plows. is Agriculture. California. in even an enormous field such as this. Fresno County. and if he were fortunate." devised machines. as much longer to do the harrowing. peaches.

too. by machinery. man New — — — The Mixing Room In Ward's Bakery. The phonograph makes it possible for its owner and general news . Modern Progress and reaping machines accordingly are a necesmodern farm. and canals business 549. the have been written on modern engineering achievements and on improvements building of dams. Machines have been invented for the amusement of the poor as well as of the rich. Through the telephone and the motor truck. Through them the poorest person able for one cent a day to keep in touch with the and politics of the entire world.496 ing. wholly a photograph lent by the Watd Company. in manufacturing of all kinds. bridges. Without doubt the growth of newspapers and periodicals haS had the greatest influence on the daily life of is the nation at large. illustrating the hygienic From mixing of dough. the farmer has become as much a sary eqiiipment of the as the merchant. Whole books Conveniences and Amusements. cultivating.

— . Ogg. II. amuses. From and wears more clothing consumes than his grandfather did. read more. in being able to enjoy such luxuries as coffee. working people of to-day travel more. ' He is more fortunate. thus allowing more time for the care of children. for readirtg and recreation. Social Progress in Contemporary Europe. electricity. The moving picture entertains. 550. Housekeeping is made easier by gas. families than ever before active. 431-66 I. — tents. Or for five or ten cents one may see the world's greatest dramas por- trayed on the screen. xv-xx. and wheat flovir. In short the standard of living has materially live risen. 21C ch. The Nineteenth Improved Transportation. and enjoy more comforts. see ConCentury. An Observation Car a photograph supplied by the' New York Central Railway Company. a decrease in the hours of work. Topics for Reading Hadley and others. The Labor Movement. In brief. and luxuries. happy Each butter. Modern Industrial Progress. individual to-day more meat.Better Living 497 friends to hear in their own homes at a nominal cost either grand opera or ragtime. chs. Making of Modern England. than ever before in the history of the world. Slater. A Higher Standard of Living. . and an improvement in the con- ditions of labor. and the telephone. performed by capable artists. xxi. Cochrane. and sugar. conveniences. More lives. — The last half century therefore has witnessed an increase in wages. tea. too. and instructs millions who know little other recreation.

What improvements has machinery brought into agriculture? Compare the new with the old method. — . England's Industrial V. Mvuiicipal Progress. 20. City Government in the United States. Democracy and IV. What criticism may be made on the wages and on the length of the working day? 3. Goodnow. What changes in taxation have been made with a view to distributing equitably the burden of supporting the government? Give examples of public ownership of public utilities. Enumerate the improvements due to electricity. Socialism and Democracy in Europe. see Contents. How the origin of socialism? What are What plan of ' . Slater. xvii. What other conveniences and what recreations have resulted from the use of machinery ? 21 In what respects is the standard of living higher to-day than it has ever been in the past? and their workmen. Social Ethics. 6. Describe the latest developments of airships and of automobiles. In what way has the condition of children been made better? 13. ch. Ogg. 12. ii. especially chs. Hayes. — — Warner. tory. Orth. I. ch. 17. 18. What were its original methods? cooperation was devised? Who was Karl Marx. and how are they being improved? What remains to be done in cities for the comfort and health of the poor? 14. Landmarks of English Industrial HisDevelopment. Addams. Why were such conditions endured? 4.. British Social Politics. What means did they attempt to secure more rights for labor? Why and how were they formed? What are cooperative societies? Describe the varying relations between capitalists is the Grange? 7. . What reforms were introduced by proprietors ? What reforms were effected by legisBy what lation? 5. see Contents. 49^ Modern Progress . see Contents. especially chs. What are the recent aims and methods of socialism ? What has it accomplished ? 11. Recent Industrial Development. chs. xviii . What did thdse two classes arise? 8. What has been the condition of tenements. What was its principles? 9. vi-ix ^Hayes. What is the problem relating to unskilled laborers? What was done for this class in England? 15. Describe the origin and growth of trades-unions. see Contents tury) Zueblin. Describe the employment of pauper children in the factories. and what were his principles ? 10. Care of the Poor. xvi . v . ch. . iq. Describe the sanitary condition of homes and factories. What new and enlarged character has the State assumed? Illustrate by its attitude toward children. ch. What has Germany accomplished for the working classes? 16. Innes. American Municipal Progress. Review changes in the residence of laborers resulted from the inDescribe the daily life of the workers at Mandustrial revolution? chester. xx. xxix Ogg. 2. viii (early nineteenth cenIII.

Review the industrial revolution (ch. 6.2. 10. and which in . What is the length of the working day I. recreations. If you have an opportunity to talk with a socialist. What is the Child-Labor Law of 1916? Is it in operation in your community? 7. appoint a committee to draw up a petition to the Mayor to have them cleaned. and such 1 1 matters. visit them and report on the cleanliness of the rooms and the condition of the workers.Sttidies 499 Additional Studies and show how it connects with § S30. ascertain how it is being carried out. What are some of the facilities. In like manner study a Grange or other cooperative society in your vicinity. Read the newspapers and find what the Governor and the President are aiming to do for the improvement of the state or of the nation. Are there filthy streets in your city? If so. What are the trades-unions of your neighborhood? 8. Ascertain from the members how they are organized and what are their aims. 3. economic benefit of the public? Does your city own any public utility? If so. 4. Are there factories in your vicinity? If so. . labor. xxvii) your neighborhood? Is it established by law or by the tradesunions? 5. The Adamson law of 191 6 established an eight-hour day for a large class of railway employes. how does the system work? 14. What laws are the state legislature and congress discussing or passing. or amusements of your neighborhood which are due to machinery but are not mentioned in this book? . and find out what good it is doing. Visit some of the homes of the workers and report on their condition. 12. and what his reasons are for these views. If you live near a railway. 9. sign it and send it to him. ask him for his views regarding capital. of these statutes are for the social or 13.

P.. Houghton. Century. Macmillan. The Making of Modern England. Mathews. 1915. S. 1906.. J. T. History of Colonization. SCO . History of the Ancient World. Johns Hopkins Press. J. . lxia&%. R. H. Historical Atlas. W. R. A. Button. An Essay on Western Civilization in its Economic Aspects. Macmillan. 1912. Macmillan. .. R. 191 1.. ^Short History of the English People (new ed.. Tucker. London: Rivington. W. General History of Commerce. Medicgoal Civilization. D. J. A.. Macmillan.. G. Cunningham. Florentine Life During the Renaissance. 191 1. Social Reform and the Reformation. Slater. S. Greek Commonwealth: Politics and Economics in the Fifth Clarendon Press. J.. 1915. H. 1903. W. Macmillan. Clodd. S. Robinson. 1913. 1915. Columbia University Dissertation. S. Macmillan. Cambridge University Press. 1904-6. R. Hayes. 1905. Enock. Holt. 1912.USEFUL BOOKS The Smallest Librasy Abram. 1916.. The French Revolution. Mifflin. Reinsch. Eggleston. London: Methuen.. Life in Ancient Athens. Mac- millan. Green. W. G. -Latin America. B. Zimmem. Macmillan. : : 1913- Glover. E. C. H. Barnes. 1914. Life in the Eighteenth Century. Readings in European History.. C. Ginn. C.. Ginn. Paul.. Longmans. Lbndon Dent". S. A. 1898. England's Industrial Development. T. G. Munro.. and L. E.). Webster. Social Progress in Contemporary Europe. 2 vols.. London: Dent. Macmillan. An American History. C. Scaife. A. Childhood of the World (2d ed.. F. 2 vols.. . W. 1893. 1909. 191 1. Source Book of Ancient History. Morris. 2 vols... Shepherd. Life in the Roman World of Nero and St. Botsford. D. and Sellery. Muzzey.. English Life and Manners in the Later Middle Ages. Word Politics at the End of the Nineteenth Century. Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire (4th ed. 1910. C. 1900.. 1904. Holt. Century. The Republics of Central and South America. Political and Social History of Modern Europe.). W.). H. 2 vols. Ogg. G. C. Schapiro. G. Botsford. 1900. Ginn. 1914. 1910.. 1914. 191 1.

European Background of American History. Scribner. Little. Columbia Univer- sity Press. H. Addams. M. Beard. Scribner. Bracq. and A. E.. Bedford. Andrews. Kegan Paul. Under the Stuarts.. Crawford. London: The Catholic Church. Houghton. . M. J. Mechanical Triumphs of the Ancient Egyptians. Scribner. Bury. Mifflin. Macmillan. Macmillan. Harper.. Scribner. Constitution of the Later Roman Empire. The Progress of Invention in the Nineteenth Century. 1916. Arnold. von. 1903-12. 1908. 1901. Cochrane. History of the Ancient Egyptians (abridged from his larger work). 1904. F. 1904. F. G. London : Arnold. F. Abbott. . . igoi. Scribner. An Introduction to the Industrial and Social History of England. Social Life in old New England. and Protestantism. G. B. Colonial SdJ-Government. including Atlas. 191 1. W.. 1914. 1905.. E. B. Germany and the Next War (4th 1904. A. H. B. 1907. France Under the Republic (new ed.. C. Modern Industrial Progress.). C. History of Rome. History and Description of Ginn. P. 1912. B. Religious Life of Ancient Rome. J.. Harper. Mifflin. G. Bulow. igo8. Botsford. Greek Lands and Letters.). G. Botsford. Home Life Bemhardi. igo6. . F. Dutton.. Macmillan. 1898. Democracy and Social Ethics. Imperial Germany. 1916. F. W. J. Cambridge University Press. P. Baudrillart. igo2. E. Commons.. J. G. 1915. Collier. Cambridge Modern History. Hellenic History (in preparation). Barber.. and Sihler. the Renaissance. Ginn. Roman System of Provincial Administration. Ginn. . London: Norgate. Hellenic Civilization. E.). Cheyney... and tie following — Political Institutions-. Roman Society and Politics in Ancient Rome. C. 1910. 1900. Bym. C. J. Brown. . J. 1914. Lippincott. T. Carter. C. Longmans. Adams. History of Greece. Civilization during the Middle Ages. The West in the East. 1901. Allinson. 14 Macmillan.Useful Books 501 A The books mentioned Larger Library : above. ed. igog. Breasted. Ancient Times (valuable for Oriental history)... von. C. Munn. 1904. Macmillan. 1914.. Houghton. The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century (5th ed. Mead. Macmillan. W. W. vols.. 1909. Trade Unionism and Labor Problems. M.. Dodd.. R. 1900. Macmillan. 1913.

Luchaire. Jr. H. British Social Politics. C. R. Putnam. K. R. Fisher. E.). Hayes. Scribner. M.). T.. T. H. Latin Literature. Macmillan. A. R. Harper. M. Holt.). J. A. H. 1913. 1909. 1907. Germany and its Evolution in Modern Times. D. 1912.). Mythology of Greece and Rome. B. Roman Imperialism. 1900. 1907. C. Manners.. D. A. Mediceoal Europe.. Macmillan. Napoleon. D. 1904. Americanism. C. 1908. Kent. de B. 191 1.). N. 1913. Harper. The Day of the Saxon. 1909. Mackail. A History of Factory Legislation (ad ed.. Customs. Macmillan. Johnston. 1913. The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria.. Hazen.. H. Gardiner. 191 2. E. Life in Ancient Egypt.. 1912. A History of Socialism {sihfA. Lippmann. London: Black. Holt. Lacroix. W. Holt. S. Mifflin.. History of England and Greater Britain. 1900.. Fairbanks. Kendall. Macgregor. The French Revolution (brief and clear). 1911. Social Life in Rome in the Age of Cicero. J. E. Lichtenberger. Europe and the Par East. Europe since 181.. 1914. The Evolution of Industry. Holt. J. Source-Book of English History. Hawes. Mifflin. 2 vols. Builders of United Italy.T. H. 1916. 1914. J. 1910. E. 1909. The Cause and Extent of the Recent Industrial Progress of Germany. Macmillan.. Holland. Day. H.. C. Houghton.. ' Hill.). Appleton. Holt. H. 1911. The Stakes of Diplomacy. A History of the Reformation. Hart. Cambridge UniverDouglas. W. A. Holt.. S.. 1916... H. 1912. Erman. D. W.....502 Useful Books Macmillan.. History of the Hebrew People (12th ed. H.. E.. Davis. London: King. J. M. . 1910. Lindsay.. P.. Macmillan. Johnston. A. Crete the Forerunner of Greece. and Dress during the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance Period. A History of the Colonization of Africa by Alien Races (new ed. Scribner. B.. Social France at the Time of Philip Augustus. The Modern City and Problems. Longmans. sity Press. Frank. K. Scribner. Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals. Holt. A. Macmillan... Lowell. 1913. C. H. Jastrow.. and Harrison. Lea. Hobson. Giles. Holt. Scribner. Cross. its Howe.. 1913.. G. Gibbins. Japanese Life in Town and Country.). 1892.. A. Appleton.. C.. 1900. Ginn. 1894. 1913. C. iso6-igi2. F. 1915- Hutchins. London : WillisCms. 3d ed. Houghton. Cambridge University Press.. Industry in England (9th ed.. Holt. F. Holt.. Scribner. W.. Howard. Lippincott. 1912. '^rkap. Appleton. Fowler. H. L.. Source-Book of American History. 1915. Evolution of Modern Capitalism (new ed. A Thousand Years of Russian History. The Eve of the French Revolution. W. Scribner. A. Howe. 1874. 1915. and H. W. Knox. A. L. L. A. History of Commerce (new ed. 1914. The Civilization of China. 1913.

1895. 1913. Modern Factory System. History of Ancient Greek Literature. A Source-Book of Mediaval History. 1907.. A. F. R. Unemployment. Marxism versus Socialism.). London. Revell. Reinsch. Murray. 1907. S... Stone. Progress of Science. Doubleday. Bismarck and German Unity (2d ed. J.. Button. A Book of Discovery. W. Columbia University Smith. Putnam. J.. 1 9 10. The Mediaxal Mind. 1916. Osborn. 2 vols..). V.. F..). Reformation and Renaissance. Clarendon Press. American Municipal Progress. Macmillan. 1911. A. 1894.. Imperial Impulse. G. . C. O. 1915. Taylor.. O. 1913. Putnam. . Macmillan. . 1913. . Scribner. Spargo. 1913. A. Perris. Short History of English Literature. American Book. P. Sayce. Colonial Administration. Century. 1914. Ginn. Scribner. H. Simkhovitch. H.. M. Pollard.. 1904. 1910. H. M. A Short History of War and Peace. Pigou. London Chapman and Hall. and Beard. Longmans.. 1914.. E. Oxford Robinson. Macmillan. F. M. Reinach. 1916. Ross. 1897. 1913.). Walling. C. Men of the Old Stone Age (4th ed. F. A. Macmillan. Mason. J. 1911... Macmillan. Ogg.). 2 vols. The Origins oj Invention. J. Macmillan. Orth. Petrarch (2d ed. Macmillan. (2d ed. P. Page. Ch. Century. E. Maule. B. G. Appleton. T. Babylonians and Assyrians: Life and Customs. Methuen. 1916. S. C.. 1912. Putnam.. 1893. Rashdall. J.. 1895.: Useful Book's : 503 Marmeiy. Social Life Among the Assyrians and Babylonians.. H. Socialism (new ed. H. Zueblin. G. and Rolfe. Outlines of European History.. Robinson. 1914. A. Elements of Socialism. S. Synge. W. Tickner. Holt. Socialism and Democracy in Europe. igi6. Scribner. H. The Boy's Book of New Inventions. H... Scribner. The Changing Chinese. W. 2 vols. V. Taylor. Press. 1916. E. W. Factors in Modem History. Holt. The Larger Aspects of Socialism. H. 1905.. The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. 1909.). Holt.. 1912. Apollo (new ed. ' A Social and Industrial History of England. igio. Saintsbury. G. H. Holt. A..

.

. .. ^s-cu-la'pi-us. inhabit- 455 f. . 80 ff.) American colonial. 494. 274. 437 f . 77 f. 80. 328. exploration of. f. A'ri-an-ism. 434. . 237 f. 392—5. Apostles. Agriculture. 67 f. population. 464-8. 17-20. 466 2. in SOS . . French conquest of. 149. 464 Italy.. 289 f. 446 f. 436. . . Athenian. 273. 436 441 f . by and 348 nial. Elizabethan. Greek. 336 (ill. Saracen. 47. An'gles. . 242 English. in. 431. 207 f. 466 . 444 f. 438. independence t.8. 464. in Renaissance. 467 f. . 108 under Charle- Al-bu-quer'que. region of. Act of Supremacy. 107. 435 politics. . Al-ex-an'der. see also United f. Portuguese. Army. 312-4. oracle of. . 129 f. Gerf. 88. = the pages. 277 f. of international disputes. = century. 240 f. in French America. Architecture. 434 f. 455 f. 406. acquired by France.). 245 f. S. colonization 4S4j 456 f-. A-mer'i-ca. 85. Lacedaemonian of. Spanish English coloni. U. Belgium. 91. English. ^-ge'an Sea. in Latin 12. Macedonian. America. 177. many in. Ap'pi-us Clau'di-us. INDEX (The numbers the following. 211.. Moorish. Aids. A-qui'nas. see next A-crop'o-lis. . . 290 f. . Britain in. For South America. see Episcopalian. = and = United Abolition Movement.. = note. Roman. 55 f. . Af-ghan-i-stan'. 460 f. Roman. 95 f. Ar-chi-me'des. Af'ri-ca. 282—4 German. 36.. Spanish. 227 f. 31 f. 369. 154 Ap'pi-an Aqueduct and Way. . Ar'is-tot-le. 18 f.. 109. Athenian. States. by Dutch.. f. . rural economy. 344—6. f. beginnings of paid. States. 109. to Germany. industries. ceded Al-sace'. 441. Belvedere. feudal. Florentine. 82. Abbreviations: cent. 436 . tian. 387. 378. discovery Ar-ma'da. of Macedon. n. Airplane. of labor problems. present. conquests zation in. France. 278—84 361—9 . 192. see Writing. .. 494-6.). f. Roman. English. A-las'ka. French. Am'mon. .. 304. Great. America. Minoan. Gt. . Latin. partition of. 273—5. S. airship. 331. Ar-gen-ti'na. 57.. f. 435 f character. temple of. 257—62. Babylonian. ill. future. f2o... 214-6. on manor. = illustration. 61. . 454. in English America. item. 98 f. 455-7. 269 . 363 (ill. . 448. Roman. f magne. modem. 401. A-pol'lo. Egyptian. 81 Al-ge'ri-a. 306 . Anglican. 363 f. Gothic. 335 f.) refer to Gt. 370. Arbitration. of. 457. 465 f. other Egyi>- countries. ceded to U. 496 f.. 148. Alphabet. . 6 ants. . Al-ex-an'dri-a. Puritan. .. 456. . 172. 379 (ill. 350 f American coloRussian. 15 (Spartan). 152. Amusements. Alchemy. 23. 84 (ill. German. 41 62. n.) French. 103. Egyptian. 212. in United States. 31 ff. Alien residents at Athens.

434-8. 87 f. 358 f. 430 f. Bas-tille'. translated by Luther. 320 f. JuUus Caesar. see Industry. 375. British. 172. and Italy. Boston Tea Party. 475Bronze Age. Bill of Rights. 399. 14. 343 Ca'diz. 38s f-i of Frederick the Great. 250. A'tri-um. 125. 64 f.) . 387. sei Middle Class. Bun'yan. 157. 229 f. 209. 46 . international character. as feudal lord. Dominion of. under Joseph II. 85. Calvinism. 452-63. SparAthenian. . 113. 427 f. 298 . in Renaissance. . Egyptian.. 459. city-state. Bridges. 432-4. after Perides. . in 17th cent. 32. Bath. 23-5. Automobiles. 73. Bourgeoisie (bur-zhwS'. Boers. mediaeval. Caesar. . 15 23- . Books. in i8th cent. Ba-ha'ma Islands. Barbarism. f. Ba-sil'i-ca. Peridean. 277.. 39. Barter. 198 f. Charlemagne. beliefs and organization. At'ti-ca. growth of government. Alexandrian. 339—54. under 51. 78 f. Bra-zil'. Renaissance. 73 ff. 63. Cabinet system.. 475. colonization of. 24s f- France. 28. Bull. Great. Bis'marck. in Europe. 353. . see Architecture. Athens. 399 f. 6 f. Brickwork. Athenian. independence recognized. 147 f. 426. by Luther. 89. under Charlemagne. see f perialism 464. 299 f. mediaval. Aus-tra'Ii-a. 248 f. A-zores'. 25. 177. Egyptian. 426 f. suspension. 17-9. 409—21 favors nation. French national. 122. S. Au-gus'tus. 470 (ill. 177-80. 259. 123. 115. . 59. 155. Balance of Power. tan. Religious Peace of. Babylonian. Augs'biurg. 425. 342 f 263—5. John. 459. 211. Boe-o'ti-a. . Assembly of freemen. 199. Astronomy. 63 . 20. 31 f. English. 199. . f. 171.. 36. useful.. 300 f . 5o6 Index Banking. Ar'te-mis. Bible. 26. 373 f.. 468. Bureaucracy. Art. 431-4. Egyptian. 377. 295. Black Death. . medisval. of. Hebrew. 304 f Can'a-da. character and ideals of. 494. 69 f. temple of. Roman. 424-6. Astrology. Renaissance.. 27. Peridean. 331-3Arts. 271 Cal'vin. since burned becomes f. 416 t. 62. 48 f. history 1785. Minoan. . ality. Balkan' States. 442 f. A-the'na.. 35.. defined. . 23-5. 271. . .. Babylonian. Roman. 244 f. 453 Aus'tri-a. Alexandrian. Artisans. Greek. . of Napoleon. 22. 433 f. festival to. 375. imof. andent. of Boniface VIII.. becomes British. 229. Francis. f. 60. 389. 403 f.. 445 . under Elizabeth. in iSth cent. fourth-century. 468-70. 36 f. 54—70. 115. Britain. in England. 306. 67 f. Greek. German. Roman. Bel'gi-um. 456 i. . Bourgeois. Athenians. 430. XJ. Bul-ga'ri-a.. of Peter the Great. separated from Germany. democracy. 295. primitive. 257-9. Bishop. Egyptiap. 352 293. in France. 353.. joined with Holland. Roman. In France.. Bon'i-face VIII. early Greek. Ben'e-fice. Brotherhood (phratiy). 109. Athletics. 7. 27. As-syr'i-a. 58 f. Bacon. 42. 4 f. and printing. . 35. 83. Japanese. Ba-lu-chis-tan'. 372 f. Greek. in 1815-48. Bab-y-lo'ni-a. bOrzhwa-ze'). Cal'i-cut. 298. 298-301.

beginnings of. Capet (ca-pa'). at present. America. of English America. 106. Chartered companies.ses in.. . 3 . . in U. . 35 ff. 378-81 363-g under Peter the Great. 445. Church. versus Protestants. 482-4 Chi-le'. 81. 37—43 . . as reformers. pioneers. organization. f.. English. 31-3 . 486-gi. .' . 4th cent. Church. in France. and Calvinism. 496 f. Charles I. religious intellectual. 415 f. 152. 168 f. Roman. complexity of modem. Car-bo-na'ri. Rome. . . 297—301 Reformation. 330-4. definition. 31— 3. 106. 98 .. . 241 .. and State in Germany.7 Ce'res. and and Spanish colonization. in U. of Saracens. Athenian. . 12 f.. Cities.. in English 287 f. .. in U. Charter. 458. 297 f. 116-32. 286-306. 489 f 434-8. . of Eastern empire. 368. 470-4. 301 ff settlement with Protestantism. beginnings France. Roman. China. 204—6. . contrasted with Puri- Greek. 357 f. Cat'i-line. . 205. 100. since 1876. 427 I f. 96 f. 306. 103-5.. age of. 135-44.. 23—6. . labor. life of. Spartan. see Christianity. Cart'wright. 507 26 f-. 234 f 42 in Germany. Christ. Cape Verde Islands. 292—8. 327-9. Protestant revolt on Continent. foreign in Latin America. 401 . decline of Roman. 81-5 growth of Roman. Czar of Russia. empire.. 271. Index Canals. 87. in England. Roman. 157 sects. tans. 100 . Minoan. 35 f. 156. 39 f. f. Castes. AssyHebrew rian. . 458 f. of Roman empire. 116 S.. opened to western world. . of.. . 94 f.. growth. 438.. 447 f under factory system. . 115-8. 287 and Lutheranism. 26—8. 103-11. 468. 157. Minoan. 383. Capitalists. Children. 234—50. 191 . under factory system. and Periclean. poleon.. 154 early growth. his empire. Civilization. Catholic Church.. and Phoenician. Cey-lon'. Cathedral of Florence. . acter. of Latin America. Roman. of India. supremacy.. 47. persecutions. S. 327—9. 91 (ill. 395. S. . disestablishment in England. Prot. 182-201. 447 f.. . 189 f. 435-8.. Renaissance. estantism. . 169-73. of England in i6th cent. under Louis XIV. 202—4 life in the. 321-5. Greek. f. Edmund. courts. 292-8. 162 f.. 341 . later growth in England. German. 27. S. 476 Cape Colony. in England. . organization of. . 234217. of France (1350-1789). Egyptian. . City-state. 298— 292-306. 263 f . Alexandrian. origin and char- 457 . f. 197 f. Ca'to. in Florence. . . . 469 f Castle. Panama. 33—7 Spartan. 468- 309-25. in U. Ca-vour'. Great (Magna Carta). mediaeval. 483 f. 58-62. 5. 336 f. . 394-7. f. 416. of Roman Civil War. 348. and Persian. 108. 152 f. Cavaliers. in 17th and i8th cents. force in civilization. 54-70. 73-80. 146-8. 426 Car'thage. Egyptian. S. . 187. 96 f. Suez canal Christianity. 190. 405. 453. 385. of France prior to Revolution. property confiscated by and NaFrench government. 489-92. 453. . Cic'e-ro. 385-7. Citizenship. Greek. 240. 10-23. 46-52. 105 Cith'a-ra. 157. 481—4 at present. 155 f.. Babylonian. early Greek. 406. 314 f. 279-81. Lutheranism. 447 f.). 158 f. 301 411. religious struggles. . Charlemagne. prior to French Revolution. 364 f. . extension of Roman.of Far East. 339-54. 192 f . 91 {. 471-4. 340 f. go f. 120 f. recognition by empire. Catapult. Charity. "9. at Rome. XII. 339-41 . see Catholic. of Renais- sance. . f. . Chivalry.. abu. 154.

426. 117. 405. 52 35. 52. English.. 278-84. 439 f. desirable career. Confederacy of. 244.. 295-7 . Saracen. 271—3 . De-me'ter. 433 . factory system. American colonial. 31. 458 f. 148. 373. Dutch. Courts. 481-4 . 108. 309. Acts of. mysteries of. . 47. under Cromwell. 411. 249. 330. of Elizabeth. 7. 327-9. British. 439 . OUver. Co-lum'bus. Cri-me'an War. 64 f . . French. 137. 24 f. 188-90. S. Court. 373. English under Elizabeth. 293. Samuel. 455. 65. Phoenician. 56. 453. mediaeval. 64. 316.. Greek. founding 191. 301 209.. Laws. 148 . Clo'vis.. 334—6 . 331.. of Genoa. 37 . 378-80.. 442 f. 246 Copper. of imder Charlemagne. Nicsea. 453 f. f. under Elizabeth. 356-9. 28.. Cre'cy. origin " Companionship. of Great. Co-per'ni-cus. Cor'do-va. Deme (town). 452 f.. com- Cnos'sus. 171. 356 f . 192. 356 f. Greek. 31. . in England. 224 f. 115 f. Congress. 457-9. seat of civilization. . under Napoleon. 341. Articles of. . 66 f . in France. U. 287 of. in rural France. 38. 457 f . 333 f 230 of Peter the Great. Concordat of Napoleon. 454-7. 34 f. 5o8 . oracle at. 225. 341. . 46 f. of 70. (U. 254. Portuguese. 356 f. Con-stan-ti-no'ple. f. 325 . 382. Commerce. . Cu-ne'i-form writing. S. 225. Caliphate of. lution. money. 475. 347 f. . Spartan.. Colonization. 54. . of Elizabeth. Con 'go. 441 f. English. Persian. . 193. . reformed by Elizabeth. 224 405. Athenian. . Spanish. more recent. 81 . 227-9. 67. Crete. 38s . Clive. 361-9.. in Roman empire. 94 f. 359 f. 159. 14. 341 in 17th cent. earliest use of. Crompton. 471. 23. Japanese. S. 116. 381 f. 301-3. . Cu-ri-a'les. of Venice. 370. 360. early Roman..9 mediaeval. . 190. Cu'ri-a. Egyptian. 48997- Clergy. Cor-rect'ors. in Frdnte. . Constitution.. French in America. 88. 359.. S. 65 . 459. . Con'stan-tine. 359-61. 269. origin Coffee-houses. present. Roman. 485 248. of. 466 f. Clermont. 25. 276. Da-ri'us. of Berlin. 125 f. Com . 4S3 of Australia. currency. Code Napoleon. Alexandrian. Dutch. merce.. Babylonian. secular. Government. Japanese.). 364. 457 . Cor-v6e'. Navigation Crusades. 227. 359-61. 434. British in America. of Portugal. 341 f. Athenian. battle of. at Rome. 28. fallj 227. 270-3 . Continental. Co-re'a. 51. f 25. Democracy. and . Compurgation. Phoenician. 199. 433. 371-3. 231. 69. Cromwell. Credit. beginning of. 334-6 British in Indies. of.- Czar of Russia becomes absolute. 42. Cooperative societies. 36 Olympic. Commonwealth. 452-5. Greek. n. 375 Chinese. see 36 . Great. Russian. f. 194. 401. 220-9. of Constantinople. " 147 nian. 26 f. f . 459. Confederation. 194-7. 188. 401.. . Atheof Luther. . Athenian. prior to French Revo- reformation of. 471.. Council. Del'phi. Index Compass. . of East and West. i. Calvinistic. 392 f. of Africa. 149. 301 f.. 157.. 473 f. under Louis XIV. Roman. abuses 327 395 . 70 . . of U. Continental Greek. 439Col-bert'. 50. and . . by U. of Vienna.^. French. De'los. regular princes. of Louis XIV. Coins. with India. 276. Spartan. f. 424-6 of Paris. of Greek. f. with India. 384-7. 438 f. at Philadelphia. 401. 455 . of Trent.

(ill. 91-3 under Caesar. . 330-4. Egyptian. character 473 . under Frederick the . 4. 401. in overthrow. in Florence. 17th cent. 423 f. growth of Roman. Roman. 88. 293-5. English. 455 363-9. 389 387 f f. see Netherlands. 39&-402.. . Digester. 360. Attic. . 16. 364 f. 466 f of India. 270-2. 434-6. 80 f. f. of stone age. in universities. 368 Elizabeth. 183.. 80 f . Spartan. . 67. in English America. Diet. of China. 80. in India. Louis XIV. present. literature. 339-42 . 117. Baby. 409-21 more recent. . Minoan.. 88.. 54-8. 172. America. i . . . 396 f. 36. i. Education. "O. Divine Right king. 468-70 of of Japan. . 459. of Shakespeare. before 309-25. 81-3 Mace. 358. of Congo. of . 210 f. 80. Despot. of mediaeval nobles. Alexandrian. 103—5. tan. . Discoveries.) . 1 1 2-6. in 336 90. before Civil War. 398-402. 405 under Elizabeth. . E'gypt. 405 f. of U. . Frederick the Great. 452 f.. in America. 359 f 360 f Economy. Persian. of Columbus. decline civilization. . 69. 56 (ills. 278 f. .). 12 f. . . 429 f under benevolent despots. 100. f. Dra'co. 390. 169-73. Elizabeth. Edward . mysteries of. of Roman. 277 Spanish. Alexandrian. . 192 f. after revolution. 97—100. . 239 f. Peter the Great. 392-s. 402.). 489 f. in France. . 31-3. Russian. 351 f.. 389 Louis XVI. 38 S. British. in France. Egyptian. of Alexander. 63 348. 481-4. under lonian. Louis XVI. 387 f . Caesar as. n. . . 92 f. . 135-44. mediaeval. Stuarts. 388 ff. Francis.. de21-3 . from Augustus to Diocletian. 48. 423 Peter the Great. 25 f . beginnings of. 462 f. 471. 279 f. . 384-7. decline of. Dress. 297. . Saracen. Dutch. 329-37. . under Puritans. . 371-3. philosophy of. Du-pleix' (du-pla'). S. 384-7 Frederick the Great. Napoleon I. 403-5.. Drainage. of Speyer. 6 cline. 66 f. 57 f. state. 336 . 4 I. of Portuguese. . 322-5 . 367 f. modern imperialism. . Greek. 339 struggle against. 493 El-eu'sis. 469 . 106. 405 modern. 59—63 . 460-4. 420 f. .. Spanish. . 335. ideal of Christian. . Di-de-rot'. Roman 137-44 381 f. in monasteries. religion. Great. in industrial revolution. . under Charlemagne. age of. and socialism. f. ancient history of. 348-50. . economic condition. 89—91 government. benevolent. Roman empire. and modem f. Athenian. and Assyrian. 423 f. Roman. 339-42. in China. East India Company. . .). III. Egyptian. Egyptian. through Cicero.. Babylonian 11. 305. 389 f. 10-16 16-20. Elizabeth. 39 f 81-5. German. rule. 21. primitive. . 314-6. 396. n. of English America. Do-min'i-cans. 488-92. 73 donian. of Worms. 387 f Joseph 11. De-mos'the-nes. 386 f Du-o'vi-ri. . of of . of France under Louis XIV. recent. Index of Calvinism. 385.. . . Drake.. n. England. Electricity. 255. 47. early Roman. Di'az. 445-8. 484-8. 29Q f. 64 (iU. (ill. . 467. in English Edict of Nantes. 32 f. 123 204. 435. Drama. 380-2 342-4. of Charlemagne. 401. 25 . conquered by Alexander. English. of socialism. . 301 . in Geneva. . in Latin America. 468. . Athenian. 440-5. 362. 413. factory system. 204 . acquired by England. 11 ff. under Peter the Great. . . 472 f. . 116-32. French. 342-4 in English America. more recent. 37S. . revolution. lack of. 382. 366 . Empire. . f. f. Russian. 209. Minoan. 369 . . 212-4. in English America. SparAthenian.. in England. 488-97. 271. Joseph II. 509 23-5. 380-2. 488 at present. . 377Louis XIV. in British empire.

327—37. . 199 f. 253-6. 464 S. Alexandrian. 446-8. under Napoleon. 277-84 . Egyptian. . Factory. S. Gaul. Franks. in Renaissance. Act of 1833. of U. in i6th cent.. 220 f tan. Index Eastern f . daily 235 f . 475 f. Great. 466. Athenian.. 82. 440-2. 209. Years' War. 406. XIV. 423 see also Serfdom. 452 f.. . 431. 289-91 . Roman god. 5IO Holy Roman. recent growth of. 463. 415. social 304 life. in England.. Far East.. American colonial. 271. Greek. contemporary. 303 306. 105. first use of. 344-51. . life in. Eu-phra'tes. 453. on eve of revolution. Hawthorne's. Florentine. IJ-ussian. 412. . 475 f. 298-300. Gen'o-a. Faun. 400-2. 459. . Forum.. recent. 63. 260. Eng'land. . present. Japanese. a 402. Episcopalian (Anglican). Games. in New World. 484. see Britain. 51 f. women of. 270. 403-8. 69. . 114.. see Germany. Encyclopaedists. 19 Athenian. Roman. conquered by Caesar. Hundred Excommunication. Chinese. 79. beginnings of. beginnings of. 323-5. 387 f Friars. 230. Benjamin. 275 f. Gar-i-bal'di. 396 f. 226. of prince. 432-4. nations. 175-80. 238 f. 426. 427.. 83. system. 39QE-trus'cans. da Ga'ma. Normans . 5 23 ff. 286.. French. 490 f . 424 f.. Fair. Dutch. or Byzantine. 384—7..25 . 262. Engine. . vallejs of. becomes republic. . mediaeval. 165. German. 293. 186 f. 225.War. Spar40. Florence. under factory system. 237 f. 419. 46875 70. 471—3. Latin American. 276 f. 254. 412. of Luther. 197-9. Finances. in America. 471-3 . . 241-3. Frederick the Great. mediaeval. beginnings of. steam. 178 f. 107. 191. 253. 4. 270 f. Portuguese. 464. 309. Vas'co. Festival. 426. belief in. 247-9. national unity of. 144. during revo.. 155. . f. see Steam Engine. . Ferdinand and Isabella. Geography. in. 393. Ephors. 377-82 under Napoleon. 306. f. Field Brethren. 392—9. 452 f. 173. 380. f. 464. . uni309. 330. 377-82. Turkish. Fief. Firearms. 146-52. 496 f f. primitive. 476-8. . meeting of (1789). commerce of. 458 . abolished. Future life. 209. civic activities. under . lution. 12 . 356-61.. 235-8. French. Fulton. Ge-ne'va. checked by Charlemagne. 431-4. 456. 475 Enclosures. 309-19. 185 Eu'clid's Elements. ' Fire-kindling. 466 i. . 438. mediaeval. 462 f. 287—90. German. 88. social customs. 149. . 471-4. 452-9. 88. 80 (ill. 427 f. 3 . 365-9. 256 f . Belgian. . Germans. . 83. 370. 42. 403-5. 185. 456. Athenian. English fication. ascendancy of. British. religious wars. . Estates General. defeated by Germany. Game Laws. 471 . Robert. 236 . Feudalism. in. 436. bankers of. economic condition. f ... 220 f. Italian. Franklin. English. Roman. Norman. 321 f. . Indian.). Gal-i-le'o. Fran-cis'cans. decay. 88. 455. under Peter the Great. in Hundred Years' . 170 f. and Tudors. 374. Chinese. early Greek. 287 f. 58 f. 439. 119 f. under Louis XIV. 235. modern nation. 58. 227. . Family and home.. Er-a-tos'the-nes. 47s f. i86-gi. under Louis 467-70. see Economy. growth of. 223. 256 f. of other 464. 328 t. 48 f. Egyptian. in French America. 474 f. colonial empire. . Christian. 469 f. Genius. friend of nationality. 361in India and East. 481—4. decline of. 239—42. 286 f . recent. 481-3 . Calvin at. 254. 370. 328. 190 f.. 456 f. Louis XIV. 306. 463 f. . government. Spanish. 98. France.

beginnings tion. Russian. 279. 146 192 French. 92 f. Hu'gue-nots. . 179 f. VII. 481 f. Byzantine. 147. of Holy Roman Empire.). Holy Land. 11. . Gro'ti-us. in 17th cent. Hellenes. under Csesar. 74 Roman. 439. primitive. Egyptian. of Turkish empire. 21. Greg'o-ry the Great. Gunpowder. 104. S. present. 128 (ill. 336 347 (ill. 116-8. 38. 356. 286 f. origin of. 308 f. 154. (ill. 439 f. f qf.. 431 f. I3r. Hindus. 49 f . religion and inteUigence. 488. He'lix. . country and people. Hip-poc'ra-tes. 116. 35-7. Hieroglyphs. 12. Spanish..). early govenmient. in Florence. . in revolution. Babylonian. 310. 367 f. in Latin America. from Augustus to Diocletian. see Greeks. 37-43.. 281 f. Elizabethan. oath 128. of imperial cities. Greek. benevolent despotism. empire. 398. f. Government. 305. of U. 182-6. 91 f. Guillotine. rivalry with England. . 344 .. Persian. Guinea.. cial. American 387 in present. 33-5. New. 475. f. 249. 441 f. 93 f Gai'us.. Assjndan. medium of communication. 59 f Hor'ace. Her-od'o-tus. seized by Turks. James. 185. against 425193. . . 73-80. Sparta. 26 f. . Alexandrian age. He'ra. commerce with East. in Minoan age. Patrick. Henry IV. 178. 423 f. 304. colonial. 64 f . 238 f. unifica- Greek language. under Stuarts. f. . 406. (ill. 304 f. local in empire. 5. Helots. 485 f Greece. . . Gladiatorial fights. in American colonies. factory town. later English. 356 f. Gold. in world's history. 445 f. discovery of. modern. 456 . Index Germany. Roman. under Cromwell. 387 f. . see Religion. 341. Golden Age. 444. feudal. 25 f.. primitive Ger(ill.. and socialism. 432. principle of modern. Gospels. 42 . of American colonies during revolution. 25. 46. 429 i. 429-31 and . in Roman empire. in Middle Ages. in U. English (British). God. f. (ill. 328 372. Spartan. . 140 320 f. 475 i- Gin. 60.). 97-100. 36 f . .6. 389. House. 444. Granges. 402 (ill. Heretics. Horace. Ho'mer. under Elizabeth. 74 f He-roph'i-lus. under Louis XVT.).. from Pericles to Alexander. 405 of Frederick the Great. Hec-a-tae'us. Athenian. Ti-be'ri-us. 469 Hol'land. 33 f. . of Peter the Great. joined with Belgiimi. beginnings of. primitive German. German. 377. s . 410 i. 283.. . . cotton. 87. 411. 185. 5" of. . 89. 431. see Greece. VIII. 83 f. 434-6. Roman. 52. 218 in.). 54-70. f Gu'ten-berg. Har'greaves. 171 f. 122.). 87 . 78 f. revolt Spain. Periclean. Minoan. Grac'chus. 303 f. 341-4. 82. early Roman. industrial revo- lution. 281 f. of France under Louis XIV. 46-52 Periclean Athens. . 432. 399-402 under Napoleon. 229-31. 488-92. 173. 190. 490. Hellas. France. 80 . . . (ill.). provin. 130 f. 51. in South America. 94 f Grain Mill. of Joseph n. 286. 363 coffee. 31-3. 93. 46. Ha-wai'ian Islands. . . Macedonian.. medisv