Microbiology Lab Diagnostic Flowcharts

by Shishin Yamada last updated: September 23, 1998

Gram Positive Lab Flowchart

Gram Negative Lab Flowchart © "First Aid for the USMLE Step 1" by Appleton and Lange. .

beta) –agalactiae (group B. beta) –bovis (group D. acute glomeronephritis Pneumonia Meningitis Subacute bacterial endocarditis + white medium colonies. kidneybean shaped diplococci Catalase – Endocarditis UTI Neisseria –meningitidis (ferments maltose) –gonorrhoeae (cannot ferment maltose) Oxidase + Menigitis Urethritis PID *KEY: Catalase = Mix with 3% hydrogen peroxide. Coaguase = Check for coagulase enzyme. alpha) –pneumoniae (alpha) –viridans (alpha) Enterococcus –enterococcus faecalis Catalase – Pharyngitis. rheumatic fever Pyoderma. Alpha = alpha hemolysis (very small clear area of hemolysis around colonies on blood agar) Beta = beta hemolysis (large clear area of hemolysis around colonies on blood agar) Gamma = NO hemolysis (no signs of hemolysis around colonies on blood agar) Fermentation of specific sugars means that they change the pH of the tube over 48 hours. Oxidase + if paper turns dark purple quickly. beta) –epidermidis (coagulase –) –saprophyticus (coagulase –) Gram + pale yellow colonies. cocci in long chains – small. Fermentation is + for when the upper third of the tube turns yellow. Oxidase = Determines presence of cytochrome-c in bacteria. clumps or forms precipitate. cocci in grape-like clusters + off-white small colonies.Bacterial Cocci *Many thanks to Jason Collins for citing reference material for these charts (from "The Microbiology Companion" book by ALERT and ORIENTATED publishers) Species Staphylococcus –aureus (coagulase +. . Catalase + if forms bubbles. cocci in grape-like clusters Diagnostic Reactions Catalase + Diseases Abcesses Food poisoning Toxic shock syndrome Pneumonia Streptococcus –pyogenes (group A. while the bottom two-thirds remains red. Coagulase + if plasma clots.

since difficult to separate Diptheria (URI). Diseases Anthrax exotoxin Food poisoning Clostridium YES –botulinun (blocks Ach at NM junction) –tetani (Inhibits GABA. glycine) Only ANAEROBIC G+ rod that forms spores. CDEF = Corynebacterium Diptheriae blocks Elongation Factor. Selective medium: Loeffler's agar. often see Pseudomembranous colitis flaccid paralysis (Ach) or spastic paralysis (GABA. so inhibits protein synth in all eukaryotic cells Listeria –monocytogenes NO Catalase + DOES NOT produce exotoxins Beta hemolytic Opportunistic meningitis Tumble-weed motility LPS-like component Intracellular reproduction in mononuclear phagocytes .Gram Positive Rods *Many thanks to Jason Collins for citing reference material for these charts (from "The Microbiology Companion" book by ALERT and ORIENTATED publishers) Species Bacillus –anthracis (non-motile. catalase +) –cereus (motile!) Spores YES Diagnostic Reactions Only AEROBIC Gram + rod that forms spores. Colonies grow in long chains. glycine) –perfringens (food poisoning. necrosis) –difficile (inflammatory lesion of colon) Corynebacterium –diptheriae NO Botulism Food poisoning Wound infections Gas gangrene When inhibits neurotransmitters.

pylori) . Burn infections + Ferments glucose Cholera ("rice-water" stools) Diarrhea + + Inert to glucose Diarrhea (C. jejuni) Gastritis (H. no flagella) –Salmonella (S. Proteus) Bubonic plague (Yersinia) Many other shitty effects! Pseudomonoadaceae + –Pseudomonas aeruginosa (smells like grapes.ENTERIC Gram Negative Rods *Many thanks to Jason Collins for citing reference material for these charts (from "The Microbiology Companion" book by ALERT and ORIENTATED publishers) Species Enterics –Escherichia coli (metallic-green on EMB) –Shigella (non-motile. swims like a salmon in body for systemic infection) –Klebsiella pneumonia –Enterobacter aerogenes –Proteus vulgaris (H2S gas. meningitis UTI. "swarms") –Yersinia pestis Oxidase – Growth on MacConkey + Glucose Metabolism Ferments glucose Diseases Traveller's diarrhea (ETEC) Dysentery (EIEC) Diarrhea and vomiting (EPEC) Hemolytic colitis (EHEC) Very bloody diarrhea (Shigella) Enterocolitis/gastritis (Salmonella) Nosocomial/pneumonia (Kleb) UTI (Enterobacter. procyanin) Vibrionaceae –Vibro cholera (comma-shaped) Campylobacteraceae –Campylobacter jejuni (curved or S-shaped) –Helicobacter pylori (curved or S-shaped) + + Oxidizes glucose Pneumonia. typhi makes a little H2S.

vomiting Whooping cough (only humans) Bordetella pertusis Selective medium: Bordet-Gengou agar ZOONOTIC (associated with an animal) Gram Negative Rods Species Francissella tularensis Lab findings From rabbits. .RESPIRATORY Gram Negative Rods *Many thanks to Jason Collins for citing reference material for these charts (from "The Microbiology Companion" book by ALERT and ORIENTATED publishers) Species Haemophilus influenza Lab findings Coccobacillus Growth requires factor V (NAD) and factor X (heme). Diseases Caseating granulomas can form throughout body. diarrhea. Intracellular growth in monocytes and PMNs allow it to evade antibodies and complement-mediated lysis. Lawnmover-vs-rabbit nest case. Spread by ticks. e. headache. Found in old fashioned (not modern) chocolate agar Diseases URI Pneumonia Meningitis Legionella pneumophila Stains very lightly Legionaire's disease Pneumonia with fever.g.

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