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Data Communications and Computer


Lecture Notes

Undergraduate Students

Prof.M.Sushanth Babu
Department of Electronics and
Communication Engineering
Types of errors & Error detection
Basic concepts

 Networks must be able to transfer data from one device to another with
complete accuracy.
 Data can be corrupted during transmission.
 For reliable communication, errors must be detected and corrected.
 Error detection and correction are implemented either at the data link
layer or the transport layer of the OSI model.

Types of Errors

Error :->When received data differs from transmitted data.

Types of errors:

1.Single bit error. 2. Burst error.

Single bit error.

 Only one bit of given data unit is changed from 1 to 0 or 0 to 1.

 Single bit errors are easier to detect and correct, while burst errors are
Single-bit error

 Single bit errors are the least likely type of errors in serial data
 However this kind of errors can happen in parallel transmission.

Burst error

 The term burst error means that two or more bits in the data unit have
changed from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1.
 Burst errors does not necessarily mean that the errors occur in
consecutive bits, the length of the burst is measured from the first corrupted bit
to the last corrupted bit. Some bits in between may not have been corrupted.

 Burst error is most likely to happen in serial transmission.

 The number of bits affected depends on the data rate and duration of

Error detection

Error detection means to decide whether the received data is correct or not
without having a copy of the original message.
Error detection uses the concept of redundancy, which means adding extra
bits for detecting errors at the destination.

Four types of redundancy checks are used in data communications

Error Detection methods

Parity Check
 Most common, least complex.
 Single bit is added to a block.
Two schemes:

 Even parity – Maintain even number of 1s

E.g., 1011  10111
 Odd parity – Maintain odd number of 1s
E.g., 1011  10110

 A parity bit is added to every data unit so that the total number of
1s(including the parity bit) becomes even for even-parity check or odd for odd-
parity check
Example: Parity Check

Suppose the sender wants to send the word world. In ASCII the five characters are
coded (with even parity) as
1110111 1101111 1110010 1101100 1100100
The following shows the actual bits sent
11101110 11011110 11100100 11011000 11001001
Detection – examples
Now suppose the word world in Example 1 is received by the receiver without being
corrupted in transmission.
11101110 11011110 11100100 11011000 11001001
The receiver counts the 1s in each character and comes up with even numbers (6,
6, 4, 4, 4). The data are accepted.
Now suppose the word world in Example 1 is corrupted during transmission.
11111110 11011110 11101100 11011000 11001001
The receiver counts the 1s in each character and comes up with even and odd
numbers (7, 6, 5, 4, 4). The receiver knows that the data are corrupted, discards
them, and asks for retransmission.

Two –Dimensional Parity Check

Suppose the following block is sent:

10101001 00111001 11011101 11100111 10101010

However, it is hit by a burst noise of length 8, and some bits are corrupted.
10100011 10001001 11011101 11100111 10101010
When the receiver checks the parity bits, some of the bits do not follow the even-
parity rule and the whole block is discarded.
10100011 10001001 11011101 11100111 10101010

CRC(Cyclic Redundancy Check)

At the sender
 The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits.
 All sections are added together to get the sum.
 The sum is complemented and becomes the checksum.
 The checksum is sent with the data
At the sender:

Original data : 10101001 00111001




11100010 Sum

00011101 Checksum

10101001 00111001 00011101

At the receiver

 The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits.

 All sections are added together to get the sum.
 The sum is complemented.
 If the result is zero, the data are accepted: otherwise, they are rejected.
At the receiver
Received data : 10101001 00111001 00011101
11111111  Sum
00000000  Complement

Vertical Redundancy Check

 It is also known as parity check
 It is least expensive mechanism for error detection
 In this technique, the redundant bit called parity bit is appended to every
data unit so that the total number of 1s in the unit becomes even (including parity
 Detects all odd-number errors in a data block

Example :

1110110 1101111 1110010

- After adding the parity bit

11101101 11011110 11100100


 VRC can detect all single – bit errors

 It can detect burst errors if the total number of errors in each data unit is
 VRC can not detect errors where the total number of bits changed is even.

Longitudinal Redundancy Check (LRC)

 In longitudinal redundancy check LRC, a block of bits is divided into
rows and a redundant row of bits is added to the whole block

Suppose the following block is sent

 10101001 00111001 11011101 11100111 10101010


However, it is hit by a burst noise of length eight and some bits are corrupted.

 10100011 10001001 11011101 11100111 10101010

When the receiver checks the LRC, some of the bits do not follow the even-parity
rule and the whole block is discarded.

 10100011 10001001 11011101 11100111 10101010


Advantage :

-> LRC of n bits can easily detect burst error of n bits.

Disadvantage :

-> If two bits in one data units are damaged and two bits in exactly same position
in another data unit are also damaged , the LRC checker will not detect the error.

Error Correction
 Error correction is much more difficult than error detection.
 In error detection, the receiver needs to know only that the received
codeword is invalid.
 In error correction the receiver needs to find the original codeword sent.
 We need more redundant bits for error correction than for error detection.

Datawords and Codewords

 In block coding, we divide our message into blocks, each of k bits, called
 We add r redundant bits to each block to to make the length n=k+r.
The resulting n-bit blocks are called Codeword.

Structure of encoder and decoder in error correction

The Hamming distance between two words is the number of differences
between corresponding bits.


The minimum Hamming distance is the smallest Hamming distance

all possible pairs in a set of words.
Hamming distance and error

 When a codeword is corrupted during transmission.

 The Hamming distance between the received codeword and sent codeword
is the number of bits that are corrupted during transmission.

e.g. If the codeword 00000 is sent and 01101 is received, 3 bits are in error and
the Hamming distance between the two is d(00000, 01001)=3.

To guarantee the detection of up to s errors in all cases, the minimum

Hamming distance in a block

code must be dmin = s + 1.

IEEE 802
 IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards
 Dealing with local area network and metropolitan area network.
 The most widely used standards
 The Ethernet family, Token Ring, Wireless LAN.
IEEE 802 Working Groups
Inactive or disbanded working
Active working groups

802.1 Higher Layer LAN Protocols 802.2 Logical Link Control Working
Working Group Group
802.3 Ethernet Working Group 802.4 Token Bus Working Group
802.11 Wireless LAN Working Group 802.5 Token Ring Working Group
802.15 Wireless Personal Area 802.7 Broadband Area Network
Network (WPAN) Working Group Working Group
802.16 Broadband Wireless Access 802.8 Fiber Optic TAG
Working Group 802.9 Integrated Service LAN
802.17 Resilient Packet Ring Working Working Group
Group 802.10 Security Working Group
802.18 Radio Regulatory TAG 802.12 Demand Priority Working
802.19 Coexistence TAG Group
802.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless 802.14 Cable Modem Working Group
Access (MBWA) Working Group
802.21 Media Independent Handoff
Working Group
802.22 Wireless Regional Area

Wireless LANs- IEEE 802.11

 Types
 Infrastructure based
 Ad-hoc
 Advantages
 Flexible deployment
 Minimal wiring difficulties
 More robust against disasters (earthquake etc)
 Historic buildings, conferences, trade shows,…
 Disadvantages
 Low bandwidth compared to wired networks.
 Need to follow wireless spectrum regulations.

Wireless standards
802.11a:Offers speeds with a maximum rate of 54Mbps in the 5 GHz band
802.11b: Offers speeds with maximum rate of 11Mbps in the 2.4 GHz
spectrum band
802.11g: Data rates of maximum of 54 Mbps at 2.4 GHz.
802.11n: Operates on both the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands with 300Mbps
What is the Bluetooth?
 Operates in 2.45GHz.
 Devices within 10m of each other can share up to 1Mbps
 Its low power consumption
 Can operate on both circuit and packet switching modes

Bluetooth versions
 Bluetooth 1.0 and 1.0B
 Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had many problems
 Manufacturers had difficulty making their products
 Bluetooth 1.1
 Many errors found in the 1.0B specifications were fixed.
 Bluetooth 1.2
 Faster Connection
 Higher transmission speeds in practice, up to 721 kbps
 Bluetooth 2.0
 The main enhancement is the introduction of an enhanced data
rate (EDR) of 3.0 Mbps.
 Lower power consumption
 Bluetooth 2.1
 A draft version of the Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 +
EDR is now available
Ultra Wide Band(UWB)
 What is the UWB?
 Transmitting information spread over a large bandwidth (>500
 Provide an efficient use of limited radio bandwidth
 High data rate in WPAN connectivity and longer-range

The advantage of the UWB

 Huge bandwidth : very high throughput
 Low power consumption
 Convenience and flexibility
 No interference
Ultra Wide Band(UWB)
Key application
 Wireless USB
 Toys and game
 Consumer electronics
 Location tracking
 Handset
WiMAX Forum
What is the WiMAX Forum ?
 Industry organization to promote IEEE 802.16 standard for
broadband wireless access (BWA).
 Like Wi-Fi Alliance for WLAN
 An Ethernet uses either coaxial cable or twisted pair wires.
Most Common Ethernet systems are :
1. 10 BASE-T: - It provides transmission speed up to 10 MBPS.
2. 100 BASE-T: - It is also known as fast Ethernet and provides speed
up to 100 MBPS.
3. 1000 BASE-T: - It is also known as giga-bit Ethernet and speed up to
1000 MBPS.
IEEE Standards
IEEE 802.1 -- Related to Network management.
IEEE 802.2 -- Standard for data links layer.
IEEE 802.3 -- Defines MAC layer for bus network that use CSMA/CD.
IEEE 802.4 -- Defines MAC layer for bus networks that use token bus.
IEEE 802.5 -- Defines MAC layer for token ring networks.
IEEE 802.5 -- Standard for MANs.

CSMA/CD(Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection)

 It is a set of rules determining how network devices respond when two
devices attempt to use at data channel simultaneously.
 It enables devices to detect a collision. After detecting a collision, a
device waits a random delay time and then attempts to re-transmit
Limitations Of Ethernet
 A Network cable must be short enough so that the devices at opposite
and can receive each other’s signal clearly and with minimum delay.
 Since in CSMA/CD, only a single device transmits at a given time,
there are practical limits to the no of devices that can coexist in a
single network.
 Ethernet networks far congestion problems as they increase in size.
 These problems can be minimized by using a bridge, Bridge connect
two or more networks segments and regulates traffic.
Token Bus
 Token Bus was a 4 Mbps Local Area Networking technology created by
IBM to connect their terminals to IBM mainframes.
 Token bus utilized a copper coaxial cable to connect multiple end
stations to the mainframe.
 The coaxial cable served as a common communication bus and a token
was created by the Token Bus protocol to manage to the bus
 Any station that holds the token packet has permission to transmit
 The station releases the token when it is done communicating or when
a higher priority device needs to transmit (such as the mainframe).
 This keeps two or more devices from transmitting information on the
bus at the same time.
 A token is passed around the network nodes and only the node
possessing the token may transmit.
 If a node doesn't have anything to send, the token is passed on to the
next node on the virtual ring.
 Each node must know the address of its neighbor in the ring.
 So a special protocol is needed to notify the other nodes .

 Token bus was standardized by IEEE standard 802.4

 It is mainly used for industrial applications.
 Token bus was used by General Motors for their Manufacturing
Automation Protocol (MAP) .
 The endpoints of the bus do not meet to form a physical ring.
 Due to difficulties handling device failures and adding new stations to a
network, token bus became unreliable and difficult to upgrade.
 Any failure in the bus caused all the devices beyond the failure to be
unable to communicate with the rest of the network.
 Any new station that was improperly attached was unlikely to be able
to communicate and all devices beyond it were also affected.

 Collisions are eliminated.
 Channel bandwidth can be fully utilized.
 Suitable for heavy traffic.
 Suitable for real-time application.
 Failure of bus stops all transmission
 Adding more stations to the bus is difficult
Token Bus is limited to factory automation and process control and has no
commercial application in data communication.

Token Ring
 The ring initializes by creating a token, which is a special type of frame
that gives a station permission to transmit.
 The token circles the ring like any frame until it encounters a station
that wishes to transmit data.
 This station then "captures" the token by replacing the token frame
with a data-carrying frame, which passes around the network and the
message is grabbed by the station it was addressed to.
 Once that data frame returns to the transmitting station, that station
removes the data frame, creates a new token and forwards that token
on to the next node in the ring.
 So, every node is guaranteed to eventually gets a chance to speak
regardless of how busy the network is.
 Token Ring technology was originally developed by IBM and has been
standardized as IEEE 802.5.
 The term “Token Ring” is capitalized only when it refers to the IBM
technology but appears with lower case letters otherwise.
 Developed in 1970s, it is second only to Ethernet in general popularity.
 The IEEE 802.5 standard is completely compatible with IBM Token
Ring and almost exactly the same.
 IBM Token Ring specifies that networks must be set up in a star
topology, though the frames move in a circle from node to node.
 Individual computers attached to a Multi-station Access
Unit(MAU),which is similar to, though more complicated then a hub in
Ethernet network.
 The logical ring exists within the MAU, and data travels in one
Token Ring Operation
 When a station wishes to transmit, it must wait for token to pass by
and holds the token.
1. One approach: change one bit in token and add frame for
2. Second approach: remove token from the ring.
 Frame circles the ring and is removed by the transmitting station.
 Each station checks passing frame, if destined for station, it copies the
frame into local buffer.

 Under light load – delay is added due to waiting for the token.
 Under heavy load – ring is “round-robin”
 Advantages – fair access
 Disadvantages – ring is single point of failure, added issues due to
token maintenance.
Token Maintenance Issues
What can go wrong?
• Loss of token (no token circulating)
• Duplication of token (forgeries or mistakes)
 The need to designate one station as the active ring monitor, Which
is continuously circulating frame
• Deal with active monitor going down.

 Shared media network like Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) & Token Ring
(IEEE 802.5)
 100 Mbps speed
 Runs on Optical Fiber
 American national standards institute (ANSI) standard
 Project initiated in October 1982 by James Hamstra.
 Two proposals for media access control (MAC) & physical (PHY) layers
submitted in June 1983
 First public demonstrations at Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) in 1989
 Token ring network
 Token: a special sequence of bits
 Token circulates around the ring
 A station removes the token from ring before transmission.
 After transmission, the station returns the token to the ring.
 Collisions are prevented as there is only one token in the ring
 Dual-counter-rotating token ring architecture.
 One ring is Primary and the other Secondary.
 Up to 500 stations with a maximum distance of 2 km between any
pair of stations for multimode fiber.
 With single-mode fiber the distance can be up to 40 km
 Maximum ring length is 100 km.



 According to the OSI Model, FDDI specifies layer 1 (physical layer)
and part of layer 2 (data link control layer)
 The physical layer handles the transmission of raw bits over a
communications link
 The data link control (DLC) layer is responsible for maintaining the
integrity of information exchanged between two points


 PMD layer defines the type of media interconnection and its
characteristics such as transmitter power, frequencies, etc.
 PMD-MMF: multimode (62.5 micron core diameter) fiber
 PMD-SMF: single-mode (8-10 micron core diameter) fiber
 Also defines STP, UTP as media and FDDI on SONET.
 Provides fair & deterministic access
 Fair: No node has advantage over another in accessing the medium.
 Deterministic: Under error-free conditions, the time a node has to
wait to access the medium can be predicted
 Medium access is controlled by a token.
 Token permits the node that receives it to transmit frames.
 The MAC layer of the node that generated the frame is responsible for
removing the token
 A sophisticated, built-in network monitoring and management
 It carries out many functions such as
1. Node initialization,
2. Bypassing faulty nodes,
3. Coordination of node insertion and removal,
4. Fault isolation and recovery.
 SMT is most commonly implemented as a software process running on
the FDDI device
 Enhanced FDDI that handles data, voice, and video
 FDDI-I supports only packet mode (synchronous and asynchronous)
 FDDI-II supports both packet data as well as isochronous data traffic
(in FDDI isochronous indicates a class of traffic for voice
and video)
 The simultaneous support of both packet and isochronous traffic is
called the Hybrid mode of operation
 High bandwidth (10 times more than Ethernet)
 Larger distances between FDDI nodes because of very low attenuation
in fibers
 Improved signal-to-noise ratio because of no interference from
external radio frequencies and electromagnetic noise.
 Very difficult to tap signals form a fiber cable.
 High cost of optical components required for transmission/reception of
signals (especially for single mode fiber networks)
 More complex to implement than existing low speed LAN technologies
such as IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.5
 Office automation at the desktop.
 Backbones for factory automation.
 Campus LAN interconnection.
 Inter-campus backbones or Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)
 Workgroup and departmental LANs
 Multimedia applications
 LANs or WANs do not normally operate in isolation.
 They are connected to one another or to the Internet.
 To connect LANs or WANs, we use connecting devices.
 Connecting devices can operate in different layers of the Internet
 Repeaters and hubs operate in the first layer of the Internet model.
 Bridges and layer-two switches operate in the 2nd layer.
 Routers and layer-three switches operate in the 3rd layer.


 A physical layer device the acts on bits not on frames or packets

 Can have two or more interfaces
 When a bit (0,1) arrives, the repeater receives it and regenerates it,
and transmits it to all other interfaces
 Used in LAN to connect cable segments and extend the maximum
cable length
 extending the geographical LAN range
 Repeaters do not implement any access method
 If any two nodes on any two connected segments transmit at the
same time, collision will happen.
 A repeater doesn’t actually connect two LANs, it connects two
segments of the same LAN.
 An amplifier cannot discriminate between the intended signal and the
noise, it amplifies equally everything fed into it.
 A repeater doesn’t amplify the signal, it regenerates the signal.
 When it receives a weakened or corrupted signal, it creates a copy, bit
for bit, at the original strength.
A repeater is a regenerator, not an amplifier

Function of a repeater

Limitation of Repeaters

 Bandwidth is shared.
 Cannot support multiple LAN technologies
 Limitations on maximum nodes and distances

A repeater connecting two segments of a LAN

 A Hub is used in a wired network to connect Ethernet cables from a
number of devices together.
 The hub allows each device to talk to the others.
 Acts on the physical layer
 Operate on bits rather than frames
 Also called multiport repeater
 Used to connect computers in a physical star topology but logically bus
 Connection to the hub consists of two pairs of twisted pair wire one for
transmission and the other for receiving.
 Hub receives a bit from a computer and sends it to all the other
computers without implementing any access method.
 It copies the received frame on all other links
 The entire hub forms a single collision domain, and a single Broadcast
 Collision domain: is that part of the network (set of NICs)
when two or more nodes transmit at the same time collision will
 Broadcast domain: is that part of the network (set of NIC)
where each NIC can 'see' other NICs' traffic broadcast messages.
 Multiple Hubs can be used to extend the network length
How the Hub works.
 A computer's network interface card sends out packets to the network.
 The hub receives this information and passes it through all the ports
on the hubs that have attached cables.
 This means that the computer that sent the data also gets it back.
History of the Hub:
 The system was completed in 1994.
 It introduced an on-line remote access facility to four government
departments, allowing users to display and print maps at remote
locations using personal computers.
Passive Hubs
 A passive Hub is just a connector.
 It connects the wires coming from different branches.
 In a star-topology Ethernet LAN, a passive Hub is just a point where
the signals coming from different stations collide, the Hub is the
collision point.
 This type of Hub is the part of the media.
 Its location in internet model is below the Physical layer.
Active Hubs:
 An active hub works more than just a connector but also regenerates
the data bits to ensure the signals are strong.
 It provides an active participation in the network aside from acting as
an interface.
 It participates in the data communication, such as storing signals
received through the input ports, before forwarding them.
 It can monitor the data it is forwarding and sometimes help improve
signals before forwarding them to other connections.
 Such a feature makes troubleshooting network problems easier.
Intelligent hubs.
 An intelligent hub can perform everything that the passive hub and
active hub do, and help manage network resources effectively to
ensure that the performance of the network is highly efficient.
 An intelligent hub can also help in troubleshooting by pinpointing the
actual location of the problem.
Some Manufacturers of Hubs:
 Logitech, GWC, iHome, CablesToGo, Belkin.
 Hubs can range from $7.99 to $54.99

 Switch functions at the Data-Link Layer (Layer 2).
 It is an intelligent device.
 It maintains Mac-Address Table.
 Each port of the switch has fixed bandwidth.
 It works with Flooding and Unicast.
 It has 1 Broadcast domain and Number of collision domains depending
upon the number of active ports
Broadcast Domain:->A group of network devices in which if one device
sends a broadcast the remaining devices will receive it.

Collision Domain:-> A group of network devices in which if two or more

devices are sending data at the same time and the data can collide.
Functions of a Switch
• MAC address learning.
• Loop Avoidance.
• Filters and forwards frames between LAN segments
• Switches resemble bridges and can be considered as multiport bridges
Types of Switches
Manageable Switches :->
 On a Manageable Switch an IP address can be assigned and
configurations can be made.
 It has a console port.
Un-Manageable Switches :->
 On a Manageable Switch an IP address can’t be assigned and
configurations can’t be made.
 It has no console port.
The Switch which operates at the data link layer is known as Layer 2 Switch
The Switch which operates at the Network layer is known as Layer 3 Switch
Difference between Switch and Bridge
• Bridges are software based.
• Bridges have less number of ports.
• Generally used for connecting two different topology(segment)
• Switches are hardware based.
• Switches have more ports.
• Generally used for connecting single topology(segment)
Layer-3 Switches

• Layer-3 switches operate in both layer 2 (data link layer) and 3

(network layer)
• Can perform both MAC switching and IP routing
• A combination of switch and router but much faster and easier to
configure than router
• It is a Network Layer Device (Layer 3).
• It is an intelligent device.
• It works with logical addressing.
• It works with fixed bandwidth.
• Number of Broadcast domains depends upon the number of active
ports and number of collision domains depends upon the number of
active ports.

Router Connections

 Router is an internetworking device-> it enables communication

between two or more different logical networks.
 It comes from the word “Route”.-> Hence it is also a device that
finds the best route (path) between any two networks.
 The router is the default gateway for a network.
Types of Routers:
Hardware :->
E.g. Cisco, D-link, Linksys etc
Software :->
E.g. Microsoft server, Linux server etc
Functions of a Router
• Inter-network communication.
• Best path selection.
• Packet switching.
• Packet Forwarding.
Cisco Routers can be categorized into 3 layers.
1. Access Layer Routers.
2. Distribution Layer Routers.
3. Core Layer Routers.
Physical Connection to Router

Internal Components of a Router

• ROM (Read Only Memory).
• Flash Memory.
• NVRAM (Non Volatile Random Access Memory).
• RAM (Random Access Memory).
ROM (Read Only Memory)
• It contains a bootstrap program which searches and loads the
operating system.
• It is similar to the BIOS of a PC.
• It also contains a mini IOS for advanced troubleshooting.
Flash Memory
• The Internetwork Operating System (IOS) is stored in Flash Memory.
• IOS is a Cisco’s Operating System.
• The minimum size of flash is 8MB.
NVRAM (Non Volatile RAM)
• It is similar to hard disk.
• It is also known as permanent storage.
• The startup configuration is stored here.
• The size of NVRAM is 32KB.
RAM (Random Access Memory)
• It is also called as the main memory.
• It is a temporary storage.
• The running configuration is stored here.
• The minimum size of RAM is 2MB.
External Connections on a Router

 A bridge Operates in both the physical and the data link layer.
 As a physical layer device, it regenerates the signal it receives.
 As a data link layer device, the bridge can check the physical address
contained in the frame.


• Bridges are a combination of both hardware and software, that sits

between the two networks, but can also be a computer with two NICs
and special software.
• Bridges can perform filtering and can be used to segment a LAN.
• In bus topology, a bridge is a traffic controller.
• It can divide a long bus into smaller segments so that each segment is
independent traffic wise.
• The bridge uses a table to decide if the frame needs to be forwarded to
another segment.
• With a bridge, two or more pairs of stations can communicate at the
same time.
• Bridges operate at the first two layer (physical layer and data-
link layer) of the OSI model.
 What is the difference in functionality between a bridge and a
-> A bridge has Filtering capability.
 It can check the destination address of a frame and decide if the
frame should be forwarded or dropped.
 If the frame is to be forwarded, the decision must specify the port.
 A bridge has a table that maps address to ports.

A bridge connecting two LANs

A bridge has a table used in filtering decisions.

A bridge does not change the physical (MAC) addresses in a frame.

Why Bridge?
 Reliability-> Partition network into self-containing units
 Performance-> Cluster internetworks together, performance
decreases as the number of devices on the wire increases
 Security-> Can keep different traffic (e.g. accounting, strategic
planning) on different networks
 Geography-> Need a way to support networks in two different
locations, could use a bridge to link them

Transparent Bridges

 A Transparent bridge is a bridge in which the stations are completely

unaware of the bridge’s existence.

 If a bridge is added or deleted from the system, reconfiguration of the

stations is unnecessary.

 A system equipped with transparent bridges must meet three


1. Frames must be forwarded from one station to another.

2. The forwarding table is automatically made by learning frame

movements in the network.

3. Loops in the system must be prevented.

A learning bridge and the process of learning

Loop Problem

 Transparent bridges work fine as long as there are no redundant

bridges in the system.
 System administrators, however, like to have redundant bridges (more
than one bridge between a pair of LANs) to make system more
 If a bridge fails, another bridge takes over until the failed one is
repaired or replaced.
 Redundancy can create loops in the system.
Spanning Tree
 A spanning tree is a graph in which there is no loop.
 Creating a topology in which each LAN can be reached from any other
LAN through one path only (NO LOOP)
 We can’t change the physical topology of the system because of
physical connections between cables and bridges, but we can create a
logical topology that overlays the physical one.
Source Routing Bridge
• Another way to prevent loops in a system with redundant bridges is to
use Source Routing Bridges.
• In Source Routing, the frame contains not only the source and
destination address, but also the address of all bridges to be visited.
• The source gets these bridge addresses through the exchange of
special frames with the destination prior to sending the data frame.
• These bridges were designed by IEEE to be used with Token Ring
Transparent bridge route vs. Source Route Bridge
• The main difference between these to types of bridging is that Source
Route Bridging is more efficient in finding routes and it eliminates
ineffective bridges, but it takes more energy to do this, as more space
is used to store routes in the frames.

Remote Bridges

• Used in large networks that have widely dispersed segments

• Can be used to connect remote segments via telephone line
Bridge vs. Router

• Bridges direct frames according to media access control (MAC)

addresses assigned to hardware.
• A router functions by using internet protocol (IP) addresses, assigned
to particular devices within the computer network.
• A bridge router or Brouter is a network device that works as a
bridge and as a router.
• Brouters operate at both the network layer for routable protocols and
at the data link layer for non-routable protocols.
• As networks continue to become more complex, a mix of routable and
non-routable protocols has led to the need for the combined features
of bridges and routers.
• Brouters handle both routable and non-routable features by acting as
routers for routable protocols and bridges for non-routable protocols.
• Bridged protocols might propagate throughout the network, but
techniques such as filtering and learning might be used to reduce
potential congestion.
• Brouters are used as connecting devices in the networking system, so
it acts as a bridge in a network and as a router in an internetwork
• Brouters are a combination of router and bridge.
• This is a special type of equipment used for networks that can be
either bridged or routed, based on the protocols being forwarded.
• Brouters are complex, fairly expensive pieces of equipment and as
such are rarely used.
• A Brouter transmits two types of traffic at the exact same time:
bridged traffic and routed traffic.
• For bridged traffic, the Brouter handles the traffic the same way a
bridge or switch would, forwarding data based on the physical address
of the packet.
• This makes the bridged traffic fairly fast, but slower than if it were
sent directly through a bridge
• Because the Brouter has to determine whether the data packet should
be bridged or routed.
• Since a given outgoing data unit or packet from a computer may be
intended for an address on the local network, or the wide area
• It makes sense to have a single unit that examines all data units and
forwards them appropriately.

• A gateway is a device used to connect networks using different

• Gateways operate at all the layers of the OSI model.
• In order to communicate with a host on another network, an IP host
must be configured with a route to the destination network.
• If a configuration route is not found, the host uses the gateway
(default IP router) to transmit the traffic to the destination host
• The default gateway is where the IP sends packets that are destined
for remote networks.
• If no default gateway is specified, communication is limited to the local
• Gateways receive data from a network using one type of protocol
stack, removes that protocol stack and repackages it with the protocol
stack that the other network can use.
• E-mail gateways-for example, a gateway that receives Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol (SMTP) e-mail, translates it into a standard X.400
format, and forwards it to its destination
• Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW), which enables a machine
running Microsoft Windows NT Server or Windows Server to be a
gateway for Windows clients so that they can access file and print
resources on a NetWare server
• Gateways between a Systems Network Architecture (SNA) host and
computers on a TCP/IP network, such as the one provided by Microsoft
SNA Server
• A packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) that provides connectivity
between a local area network (LAN) and an X.25 packet-switching


 Router is an internetworking device.

 It enables communication between two or more different logical
 Network (Layer 3) device.
 Comes from word “ROUTE”. Also used to find best route (path)
between any two networks.
 Router also acts as a Default-Gateway.
 Router is responsible for receiving and forwarding ip datagram's
through an internet.
 Router needs to make routing decisions based on knowledge of the
topology and conditions of the Internet.


1. Hardware -> Cisco, D-link, Net-gear etc

2. Software -> Microsoft Server, Linux Server.


• Internetwork communication.
• Best Path Selection.
• Packet Switching.
• Packet Forwarding.
Autonomous System:
 An autonomous system is one network or sets of networks under a
single administrative control.
 An autonomous system might be the set of all computer networks
owned by a company, or a college.
 Companies and organizations might own more than one autonomous
system, but the idea is that each autonomous system is managed
independently with respect to BGP.
 An autonomous system is often referred to as an 'AS'.
 Routing inside an autonomous system is referred to as intra-domain
 Routing between autonomous systems is referred to as inter-domain
Routing Table
 A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that is
used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet
Protocol (IP) network will be directed.
 All IP-enabled devices, including router and switches, use routing
A routing table contains the information necessary to forward a packet along
the best path toward its destination.
 Each packet contains information about its origin and destination.
When a packet is received, a network device examines the packet and
matches it to the routing table entry providing the best match for its
destination. The table then provides the device with instructions for
sending the packet to the next hop on its route across the network.
Destination: The IP address of the packet's final destination.
Next hop: The IP address to which the packet is forwarded.
Interface: The outgoing network interface the device should use when
forwarding the packet to the next hop or final destination.
Metric: Assigns a cost to each available route so that the most cost-
effective path can be chosen.
Routes: Includes directly-attached subnets, indirect subnets that are not
attached to the device but can be accessed through one or more hops, and
default routes to use for certain types of traffic or when information is
Types of Routing
 Static Routing
 Default Routing
 Dynamic Routing

Static Routing:
 Route for each destination network has to be manually configured by
the network administrator.
 Requires destination network ID for Configuration.
 Used in small networks. Administrative distance=1
 Static routing is simply the process of manually entering routes into a
device's routing table via a configuration file that is loaded when
the routing device starts up.
 As an alternative, these routes can be entered by a network
administrator who configures the routes manually.
 Since these manually configured routes don't change after they are
configured they are called 'static' routes.
 Static routing is the simplest form of routing , but it is a manual
 Use static routing when you have very few devices to configure (<5)
and when you know the routes will probably never change.
 Static routers are not fault tolerant. The lifetime of a manually
configured static route is infinite and, therefore, static routers do not
sense and recover from routers which are down.
Dynamic Routing:
 Changes in network topology are updated dynamically
 Only the directly connected networks information is required for
 Administrative work is reduced.
 Used in medium & large networks.
 A router using dynamic routing will 'learn' the routes to
all networks that are directly connected to the device.
 Next, the router will learn routes from other routers that run the
same routing protocol (RIP, RIP2, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, BGP etc).
 Each router will then sort through it's list of routes and select one or
more 'best' routes for each network destination the router knows or
has learned.
 Dynamic routing protocols are supported by software applications
running on the routing device (the router) which dynamically
learn network destinations and how to get to them and also advertise
those destinations to other routers.
 This advertisement function allows all the routers to learn about all
the destination networks that exist and how to go those networks.
 Dynamic routing protocols will then distribute this 'best route'
information to other routers running the same routing protocol,
thereby extending the information on what networks exist and can be
 This gives dynamic routing protocols the ability to adapt to logical
network topology changes, equipment failures or network outages.
 Dynamic routing is fault tolerant.
 Dynamic routes learned from other routers have a finite lifetime.
 If a router or link goes down, the routers sense the change in the
internetwork topology through the expiration of the lifetime of the
learned route in the routing table.
 This change can then be propagated to other routers so that all the
routers on the internetwork become aware of the new internetwork

Dynamic Routing Types

 Distance vector. (e.g. RIP)
 Link-State. (e.g. OSPF)
 Advance Distance Vector.(Hybrid). (e.g. EIGRP)


A router using distance vector routing protocols knows two things:

 Distance to final destination.
 Vector, or direction, traffic should be directed.
 Periodic updates.
 Neighbors.
 Broadcast updates.
 Entire routing table is included with routing update.
 Simple Implementation and maintenance.
 Low Resource requirements.
-> Less memory.
-> No need of Powerful CPU.
 Slow Convergence.
 Limited Scalability.
 Routing Loops.

Routing updates:
Routing table updates occur periodically or when the topology changes.
Directly connected networks are initially placed in routing table
Distance vector algorithms call for each router to send its entire routing
table to each of its adjacent neighbors.


The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is an intra-domain routing protocol
used inside an autonomous system.
It is a very simple protocol based on distance vector routing.
RIP uses the services of UDP on
well-known port 520.
 Router convergence is reached when.
 All routing tables in the network contain the same network
 Routers continue to exchange routing information.
 If no new information is found then Convergence is reached.
RIP uses 4 timers
1. Update timer:
 The default RIP updates interval :30 s
 To change the update internal:
 (Config-router)#update-timer seconds
Passive-interface command: Disable the sending of routing updates on
specified interfaces
2. Invalid timer:
 If an update has not been received for a long time.
 After 180 seconds, the route is marked as invalid by setting the metric
to 16.
3. Hold-down timer:
 Once a route is marked as unreachable, it must stay in holddown long
enough for all routers in the topology to learn about the unreachable
 By default, the hold-down timer is set for 180 seconds.
4. Flush timer:
• By default, the flush timer is set for 240 seconds.
• When the flush timer expires, the route is removed from the routing
Routing Loops:
 A condition in which a packet is continuously transmitted within a
series of routers without ever reaching its destination.
Routing loops can create the following issues:
 Excess use of bandwidth
 CPU resources may be strained.
 Routing updates may be lost or not processed in a timely manner.
Preventing Routing Loops
 Once a router “counts to infinity” it marks the route as unreachable
Holddown timers allow a router to not accept any changes to a route for a
specified period of time
 Split Horizon rule: A router should not advertise a network through
the interface from which the update came

Two Node Instability:

Purpose of the TTL field
The TTL field is used to prevent packets from endlessly traveling on a
How the TTL field works
TTL field contains a numeric value
The numeric value is decreased by one by every router on the route to the
If numeric value reaches 0 then Packet is discarded
Route poisoning: One way to avoid inconsistent updates is route poisoning.
Set the hop count to one more than the maximum.
Triggered updates: A triggered update is sent immediately in response to
some change in the routing table.
The router that detects a topology change immediately sends an update
message to adjacent routers that, in turn, generate triggered updates
notifying their adjacent neighbors of the change.
 Updates are incremental & entire routing table is not sent as update.
 Updates are triggered not periodic.
 Updates are sent to entire network.
 Routers have visibility of entire network of that area only.
 No routing loops.
 Convergence is fast because of triggered updates.
Distance Vector is sitting at an intersection seeing the signs, turn left = 2000
miles to NY, Turn right = 1000 miles to Portland, continue straight = 1700
miles to Dallas.
All you have are distances and an arrow, you have no idea how straight or
round-about the path may lead. Link state is when you are looking at a map.
You can see that turning left does indeed take you toward NY, but you can
see different roads and freeways that you can choose from.
You make your own decision based on the entire topology of the road

Link:-> This is an interface on a router.

Link state:->This is the information about the state of the links.


 Developed to overcome the disadvantages of the distance vector
 Each router learns about its own directly connected networks.
 Link state routers exchange hello packet to “meet” other directly
connected link state routers.
 Each router builds its own Link State Packet (LSP) which includes
information about neighbors such as neighbor ID, link type, &
 After the LSP is created the router floods it to all neighbors who then
store the information and then forward it until all routers have the
same information.
 Once all the routers have received all the LSPs, the routers then
construct a topological map of the network which is used to determine
the best routes to a destination.

Concept of link state routing

 Each router maintains a database of all received LSAs.
 Each router uses its link state database to run a shortest path
algorithm (Dijikstra’s algorithm) to produce the shortest path to
each network
 Administrator can assign the cost to each route.
 Based on type of service (minimum delay, maximum throughput,
and so on)
Example of formation of shortest path tree

LSPs are sent out under the following conditions:

 Initial router start up or routing process.
 When there is a change in topology.
 Every OSPF router sends out 'hello' packets.
 Hello packets are used to determine if neighbor is up.
 Hello packets are sent periodically.
 Once routers learn it has neighbors they form an adjacency.
 Two adjacent neighbors will exchange hello packets.
 The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is an intra-domain
routing protocol based on link state routing.
 Provides authentication of routing messages
 Enables load balancing by allowing traffic to be Split across routes with
equal cost.
 Supports sub-netting.
 Supports multicasting.
Link State Database
 The collection of all LSAs is called the link-state database.
 Each router has and identical link-state database.
 If neighboring routers discover each other for the first time, they will
exchange their link-state databases.
 The link-state databases are exchanged using flooding.

Discovery of Neighbors
 Routers multicasts OSPF Hello packets on all OSPF-enabled interfaces.
 If two routers share a link, they can become neighbors, and establish
an adjacency.
 After becoming a neighbor, routers exchange their link state
 Area is a collection of networks, hosts, and routers all contained within
an autonomous system.
 Routers inside an area flood the area with routing information.
 Area border routers: Summarize the information about the area and
send it to other routers.
 Backbone area [Primary area]: All the areas inside an autonomous
system must be connected to the backbone.
 Routers in this area are called as backbone routers. This area
identification number is 0.

If, due to some problem, the connectivity between a backbone and an area
is broken, a virtual link between routers must be created by the
administration to allow continuity of the functions of the backbone as the
primary area.
 Connects two routers without any other router or host in
 Directly connected routers using serial line.
 Only one neighbour.

Transient link
 A network with several routers attached to it.
 Each router has many neighbours.
 Lot of advertisements about their neighbours.
 Each router has only one neighbour, the designated router
(network). On the other hand, the designated router (network)
has five neighbours.

Stub Link
 Stub
 A network that is connected to only one router.
 The data packets enter the network through this single router
and leave the network through this same router.
 Virtual
 When the link between two routers is broken, the administration
may create a virtual link between them, using a longer path that
probably goes through several routers.
Why Is a Link State protocol Better?
 Fast loop-less convergence.
 support of precise metrics and, if needed multiple metrics.
 support of a multiple paths to a destination.
 splitting very large networks in areas.

 More memory required
 the link state database is needed in addition to the routing tables
 Much more complex procedure
We use the concept of layers in our daily life. As an example, let us consider two
friends who communicate through postal mail. The process of sending a letter to
a friend would be complex if there were no services available from the post
Tasks involved in sending a letter


 Established in 1947,
 The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a multinational body
dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards.
 An ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communications is the
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model.
NOTE: ISO is the organization. OSI is the model.

Seven layers of the OSI model

The interaction between layers in the OSI model

An exchange using the OSI model

Physical Layer
• The physical layer coordinates the functions required to carry a bit stream
over a physical medium.
• It deals with the electrical and mechanical specifications of the interface
and the transmission medium.
• It also defines the procedures and functions that physical devices and
interfaces have to perform for transmission to occur
Functions of the Physical Layer:
1. Physical characteristics of interfaces and medium->
• The physical layer defines the characteristics of the interface between the
devices and the transmission medium.
• It also defines the type of transmission medium

2. Representation of Bits->
• The physical layer data consists of stream of bits.
• To be transmitted, bits must be encoded into signals.
• The physical layer defines the type of Encoding.
3. Data Rate->
• The transmission rate (Number of bits sent each second) is also defined by
the physical layer.
4. Synchronization of Bits->
• The sender and the receiver not only must use the same bit rate but also
must be synchronized.
• In other words, the sender and the receiver clocks must be synchronized.
5. Line Configuration->
• The physical layer is concerned with the connection of devices to the
• In point-to-point configuration, two devices are connected through a
dedicated line.
• In a multipoint configuration, a link is shared among several devices.
6. Physical Topology->
• The physical topology defines how devices are connected to make a

Devices can be connected by using

A. Mesh Topology->Every device is connected to every other device.
B. Star Topology->Devices are connected through a central device.
C. Ring Topology->Each device is connected to next, forming a ring).
D. Bus Topology->Every device is on a common link
E. Hybrid Topology->Combination of two or more topologies.

7. Transmission Mode->The physical layer also defines the direction of

transmission between two devices.
Simplex Mode-> In simplex mode only one device can send, the other can only
receive. The simplex mode is a one way communication.
Half-duplex-> Two devices can send and receive, but not at the same time.
Full-duplex-> Two devices can send and receive at the same time.
Data Link Layer
• The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop (node)
to the next.
• It makes the physical layer appear error free to the upper layer (Network

• The data link layer divides the stream of bits received from the network
layer into manageable units called frames.
Physical addressing->
• If frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network, the
data link layer adds a header to the frame to define the sender or receiver
of the frame.
• If the frame is intended for a system outside the sender’s network, the
receiver address is the address of the device that connects the network to
the next one.
Flow Control->
• If the rate at which the data are absorbed by the receiver is less than the
rate at which the data are produced in the sender,
• The data link layer imposes a flow control mechanism to overwhelming the
Error Control->
• The data link layer adds reliability to the physical layer by adding
mechanisms to detect and retransmit damaged or lost frames.
• It also uses a mechanism to recognize duplicate frames.
• Error control is normally achieved through a trailer added to the end of the
Access Control->
• When two or more devices are connected to the same link, data link layer
protocols are necessary to determine which device has control over the
link at any given time.
Network Layer:
The Network Layer is responsible for the delivery of individual
packets from the source host to the destination host.
• Whereas the data link layer oversees the delivery of the packet between
two systems on the same network (link).
• The network layer ensures that each packet gets from its point of origin to
its final destination.
• If two systems are connected to the same link, there is usually no need for
a network layer.
• However, if two systems are attached to different networks with
connecting devices between the networks.
• There is often a need for the network layer to accomplish source-to-
destination delivery.

Logical Addressing->
• The physical addressing implemented by the data link layer handles the
addressing problem locally.
• If a packet passes a network boundary, we need another addressing
system to help distinguish the source and the destination systems.
• The network layer adds a header to the packet coming from the upper
layer that, among other things, includes the logical address of the sender
and the receiver.
• When independent networks or links are connected to create
internetworks or a large network.
• The connecting devices switch or route the packets to their final
• One of the functions of the network layer is to provide this mechanism.
Source-to-destination delivery
Transport Layer
• The Transport Layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery of the
entire message.
• A process is an application program running on a host.
• Whereas the network layer overseas source-to-destination delivery of
individual packets, it doesn’t recognize any relationship between those
• It treats each one independently, as though each peace belonged to a
separate message, whether or not it does.
• The transport layer, on the other hand, ensures that the whole message
arrives intact and in order, overseeing both error control and flow control
at the source-to-destination level.

The transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message from

one process to another
Service-Port Addressing:->
• Computers often run several programs at the same time.
• For this reason, source to destination delivery means delivery not only
from one computer to next but also from a specific process on one
computer to a specific process on the other.
• The transport layer header must therefore include a type of address called
a service-point address (or port address)
• The network layer gets each packet to the correct computer, the transport
layer gets the entire message to the correct process on that computer.
Segmentation and reassembly->
• A message is divided into transmittable segments, with each segment
containing a sequence number.
• These numbers enable the transport layer to reassemble the message
correctly upon arriving at the destination and to identify and replace
packets that were lost in transmission.
Connection Control->
• The transport layer can be either connectionless or connection-oriented .
• A connectionless transport layer treats each segment as an independent
packet at delivers it to the transport layer at the destination machine.
• A connection-oriented transport layer makes a connection with the
transport layer at the destination machine first before delivering the
packets. After all the data are transferred, the connection is terminated.
Flow Control->
• Like the data-link layer the transport layer is responsible for flow control.
• However, flow control at this layer is performed end-to-end rather than
across a single link.
Error Control->
• Like the data-link layer, the transport layer is responsible for error control.
• However, error control at this layer is performed process-to-process rather
than across a single link.
• The sending transport layer makes sure that the entire message arrives at
the receiving transport layer without error (damage, loss or duplication) .
• Error control is usually achieved through retransmission.

iable process-to-process delivery of a message
Session layer

• The services provided by the first three layers (Physical, data-link,

network) are not sufficient for some process.
• The session layer is the network dialog controller.
• It establishes, maintains and synchronizes the interaction among
communicating systems
The session layer is responsible for dialog control and synchronization.
Dialog Control->
• The session layer allows two systems to enter into a dialog.
• It allows the communication between two process to take place in either
half-duplex or full-duplex mode.
• The session layer allows a process to add check points, or synchronization
points, to a stream of data.
• For example, if a system is sending a file of 2000 pages, it is advisable to
insert check points after 100 pages to ensure that each 100-page unit is
received and acknowledged independently.
• In this case if a crash happens during the transmission of page 523, the
only pages that need to be resent after system recovery are pages 501 to
523.Pages previous to 501 needs not to be resent.

Presentation Layer
• The presentation layer is responsible for translation, compression,
and encryption.
• The presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the
information exchanged between two systems.
• The process (running programs) in two systems is usually exchanging
information in the form of character strings, numbers and so on.
• The information must be changed to bit streams before being transmitted.
• Because different computers use different encoding systems, the
presentation layer is responsible for interoperability between these
different encoding methods.
• The presentation layer at the sender changes the information from its
sender-dependent format into a common format.
• The presentation layer at the receiving machine changes the common
format into its receiver dependent format.

• To carry sensitive information, a system must be able to ensure policy.
• Encryption means that the sender transforms the original information to
another form and sends the resulting message out over the network.
• Decryption reverses the original process to transform the message back to
its original form.
• Data compression reduces the number of bits contained in the
• Data compression becomes particularly important in the transmission of
multimedia such as text, audio, and video.

Application Layer
• The application layer enables the user, whether the human or software, to
access the network.
• It provides user interfaces and support for services such as electronic
mail, remote file access and transfer, shared database management, and
other types of distributed information services.
Network Virtual Terminal->
• A network virtual terminal is a software version of a physical terminal, and
it allows a user to log on to a remote host.
• To do so, the application creates a software emulation of a terminal at the
remote host.
• The user’s computer talks to the software terminal which, in turn, talks to
the host, and vice versa.
• The remote host believes it is communicating with one of its own terminals
and allows the user to log on.

• The application layer is responsible for providing services to the

File transfer, access, and management->
• The application allows a user to access files in a remote host ( to make
changes or read data),
• to retrieve files from a remote computer for use in the local computer,
• and to manage or control files in a remote computer locally.
Mail services->
• This application provides the basis for e-mail forwarding and storage.
Directory services->
• The application provides distributed database sources and access for
global information about various objects and services.

Summary of Layers