Submitted By:Khushboo Rawat Rohit Kumar Shivani Khurana Sandeep Sharma Dishant Sharma Apurva Bajpai

Submitted To:Prof. Maninder Singh

Non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication. etc. when combined with verbal communication. gestures or expressions.It is a primitive form of communication that does not involve the use of words. negotiating and interviewing is explored. it is sometimes considered more reliable than verbal communication. And in this globalized environment they also have to communicate with people from different countries. Non-verbal communication enhances the effectiveness of the message as gestures and body language are registered easier and quicker with the audience than verbal communication. y Non-verbal communication is less structured compared to its verbal counterpart and is most often spontaneous. writing. clues. unpleasantness. businesses cannot afford such losses. Many complex ideas.Verbal communication can be in the form of meetings. Poor or inaccurate communication can lead to conflict and negativity in the workplace. nonverbal and written communication in the world of business.´ Types of communication The basic types of communication arey Verbal communication. As it is not planned. spatial relationships etc. non-verbal communication has its limitations. to convey a message. speeches or writing. In this competitive environment. makes a presentation more effective and has greater impact on the audience. It is commonly used to express emotions like respect. Through numerous examples the art of effective speaking. It could even lead to the cancellation of a deal or the loss of customer goodwill. love. Everyday business persons have to communicate with people at different levels of the organization or with people external to the organization. with different cultural backgrounds.COMMUNICATION Communication is an essential aspect of business life. dislike. vocal qualities. ³Business Communication examines verbal. Verbal communication However. adhering to the rules . Verbal communication involves the arrangement of words in a structured and meaningful manner. It rather uses gestures. as it reflects the communicator¶s true feelings. thoughts or messages have to be communicated sequentially to be meaningful.

and product. It makes it stand out from the rest since there is this sense of professionalism. safety. service. formality and etiquette that should be followed in order to convey the right message or information that needs to be conveyed to the other person on the line Types of Business Communication There are two types of business communication in an organization: y y Internal Communication External Communication y Internal Communication Communication within an organization is called ³Internal Communication´. It includes all communication within an organization.of grammar. It may be informal or a formal function or department providing communication in various forms to employees. What makes business communication distinct from other types of communication is its formality. Good communication may help to increase job satisfaction. Business communication ³Business Communication is the type of communication used to promote an organization. service providers and others. Effective internal communication is a vital mean of addressing organizational concerns. and profits and decrease grievances and turnover. It is very vital in every business to have a medium in order to communicate with employees. productivity. There is a standard rule to follow in order to be professional enough to deal with calls and writing letters. and to impart information towards employees´. clients. The message is then conveyed to the audience in either spoken or written form. Under Internal Business Communication types there come. For example It is not a simple call from the telephone as if you are talking to your friend or writing a letter to your loved one. 1) Upward Communication 2) Downward Communication 3) Horizontal/Literal communication .

Upward Communication is a mean for staff to: o o o o o Exchange information Offer ideas Express enthusiasm Achieve job satisfaction Provide feedback 2) Downward Communication Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies). it must begin from the bottom. e. This type of communication is needed in an organization to: . or if other problems exist in the organization. or from employees to management. not knowing if messages have been received properly. Yet for effective two-way organizational communication to occur. communication is a two-way affair. Downward communication comes after upward communications have been successfully established. Without upward communication.g.: Instructions on how to do a task. management works in a vacuum. Downward communication generally provides enabling information ± which allows a subordinate to do something.1) Upward Communication Upward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors. By definition.

and allows people with the same or similar rank in an organization to cooperate or collaborate. Communication among employees at the same level is crucial for the accomplishment of work.o o o o o o o o o Transmit vital information Give instructions Encourage 2-way discussion Announce decisions Seek cooperation Provide motivation Boost morale Increase efficiency Obtain feedback Both Downward & Upward Communications are collectively called ³Vertical Communication´ 3) Horizontal/Literal communication Horizontal communication normally involves coordinating information.Horizontal Communication is essential for: o o o o o Solving problems Accomplishing tasks Improving teamwork Building goodwill Boosting efficiency .

Supervisors communicate with sources outside the organization.y External Communication Communication with people outside the company is called ³external communication´. such as vendors and customers. it helps to achieve o o Organizational goals Customer satisfaction . o o o o Sales volume Public credibility Operational efficiency Company profits It should improve o o o Overall performancee Public goodwill Corporate image Ultimately. It leads to better.

‡ Message.Sender is the first person who starts the communication by transmitting his thoughts or message to through a channel to the receiver. involving the following phases: ‡ Sender.The person who is ultimately receiving the message from the sender through different channels.The idea or concept to be communicated is termed as message. May be a person or things like letter. notice board etc.The medium through which the communication is taking place. ‡ Channel.The Process of Communication Communication goes through a process. ‡ Feedback This process can be explained by the following diagram . texts. ‡ Receiver.

a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols. information. In order to obtain that clarity a person should have a good command over language. or feelings. The most important is to be clear. voice modulation and it should be more beleivable. idea. the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand. Decoding: lastly. posture. gesture. Following can be catagorised as the qualities a person should posses y y y y y Interest Enthusiasm Positive attitude Proffesionalism Self confidence . This can be a concept. Encoding: Next. information exists in the mind of the sender. analytical thinking. o o Communication Skills Skills a person should posses in order to communicate the message more clearly and well explained to the receiver.o Thought: First.

The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effective communication. and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity). Our culture. and bias . does not articulate clearly. Many physical and psychological barriers exist: o Culture.If we feel the person is talking too fast. o Noise . background.y y y Leadership Sensitivity Flexibility These communication skills are required to make an effective communication. Barriers to Business Communication Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication. etc.. The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other. o Perception . it is when they change the meaning of the message that they interfere with the communication process. we may dismiss the person.Equipment or environmental noise impedes clear communication.We allow our past experiences and cultural influences to change the meaning of the message.Focusing on ourselves. and bias can be good as they allow us to use our past experiences to understand something new. superiority (we feel we know more that the other). Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen. background. We listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status. not fluently. rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict. o Ourselves . Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us). .

Not true! Too often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts. For example. may cause you to focus on the word and not the message. There may be need for fast diffusion of some information in the . the word chairman instead of chairperson.Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea. Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer. values. And the way to overcome filters is through active listening and feedback. an attractive person. knowledge. unusual sights. and goals.People do not see things the same way when under stress. These filters muffle the message.our beliefs. These barriers can be thought of as filters.Bright lights.We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. o Environmental . and is then heard by the receiver. Information sharing: The main purpose of communication is to transmit information from a source to target individuals or groups. experiences. or any other stimulus provides a potential distraction. o Stress . goes through the filters. Various types of information are transmitted in the organization: policies and rules and changes and development in the organization etc. What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of references . that is.o Message . Scope of communication Following are the major scopes of communication: (i). the message leaves the sender. Our educational institutions reinforce this with tests and questions. o Smothering .

(ii). (iii). special rewards and awards given. (iv). Many group meeting are hold to brainstorm alternative solutions for a problem and to evolve a consensus. right attitudes and congenial working relationships. Communication helps in ensuring such control. and difficulties encountered in the communication of feedback helps in taking corrective measures and making necessary adjustments and it motivates people in developing challenging and realistic plans. One purpose of communication is to influence people. Influence: Information is power. . All these are examples of influencing. Feedback: There is a need to give feedback to the employees on their achievements to the departments on their performance and to the higher management on the fulfillment of goals. Problem-solving: In many cases communications aim at solving problems. Control: The management information system is well-known as a control mechanism. Communication between the management and the unions on some issues (negotiation) is aimed at finding a solution.organization. Information is transmitted to ensure that plans are being carried out according to the original design. settlements with the union and major changes in the organization. The manager communicates to create a good working environment. (v).

views and available alternatives etc. Communication between the managers and employees helps in recognizing the difficulties in the planned change and in taking corrective action. It is on the dimension of the Project Communication Management.). hard copy reports etc. Facilitating change: The effectiveness of a change introduced in an organization depends to a large extent on the clarity and spontaneity of the communication. Four types of informal communications have been identified: 1. (vii). Gossip: In gossip one individual tells others on a non-selective basis. Decision-making: For arriving at a decision several kinds of communication are needed. a discussion that adheres less to the rules and standards. exchange of information. . The Grapevine Grapevine is Informal Communication in general is exchange of information. For example. The organization can use its environment to increase its effectiveness. a Project Sponsor might have a meeting with the Project Manager to discuss about the progress of the project and can give much better feedback that another type of communication (other types may include emails.(vi). Informal Communication is more effective for discussing sensitive information in a project. In other words each person tells s the other in sequence. one tells one. communication helps a great deal in decision-making. (viii). one tells all. 2. Gate keeping: Communication helps to build linkages of the organization with the outside world. Single strand: In single strand network the individual communicates with the other individual through intervening persons.

However attempts may be made indirectly to influence the result of informal communication. In addition people who are working with each other and who contact each other in the formal chain are likely to be on the same grapevine. . It is not possible to establish a particular type of informal communication in an organization.3. Keith Davis has found certain predictable forms of informal communication which can be of great use to the management in this respect. Therefore. Probability: In probability the individual tells other individuals randomly according to the law of probability. Cluster: In cluster type network the individual communicates with only those individuals whom he trusts. and they talk about people they know. Research shows that out of the four. According to Robbins. the grapevine in an organization has three significant characteristics. It should be recognized that informal communication is as important as the informal organization and that it is not identical with false rumour.  It is largely used for the self-interests of the people within the organization. cluster chain is the most popular form of informal communication.  Most employees perceive it to be more believable and reliable than formal communication issued by top management.  It is not controlled by formal management. For instance individuals talk most when news is recent they talk about things which affect their work. 4. the management can profitably utilize the informal system in the attainment of organization goals.

´ or ³Prove it. For instance. Try to understand the feeling the person is expressing as well as the intellectual content. and ³You say no one breaks even on expenses?´ With this encouragement he will probably expand on his previous statement. Occasionally make summary responses such as you think you are in a dead-end job but in doing so keep your tone neutral and try not to lead the person to your pet conclusions. 5. Most of us have difficulty talking clearly about our feelings. Restate the person¶s feelings briefly but accurately.´ You may want to review the evidence later. 4.´ 2. When the other person does touch upon a point you do want to know more about. don¶t make the conversation any more ³authoritative´ than it already is by virtue of your position in the organization. you can probe by replying. but a review is irrelevant to how the person feels now. Listen patiently to what the other person has to say even though you may believe it to be wrong or irrelevant. At this stage you simply serve as a mirror and encourage the other person to continue talking. Allow time for the discussion to continue without interruption and try to separate the conversation from mere official communication of company plans. ³That is just not so. . µnobody can break even on his expense account¶.´ ³Hold on a minute let¶s look at the facts.Guide to Effective Listening Following are the points which make like a guide to good effective listening: 1. if he remarks. So careful attention is required. Avoid direct questions and arguments about facts refrain from saying. 6. 3. That is. Indicate simple acceptance (not necessarily agreement) nodding your head or perhaps interjecting an occasional ³um-hm´ or ³I see. simply repeat statements as a question.

Feedback. 9. in simple terms. Such an omission may be a clue to a bothersome fact the person wishes was not true. 8. The changing tones and volume of his voice may have a meaning. the need to communicate effectively their feelings. If his boss pulled him up in the presence of others he . We tell our peers what we think about their style and ways of behaviour so that they may be able to benefit from such communication. But at the listening stage try to limit the expression of your views. Such interpersonal feedback is involved in everyday life in various situations. Equally important is how these are received. style of working. A subordinate may also do the same. since these may condition or repress what the other person says. impressions and views on various matters becomes important. Listen ³between the lines.7. Better results can be achieved if the superior gives less emphasis to explaining and more emphasis to listening. Try simply to understand first and defer evaluation until later. 10. for example. Communication feedback When individuals work together and interact. Don¶t get emotionally involved yourself. If the other person appears genuinely to want your view point.´ A person does not always put everything that is important into words. 11. We call it feedback. especially regarding his behaviour. the boss sits with his subordinate and gives him necessary counselling about his achievements his strengths as well as areas in which he can improve further. is the communication of feelings and perceptions by an individual to another individual about the latter¶s behaviour and style of working. So may his facial expression the gestures he makes with his hands and the movements of his body. When we communicate our reactions and perceptions to a person. be honest in your reply. Listen for what is not said evasions for pertinent points or perhaps too ready agreement with common clichés.

Similarly. Continuous feedback will help in establishing norms of being open. receiving of feedback fulfils several purposes. increases his sensitivity. The feedback also provides several alternatives to the individual out of which he can choose one or two to experiment on. Interpersonal feedback contributes to the improvement of communication between two persons involved in feedback through the establishment of a culture of openness and promoting interpersonal trust. It helps him to have better awareness of his own self and behaviour. Getting information about how his behaviour is perceived and what impact it makes on others. Such data can be verified by the individual by either collecting more data from other sources or by checking some aspects with others.awareness sources Suggests alternatives to be considered Improves interpersonal communication Establishes culture of openness Promotes interpersonal trust Facilitates autonomy Increase sensitivity in picking up cures Encourages experimentation with new behaviour Helps in building an integrated self Encourages openness Develops mutuality . his ability to pickup cues from the environment that indicate what perceptions and feelings people have about his behaviour. Giving Feedback Provides verifiable data Receiving Feedback Helps in processing behavioural Encourages collecting data from several Increase self.may go and tell him how bad he felt about such a happening. The main function of giving feedback is to provide data about a person¶s style of behaviour and its effect on others. It primarily helps the individual (one who receives feedback) to process behavioural data he has received from others (the perceptions and feelings people have communicated to him about the effect of his behaviour on them). This may help the boss to improve his ways of communicating such matters to his subordinates.

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