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QoS Aware Subcarrier and Power Allocation
in OFDMA Systems
for Broadband Wireless Applications
Mohmmad Anas
Department of Information and Communications
Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
2005
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2005
QoS Aware Subcarrier and Power Allocation
in OFDMA Systems
for Broadband Wireless Applications
Advisor: Kiseon Kim
by
Mohmmad Anas
Department of Information and Communications
Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
A thesis submitted to the faculty of the Gwangju Institute of Science
and Technology in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the degree
of Master of Science in the Department of Information and Communi
cations
Gwangju, Korea
December 9, 2004
Approved by
Professor Kiseon Kim
Thesis Advisor
QoS Aware Subcarrier and Power Allocation
in OFDMA Systems
for Broadband Wireless Applications
Mohmmad Anas
Accepted in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the
degree of Master of Science
December 9, 2004
Thesis Advisor
Prof. Kiseon Kim
Committee Member
Prof. Shalom Raz
Committee Member
Prof. Dong Soo Har
To my family and friends
for their invaluable love and support
MS/IC
20034134
Mohmmad Anas. QoS Aware Subcarrier and Power Allocation in OFDMA
Systems for Broadband Wireless Applications. Department of Information
and Communications. 2005. 82p. Advisor: Prof. Kiseon Kim.
Abstract
Wireless broadband technologies are anticipated to ﬂourish in the next few years,
due to the increasing demand for wireless connectivity and the need to support en
hanced services and applications in local or wide area environments. The primary goal
in a communications system is Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning, which is synony
mous to achieving an acceptable data transmission rate, signaltonoise ratio (SNR)
or bit error rate (BER). Considering recent proposals for wide band multimedia ser
vices with the existing spectrum allocations shows that spectrum resource management
remains an important topic in the near and distant future.
Using the essential feature of channel orthogonality as a baseline, our approach
places emphasis on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), which
is an emerging modulation and multiple access method for next generation (NextG)
wireless broadband communication systems. The basic question which we tried an
swering in this thesis is how to allocate subcarrier and power to provide broadband
wireless services to heterogeneous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of required QoS.
Since, the joint optimization problem of allocating subcarrier and power optimally to
satisfy userlevel QoS (required data rate and BER) under the total available power
constraint, involves discrete assignment and is thus not convex in the unknowns of
subcarrier allocation and the available power, making it a NPhard problem. As this
problem is NPhard and exhaustive search over all possible allocations is impractical
for large scale systems, most eﬀorts in literature focus on developing eﬃcient heuristic
algorithms which may provide optimal solutions for simple networks or special cases
– i –
algorithms which may provide optimal solutions for simple networks or special cases
but are suboptimal in general. However, if subcarrier allocation is known, the optimiza
tion problem has a closed form solution and can be solved using canonical algorithms.
Following this strategy we propose a decoupled subcarrier and power allocation algo
rithm to provide service to heterogeneous users. We further divide the optimal power
allocation solution and present a computationally eﬃcient suboptimal algorithm for
combined Guaranteed Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE) users which allocates
power according to QoS. Our suboptimal algorithm consists of two stages. First, the
power is allocated to GP users following optimal waterﬁlling strategy. Then, the re
maining power is equally distributed among the subcarriers allocated to BE users.
Simulation results quantify the performance of these techniques and provide design
guidelines for realistic systems.
c 2005
Mohmmad Anas
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
– ii –
MS/IC
20034134
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– iii –
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'¬.¯¬. '¯·¬· ´¬« `÷¹´¬¯´ 7 ^¹`¬. `.¨¯ ´¯.¨¯`¬. '´¯¨. ´¬
¨`. ¨.¨ 7 ^¹ ¹``¬. ¯ ¹`.°¬¯. Guaranteed Performance´ Best Eﬀort¯¬.
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c 2005
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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
– iv –
Acknowledgements
The thesis is the result of two challenging years of study and research. I would like to
express my gratitude to many people who have enriched not only my research experi
ence, but also this important period in my life.
As somebody said that graduate school advisor is not just an advisor for the dura
tion of graduate study but is “an advisor for life”. First of all, I would like to express
my sincere thanks to my thesis advisor, Professor Kiseon Kim, for his continuous sup
port, guidance and encouragement during the entire course of my MS studies, and
would like to thank him in advance for all his future advice. I would also like to thank
my thesis committee: Professors Shalom Raz and Dong Soo Har not only for their
evaluation of this thesis, but also for the thoroughness and enthusiasm. Furthermore, I
would like to thank aﬃliated faculty members of Multimedia Communication Systems
Laboratory: Professors R. C. Jain, Georgy Shevlyakov, and Alex Bahrushin for their
invaluable comments during the regular Lab Progress Report Workshops.
I must also acknowledge the help and support of fellow students and friends. The
fellow and former members of Multimedia Communication Systems Laboratory have
created an environment that was friendly and inspiring. Discussions in the oﬃce were
very helpful in bringing fresh ideas to the work. I would specially like to acknowledge
the friendship, support, collaboration and precious experiences of Changho Yun, Chiho
Lee, Dujeong Choi, Gwangzeen Ko, Hyunduk Kang, Insoo Koo, Jeungmin Joo, Jintae
Park, Kanghee Kim, Kwang Park, Miheung Choe, Seokjin Sung, Seokjoo Shin, Seungho
Bae, Suwon Lee, Taesik Cho, Yeomin Yoon, and Younghyun Kim; and Seok Woo
– v –
for translating the thesis abstract in Korean language. The picture is not complete
without the special mention of Jisang You, who prefer to be called khanhyungnim,
and Youngwook Lee, cherished friends, who have also made up a major part of my
daily life, with whom I shared the entire journey towards our MS degrees. I would
also like to thank Wooyoung Chon for her hospitality and gentle care. There are of
course many more names, too many to distinguish individually. So I thank all of
them for two great years: Eunchan Kim, Hongku Kang, Hyunho Yang, Jeoungrok
Yang, Seokhun Cho, Sungdon Moon, Wooncheol Hwang, Youngsam Kim, Youngsun
Kim, and Younsuk Koh. I would also thank my friends in the department and in the
school: Akhlaq, Amit, Fahad, Farhan, Gopinath, HeeSun, KwanJung, Naveen, Omar,
Puneeth, Sooraj, Usman, and YoungSuk.
I am thankful for the excellent research supports provided by the Korea Science
and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) from Ministry of Science and Technology, and
Brain Korea 21 (BK21) from Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development,
Korea.
Finally, I would like to thank my family and relatives, whose love, support and
encouragement have accompanied me throughout my life. They supported me in every
possible way and in every single moment during these years and they were always
beside me although they were so many thousand miles away. Words alone can never
express my gratitude.
– vi –
Contents
Abstract (English) i
Abstract (Korean) iii
Acknowledgements v
List of Contents vii
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Research Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 Thesis Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 OFDMA System for Broadband Wireless Applications 8
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 Channel for Broadband Wireless Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.1 Channel Fading Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.2 Tapped Delay Line Channel Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3 OFDM/OFDMA System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.1 OFDM Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.2 OFDMA System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4 Broadband Wireless Traﬃc Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.5 Resource Allocation Issues in OFDMA Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.5.1 QoS Aware Resource Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.5.2 Subcarrier and Power Allocation for Heterogeneous Users . . . . 25
2.6 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3 QoS Aware Subcarrier Allocation for Heterogeneous users in OFDMA
System 28
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.2 Problem Formulation for Subcarrier Allocation in OFDMA System . . 35
– vii –
3.3 Subcarrier Allocation for DualService Provisioning in OFDMA System 37
3.3.1 Hungarian Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.3.2 Proposed Subcarrier Allocation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.4 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4 QoS Aware Power Allocation for Combined Guaranteed Performance
and Best Eﬀort Users in OFDMA System 50
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.2 Problem Formulation for Power Allocation in OFDMA System . . . . . 53
4.3 Power Allocation for DualService Provisioning in OFDMA System . . 57
4.3.1 Optimal Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.3.2 Proposed Power Allocation for Known Subcarrier Assignment . 59
4.4 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5 Conclusions and Further Works 70
5.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.2 Further Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Abbreviations 74
References 77
– viii –
List of Tables
4.1 Traﬃc proﬁle used in simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
– ix –
List of Figures
1.1 Current and future mobile systems. The general trend will be to provide
higher data rates and greater mobility. Derived from [30], [4] . . . . . . 2
2.1 A mobile user receiving two reﬂected rays that have the same path distance 10
2.2 Tapped delay line (TDL) channel model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3 Singleuser OFDM transmitter and receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4 Spectrum of each subchannel in OFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.5 System model of a downlink OFDMA system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.1 ProposedEQ (EQ stands for EQual power): proposed subcarrier alloca
tion algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users . . . . 42
3.2 Sum capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in
Rhee et al. vs. WSNR. K = 4, N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.3 minuser’s capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used
in Rhee et al. vs. WSNR. K = 4, N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB . . . . . . . . . 45
3.4 Sum capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in
Rhee et al. vs. user number. N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB, WSNR = 38 dB . . 46
3.5 minuser’s capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used
in Rhee et al. vs. user number. N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB, WSNR = 38 dB 47
3.6 Computational complexity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method
used in Rhee et al. vs. user number. N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB, WSNR = 38 dB 48
– x –
4.1 Flowchart of the proposedRA (RA stands for Resource Allocation) al
gorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users . . . . . . . . 61
4.2 Capacity in OFDMA system vs. number of users . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.3 Capacity gain over TDMA vs. number of users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.4 Example capacity performance comparison between proposedEQ (ﬁgure
above) and proposedRA (ﬁgure below) for diﬀerent user index. (a) K =
4, (b) K = 8, (c) K = 12, (d) K = 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.5 minuser’s capacity of GP and BE users vs. number of users . . . . . . 67
– xi –
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Wireless communications has emerged as one of the largest sectors of the telecom
munications industry, evolving from a niche business in the last decade to one of the
most promising areas for growth in the 21st century [1]. The need for ubiquitous cov
erage and connectivity in all kinds of environment and the increasing user demand for
mobility, ﬂexibility and ease of system deployment have necessitated wireless access.
Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) is considered as a standard for next generation
(NextG) communication systems providing ﬂexible and easy deployment solution for
highspeed communications over a wireless channel [2].
Vector Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (VOFDM) is considered as a
base setting for BWA systems by the Broadband Wireless Internet Forum (BWIF),
one of the programs of IEEE Industry Standards and Technology Organization (IEEE
ISTO). Presently IEEE 802.16 issued standards for the physical (PHY) and medium
access control (MAC) layers of systems in the 1066 GHz band, generally known as
Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS), and IEEE 802.16a group was formed
to develop standards to operate in the 211 GHz band in which channel impairments,
– 1 –
0.03 0.1 0.3 1 3 10 30 100
Date Rate (Mbps)
Stationary
Pedestrian
Vehicular
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y
2G systems
3G systems
(2003)
4G systems
(2012)
Hiperlan/2
(2002)
5G systems
(2020)
WiBro systems
(2006)
Figure 1.1: Current and future mobile systems. The general trend will be to provide
higher data rates and greater mobility. Derived from [30], [4]
multipath fading and path loss become more signiﬁcant with the increase in the number
of subcarriers [3]. Another recent development is WiBro also known as HighSpeed
Portable internet (HPi) is a Korean technology for NextG communication systems
based on IEEE 802.16a/d to be available commercially by 2006 [4].
The ability to support high data rates for broadband wireless applications depends
drastically on the availability and aggressive reuse of radio spectrum in all locations, as
well as the use of eﬃcient multiple access and signalling schemes. Intensive spectrum
reuse guarantees achievability of high transmission rates, while appropriate multiple
access techniques lead to eﬃcient and ﬂexible resource sharing and mitigate the ef
fect of wireless channel impairments on system capacity [11]. Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) has been proposed as the multiple access scheme
for several NextG wireless standards, as a means of achieving high data rates. In
– 2 –
OFDMA, the available spectrum is divided into multiple orthogonal narrowband sub
channels (subcarriers) and information symbols are transmitted in parallel over these
low rate subchannels. This method results in reduced intersymbol interference (ISI)
and multipath delay spread and thus improvement in capacity and attainable data
rates.
Independently of the employed multiple access scheme, the foremost goal of a NextG
communication system is to provide heterogeneous services with diverse Quality of
Service (QoS) requirements [12], which is synonymous to achieving an acceptable data
transmission rate, signaltonoise ratio (SNR) or bit error rate (BER). However, wireless
channel impairment and users imposes certain constraints on achievability of data rates
and BER requirements. Identifying the performance limits of resource allocation with
the objective to satisfy all users QoS requirements under the dynamicity of the wireless
medium is therefore a challenging problem.
Recent studies [14], [15], [16], [17], [19], [20] on resource (subcarrier and power) allo
cation for the multiuser Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system
demonstrate that a signiﬁcant performance gain can be obtained leveraging multiuser
diversity assuming knowledge of instantaneous channel gains for all users at the trans
mitter. It was shown in [17] that data rate of a multiuser OFDM system is maximized
when each subcarrier is assigned to only one user with the best channel gain for that
subcarrier and the transmit power is distributed over the subcarriers according to the
waterﬁlling policy [21]. In addition to the system capacity maximization or transmit
power minimization, sometimes depending on the application it becomes imperative to
– 3 –
investigate the methods to provide userlevel QoS or individual QoS (iQoS) support.
Thus in this thesis, we mainly study and investigate the subcarrier and power allo
cation algorithms to provide userlevel QoS support in OFDMA systems for broadband
wireless applications.
1.2 Research Objectives
The underlying philosophy in the problems that are considered in this thesis is
how to provide high data rate, and to provide a wider range of services, such as voice
communications, videophones, and high speed internet access over scarce and unpre
dictable wireless channel. To achieve higher data rates and support diverse applications
in NextG wireless communication systems it becomes imperative to improve the spec
tral eﬃciency and to use available resources eﬃciently. This signiﬁcant improvement
in spectral eﬃciency can only be achieved by signiﬁcant advances in multiple aspects
of cellular communication systems, such as network structure, network management,
smart antennas, RF modulation, user allocation, and resource allocation.
Resource (channel, total available power) allocation is viewed as an integral part of
multiple access that is performed at the MAC layer. Depending on the multiple access
scheme, channel can be time slot, carrier frequencies or codes. If the set of users is
given, an eﬃcient channel allocation algorithm should try to minimize the number of
channels needed to accomodate users and guarantee acceptable link quality for them.
By minimizing the number of required channels at any time instant, the system can
respond better to a potential sudden load increase or link quality deterioration. Hence,
– 4 –
the likelihood of blocking a user is minimized. When the number of available channel is
provided, the objective of the of channel allocation is to maximize the system capacity,
i.e., the number of accommodated users with acceptable link quality. If users have
diﬀerent rate requirements and need additional channels, the objective becomes to
maximize the total achievable rate of users in the system.
In this thesis, we address resource allocation issues in the context of multiple access
schemes with orthogonal channels. Using the essential feature of channel orthogonality
as a baseline, our approach places an emphasis on OFDMA, which presents some novel
challenges in resource allocation and provides additional ﬂexibility in adapting trans
mission to varying channel conditions. The basic question which we tried answering in
this thesis is how to allocate subcarrier and power to provide broadband wireless ser
vices to heterogeneous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of required QoS. Since, the joint
optimization problem of allocating subcarrier and power optimally to satisfy userlevel
QoS (required data rate and BER) under the total available power constraint, involves
discrete assignment and is thus not convex in the unknowns of subcarrier allocation and
the available power, making it a NPhard problem [25]. As this problem is NPhard
and exhaustive search over all possible allocations is impractical for large scale sys
tems, most eﬀorts in literature focus on developing eﬃcient heuristic algorithms which
may provide optimal solutions for simple networks or special cases but are suboptimal
in general [32]. However, if subcarrier allocation is known, the optimization problem
has a closed form solution and can be solved using canonical algorithms. Following
this strategy we decouple our problem into subcarrier allocation and power allocation
– 5 –
to provide service to heterogeneous users. We further decouple the optimal power al
location solution and present a computationally eﬃcient suboptimal algorithm which
allocates power according to the QoS requirements.
1.3 Thesis Organization
The problems that are considered in this thesis are organized as follows:
In Chapter 2, we present an overview of OFDMA based BWA system. Firstly,
we describe the OFDMA system model referenced throughout this thesis. Further we
explain the channel and traﬃc model assumed. Later in this chapter we study the
resource allocation issues in OFDMA based systems to be tackled in following chapters
of the thesis.
In Chapter 3, we focus on subcarrier allocation algorithms to provide service to
heterogenous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of QoS in OFDMA system. We con
sider the case of maximizing the system capacity while satisfying the QoS criterion
of each user using Hungarian Algorithm, further we consider the case of maximizing
the minimum user’s capacity using method in Rhee et al. [15]. Next, we extend the
method used in Rhee et al. and propose an algorithm to provide service to heteroge
neous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of QoS and we refer to it as proposedEQ (EQ
stands for EQual power allocation). We assume that total power is allocated equally
among all the subcarriers. Simulation results illustrate the comparative performance
of Hungarian Algorithm and Method in Rhee et al.
In Chapter 4, we study the problem of power allocation for combined Guaranteed
– 6 –
Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE) users in OFDMA system. In the ﬁrst part
of this chapter, we review the system model and formulate optimization problem to
support heterogeneous users (GP and BE users) under total power constraints. Next,
we present an analytical framework for optimal power allocation and we further propose
a reduced complexity suboptimal algorithm. Our suboptimal algorithm consists of two
stages. First, the power is allocated to GP users following optimal waterﬁlling strategy.
Then, the remaining power is equally distributed among the subcarriers allocated to
BE users. Simulation results quantify the performance of these techniques and provide
design guidelines for realistic systems.
In Chapter 5, we summarize the contributions of this thesis and present some
directions of future study.
– 7 –
Chapter 2
OFDMA System for Broadband Wireless
Applications
2.1 Introduction
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) has been proposed as
the modulation and multiple access method for several NextG Wireless standards, as a
means of achieving high data rates. OFDMA is an extension of Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing (OFDM), which is currently the modulation choice for high speed
data access systems such as IEEE 802.11a/g and ETSI HiperLAN/2 standards for
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) [5], [6], [7] as well as the digital audio/video
broadcasting (DAB/DVB) standards [8], [9] in Europe. It has also been proposed by
IEEE 802.15 and IEEE 802.16 working groups for Wireless Personal Area Networks
(WPANs) and ﬁxed Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) [3] respectively. OFDM is
based on the principal of multicarrier transmission, also known as Discrete MultiTone
(DMT), which was applied earlier in high bitrate Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs).
In OFDM, the wideband spectrum is divided into orthogonal narrowband subcar
riers as in frequency division multiplexing. The bit stream is split into subsets, each of
– 8 –
which constitutes a subsymbol. Each subsymbol modulates a diﬀerent subcarrier and
several subsymbols of a user are transmitted in parallel over these low rate subcarriers.
Modulation and demodulation of subcarriers during transmission and reception are im
plemented with Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) and DFT respectively. The
orthogonality of signals in diﬀerent subcarriers is preserved by appropriate selection of
frequency spacing between the subcarriers. Due to this orthogonality, the signals are
separated at the receiver.
In this chapter, we brieﬂy reviewed the channel fading characteristics and then
we present a practical channel model i.e., tapped delay line channel model, used for
broadband wireless applications [10]. Since, OFDMA is based on OFDM we mathe
matically discussed the singleuser OFDM transmitter and receiver structure. Next, we
developed a mathematical model for OFDMA system to be referenced throughout this
thesis. Later, traﬃc model for providing heterogeneous services is discussed and ﬁnally,
the resource allocation issues in OFDMA based systems to provide NextG broadband
wireless services are studied.
2.2 Channel for Broadband Wireless Applications
An important requirement for assessing technology for Broadband wireless appli
cations is to have an accurate description of the wireless channel. Channel models
are heavily dependent upon the radio architecture. For example, in ﬁrst generation
systems, a supercell or “singlestick” architecture is used where Base Station (BS)
and the subscriber station are in LineofSight (LOS) condition and the system uses a
– 9 –
Figure 2.1: A mobile user receiving two reﬂected rays that have the same path distance
single cell with no cochannel interference. For second generation systems a scalable
multicell architecture with NonLineofSight (NLOS) conditions becomes necessary
[10]. In the following subsections various channel fading characteristics are explained
in brief and a tapped delay line (TDL) channel model is explained, which is further
used in the simulations.
2.2.1 Channel Fading Characteristics
The inherent volatility of the wireless medium constitutes the major diﬃculty in
the design of wireless networks. The quality of wireless link between a transmitter and
receiver depends on radio propagation parameters (path loss, shadowing, multipath
fading) and cochannel interference. Path loss stems from wave propagation attenuation
in free space. Shadowing is caused by large obstacles such as buildings and the incurred
loss is modeled as a lognormal distributed random variable. Mutipath fading arises due
to the additive and subtractive eﬀect of delays and amplitudes from multiple paths.
– 10 –
The timevarying nature of these factors due to transmitter or receiver mobility and
movement of the surrounding objects causes the quality of a narrowband wireless link
ﬂuctuate in time. On the other hand, a broadband wireless link is characterized both by
timevarying behavior due to the aforementioned factors and by frequency selectivity
caused by the multipath propagation and delay spread. The frequency selectivity can
lead to ISI and thus signiﬁcantly degrade the link quality.
In the following subsection we study the Tapped Delay Line (TDL) channel model
which eﬀectively models multipath channel but is somehow ineﬀective to deal with the
channels like frequency dispersive channels which lead to frequency oﬀset among the
received spectrum. This problem is eﬀectively dealt using the frequency equalization
used at the receiver side in actual systems. In the simulations performed we assume
that complete channel state information (CSI) is known at the receiver, in a way we
assume that complete frequency estimation is well done and frequency equalization is
not necessary.
2.2.2 Tapped Delay Line Channel Model
In the wireless communication environments, there exist a number of diﬀerent paths
between the transmitter and the receiver due to the reﬂection and scattering of the
radio waves. If the time diﬀerence between the time delays of the paths is smaller
than the reciprocal of the transmitted signal bandwidth, the receiver sees only the
superposition of the arriving signals without distinguishing several paths [33]. In other
words, the paths with approximately same delays are combined together and regarded
– 11 –
0
τ
1 0
τ τ −
2 1
τ τ −
1 2 L L
τ τ
− −
−
s(t)
d
0
d
1
d
2
d
L1
r(t)
Figure 2.2: Tapped delay line (TDL) channel model
as one path in the receiver. Consequently, the multipath channel is often represented
by a TDL channel model with a ﬁnite number of paths. The twopath model is the
simplest form of the TDL model which is composed of a direct path and one dominant
delayed path. By approximating the multiple paths as a ﬁnite number of L distinct
paths, the impulse response for the radio channel can be represented by a weighted
sum of delayed delta functions:
h(t) =
L−1
¸
l=0
d
l
δ(t −τ
l
) (2.1)
which is the wellknown TDL channel model shown in Figure 2.2. The corresponding
frequency response, or the channel transfer function at the radian frequency ω is given
by
H(ω) =
L−1
¸
l=0
d
l
e
−jωτ
l
. (2.2)
Due to scattering of each wave in the vicinity of a moving mobile, each tap coeﬃcient
d
l
results from the vectorial sum of the multipath components with approximately the
same delay. As a result of high phase variations of such components, the amplitude
– 12 –
and phase of each tap vary rapidly.
Several statistical distributions have been studied and applied to describe the fast
variations of the signal amplitude. If a signiﬁcant number of multipath components
with approximately equal power are present in a time bin, the timevarying fading of
the path amplitude is well described by a Rayleigh distribution varying according to a
classical Doppler spectrum:
S(f) ∝
1
1 −(f/f
D
)
2
(2.3)
where f
D
= υ/λ is the maximum Doppler shift, a function of the mobile speed υ and
the wavelength λ. On the other hand, when there is a stronger path in a time bin, the
amplitude fading follows a Rice distribution.
In some cases a strong direct wave or specular reﬂection exists which gives rise to
a nonfading path, then the Doppler spectrum is:
S(f) = δ(f
s
) (2.4)
where f
s
is the Doppler frequency of the direct path, given by its direction relative to
the mobile direction of movement.
In addition to the multipath fading (the smallscale fading), the eﬀect of shadowing
(the largescale fading) and pathloss can also be included in the channel model. There
fore, the complete characterization of timevarying channel impulse response h(t, τ) is
given by
h(t, τ) =
Gσ(t)
L−1
¸
l=0
d
l
(t)δ(t −τ
l
) (2.5)
– 13 –
where, G is the pathloss, σ(t) denotes timevarying shadowing, L is the number of
paths in the multipath and d
l
(t), τ
l
are the timevarying gain and time delay for the
l
th
path. The transmitted signal is
s(t) = x(t)e
j2πf
c
t
(2.6)
where, f
c
is the carrier frequency and x(t) is the complex baseband signal. This is
expressed as,
x(t) =
+∞
¸
i=−∞
b(i)g(t −iT) (2.7)
where, {b
i
}
+∞
−∞
is the symbol sequence, T is the symbol duration and g(.) is the pulse
shaping waveform. The signal at the receiver input is
r(t) =
s(t −τ)h(t, τ)dτ + ˜ η(t) (2.8)
where, ˜ η(t) is the receiver noise process.
2.3 OFDM/OFDMA System Model
OFDMA is a combination of modulation scheme that resembles OFDM and a multi
ple access scheme that combine Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Frequency
Division Multiple Access (FDMA). Since it is important to study OFDM to have a com
plete understanding of OFDMA. Hence, in the following subsections we will study the
basic OFDM/OFDMA system model to be referenced throughout this thesis.
2.3.1 OFDM Overview
OFDM is a parallel transmission scheme using multiple subcarriers. The basic
principle of OFDM is to convert a highspeed serial data stream into a number of
– 14 –
Serial
to
Parallel
Adaptive Modulator 1
Adaptive Modulator N
Adaptive Modulator 2
IDFT
Cyclic
Prefix
D/A
Baseband
to RF
Channel State Information
RF to
Baseband
A/D
Remove
Cyclic
Prefix
IDFT
Frequency
Domain
Equalization
(FEQ)
Channel State Information
Detection
Parallel
to
Serial
Channel
bit stream
bits out
Figure 2.3: Singleuser OFDM transmitter and receiver
lowspeed parallel data streams transmitted simultaneously by means of a number of
subcarriers. For the OFDM system with N subcarriers, the OFDM symbol duration is
N times long, as compared to the symbol duration of the original serial data stream.
Increase in the symbol duration subsequently mitigates the intersymbol interference
(ISI) eﬀect caused by timedispersion of a multipath channel. The ISI can be completely
removed if each OFDM symbol is preceded by a guard interval which is longer than the
maximum channel delay. In addition, the interchannel interference (ICI) can also be
eliminated by ﬁlling the guard interval with a periodic extension of the OFDM symbol
itself (cyclic preﬁx).
– 15 –
OFDM Transmitter and Receiver Structure
The schematic diagram of a singleuser OFDM transmitter and receiver with N subcar
riers is depicted in Figure 2.3. The bit stream is divided into bit groups and each bit
group constitutes one OFDM symbol. Assuming that OFDM symbols do not interfere
with each other, it suﬃces to concentrate on one OFDM symbol. The OFDM symbol
is further divided into N bit subgroups. The bits in the n
th
subgroup are fed into the
n
th
modulator and modulate the n
th
subcarrier, n = {0, 1, . . . , N − 1}. The complex
subsymbol b
n
at the output of the n
th
modulator is selected from QAM or QPSK con
stellation and the modulation level of b
n
depends on the number of allocated bits in the
n
th
subcarrier. The number of allocated bits per subcarrier depends on the subcarrier
quality. Better quality subcarriers can carry more bits and maintain acceptable bit
error rate (BER) at the receiver. All subsymbols are then fed into an IDFT module
and are transformed into time samples {x
i
}
N−1
i=0
, where x
i
is,
x
i
=
1
√
N
N−1
¸
n=0
b
n
e
j2πin/N
(2.9)
where, 1/
√
N is a scale factor. A cyclic preﬁx of ν time samples with total duration
larger than the maximum delay spread is appended to the N time samples, as a means
of eliminating ISI. The sequence {x
i
}
N−1
i=0
is then passed to a D/A converter, whose
output is a continuous signal,
x(t) =
1
√
N
N−1
¸
n=0
b
n
e
j2πnt/T
, 0 ≤ t ≤ T (2.10)
where, T is the symbol duration. The pulseshaping ﬁlter g(t) is taken to be normal
ized to unit. Note that the signal in the frequency domain consists of N sinc(πfT)
– 16 –
functions, each shifted in frequency by 1/T, where each such function corresponds to
the Fourier transform of the unit pulse. Due to the property of the sinc(πfT) function
that is zero at the integer multiples of 1/T, the subsymbols at diﬀerent subcarriers can
be distinguished at the receiver.
The baseband signal is upconverted and transmitted through the channel. At the
receiver, the signal is translated to baseband and its cyclic preﬁx is removed. If the
channel is invariant for the duration of one OFDM symbol, (2.5) simpliﬁes to
h(t) =
L
¸
l=1
β
l
δ(t −τ
l
) (2.11)
where, all the propagation eﬀects are captured by the parameter β
l
. The signal after
downconversion is
r(t) =
L
¸
l=1
β
l
e
−j2πf
c
τ
l
x(t −τ
l
) + η(t) (2.12)
where, η(t) is the baseband noise process. Then the signal is digitized by being sampled
at time points kT/N, for k = 0, 1, . . . , N −1. The k
th
sample is given as
r
k
=
1
√
N
L
¸
l=1
N−1
¸
n=0
b
n
ξ
l
(n)e
−j2πnk/N
+ η
k
(2.13)
where
ξ
l
(n) = β
l
e
−j2π(f
c
+n/T)τ
l
(2.14)
captures the diﬀerent impact of the l
th
path delay on diﬀerent subcarriers and η
k
are
noise samples. The time samples {r
k
}
N−1
k=0
enter the DFT module and the subsymbol
at the subcarrier n is given as
R
n
=
1
√
N
N−1
¸
k=0
r
k
e
−j2πnk/N
(2.15)
– 17 –
After some algebraic manipulations and by using the orthogonality property we have
R
n
= b
n
L
¸
l=1
ξ
l
(n) + η
n
= h
n
b
n
+ η
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . , N −1 (2.16)
where, η
n
is the noise level at the subcarrier n. The received subsymbols are scaled
versions of the transmitted ones and the complex parameters h
n
captures the eﬀects
of the multipath channel at subcarrier n.
In order to retrieve the transmitted symbol, the receiver needs CSI in terms of
frequencydomain channel transfer function values at subcarrier frequencies. Channel
estimation can be performed with pilot symbols that are interspersed with transmitted
data symbols. A pilot symbol e consists of known subsymbols {e
n
}
N−1
n=0
. The received
pilot subsymbol at subcarrier n after DFT is y
n
= e
n
h
n
+ η
n
. Then, the minimum
meansquarederror (MMSE) estimate of the complex gain is obtained h
n
is obtained
as
˜
h
n
=
y
n
e
n
= h
n
+
η
n
e
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . , N −1 (2.17)
The estimates
˜
h
n
are used for frequencydomain equalization (FEQ), namely compen
sation for the phase and amplitude for the phase and amplitude of received subsymbols
prior to detection. Given that the transmitter communicates the utilized modulation
level of each subcarrier at the receiver, the Maximum Likelihood (ML) detector decides
about the transmitted subsymbol based on R
n
/
˜
h
n
. In this study, we assume that per
fect CSI is available at the transmitter and the receiver. For slowly timevarying chan
nels, the transmitter can obtain reliable CSI with feedback from the receiver. Assuming
that all transmitted subsymbols are normalized to unit power, the signaltonoise ratio
– 18 –
Figure 2.4: Spectrum of each subchannel in OFDM
(SNR) at the receiver at the n
th
subcarrier is,
SNR
n
=
h
n

2
σ
2
(2.18)
where, σ
2
is the noise variance and h
n

2
is the link gain of subcarrier n. When the
transmitter uses power level p
n
for subcarrier n, a term
√
p
n
multiplies subcarrier n in
(2.9) then, (2.18) becomes,
SNR
n
=
h
n

2
p
n
σ
2
= H
n
p
n
(2.19)
where, H
n
is carriertonoise ratio (CNR) for the n
th
subcarrier.
Advantages of OFDM
The orthogonality between the subcarrier frequencies in OFDM makes it possible to
overlap subchannel spectra, as shown in Figure 2.4, for much higher spectral eﬃciency
than that of simple frequency division multiplexing (FDM). OFDM transmission in
creases the eﬀective symbol duration and reduces the eﬀective symbol duration and
reduces the eﬀective symbol transmission rate, since information is essentially trans
mitted over narrowband subcarriers. Thus, it provides high immunity to ISI and delay
– 19 –
spread. In addition, since the frequencyselective broadband channel is divided into a
set of frequency nonselective subcarriers, the equalization procedure at the receiver
simpliﬁes to scalar multiplication for each subcarrier. Furthermore, OFDM provides
additional ﬂexibility in adapting transmission to varying link conditions, by allowing
adaptation for each subsymbol in a subcarrier [31].
2.3.2 OFDMA System Model
OFDMA typically uses FFT size much higher than OFDM, and divides the available
subcarriers into logical groups called subchannels. Unlike OFDM that transmits the
same amount of energy in each subcarrier, OFDMA may transmit diﬀerent amounts
of energy in each subchannel.
In this thesis, we consider the downlink OFDMA system model as shown in Figure
2.5. We invoke the following assumptions for rest of the thesis: (1) the transmitter
has perfect knowledge of the CSI; (2) a subcarrier at a particular time is not being
shared among users, alternatively one subcarrier is assigned to only one user at a
time. In the ﬁgure, K denotes the total number of users and N denotes the total
number of subcarriers. At the transmitter, the serial data stream from the K users
are fed into the encoder block. Using the channel information from all K users, the
subcarrier and bit/power allocation algorithm is applied to assign diﬀerent subcarriers
to diﬀerent users. Here, we assume that a subcarrier at a particular time is not being
shared among users. The number of bits and power allocated to each subcarrier is
also determined in the process. This information is used to conﬁgure the encoder and
– 20 –
Encoder
User 1, R
1
IFFT and
Parallel to
Serial
Subcarrier 1
Subcarrier 2
Subcarrier N
.
…
.
.
…
.
Add
cyclic
prefix and
D/A
Channel condition from user k, H
k,n
Base Station Transmitter
Channel for User 1
Channel for User 2
Subcarrier
Selector
FFT and
Serial to
Parallel
Subcarrier 2
Subcarrier N
.
…
.
A/D and
remove
cyclic
prefix
Subcarrier and bit/power
allocation information
Receiver for User k
Subcarrier and bit/power
allocation algorithm
User 2, R
2
User K, R
K
User k
decoder
User k, R
k
Subcarrier 1
Receiver for User 1
Receiver for User 2
Channel for User k
Channel for User K
…
.
.
Receiver for User K
Figure 2.5: System model of a downlink OFDMA system
– 21 –
the input data is encoded and transmitted accordingly. At the receiver, the subcarrier
and bit/power allocation information is used to conﬁgure the subcarrier selector and
decoder to extract the data from the subcarriers assigned to the k
th
user.
According to the diagram in Figure 2.5, we assume that b
k
and p
k,n
denotes a set
of data symbols and the power allocated for the k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier respectively.
Under the assumptions above, the transmitted signal from the base station is detected
by the k
th
user’s receiver, the decision statistic z
k,n
for the k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier
data symbol may be written as
z
k,n
= b
k,n
√
p
k,n
h
k,n
+ η
n
(2.20)
where, h
k,n
is a random variable representing the fading for the n
th
subcarrier between
the base station and k
th
users receiver. η
n
denotes the additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) with mean zero and variance σ
2
= N
0
B
N
. B is assumed to be total available
bandwidth, hence SNR for the k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier signal is,
SNR
k,n
=
p
k,n
 h
k,n

2
N
0
B
N
= p
k,n
H
k,n
(2.21)
where, N
0
is the noise power spectral density and H
k,n
is CNR for the k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier. We notice that (2.21) is analogous to the SNR of singleuser OFDM system
and can be derived similarly as in (2.19).
2.4 Broadband Wireless Traﬃc Model
The NextG broadband wireless communication systems are designed to provide
broadband, packet oriented connection to a wireless user that is comparable to wired
– 22 –
broadband connections that are in use today. It is expected that there will be a mix
of user applications, like that of wired systems. Further, the traﬃc characteristics and
system requirements of the various applications can vary widely. The performance
of such broadband wireless systems is thus very much dependent on the details of
applications and their traﬃc models. This is in contrast to cellular wireless voice
systems where the performance studies focused on physical and link layer performance
with a relatively simple traﬃc generation model.
The system reference model considered in this thesis as in [16] consists of four com
munication layers: Application, Network (NET), Radio Resource Management (RRM)
and Physical (PHY). For each user k, the NET layer is submitting the RRM layer the
requested QoS proﬁles: rQoS
k
= [rR
k
, rBER
k
], specifying the required rate rR
k
and
bit error rate rBER
k
for user k. The RRM layer, aiming at optimal resource allocation,
responds with a set of QoS proﬁles that can be oﬀered oQoS
k
= [oR
k
, oBER
k
] to user
k plus a cost of service (CoS) estimation oCoS
k
, which here is the BS transmission
power. If the oﬀer fulﬁll the requirements and the cost is acceptable, the contract is
signed and the communication is established. Otherwise some users are dropped or
their rQoS
k
is downscaled if permitted (soft QoS approach), and then another rQoS
k
is submitted.
In this thesis, traﬃc behavior is modelled in the following way. At each traﬃc
realization, a given user chooses randomly the requested QoS proﬁles rQoS
k
from the
set of available QoS proﬁles. Here, we consider two types of QoS proﬁles (users),
Guaranteed Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE), diﬀerentiated on the basis of
– 23 –
required data rate and BER criteria. Applications that require guaranteed QoS, such
as bounded BER, and a guarantee on the throughput, are called GP services. On the
other hand, applications which are less sensitive to instantaneous variations in available
bandwidth and which do not require guarantees on throughput, are called BE services.
In the context of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), this corresponds to Available
Bit Rate (ABR) service category [23], which can adapt to the bandwidth unused by the
GP service classes. In particular, we suppose that the BE users share the remaining
bandwidth, that is left unused by the GP users.
2.5 Resource Allocation Issues in OFDMA Systems
The underlying philosophy in the problems that are considered in this thesis is
how to provide high data rate, and to provide a wider range of services, such as voice
communications, videophones, and high speed internet access over scarce and unpre
dictable wireless channel. To achieve higher data rates and support diverse applications
in NextG wireless communication systems it becomes imperative to improve the spec
tral eﬃciency and to use available resources eﬃciently. So far, several papers [14][22]
have dealt with the problem of resource allocation in multiuser OFDM system under
various constraints. In this section, we brieﬂy study the issues in providing QoS aware
resource (subcarrier and power) allocation in OFDMA systems for broadband wireless
applications.
– 24 –
2.5.1 QoS Aware Resource Allocation
BWA based on OFDMA is considered as a standard for NextG communication
systems, to provide highrate data communication over a wireless channel [3]. Recent
researches in the area of providing QoS aware resource allocation in multiuser OFDM
systems can be subdivided in two broad categories: One, is to provide systemlevel
QoS provisioning i.e., to maximize the sum capacity of the system under the transmit
power constraints, or to minimize the transmit power under the data rate constraints.
Second, is to provide userlevel QoS provisioning i.e., to satisfy the QoS (data rate and
BER) constraints of each user of the system. Though several works are done in the
area of systemlevel QoS provisioning, less interest is shown in the area of userlevel
QoS provisioning.
Since one of the goals of NextG is to provide heterogeneous services with diverse
QoS requirements [12] and diﬀerent broadband services require diﬀerent amount of
rates and diﬀerent priorities [27]. For example, it requires more bandwidth to provide
video service than one for data service, and in general voice service is given higher
priority than either a data or a video service. In response to these diverse requirements
network designer may choose to support a variety of services with guaranteed QoS and
high bandwidth utilization while servicing maximum number of users.
2.5.2 Subcarrier and Power Allocation for Heterogeneous Users
In multiuser system using static TDMA or FDMA as multiple access schemes, each
user is allocated a predetermined time slot or frequency band to apply OFDM with
– 25 –
adaptive modulation. Consequently, these unused subcarrier (as a result of adaptive
modulation) within the allocated time slot or frequency band of a user are wasted and
are not used by other users. However, the subcarriers which appear in deep fade to
one user may not be in deep fade for other users. In fact, it is quiet unlikely that
a subcarrier will be in deep fade for all users, as the fading parameters for diﬀerent
users are mutually independent. This motivates us to consider an adaptive multiuser
subcarrier allocation scheme where the subcarriers are assigned based on instantaneous
channel information. This approach will allow all the subcarriers to be used more
eﬀectively because a subcarrier will be left unused only if it appears to be in deep fade
to all users.
Resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems could be divided into allocating
subcarrier and power to individual users under various constraints. Since, the joint
optimization problem of allocating subcarrier and power optimally to satisfy userlevel
QoS (required data rate and BER) under the total available power constraint, involves
discrete assignment and is thus not convex in the unknowns of subcarrier allocation and
the available power, making it a NPhard problem [25]. As this problem is NPhard
and exhaustive search over all possible allocations is impractical for large scale sys
tems, most eﬀorts in literature focus on developing eﬃcient heuristic algorithms which
may provide optimal solutions for simple networks or special cases but are suboptimal
in general [32]. However, if subcarrier allocation is known, the optimization problem
has a closed form solution and can be solved using canonical algorithms. Few recent
researches like in [19], an optimal power allocation is proposed for a determined subcar
– 26 –
rier assignment scheme to satisfy each user’s data rate proportionally. This motivates
us to carry out subcarrier allocation and power allocation algorithms separately and
sequentially to provide service to heterogeneous users in OFDMA systems.
2.6 Remarks
In this chapter, basic principles of OFDM/OFDMA which makes them suitable
for broadband wireless applications were summarized, furthermore resource allocation
issues in OFDMA were addressed. Firstly, TDL channel model is studied which is a
practical channel model used for the simulation of broadband wireless networks [10].
Next, we present a detailed overview of OFDM system (transmitter and receiver) and
then we discussed the advantages of OFDM like orthogonality, which makes it a superior
technique to provide higher spectral eﬃciency than other static multiplexing schemes
like FDM. Further, we describe the OFDMA system model to be referenced throughout
the thesis. Additionally, traﬃc model used in this thesis is explained i.e., combined GP
and BE users. Finally, some research issues to provide QoS aware resource allocation
in OFDMA system for broadband wireless applications were explained.
– 27 –
Chapter 3
QoS Aware Subcarrier Allocation for
Heterogeneous users in OFDMA System
3.1 Introduction
The realization of wireless communication to support high data rates, provision
of various Quality of Service (QoS) proﬁles for multiple users, and operation in hos
tile multipath radio channel environment is a new challenge for the future generation
mobile communication systems. All these should be achieved with a minimum use of
limited resources, such as RF bandwidth and transmission power. One of the most
promising modulation and multiple access techniques, which satisﬁes these demands,
is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). OFDMA is a unique en
hancement to existing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) technology.
OFDMA enables carriers to traverse the lastmile bottleneck and provide users with
enhanced broadband services. The optimized use of bandwidth for the simultaneous,
bidirectional and highspeed ﬂow of data for multiple subscribers is allocated accord
ing to customer requirements. OFDMA facilitates optimal use of bandwidth over the
given frequencies without collision between channels. It overcomes interference and
– 28 –
provides maximum Bandwidth on Demand (BoD), by using logical subchannels that
support scalability, multiple access and an advanced array of processing capabilities.
Existing subcarrier and power allocation schemes combine OFDM with static Time
Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and handle multiple access by letting users commu
nicate with the base station (BS) in separate time slot(s). Within each time slot, OFDM
plus waterﬁlling can be employed to maximize the capacity. Though the OFDMTDMA
scheme oﬀers certain capacity gain over conventional TDMA scheme with ﬁxed mod
ulation, channel adaptation here is limited to singleuser loading, where subcarriers
experiencing deep fade are wasted because they are not power eﬃcient to carry any
information bit [18]. However, in a multiuser environment the subcarriers that are
in deep fade over the links between the BS and the designated mobile user may not
be in deep fade over the link between the BS and other mobile users. In fact, it is
unlikely that a subcarrier will be in deep fade over all the links as the fading statistics
over these links are mutually independent. This motivates us to consider the multiple
access scheme that users share the downlink transmission by adaptively using diﬀerent
subcarriers, instead of using diﬀerent time slots as in TDMA system. This approach
allows all the subcarriers to be used eﬀectively and a subcarrier is left unused only when
it experiences deep fade in all the BS to mobile links. In [14], an OFDMA multiuser
system is shown to oﬀer substantially large capacity increase over OFDMTDMA.
Assuming that the transmitter knows the instantaneous channel transfer functions
for all users, many papers [14] [20] have dealt with the problem of subcarrier allocation
for downlink multiuser OFDM system. We can subdivide the related previous works in
– 29 –
two broad categories: One, to provide system level QoS provisioning i.e., to maximize
the sum capacity of the system under the transmit power constraints, or to minimize
the transmit power under the data rate constraints [14], [15], [16], [17]. Second is
to provide userlevel QoS provisioning i.e., to satisfy the QoS (data rate and BER)
constraints of each user of the system [18], [19], [20]. In the following subsections the
related previous works done towards QoS provisioning in OFDMA systems are brieﬂy
discussed.
Systemlevel QoS Provisioning
1. Wong et al. One of the earliest eﬀorts to provide analysis for the resource
allocation in multiuser OFDM systems is done in [14]. In this work authors attempted
to minimize the total transmit power under ﬁxed QoS requirements and a given set of
user data rates by adaptively assigning subcarriers to the users along with the number
of bits and power level to each subcarrier. They focus on the practical algorithms that
can support realtime multimedia data whose data rates are generally ﬁxed and BER
requirements are same. In particular they proposed a Lagrangian based algorithm to
derive an adaptive subcarrier and bit allocation algorithm. Given the instantaneous
channel information, the algorithm obtains a suboptimal subcarrier allocation, and then
singleuser bit allocation is applied on the allocated subcarriers. Using this scheme, the
overall required transmit power can be reduced by about 510 dB from the conventional
OFDM without adaptive modulation. Likewise, the transmit power can be reduced by
about 35 dB from the conventional OFDM with adaptive modulation and adaptive
– 30 –
bit allocation, but without adaptive subacarrier allocation. This reduction in transmit
power can also be translated to a signiﬁcant reduction in the required bit SNR for a
given BER. Moreover, the same improvement can also be translated to a reduction in
the outage probability or to an increase in the area of coverage.
This paper assumes perfect channel estimation, but points out that channel estima
tion in wireless fading channels is in general not very accurate, the eﬀect of nonideal
channel information on the performance of any resource allocation scheme is very im
portant. Hence, detailed sensitivity studies are necessary before the algorithm can be
applied to practical systems.
2. Rhee et al. In [15], dynamic subchannel allocation is performed to maximize the
minimum capacity of all users under the total transmit power constraint. In this paper
an optimal solution is derived but is said to be not useful for real time communication.
Hence, a reduced complexity suboptimal adaptive subchannel allocation algorithm is
proposed for the downlink of an OFDM broadband system. This paper’s result shows
that the suboptimal algortihm with ﬂat energy distribution over all subchannels can
perform almost as well as the optimal power and subchannel allocation scheme. This
suboptimal algorithm oﬀers a signiﬁcant computational advantage while incurring small
performance degradation.
An alternative approach to reduce the computation complexity in [22] propose a
linear programming method for solving margin adaptive (i.e., minimization of transmit
power under the data rate constraints) and rate adaptive (i.e., maximization of system
capacity under the power constraints) problems and compared the performance with
– 31 –
[14] and [15] respectively. They have shown that the nonlinear optimization problem
in [14], [15] can be converted into linear optimization with integer variables, and that
the optimal subcarrier and bit allocation is achieved by integer programming (IP).
3. Pietrzyk et al. In [16] a simple modiﬁcation of [14] is made, which extends the
set of required QoS parameters to bit rate and BER and ﬁxed modulation is assumed.
In this work a general contract based QoS framework is proposed, which allows for
eﬃcient management of resources on the system level (for use of any service proﬁle,
which is essential for multimedia traﬃc).
This paper conclude mentioning that the proposed solution can be applied both
to the downlink and the uplink. The minimization of the total transmit power is a
fair optimization criterion in both cases. However, uplink requires more concern on
synchronization issues.
4. Jang et al. In [17] an analytical proof for optimal subcarrier allocation, for
transmit power adaptation is given to maximize the sum capacity of the users. It is
shown that for the maximization of sum capacity, subcarrier should be assigned to only
one user which has the best channel gain for the subcarrier and the transmit power
should be distributed over the subcarriers following the waterﬁlling policy.
Moreover, to avoid the computational burden in calculating the waterﬁlling level
this paper also has proposed an equalpower allocation scheme in which users with the
best channel gain for each subcarrier are selected and then transmit power is equally
distributed among the subcarriers.
– 32 –
Userlevel QoS Provisioning
Recent works [18], [19], [20] are done in the area of providing userlevel QoS provision
ing.
1. Yin et al. In [18] a two step suboptimal algorithm is proposed that maximizes total
rate subject to each user’s data rate and the total power constraints, which is a NP
hard combinatorial problem. This algorithm uses Hungarian algorithm for subcarrier
assignment which is an optimal scheme but is said to be suboptimal as it estimates the
number of subcarriers given to each user in the ﬁrst step.
The proposed scheme determines the subcarrier, bit, and power allocation by decou
pling a NPhard combinatorial problem into two steps: (1) estimate how much power
and how many subcarriers for each user based on the user’s average channel gains and
their rate requirements; and (2) subcarrier assignment and bit loading based on the
user’s channel proﬁles across all subcarriers.
2. Shen et al. In [19] an optimal power allocation is proposed to satisfy each users
data rate proportionally for a determined subcarrier assignment scheme. Though this
paper suggests a way to provide proportional fairness among users but it didn’t consider
the BER diﬀerentiation among users.
Subcarrier and power allocation is carried out sequentially to reduce the complexity,
and an optimal power allocation procedure is derived. The results are compared with
the suboptimal algorithm proposed in [15], and is shown that this gives higher capacities
over [15]. This paper further proposes two special cases where the computational
complexity is shown to be of the order O(K).
– 33 –
3. Ergen et al. In [20] an algorithmic (iterative) approach of resource allocation
for proportionally fair and adaptive modulation in OFDMA systems is proposed. In
this author used linear programming technique as in [22] and Hungarian algorithm for
subcarrier assignment, further they proposed an iterative approach for fair scheduling
and to fulﬁll each users QoS. One of the strengths of this algorithm is that it took
advantage by swapping the subcarriers among users if it contributes towards the re
duction of transmit power. Though swapping is a very logical step but very few papers
present results considering subcarrier swapping in an OFDMA based system.
The objective function used in [14], [16], [18], [20], [22] is described bit diﬀerently
as compared to [15], [17], [19]. At the same time, none of the papers studied to provide
the userlevel QoS support for users diﬀerentiated both on the basis of rate and BER.
When the requirements for each user’s data rate and BER are given, the subcar
rier assignment and transmit power allocation problem become more complex to be
analytically solved as compared to when there are no constraints on each user’s data
rate and BER [32]. The problem in this case should be solved by a nonlinear program
ming technique [15], which requires high complexity to be implemented in practical.
So far several suboptimal algorithms have been proposed to solve the problem such as
iterative method in [14] and heuristic methods in [15], [18].
The outline of this chapter is as follows: In Section 3.2 we formulate a general prob
lem for subcarrier allocation to maximize the total system throughput while satisfying
the total power and each user’s QoS (data rate and BER) constraints. In Section 3.3 an
optimal method, Hungarian algorithm, to solve the problem presented in Section 3.2 is
– 34 –
described. We further modify the subcarrier allocation method in Rhee et al. [15], and
propose a subcarrier allocation algorithm to provide services to combined Guaranteed
Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE) users where, GP users are given priority in
assigning subcarriers over BE users. In Section 3.4 we compare the performance of
Hungarian algorithm to that of Rhee et al. and we draw conclusions in Section 3.5.
3.2 Problem Formulation for Subcarrier Allocation in OFDMA System
A schematic diagram of the downlink scenario where base station transmits signal
simultaneously to K users is shown in Figure 2.5. The rate requirements for these users
are denoted as {R
1
, R
2
, · · · , R
K
}, and the total transmission power is limited to P
total
.
Let the total number of OFDMA subcarriers be N and the channel gain associated
with subcarrier n and user k be h
k,n
. Here, we assume that a subcarrier at a particular
time is not being shared among users, eliminating the interchannel interference (ICI).
To formulate the problem, let c
k,n
be the assigned index for the k
th
user: c
k,n
= 1
if the n
th
subcarrier is assigned to the k
th
user, otherwise c
k,n
= 0. The assignment
matrix is deﬁned as
C =
c
1,1
c
1,2
· · · c
1,N
c
2,1
c
2,2
· · · c
2,N
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
c
K,1
c
K,2
· · · c
K,N
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(3.1)
Clearly,
K
¸
k=1
c
k,n
= 1
– 35 –
and,
K
¸
k=1
N
¸
n=1
c
k,n
= N
Let p
k,n
is the power allocated to the k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier. Hence the achievable
rate of k
th
user can be calculated as:
r
k
=
B
N
N
¸
n=1
c
k,n
log
2
1 +
p
k,n
H
k,n
Γ
k
(3.2)
The general downlink multiuser resource allocation to maximize the total system
throughput while satisfying userlevel QoS, hence can be formulated as
max
C,p
K
¸
k=1
r
k
(3.3)
subject to:
K
¸
k=1
N
¸
n=1
c
k,n
p
k,n
≤ P
total
r
k
≥ R
k
for k = 1, 2, · · · , K
The optimization problem in (3.3) is a NPhard combinatorial problem with non
linear constraints. In [14] a Lagrangian based algorithm is proposed which relaxes c
k,n
into real numbers, and then solves an unconstrained nonlinear equation set iteratively.
The eﬃciency and the convergence rate of the algorithm depend critically on the step
size and the initial point of the searching. For systems with large number of subcarriers,
the algorithm becomes prohibitively expensive.
Let N
k
and P
k
be the number of subcarriers and power assigned to the k
th
user.
The optimization essentially attempts to solve the following two issues simultaneously:
1. Initial Allocation: determines how many subcarriers (N
k
) and how much power
(P
k
) are needed for each user.
– 36 –
2. Subcarrier Allocation: assigns a particular set of subcarriers (c
k,n
) and the
number of bits to be transmitted for each user.
Diﬀerent partitions of the system resource, i.e., N
k
and P
k
, will lead to diﬀerent
subcarrier and bit assignment. This dependency of the two issues makes the multiuser
optimization much more diﬃcult than that of singleuser. However from an applica
tion standpoint, it is plausible to assume that the resource (subcarriers and power)
allocated to a particular user depends primarily on its rate requirement R
k
and its
channel conditions. On the other hand the optimality of subcarrier allocation is clearly
more sensitive to the local channel characteristics. This motivates us to develop a
cost eﬃcient suboptimal algorithm that decouples the optimization problem into two
problems.
3.3 Subcarrier Allocation for DualService Provisioning in OFDMA Sys
tem
In the ﬁrst part of this section, we will study a well known optimal solution, Hun
garian Algorithm [28], for resource (subcarrier) allocation in order to maximize the sum
capacity of the system. Since the price for the optimal solution is obviously the com
putational time, complexity and scalability (complexity increases with the size of the
system i.e., number of subcarriers). Therefore, in this thesis the Hungarian solution is
treated only as reference upperbound of the sum capacity of the system. Further, we
modify the suboptimal subcarrier allocation method in Rhee et al. [15], and propose
a subcarrier allocation algorithm to provide services to combined GP and BE users
– 37 –
where, GP users are given priority in assigning subcarriers over BE users.
3.3.1 Hungarian Algorithm
In the attempt to solve the decoupled resource allocation problem described in
Section 3.2, as a ﬁrst step we have to estimate the (N
k
, P
k
)
K
k=1
, considering only user’s
channel conditions. With the rate requirements {R
1
, R
2
, · · · , R
K
} given one must (a)
ﬁnd the minimum amount of resources to satisfy all the user’s requirements, and (b)
assign the remaining resources to the ﬁrst user (In reality, the basestation may reserve
the remaining resources for future use.) So the ﬁrst step is equivalent to eﬀectively
estimate the minimum amount of resources to satisfy the rate requirements.
Step 1. In order to quantify the amount of combined resources (power and subcar
riers), we assume that the amount of power assigned to the users should be proportional
to the number of subcarriers allocated. Let N
k
, P
k
be the total allocated subcarriers
and power to k
th
user; N, P
total
be the total available subcarrier and power. Hence,
N
k
, P
k
must satisfy
P
k
≤
N
k
N
P
total
which is based on the reasonable assumption made in [18].
In this section Step 1 is discussed for the sole purpose of completeness as the objec
tive of this chapter is to devise subcarrier allocation algorithm. Hence for simulation
purposes we made a simple assumption as a replacement for Step 1, that equalpower
is allocated to each subcarrier and number of subcarriers allocated to users is directly
proportional to each user’s rate requirements.
– 38 –
Step 2. Once we determine the number of subcarriers N
k
and the power P
k
allo
cated to the k
th
user the Subcarrier Assignment Problem is formulated as follows:
Given N × N matrix R = [r
k,n
], ﬁnd a N × N permutation matrix C = [c
k,n
] so
that
R =
K
¸
k=1
N
¸
n=1
r
k,n
c
k,n
(3.4)
is maximum.
For the k
th
user, we let
r
k,n
=
B
N
log
2
1 +
p
k,n
H
k,n
Γ
k
and
r
k
= [r
k,1
, r
k,2
, · · · , r
k,N
]
R is formed using [r
1
, r
2
, · · · , r
K
]
T
as row vectors. If the k
th
user is assigned N
k
subcarriers, we can just split it into N
k
virtual users, each has a row in R with the
same r
k
. In this way, each virtual user can be assigned one and only one diﬀerent
subcarrier, which is equivalent to assign N
k
subcarriers to the k
th
user. Since, r
k,n
linearly approximates the achievable rate on k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier. By solving (3.4)
for R, we eﬀectively ﬁnd a subcarrier assignment which maximizes the total system
throughput when the number of subcarriers assigned to each user is given.
For example, consider a 2 users and 4 subcarriers system, where the ﬁrst user is
assigned 1 subcarrier, and the second user is assigned 3 subcarriers. The two user’s
data rate vectors are r
1
= [2, 4, 3, 4.5] and r
2
= [3.5, 3, 1, 4]. Because the second user
– 39 –
needs 3 subcarriers, we need to duplicate r
2
three times when forming the matrix R
R =
2 4 3 4.5
3.5 3 1 4
3.5 3 1 4
3.5 3 1 4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(3.5)
A Hungarian algorithm is designed to solve the above Assignment Problem [28].
The algorithm is based on following property of C:
Lemma 3.1 For all values {u
k
}
N
k=1
and {v
n
}
N
n=1
, the value of any assignment with
weight r
k,n
diﬀers by a constant amount from its value with weight ¯ r
k,n
= r
k,n
−u
k
−v
n
.
According to the above preposition, every time we can subtract the minimum el
ement from each row and column, without changing the optimal permutation matrix
C. This operation will increase the number of zeros in the matrix R. Because R is
always nonnegative after the ﬁrst step, if we eventually ﬁnd one permutation matrix
C, so that
K
¸
k=1
N
¸
n=1
r
k,n
c
k,n
= 0 (3.6)
then the corresponding entry ones in Cgive us the optimal assignment which maximizes
the total cost.
By applying the Hungarian algorithm, R can be transformed to:
R =
2.5 0 0 0.5
0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(3.7)
– 40 –
Then we can ﬁnd the permutation matrix
R =
0 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(3.8)
which satisﬁes (3.6). In this example, the optimal subcarrier allocation is that the ﬁrst
user is allocated subcarrier 3 and the second user is allocated subcarrier 1,2 and 4.
3.3.2 Proposed Subcarrier Allocation Algorithm
To support the dual class (GP and BE) users, we here modify the suboptimal sub
carrier assignment algorithm proposed in Rhee et al. [15]. In the proposed subcarrier
assignment algorithm we give priority to GP users in assigning subcarriers to that of
BE users. In assigning subcarrier we assume that total available power at BS is equally
distributed among the subcarriers, as is assumed in [15]. Since power is equally dis
tributed among the subcarriers, we shall refer to this method of subcarrier assignment
as proposedEQ. The proposed subcarrier assignment algorithm to provide service to
combined GP and BE users is represented in Figure 3.1.
In this chapter, we did not describe the details of the method in Rhee et al. as we
present a more general algorithm than proposed in [15] considering heterogeneous users
with priority. If we omit Step 2.(d) and Step 3 shown in Figure 3.1, the ProposedEQ
reduces to the suboptimal algorithm given in Rhee et al.
– 41 –
1. Initialization (enforce zero initial conditions)
(a)
(b)
2.
{
(a)
(b)
(c)
}
(d)
3.
{
(a) find
(b) let
(c)
}
4.
{
(a) find k satisfying
(b) for the found k, find
(c) for the found k and n,
(d)
}
set 0, for all {1, 2, , } and {1, 2, , }
k k
R k K A N φ = Ω = = = ⋯ ⋯
/
total
p P N =
, ,
find satisfying for all
k n k j
n H H j A ≥ ∈
let { }, { }
k k
n A A n Ω = Ω ∪ = −
,
2
1
log 1
k n
k k
pH B
R R
N
= + +
Γ
while , repeat step (2) until the rate requirements of GP users are fulfilled A φ ≠
1
for 1 to (allocate best subcarrier to each BE user) k K K = +
, ,
satisfying for all
k n k j
n H H j A ≥ ∈
{ }, { }
k k
n A A n Ω = Ω ∪ = −
,
2
2
log 1
k n
k k
pH B
R R
N
= + +
Γ
while (iteratively give the lowest rate BE user first choice) A φ ≠
1
for all , 1
k i
R R i K i K ≤ + ≤ ≤
, ,
satisfying for all
k n k j
n H H j A ≥ ∈
let { }, { }
k k
n A A n Ω = Ω ∪ = −
,
2
2
log 1
k n
k k
pH B
R R
N
= + +
Γ
1
for 1 to (allocate best subcarrier to each GP user) k K =
Figure 3.1: ProposedEQ (EQ stands for EQual power): proposed subcarrier allocation
algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users
– 42 –
3.4 Simulation Results
To compare the performance of the algorithms simulations has been performed with
the following parameters: number of subcarriers, N = 64; the number of users, K, was
in between 4 and 16; BER, P
e
= 10
−3
giving SNR Gap, Γ = −ln(5 ×10
−3
)/1.5 = 3.53
or 5.48 dB. The channel is considered to be frequency selective multipath channel
consisting of six independent Rayleigh multipaths, with an exponential decaying proﬁle.
The maximum delay spread is 5 microsecond. The maximum doppler frequency spread
is 30 Hz. The total power available at the base station is 64 W. The power spectrum
density of additive white Gaussian noise is −80 dBW/Hz. The overall bandwidth is 1
MHz. The user locations are assumed to be equally distributed. Note that for all the
algorithms discussed under the heading of subcarrier allocation total power is assumed
to be equally distributed among the subcarriers.
In Figure 3.2, sum capacity using Hungarian algorithm and method in Rhee et al.
[15] is drawn for WSNR ranging from 0 to 40 dB. WSNR is deﬁned as the worst possible
average SNR of a user on the boundary of a hexagonal cell. The number of users are
assumed to be equal to four, and the performance is drawn after averaging over 500
diﬀerent channel realizations. Hungarian algorithm is known to be optimal for resource
assignment to optimize the total cost (i.e., sum capacity) under the constraints (i.e.,
power constraint) [28]. Hence, in Figure 3.2 the performance of Hungarian algorithm
acts as an upper bound for sum capacity. We notice that as the WSNR increases from
0 dB to 40 dB the diﬀerence between sum capacities of Hungarian and Rhee et al.
decreases from 3.4726 bps/Hz to 1.3080 bps/Hz.
– 43 –
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0
5
10
15
20
WSNR [dB]
S
u
m
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
Hungarian
Method in Rhee et al.
Figure 3.2: Sum capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee
et al. vs. WSNR. K = 4, N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB
In Figure 3.3, minuser’s capacity using Hungarian algorithm and method in Rhee
et al. is drawn for WSNR ranging from 0 to 40 dB. Result for ﬁxed TDMA resource
allocation are shown for comparison. The number of users are assumed to be equal to
four, and the performance is drawn after averaging over 500 diﬀerent channel realiza
tions. We notice that as WSNR increases from 0 dB to 40 dB the diﬀerence between
minuser’s capacity of Rhee et al. and Hungarian increases from 0.2138 bps/Hz to
0.8762 bps/Hz. Since, Method in Rhee et al. maximizes the minimum capacity of all
users under the total power constraint while, Hungarian algorithm maximizes the sum
– 44 –
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0
1
2
3
4
5
WSNR [dB]
m
i
n
(
R
k
)
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
Hungarian
Method in Rhee et al.
TDMA
Figure 3.3: minuser’s capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used
in Rhee et al. vs. WSNR. K = 4, N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB
capacity not minuser’s capacity. Hence, in Figure 3.3 we notice that method in Rhee
et al. performs optimally.
Figure 3.4 compares the sum capacity using Hungarian algorithm and method in
Rhee et al. for the number of users, K = [4, 8, 16]. The WSNR is assumed to be equal
to 38 dB, and the performance is drawn after averaging over 1000 diﬀerent channel
realizations and 100 time samples for each realization for each number of the user.
Users are assumed to be uniformly distributed. We notice that sum capacity using
both the algorithm increases as the number of users increases. We also notice that
– 45 –
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
13
14
15
16
17
18
Number of users (K)
S
u
m
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
Hungarian
Method in Rhee et al.
Figure 3.4: Sum capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee
et al. vs. user number. N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB, WSNR = 38 dB
as the number of user increases from 4 to 16 the diﬀerence between sum capacities of
Hungarian and Method in Rhee et al. decreases from 1.5163 bps/Hz to 0.9821 bps/Hz.
This could be explained by multiuser diversity. The more users in the system, the
lower the probability that a subcarrier is in deep fading to all users.
In Figure 3.5, minuser’s capacity using Hungarian algorithm and method in Rhee
et al. is compared for the number of users, K = [4, 8, 16]. The WSNR is assumed to
be equal to 38 dB, and the performance is drawn after averaging over 1000 diﬀerent
channel realizations and 100 time samples for each realization for each number of the
– 46 –
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Number of users (K)
m
i
n
(
R
k
)
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
Hungarian
Method in Rhee et al.
TDMA
Figure 3.5: minuser’s capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used
in Rhee et al. vs. user number. N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB, WSNR = 38 dB
user. Users are assumed to be uniformly distributed. We notice that as the number of
users increases from 4 to 16 the diﬀerence between minuser’s capacities of Hungarian
and Method in Rhee et al. decreases from 0.9807 bps/Hz to 0.3133 bps/Hz.
Figure 3.6 shows the comparison of computational complexity of Hungarian and
Method used in Rhee et al. From the ﬁgure we can see that method used in Rhee et
al. is an order of magnitude, about 10 times, faster in execution time than Hungarian
Algorithm. Also we notice that computational complexity remains constant with the
increase in number of users.
– 47 –
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
10
2
10
1
10
0
Number of users (K)
A
v
g
C
P
U
T
i
m
e
[
s
e
c
]
Hungarian
Method in Rhee et al.
Figure 3.6: Computational complexity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method
used in Rhee et al. vs. user number. N = 64, Γ = 5.48 dB, WSNR = 38 dB
Results show that the Hungarian algorithm performs optimally for the sum capacity
calculation under the total available power constraints, while method in Rhee et al.
maximizes the minuser’s capacity. Additionally, Hungarian algorithm is found to
be rather computationally complex and hence method in Rhee et al. is chosen and
modiﬁed as proposedEQ algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users.
– 48 –
3.5 Conclusions
In this chapter, we initially formulated the problem to maximize the system through
put while satisfying the total power and each user’s QoS requirements referring to the
OFDMA system model explained in Chapter 2. Then, the performance of Hungarian
algorithm which is known to give an optimal solution for given allocation problem is
compared with the suboptimal subcarrier allocation method in Rhee et al. We found
that Hungarian algorithm gives an upperbound for the sum capacity optimization
while the method in Rhee et al. allocate the subcarriers so as to maximize the min
user’s capacity. Certainly the price for the optimal solution is the computational time,
complexity and scalability. Hence, in this thesis Hungarian algorithm is treated as a
reference upper bound of the sum capacity system performance. Later in the chapter,
method in Rhee et al. is modiﬁed and a subcarrier allocation algorithm, proposedEQ,
is proposed to provide service to combined GP and BE users. The proposed algo
rithm assumes perfect channel state information (CSI) and allocates equalpower to
each subcarrier and hence is called proposedEQ where EQ stands for EQual power
allocation.
In Chapter 4, we present a power allocation algorithm to be used followed by the
proposedEQ algorithm to provide services to combined GP and BE users.
– 49 –
Chapter 4
QoS Aware Power Allocation for Combined
Guaranteed Performance and Best Eﬀort Users
in OFDMA System
4.1 Introduction
Broadband wireless access (BWA) based on orthogonal frequency division multiple
access (OFDMA) is considered as a standard for next generation (NextG) communi
cation systems, to provide highrate data communication over a wireless channel [3].
One of the goals of NextG mobile communication systems is to provide heterogeneous
services to users with diverse qualityofservice (QoS) requirements [12].
In this chapter, we consider two types of users, Guaranteed Performance (GP) and
Best Eﬀort (BE), diﬀerentiated on the basis of required data rate and bit error rate
(BER) criteria. Applications that require guaranteed QoS, such as bounded BER, and
a guarantee on the throughput, are called GP services. On the other hand, applications
which are less sensitive to instantaneous variations in available bandwidth and which
do not require guarantees on throughput, are called BE services. In the context of
– 50 –
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), this corresponds to Available Bit Rate (ABR)
service category [23], which can adapt to the bandwidth unused by the GP service
classes. In particular, we suppose that the BE users share the remaining bandwidth,
that is left unused by the GP users [41].
So far, several papers [14][20] have dealt with the problem of resource allocation for
the multiuser OFDM system in a downlink transmission. Since the objective function
used in [14], [16], [18], [20], [22] is described bit diﬀerently as compared to [15], [17],
[19] and further in our work [41], [42] hence, here we will discuss the later works for
the performance comparison purposes.
In [15], dynamic subchannel allocation is performed to maximize the minimum
capacity of all users under the total transmit power constraint. The suboptimal sub
carrier allocation algorithm explained in this paper is the basis of the proposedEQ
algorithm in Chapter 3. In this scheme power is assumed to be equally distributed
among the subcarriers. This algorithm oﬀers a signiﬁcant computational advantage
while incurring small performance degradation.
In [17], an analytical proof for optimal subcarrier allocation, for transmit power
adaptation is given to maximize the sum capacity of the users. It is shown that for the
maximization of sum capacity, subcarrier should be assigned to only one user which
has the best channel gain for the subcarrier and the transmit power should be dis
tributed over the subcarriers following the waterﬁlling policy. Moreover, to avoid the
computational burden in calculating the waterﬁlling level this paper also has proposed
an equalpower allocation scheme in which users with the best channel gain for each
– 51 –
subcarrier are selected and then transmit power is equally distributed among the sub
carriers.
In [19], an optimal power allocation is proposed to satisfy each users data rate
proportionally for a known subcarrier assignment scheme. Though this paper suggests
a way to provide proportional fairness among users but it didn’t consider the BER
diﬀerentiation among users.
None of them [15], [17], [19], however, has considered the diﬀerentiation among
the users on the basis of data rate and BER requirements simultaneously. In this
chapter we generalize the resource allocation to applications where we are interested
in simultaneously providing services with diﬀerent QoS characterized by rate and BER
performance. Without the restriction on how to assign the services to the subcarriers,
we thus have Γ, SNR gap, or target BER as an additional variable to optimize. Hence,
we propose a resource allocation algorithm, considering a practical scenario with users
of dual service class diﬀerentiated on the basis of rate and BER constraints in an
OFDMA system.
Ideally, subcarriers and power should be allocated jointly to achieve the optimal
solution. However this poses an extreme computational burden on the Base Station
(BS) in order to reach the optimal allocation. Separating the subcarrier and power
allocation is a way to reduce the complexity since the number of variables in the
objective function is almost reduced by half [19]. Here, to make our problem tractable
we separate the subcarrier and power allocation. For subcarrier assignment we modify
the suboptimal subcarrier allocation algorithm proposed in [15] to provide services
– 52 –
to GP and BE users in Section 3.3 where, GP users are given priority in assigning
subcarriers to that of BE users. In assigning subcarrier we assume that total available
power at BS is equally distributed among the subcarriers. In this context we derive
an optimal power allocation solution following analysis in [19] and propose a reduced
complexity power allocation algorithm to provide services to GP and BE users. In
the proposed reduced complexity power allocation algorithm, we allocate power to GP
users so as to satisfy the data rate requirements of GP users and further allocate the
rest of the power equally among the subcarriers assigned to BE users. The simulation
results of the proposed reduced complexity power allocation algorithm are compared
with the proposedEQ algorithm.
The rest of this chapter is organized as follows. Section 4.2 contains system model
and the problem formulation. In Section 4.3 the optimal solution is derived and a
suboptimal algorithm is proposed. In Section 4.4, we give simulation results of the
proposed algorithm. Section 4.5 contains the concluding remarks.
4.2 Problem Formulation for Power Allocation in OFDMA System
According to the diagram of an OFDMA system shown in Figure 2.5, let us assume
that b
k
denotes a set of data symbols for the k
th
users and p
k,n
is the power allocated to
the k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier. Under the assumptions above, is the transmitted signal
from the base station is detected by the k
th
user’s receiver, the decision statistic z
k,n
for the k
th
user’s and n
th
subcarrier data symbol may be written as
z
k,n
= b
k,n
√
p
k,n
h
k,n
+ η
n
(4.1)
– 53 –
where, h
k,n
is a random variable representing the fading for the n
th
subcarrier between
the base station and k
th
users receiver. η
n
denotes the additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) with mean zero and variance σ
2
= N
0
B
N
. B is assumed to be total available
bandwidth, hence signaltonoise ratio (SNR) for the k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier signal is,
SNR
k,n
=
p
k,n
 h
k,n

2
N
0
B
N
= p
k,n
H
k,n
(4.2)
where, N
0
is the noise power spectral density and H
k,n
is carriertonoise ratio (CNR)
for k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier.
Assuming the Mary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (MQAM) modulation and
ideal phase detection as in [24], the BER for the k
th
user’s n
th
subcarrier signal is
bounded by
BER ≤
1
5
exp
−1.5SNR
k,n
(2
q
k,n
−1)
(4.3)
where, q
k,n
is the number of bits in each data symbol. Note that the BER bound (4.3)
is valid for q
k,n
≥ 2 and 0 ≤ SNR
k,n
≤ 30 dB. For a given BER rearranging (4.3)
yields the maximum number of bits in a symbol to be transmitted for the k
th
user’s
n
th
subcarrier as
q
k,n
= log
2
1 +
SNR
k,n
Γ
bits/symbol (4.4)
where Γ = −ln(5BER)/1.5. Since the data rate of user k is viewed as the sum of
the user’s subcarrier’s data rate, the data rate of user k in the OFDMA system is
represented by
R
k
=
¸
n∈Ω
k
q
k,n
T
=
B
N
¸
n∈Ω
k
log
2
1 +
p
k,n
H
k,n
Γ
bps (4.5)
– 54 –
where, Ω
k
is the set of subcarriers allocated to user k and is assumed to be mutually
exclusive. T is the OFDMA symbol duration i.e., T =
N
B
seconds.
In this thesis, users are classiﬁed as either GP or BE users, out of total K users,
ﬁrst K
1
are assumed to be GP users and, the next (K − K
1
) are assumed to be
BE users. Since BE users have no strict data rate requirements, we formulate our
optimization problem so as to maximize the sumcapacity of BE users for a given
BER while satisfying the data rate requirements of all the GP users for a given BER
under the total power constraint [25]. Thus, we can formulate the general optimization
problem of interest as,
max
p
k,n
,Ω
k
K
¸
k=K
1
+1
¸
n∈Ω
k
B
N
log
2
1 +
p
k,n
H
k,n
Γ
2
(4.6)
subject to:
¸
n∈Ω
k
B
N
log
2
1 +
p
k,n
H
k,n
Γ
1
= R
k
K
¸
k=1
¸
n∈Ω
k
p
k,n
≤ P
total
p
k,n
≥ 0 for all k, n
R
1
: R
2
: . . . : R
K
1
= γ
1
: γ
2
: . . . : γ
K
1
Ω
1
∪ Ω
2
∪ . . . ∪ Ω
K
⊆ {1, 2, . . . , N}
where, B is the total bandwidth; N is the total number of subcarriers; P
total
is the
total available power; Γ
1
= −ln(5BER
1
)/1.5 and Γ
2
= −ln(5BER
2
)/1.5 are the SNR
gap for GP and BE users respectively; {γ
i
}
K
1
i=1
is a set of values proportional to the GP
users rate. In this problem, we need to ﬁnd p
k,n
and Ω
k
to maximize the sum capacity
of BE users under the data rate constraints of GP users and the total power constraint.
– 55 –
As discrete subcarrier assignment is involved in the above problem, it turns to be a
hard problem to solve. However if subcarrier assignment Ω
k
is known, the dualservice
provisioning problem can be converted to a convex optimization problem, similar to
the transformation used in [25], for Discrete MultiTone (DMT) Systems.
Hence, we subdivide the problem into subcarrier assignment and power allocation
problem. Subcarrier assignment is a widely studied area and several exhaustive and
algorithmic approaches are available. For our problem of providing service to combined
GP and BE users we present a subcarrier assignment algorithm called proposedEQ
in Section 3.3. Moreover, once the subcarrier assignment is know the power allocation
problem can be formulated as,
max
p
k,n
K
¸
k=K
1
+1
¸
n∈Ω
k
B
N
log
2
1 +
p
k,n
H
k,n
Γ
2
(4.7)
subject to:
¸
n∈Ω
k
B
N
log
2
1 +
p
k,n
H
k,n
Γ
1
= R
k
K
¸
k=1
¸
n∈Ω
k
p
k,n
≤ P
total
p
k,n
≥ 0 for all k, n
R
1
: R
2
: . . . : R
K
1
= γ
1
: γ
2
: . . . : γ
K
1
Ω
1
∪ Ω
2
∪ . . . ∪ Ω
K
⊆ {1, 2, . . . , N}
– 56 –
4.3 Power Allocation for DualService Provisioning in OFDMA System
The optimization problem in (4.7) is a convex function of power and can be solved
using Lagrangian multiplier techniques [21], [41].
L(p
k,n
, λ
k
, σ
k
) =
K
¸
k=K
1
+1
¸
n∈Ω
k
B
N
log
2
1 +
p
k,n
H
k,n
Γ
2
+ λ
1
P
total
−
K
¸
k=1
¸
n∈Ω
k
p
k,n
+
K
1
¸
k=2
λ
k
¸
n∈Ω
k
B
N
log
2
1 +
p
1,n
H
1,n
Γ
1
−
γ
1
γ
k
¸
n∈Ω
k
B
N
log
2
1 +
p
k,n
H
k,n
Γ
1
¸
+
K
¸
k=1
¸
n∈Ω
k
σ
k
p
k,n
. (4.8)
where, λ
k
and σ
k
are positive constants.
We diﬀerentiate (4.8) with respect to p
k,n
and set each derivative to 0 to obtain,
∂L
∂p
1,n
= −λ
1
+
K
1
¸
k=2
λ
k
B
Nln2
H
1,n
Γ
1
+ H
1,n
p
1,n
+ σ
1
= 0 (4.9)
∂L
∂p
k,n

k=2,...,K
1
= −λ
1
−λ
k
γ
1
γ
k
B
Nln2
H
k,n
Γ
1
+ H
k,n
p
k,n
+ σ
k
= 0 (4.10)
∂L
∂p
k,n

k=K
1
+1,...,K
=
B
Nln2
H
k,n
Γ
2
+ H
k,n
p
k,n
−λ
1
+ σ
k
= 0 (4.11)
4.3.1 Optimal Solution
In this section we will solve (4.9), (4.10), and (4.11) separately for the optimal
power distribution among GP and BE user’s for the subcarrier assignment scheme.
Power Distribution for GP Users
The optimal power distribution for single GP user is derived using (4.9) and (4.10).
Here, we assume that each user’s subcarriers are arranged according to the ascending
– 57 –
order of CNR i.e., H
k,1
≤ H
k,2
≤ . . . ≤ H
k,N
k
[19].
p
k,n
= p
k,1
+
H
k,n
−H
k,1
H
k,n
H
k,1
Γ
1
(4.12)
Equation (4.12) shows the optimal power distribution for a single user. More power
will be put into the subcarriers with high CNR gain. This is waterﬁlling in frequency
domain [19].
Using (4.12) and the rate requirements for GP users given in (4.7) we get,
1
γ
1
N
1
N
log
2
1 +
H
1,1
Γ
1
P
1
−V
1
N
1
+ log
2
W
1
=
1
γ
k
N
k
N
log
2
1 +
H
k,1
Γ
1
P
k
−V
k
N
k
+ log
2
W
k
(4.13)
where,
P
k

k=1,2,...,K
1
=
N
k
¸
n=1
p
k,n
(4.14)
V
k
=
N
k
¸
n=2
H
k,n
−H
k,1
H
k,n
H
k,1
Γ
1
(4.15)
W
k
=
N
k
¸
n=2
H
k,n
H
k,1
1
N
k
(4.16)
and, N
k
is the number of subcarriers in Ω
k
.
Power Distribution for BE Users
Similarly, using (4.11), the optimal power distribution for a single BE user is derived.
p
k,n
= p
k,1
+
H
k,n
−H
k,1
H
k,n
H
k,1
Γ
2
(4.17)
– 58 –
Subsequently, power distribution among the BE users is derived using (4.17) and
assuming the data rate requirements for each BE user as equal, we get
N
K
N
log
2
1 +
H
K,1
Γ
2
P
K
−U
K
N
K
+ log
2
W
K
=
N
k
N
log
2
1 +
H
k,1
Γ
2
P
k
−U
k
N
k
+ log
2
W
k
(4.18)
where,
P
k

k=K
1
+1,K
1
+2,...,K
=
N
k
¸
n=1
p
k,n
(4.19)
U
k
=
N
k
¸
n=2
H
k,n
−H
k,1
H
k,n
H
k,1
Γ
2
(4.20)
Set of nonlinear equations in (4.13), (4.18), along with total power constraint can
be solved iteratively for {P
k
}
K
k=1
using Newton’s Method. Consequently (4.12), (4.14),
(4.17), (4.19) are solved for the power distribution among each subcarrier of each user.
We notice from (4.12) and (4.17) that the only diﬀerence between power allocation to
GP users and BE users is the SNR gap (i.e., Γ
1
and Γ
2
).
Set of nonlinear equations in (4.13), (4.18) can be approximated to a single equation
for special case of high CNR. The approximations follow exactly as in [19] and are not
outlined here.
4.3.2 Proposed Power Allocation for Known Subcarrier Assignment
Since to allocate power among GP and BE user’s optimally, we need to solve the
set of nonlinear equations, which is a tedious task and the complexity of the system
increases with the increase in the size of system (number of users and subcarriers).
– 59 –
Hence, we propose an approach to deal with the high computational complexity
issue for dualservice provisioning (combined GP and BE users). To user’s demanding
strict QoS requirement (GP users), resources (power) are allocated according to the
optimal approach, while for the users with loose QoS requirement (BE users) we can
save the computations by using lower complexity algorithm like equal power allocation
scheme.
In the proposed algorithm we subdivide the power allocation procedure for GP and
BE users. We use optimal waterﬁlling solution to allocate power to GP users [19],
[41], and an equal power allocation scheme for BE users. The equal power distribution
among subcarriers is shown to be near optimal in [17] for the sum capacity maxi
mization problem under total power constraints. Figure 4.1 summarizes the proposed
power allocation algorithm. It assumes that subcarrier assignment is known and is de
termined by aforementioned proposedEQ algorithm. We shall refer to this method as
proposedRA, where RA stands for resource allocation. Details of the proposed power
allocation scheme are described as follows:
Step 1. In the initial step, in order to quantify the amount of combined resources
(power and subcarriers), we assume that the amount of power assigned to the users
should be proportional to the number of subcarriers allocated. This initial step is
based on the reasonable assumption made in [18]. Hence, estimate the total power
allocated to GP and BE users respectively in proportion to the number of subcarrier
allocated to GP and BE user class i.e., the power allocated to GP users and BE users
is P
temp
= P
total
K
1
k=1
N
k
N
and P
temp
= P
total
−P
temp
respectively.
– 60 –
start
Distribute power among
GP users and BE users
proportional to the number
of subcarriers allotted to
each service
Allocate power to GP users
subcarrier under total power
constraint of P’
temp
according
to the optimal waterfilling
solution
Above found P” is then
distributed equally among
the subcarriers allotted to
BE users
stop
1
' 1
Power allocated to GP users,
K
k
k
temp total
N
P P
N
=
=
∑
" '
Power allocated to BE users,
temp total temp
P P P = −
1 1
1
''
,
2
1, 2, ,
2
1
Capacity of each BE user,
log 1
k
k n
k K
k K K K
n
k
k K
H B P
R
N
N
= + +
∈Ω
= +
= +
Γ
∑
∑
…
( ) req
k k
R R R ≤ ± ∆
' '
temp temp
P P P δ = −
' '
temp temp
P P P δ = +
( )
if ( )
req
k k
R R R < − ∆
( )
if ( )
req
k k
R R R > + ∆
No No
Yes
' '
'' '
temp
total temp
P P
P P P
=
= −
ProposedEQ Algorithm
Proposed Power Allocation
Algorithm
Figure 4.1: Flowchart of the proposedRA (RA stands for Resource Allocation) algo
rithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users
– 61 –
Step 2. Allocate power to GP user’s using waterﬁlling solution under total power
constraint P
temp
. This problem is similar to [19] with the exception that it didn’t
consider BER diﬀerentiation, which is considered in [41]. Check whether the rate
requirements of GP users are fulﬁlled or not. If not then increase or decrease the P
temp
and reallocate the power to individual GP users.
Step 3. Calculate the eﬀective power given to BE users (i.e., P
= P
total
−P
temp
).
Power allocated to BE users is then equally distributed among the subcarriers allocated
to the BE users. Hence, the capacity of each BE user is calculated as,
R
k
=
¸
n∈Ω
k
B
N
log
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 +
P
K
¸
k=K
1
+1
N
k
H
k,n
Γ
2
(4.21)
Complexity Comparison of Optimal and Proposed Power Allocation
In order to compare the computational complexity of the optimal solution and proposed
power allocation algorithms we measure the reduction in the number of operations
when using proposed power allocation algorithm over optimal solution. We notice
in Section 4.3 that we need to solve the set of nonlinear equations (4.13), (4.18) for
optimal power allocation among users using iterative root ﬁnding methods such as
NewtonRaphson method, bisection method, secant method, and many others. The
method used for solving the set of nonlinear equation in our simulations is same as in
[40] which is called ZEROIN subroutine, a combination of bisection and secant method
(the MATLAB implementation of the ZEROIN algorithm is called fzero [37]). The
– 62 –
complexity of the method is O(nK), where n is the number of function evaluations. n
is typically around 10 for smooth functions [40]. The complexity of the proposed power
allocation algorithm is O(nK
1
+ (K − K
1
)), hence the complexity reduction in using
proposed power allocation algorithm over the optimal power allocation solution is of
O((n − 1)(K − K
1
)). Note since the subcarrier allocation algorithm used in optimal
and proposed power allocation is same, proposedEQ, and have the same asymptotic
complexity, hence the real computation saving can only be seen in power allocation.
4.4 Simulation Results
To investigate the performance of the proposed algorithms simulation has been
performed with the following parameters: number of subcarriers, N = 64; the number
of users, K, was in between 4 and 16. The channel is considered to be frequency
selective multipath channel consisting of six independent Rayleigh multipaths, with
an exponential decaying proﬁle. The maximum delay spread is 5 microsecond. The
maximum doppler frequency spread is 30 Hz. The total power available at the base
GP Users BE Users
Number of Users First 50% Last 50%
Required BER 10
−5
10
−3
Required Capacity 1 bps/Hz Not Applicable
Example Voice, Video Internet Data
Table 4.1: Traﬃc proﬁle used in simulations
– 63 –
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Number of users (K)
m
i
n
(
R
k
)
[
b
i
t
s
/
s
/
H
z
]
Proposed Optimal at P
e
= 1e3
Proposed Optimal at P
e
= 1e5
Method in Rhee et al. at P
e
= 1e3
Method in Rhee et al. at P
e
= 1e5
FixedTDMA at P
e
= 1e3
FixedTDMA at P
e
= 1e5
Figure 4.2: Capacity in OFDMA system vs. number of users
station is 64 W. The power spectrum density of additive white Gaussian noise is −80
dBW/Hz. The overall bandwidth is 1 MHz. The user locations are assumed to be
equally distributed. The traﬃc behavior is modeled according to the parameters given
in Table 4.1.
Figure 4.2 shows the plot of the minuser’s capacity vs. number of users in the
OFDMA system at diﬀerent BER. We can see from Figure 4.2 that dynamic resource
allocation achieve signiﬁcantly higher capacity gain over ﬁxed time division multiple
access (TDMA) i.e., a ﬁxed time slot is allotted to each user in TDMA. Also the equal
power allocation is shown to give near similar performance as that of optimal power
– 64 –
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
Number of users (K)
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
g
a
i
n
o
v
e
r
T
D
M
A
[
%
]
Proposed Optimal at P
e
= 1e3
Proposed Optimal at P
e
= 1e5
Method in Rhee et al. at P
e
= 1e3
Method in Rhee et al. at P
e
= 1e5
Figure 4.3: Capacity gain over TDMA vs. number of users
allocation.
Figure 4.3 shows the capacity gain vs. the number of users at diﬀerent BER. We
can see that capacity gain of optimal power allocation and equal power allocation over
TDMA increases as the number of user increases. This phenomenon is also known as
multiuser diversity. Also we can see that in a system of 16 users with the proposed
optimal power allocation solution achieves 18.67% and 19.64% more capacity gain than
the scheme with equal power, when compared to ﬁxed TDMA at BER of 10
−3
and 10
−5
respectively.
Figure 4.4 shows an example of capacity comparison between proposedEQ and
– 65 –
(a)
(c) (d)
(b)
1 2 1 2
0
5
10
User Index
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
1 2 1 2
0
5
10
User Index
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
1
2
User Index
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
1
2
User Index
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
BE Users GP Users
BE Users GP Users
BE Users GP Users
BE Users GP Users
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
1
2
User Index
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
1
2
User Index
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
0
2
4
User Index
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
0
2
4
User Index
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
BE Users GP Users
BE Users GP Users
BE Users GP Users
BE Users GP Users
Figure 4.4: Example capacity performance comparison between proposedEQ (ﬁgure
above) and proposedRA (ﬁgure below) for diﬀerent user index. (a) K = 4, (b) K = 8,
(c) K = 12, (d) K = 16
proposedRA algorithms. We notice that GP users adapts to their data rate require
ments (i.e., 1 bps/Hz) after proposedRA algorithm, while for the BE users rate distri
bution is found to be almost same as that of after proposedEQ. This is because we use
equal power allocation method for BE users in both proposedEQ and proposedRA
algorithms.
Figure 4.5 compares minuser’s capacity of GP and BE users vs. number of users.
– 66 –
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0
2
4
6
8
Number of Users (K)
m
i
n
(
R
k
)
[
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
]
proposedRAGP
proposedEQGP
proposedRABE
proposedEQBE
TDMA
A:
B:
C:
D:
E:
C, D
A, B
E
Figure 4.5: minuser’s capacity of GP and BE users vs. number of users
Here, proposedRAGP and proposedEQGP represent the GP user’s performance us
ing proposedRA and proposedEQ algorithms respectively, and similar representation
stands true for BE users. We notice that the minuser’s capacity of GP users remains
constant while those of BE users decreases as the number of users increases. This trend
can easily be understood from Figure 4.4., as the number of users (K) increases the
BE user’s capacity decreases and hence the minuser’s capacity of BE users. BE user’s
capacity performance is also compared with that of the minuser’s capacity perfor
mance of ﬁxed time division multiple access (TDMA) i.e., a ﬁxed time slot is allotted
to each user in TDMA. We notice that adaptive resource allocation performs better
– 67 –
for smaller number of users than for higher number of users. This is because, as the
number of users increases, more resources (subcarrier and power) are needed to fulﬁll
the rate requirements of GP users while BE users are left with lesser resources, and
hence we notice the decrease in minuser’s capacity gain over TDMA with the increase
in number of users.
Since the applications supported in the NextG mobile communication systems are
expected to be heterogeneous in nature hence, it becomes imperative to evaluate the
performance of a network supporting heterogeneous users. In this section, an eﬃcient
subcarrier and power allocation algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE
users diﬀerentiated on the basis of QoS requirements in OFDMA system is proposed
and simulations are performed to evaluate the performance.
4.5 Conclusions
In the ﬁrst part of this chapter, we present an analytical solution for optimal power
allocation to provide services to heterogeneous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of QoS
requirements, which is found to be well known waterﬁlling solution in frequency do
main. Furthermore, we propose a reduced complexity power allocation algorithm,
where we allocate power to GP users using waterﬁlling solution and BE users accord
ing to the equalpower allocation method. Result shows that the equalpower allocation
solution has almost same performance as an optimal solution. At the same time we see
a proportional reduction in computational complexity with the increase in the number
of BE users. This follows from the fact that for the equalpower allocation we need
– 68 –
to equally divide the power among the subcarriers allocated to that of BE users, and
only have to calculate for the optimal power allocation for tight QoS GP users.
In this chapter, we concentrated on discussing a special case of supporting hetero
geneous users i.e., dualservice provisioning. The proposed power allocation algorithm
could be easily modiﬁed for multiservice provisioning by accordingly formulating the
problem to suit the traﬃc scenario. An example could be to limit the minimum and
maximum capacity given to GP and BE users respectively, and to distribute the left
resources fairly among the GP and BE users. Since we cannot use a traﬃc model
universally hence for the proposed power allocation algorithm to be useful in vari
ous scenarios we may need to modify the algorithm according to the necessary traﬃc
demands.
– 69 –
Chapter 5
Conclusions and Further Works
5.1 Conclusions
The underlying philosophy in the problems that are considered in this thesis is how
to provide QoS aware subcarrier and power allocation in OFDMA systems broadband
wireless applications. The resource (subcarrier and power) allocation issues in OFDM
and OFDMA are overviewed in Chapter 2 along with the detailed OFDM system,
channel and traﬃc model. Since the joint optimization problem of subcarrier and power
allocation to satisfy userlevel QoS under the total available power constraint, involves
discrete assignment and is thus not convex in the unknowns of subcarrier allocation and
the available power, making it a NPhard problem. However, if subcarrier allocation
is known, the optimization problem has a closed form solution and can be solved using
canonical algorithms. Following this strategy we propose a decoupled subcarrier and
power allocation algorithm to provide service to heterogeneous users.
In Chapter 3, the problem of subcarrier allocation in singlecell downlink OFDMA
system to provide service to heterogeneous users is studied. We consider the case of
maximizing the system capacity while satisfying the QoS criterion of each user using
Hungarian Algorithm, further we consider the case of maximizing the minimum user’s
– 70 –
capacity using method in Rhee et al. [15]. Next, we extend the method used in Rhee
et al. and propose an algorithm to provide service to dualclass users diﬀerentiated
on the basis of QoS and we refer to it as proposedEQ (EQ stands for EQual power
allocation). We assume that total power is allocated equally among all the subcarriers.
In Chapter 4, we study the problem of power allocation for combined Guaranteed
Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE) users in OFDMA system. In the ﬁrst part of
this chapter, we review the system model and formulate optimization problem to sup
port heterogeneous users (combined GP and BE users) under total power constraints.
Next, we present an analytical framework for optimal power allocation, and we further
propose a reduced complexity suboptimal algorithm to provide service to combined GP
and BE users. Our suboptimal algorithm consists of two stages: First, the power is al
located to GP users following optimal waterﬁlling strategy. Then, the remaining power
is equally distributed among the subcarriers allocated to BE users. Hence, we see a
proportional reduction in computational complexity with the increase in the number
of BE users. This follows from the fact that for the equal power allocation we need to
equally divide the power among the subcarriers allocated to that of BE users, and only
have to calculate for the optimal power allocation for tight QoS GP users. Simulation
results quantify the performance of these techniques and provide design guidelines for
realistic systems.
– 71 –
5.2 Further Works
In this thesis, we proposed a computationally eﬃcient subcarrier and power allo
cation algorithm in OFDMA system to provide service to heterogeneous users. The
advantages of this thesis is that it provides us with a more practical and emerging
framework in soon to be prevailing broadband wireless communication industry. Based
on our observations, it appears that the following research areas are important for suc
cessful buildout of future broadband wireless networks. By no means, however, do
we wish to suggest that these are necessarily the best problems to solve, but it does
provide one viewpoint of the technical challenges and emerging research areas that
will lead to a new network implementation that will support the amalgamation of user
services and QoS requirements.
Multicell Environment
In this study we conﬁned our interest to singlecell scenario as most of other studies
in this area. Extending this study to a multicell case would be of great interest as is
tried recently in [35]. The associated design problem would be to come up with good
algorithm which handle the cochannel interference (CCI) caused by the RF bandwidth
reuse.
Crosslayer Design
As wireless communication evolves from circuitswitched infrastructure to packetbased
infrastructure the crosslayer design approach appear to be real as well as advantageous.
– 72 –
Crosslayer networking is becoming increasingly important as capacities oﬀered through
the Wireless LAN interface approach the level of capacity that can be handled over the
internet backbone [38]. Since the present wireless systems (3G wireless systems) are
based on singlecarrier (such as shared time division) system. Emerging NextG wireless
systems are expected to be based on multicarrier scheme (OFDM) with hundreds or
even thousands of carriers. In the crosslayer networking context, an interesting area
to explore is the design of good algorithm with low complexity [39].
– 73 –
Abbreviations
ABR available bit rate
ATM asynchronous transfer mode
AWGN additive white Gaussian noise
BE best eﬀort
BER bit error rate
BoD bandwidth on demand
BRAN broadband radio access network
BS base station
BWA broadband wireless access
BWIF broadband wireless internet forum
CoS cost of service
CSI channel state information
DAB digital audio broadcasting
DFT discrete Fourier transform
DMT discrete multitone
DSL digital subscriber line
DVB digital video broadcasting
ETSI European telecommunications standards institute
FDM frequency division multiplexing
FDMA frequency division multiple access
FFT fast Fourier transform
GP guaranteed performance
– 74 –
HIPERLAN/2 high performance radio LAN type 2
HPi highspeed portable internet
ICI interchannel interference
IDFT inverse discrete Fourier transform
IFFT inverse fast Fourier transform
ISI intersymbol interference
ISTO industry standards and technology organization
LAN local area network
LMCS local multipoint communication system
LMDS local multipoint distribution system
LOS lineofsight
MAC medium access control
MAN metropolitan area network
NextG next generation
NLOS nonlineofsight
OFDM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
OFDMA orthogonal frequency division multiple access
PDP power delay proﬁle
PHY physical layer
QAM quadrature amplitude modulation
QoS qualityofservice
QPSK quaternary phaseshift keying
– 75 –
RF radio frequency
SNR signaltonoise ratio
TDL tappeddelayline
TDMA time division multiple access
VOFDM vector orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
WSNR worst signaltonoise ratio
– 76 –
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– 82 –
Curriculum Vitae
Name : Mohmmad Anas
Birth Date : June 30, 1980
Birth Place : Unnao, India
Permanent Address : 3 Civil Lines, Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, India, 209801
Education
2003.03–2005.02 Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and
Technology (GIST), Gwangju, Republic of Korea (M.S)
1998.06–2002.06 Electronics Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), Ali
garh, India (B.Tech)
Work Experience
2004.06–2005.02 Study on QoS Aware Resource Allocation for OFDMA Based High
Speed Portable Internet Services, Electronics and Telecommunications Research
Institute (ETRI), Republic of Korea
2003.02–2004.01 Study and Design of Multirate and Multicarrier Receiver for Satel
lite Communication, Agency for Defense Development (ADD), Republic of Ko
rea
Professional Activities
2004.08–Present Student Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics En
gineers (IEEE)
2000.06–2002.06 Student Member of the Institute of Electronics and Telecommuni
cation Engineers (IETE), India
Honors and Awards
2003.03–2005.02 KOSEF scholarship (Full Support) from Ministry of Science and
Technology, Republic of Korea
2003.03–2005.02 Brain Korea 21 (BK21) scholarship from Ministry of Education and
Human Resource Development, Republic of Korea
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2005
QoS Aware Subcarrier and Power Allocation in OFDMA Systems for Broadband Wireless Applications
Advisor: Kiseon Kim by Mohmmad Anas Department of Information and Communications Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
A thesis submitted to the faculty of the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the Department of Information and Communications
Gwangju, Korea December 9, 2004 Approved by Professor Kiseon Kim Thesis Advisor
QoS Aware Subcarrier and Power Allocation in OFDMA Systems for Broadband Wireless Applications
Mohmmad Anas
Accepted in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science
December 9, 2004 Thesis Advisor Prof. Kiseon Kim Committee Member Prof. Shalom Raz Committee Member Prof. Dong Soo Har
To my family and friends for their invaluable love and support .
involves discrete assignment and is thus not convex in the unknowns of subcarrier allocation and the available power. signaltonoise ratio (SNR) or bit error rate (BER). The basic question which we tried answering in this thesis is how to allocate subcarrier and power to provide broadband wireless services to heterogeneous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of required QoS. which is an emerging modulation and multiple access method for next generation (NextG) wireless broadband communication systems. Kiseon Kim. Advisor: Prof. The primary goal in a communications system is Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning. Since. most eﬀorts in literature focus on developing eﬃcient heuristic algorithms which may provide optimal solutions for simple networks or special cases –i– . 2005.MS/IC 20034134 Mohmmad Anas. Considering recent proposals for wide band multimedia services with the existing spectrum allocations shows that spectrum resource management remains an important topic in the near and distant future. 82p. making it a NPhard problem. Department of Information and Communications. which is synonymous to achieving an acceptable data transmission rate. our approach places emphasis on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). the joint optimization problem of allocating subcarrier and power optimally to satisfy userlevel QoS (required data rate and BER) under the total available power constraint. As this problem is NPhard and exhaustive search over all possible allocations is impractical for large scale systems. Abstract Wireless broadband technologies are anticipated to ﬂourish in the next few years. due to the increasing demand for wireless connectivity and the need to support enhanced services and applications in local or wide area environments. QoS Aware Subcarrier and Power Allocation in OFDMA Systems for Broadband Wireless Applications. Using the essential feature of channel orthogonality as a baseline.
Simulation results quantify the performance of these techniques and provide design guidelines for realistic systems. if subcarrier allocation is known. the optimization problem has a closed form solution and can be solved using canonical algorithms. the power is allocated to GP users following optimal waterﬁlling strategy. First. Following this strategy we propose a decoupled subcarrier and power allocation algorithm to provide service to heterogeneous users.algorithms which may provide optimal solutions for simple networks or special cases but are suboptimal in general. the remaining power is equally distributed among the subcarriers allocated to BE users. Then. However. We further divide the optimal power allocation solution and present a computationally eﬃcient suboptimal algorithm for combined Guaranteed Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE) users which allocates power according to QoS. c 2005 Mohmmad Anas ALL RIGHTS RESERVED – ii – . Our suboptimal algorithm consists of two stages.
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As somebody said that graduate school advisor is not just an advisor for the duration of graduate study but is “an advisor for life”. collaboration and precious experiences of Changho Yun. guidance and encouragement during the entire course of my MS studies. but also for the thoroughness and enthusiasm. Hyunduk Kang. Professor Kiseon Kim. Jintae Park. Gwangzeen Ko. I would also like to thank my thesis committee: Professors Shalom Raz and Dong Soo Har not only for their evaluation of this thesis. I must also acknowledge the help and support of fellow students and friends. Discussions in the oﬃce were very helpful in bringing fresh ideas to the work. and Alex Bahrushin for their invaluable comments during the regular Lab Progress Report Workshops. but also this important period in my life. C. I would like to express my gratitude to many people who have enriched not only my research experience. support. and would like to thank him in advance for all his future advice. Kanghee Kim. I would like to express my sincere thanks to my thesis advisor. I would like to thank aﬃliated faculty members of Multimedia Communication Systems Laboratory: Professors R. Jeungmin Joo. Suwon Lee. Seokjin Sung. and Seok Woo –v– . for his continuous support. Seokjoo Shin. Taesik Cho. Insoo Koo. and Younghyun Kim. Kwang Park. The fellow and former members of Multimedia Communication Systems Laboratory have created an environment that was friendly and inspiring. Miheung Choe. Georgy Shevlyakov. Dujeong Choi. Jain. Furthermore. Chiho Lee. I would specially like to acknowledge the friendship. Yeomin Yoon. First of all.Acknowledgements The thesis is the result of two challenging years of study and research. Seungho Bae.
with whom I shared the entire journey towards our MS degrees. I would like to thank my family and relatives. I would also thank my friends in the department and in the school: Akhlaq. and Brain Korea 21 (BK21) from Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development. Omar. who prefer to be called khanhyungnim. They supported me in every possible way and in every single moment during these years and they were always beside me although they were so many thousand miles away. Jeoungrok Yang. cherished friends. HeeSun. Puneeth. The picture is not complete without the special mention of Jisang You. Hyunho Yang. – vi – . support and encouragement have accompanied me throughout my life. Words alone can never express my gratitude. Youngsun Kim. Usman. and Younsuk Koh. Amit. Gopinath. Fahad. Finally. whose love. So I thank all of them for two great years: Eunchan Kim. I am thankful for the excellent research supports provided by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) from Ministry of Science and Technology. Seokhun Cho. Korea. Sungdon Moon. Wooncheol Hwang. and YoungSuk. who have also made up a major part of my daily life. KwanJung. There are of course many more names. too many to distinguish individually.for translating the thesis abstract in Korean language. Hongku Kang. I would also like to thank Wooyoung Chon for her hospitality and gentle care. and Youngwook Lee. Youngsam Kim. Naveen. Farhan. Sooraj.
2 1. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 QoS Aware Resource Allocation . . . . . . . .5 Channel Fading Characteristics . . . Problem Formulation for Subcarrier Allocation in OFDMA System . . Channel for Broadband Wireless Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. Thesis Organization . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 QoS Aware Subcarrier Allocation for Heterogeneous users in OFDMA System 3. . OFDM Overview . .2 2. . . . . .2 Introduction . . Subcarrier and Power Allocation for Heterogeneous Users . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . 2. . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Objectives . . . . . . . .3 Research Background .3 2. Resource Allocation Issues in OFDMA Systems . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Abstract (English) Abstract (Korean) Acknowledgements List of Contents List of Tables List of Figures 1 Introduction 1. . .5. . . .4 2. . . . . Broadband Wireless Traﬃc Model . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .6 Remarks . 28 28 35 – vii – . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . OFDMA System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . i iii v vii ix x 1 1 4 6 8 8 9 10 11 14 14 20 22 24 25 25 27 2 OFDMA System for Broadband Wireless Applications 2. . Tapped Delay Line Channel Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFDM/OFDMA System Model . . . . .
. . Power Allocation for DualService Provisioning in OFDMA System . . . . . . . . . Proposed Power Allocation for Known Subcarrier Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations References – viii – . . . . .3. . . 50 50 53 57 57 59 63 68 70 70 72 74 77 Simulation Results . .2 4. . . . . . . . . 5 Conclusions and Further Works 5. . . . .3. . .5 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hungarian Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 38 41 43 49 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 QoS Aware Power Allocation for Combined Guaranteed Performance and Best Eﬀort Users in OFDMA System 4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . Problem Formulation for Power Allocation in OFDMA System . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 4. . . . .2 Conclusions . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . Proposed Subcarrier Allocation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . .3 Subcarrier Allocation for DualService Provisioning in OFDMA System 3. .5 Optimal Solution . . . . . . . . . . . Further Works . . . . .3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Tables 4. . . . .1 Traﬃc proﬁle used in simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 – ix – . . . . .
.1 2 A mobile user receiving two reﬂected rays that have the same path distance 10 Tapped delay line (TDL) channel model .48 dB. ProposedEQ (EQ stands for EQual power): proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users . . .48 dB . . The general trend will be to provide higher data rates and greater mobility. .48 dB .4 Sum capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al. . K = 4. WSNR = 38 dB 48 –x– . . Γ = 5. . . . . vs. . . . . . . . . vs. . user number. N = 64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . WSNR. . . . . . N = 64. . WSNR. . Spectrum of each subchannel in OFDM . user number. . . . . . . .2 Sum capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al. . System model of a downlink OFDMA system .3 minuser’s capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al.48 dB. . . . . . . N = 64. 42 12 15 19 21 3. . . . . . 45 3. . K = 4. .List of Figures 1. N = 64. . vs.1 2. . . WSNR = 38 dB . . .5 3. 46 3. . vs. WSNR = 38 dB 47 3.6 Computational complexity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al. .2 2. user number. . . Singleuser OFDM transmitter and receiver . 2.3 2.1 Current and future mobile systems. . . . 44 3. Derived from [30]. . Γ = 5. . . . . Γ = 5. N = 64. vs. . . . . . .5 minuser’s capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al. . . .48 dB. . . [4] .4 2. Γ = 5. Γ = 5. .
(c) K = 12. . . number of users .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flowchart of the proposedRA (RA stands for Resource Allocation) algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users . . .4. . . (a) K = 4. . .5 minuser’s capacity of GP and BE users vs. . . (b) K = 8. . . . Example capacity performance comparison between proposedEQ (ﬁgure above) and proposedRA (ﬁgure below) for diﬀerent user index. . – xi – . . . . 66 67 4. number of users . . . . 61 64 65 4. . . . . . .4 Capacity in OFDMA system vs. . . . Capacity gain over TDMA vs. . . number of users . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . (d) K = 16 .
one of the programs of IEEE Industry Standards and Technology Organization (IEEEISTO). –1– . ﬂexibility and ease of system deployment have necessitated wireless access. generally known as Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS). Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) is considered as a standard for next generation (NextG) communication systems providing ﬂexible and easy deployment solution for highspeed communications over a wireless channel [2].16 issued standards for the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers of systems in the 1066 GHz band. and IEEE 802. Presently IEEE 802. The need for ubiquitous coverage and connectivity in all kinds of environment and the increasing user demand for mobility.16a group was formed to develop standards to operate in the 211 GHz band in which channel impairments.1 Research Background Wireless communications has emerged as one of the largest sectors of the telecom munications industry.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. evolving from a niche business in the last decade to one of the most promising areas for growth in the 21st century [1]. Vector Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (VOFDM) is considered as a base setting for BWA systems by the Broadband Wireless Internet Forum (BWIF).
while appropriate multiple access techniques lead to eﬃcient and ﬂexible resource sharing and mitigate the effect of wireless channel impairments on system capacity [11].3 (2003) Hiperlan/2 (2002) 1 3 10 30 100 (2006) Date Rate (Mbps) Figure 1. The general trend will be to provide higher data rates and greater mobility. [4] multipath fading and path loss become more signiﬁcant with the increase in the number of subcarriers [3]. as well as the use of eﬃcient multiple access and signalling schemes. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) has been proposed as the multiple access scheme for several NextG wireless standards. Intensive spectrum reuse guarantees achievability of high transmission rates.Vehicular 4G systems (2012) 5G systems (2020) Mobility WiBro systems 3G systems Pedestrian Stationary 2G systems 0.03 0. Derived from [30]. as a means of achieving high data rates. Another recent development is WiBro also known as HighSpeed Portable internet (HPi) is a Korean technology for NextG communication systems based on IEEE 802. In –2– .1: Current and future mobile systems.1 0.16a/d to be available commercially by 2006 [4]. The ability to support high data rates for broadband wireless applications depends drastically on the availability and aggressive reuse of radio spectrum in all locations.
OFDMA, the available spectrum is divided into multiple orthogonal narrowband subchannels (subcarriers) and information symbols are transmitted in parallel over these low rate subchannels. This method results in reduced intersymbol interference (ISI) and multipath delay spread and thus improvement in capacity and attainable data rates. Independently of the employed multiple access scheme, the foremost goal of a NextG communication system is to provide heterogeneous services with diverse Quality of Service (QoS) requirements [12], which is synonymous to achieving an acceptable data transmission rate, signaltonoise ratio (SNR) or bit error rate (BER). However, wireless channel impairment and users imposes certain constraints on achievability of data rates and BER requirements. Identifying the performance limits of resource allocation with the objective to satisfy all users QoS requirements under the dynamicity of the wireless medium is therefore a challenging problem. Recent studies [14], [15], [16], [17], [19], [20] on resource (subcarrier and power) allocation for the multiuser Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system demonstrate that a signiﬁcant performance gain can be obtained leveraging multiuser diversity assuming knowledge of instantaneous channel gains for all users at the transmitter. It was shown in [17] that data rate of a multiuser OFDM system is maximized when each subcarrier is assigned to only one user with the best channel gain for that subcarrier and the transmit power is distributed over the subcarriers according to the waterﬁlling policy [21]. In addition to the system capacity maximization or transmit power minimization, sometimes depending on the application it becomes imperative to
–3–
investigate the methods to provide userlevel QoS or individual QoS (iQoS) support. Thus in this thesis, we mainly study and investigate the subcarrier and power allocation algorithms to provide userlevel QoS support in OFDMA systems for broadband wireless applications.
1.2
Research Objectives The underlying philosophy in the problems that are considered in this thesis is
how to provide high data rate, and to provide a wider range of services, such as voice communications, videophones, and high speed internet access over scarce and unpredictable wireless channel. To achieve higher data rates and support diverse applications in NextG wireless communication systems it becomes imperative to improve the spectral eﬃciency and to use available resources eﬃciently. This signiﬁcant improvement in spectral eﬃciency can only be achieved by signiﬁcant advances in multiple aspects of cellular communication systems, such as network structure, network management, smart antennas, RF modulation, user allocation, and resource allocation. Resource (channel, total available power) allocation is viewed as an integral part of multiple access that is performed at the MAC layer. Depending on the multiple access scheme, channel can be time slot, carrier frequencies or codes. If the set of users is given, an eﬃcient channel allocation algorithm should try to minimize the number of channels needed to accomodate users and guarantee acceptable link quality for them. By minimizing the number of required channels at any time instant, the system can respond better to a potential sudden load increase or link quality deterioration. Hence,
–4–
the likelihood of blocking a user is minimized. When the number of available channel is provided, the objective of the of channel allocation is to maximize the system capacity, i.e., the number of accommodated users with acceptable link quality. If users have diﬀerent rate requirements and need additional channels, the objective becomes to maximize the total achievable rate of users in the system. In this thesis, we address resource allocation issues in the context of multiple access schemes with orthogonal channels. Using the essential feature of channel orthogonality as a baseline, our approach places an emphasis on OFDMA, which presents some novel challenges in resource allocation and provides additional ﬂexibility in adapting transmission to varying channel conditions. The basic question which we tried answering in this thesis is how to allocate subcarrier and power to provide broadband wireless services to heterogeneous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of required QoS. Since, the joint optimization problem of allocating subcarrier and power optimally to satisfy userlevel QoS (required data rate and BER) under the total available power constraint, involves discrete assignment and is thus not convex in the unknowns of subcarrier allocation and the available power, making it a NPhard problem [25]. As this problem is NPhard and exhaustive search over all possible allocations is impractical for large scale systems, most eﬀorts in literature focus on developing eﬃcient heuristic algorithms which may provide optimal solutions for simple networks or special cases but are suboptimal in general [32]. However, if subcarrier allocation is known, the optimization problem has a closed form solution and can be solved using canonical algorithms. Following this strategy we decouple our problem into subcarrier allocation and power allocation
–5–
In Chapter 3. Later in this chapter we study the resource allocation issues in OFDMA based systems to be tackled in following chapters of the thesis.3 Thesis Organization The problems that are considered in this thesis are organized as follows: In Chapter 2. 1. [15]. and propose an algorithm to provide service to heterogeneous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of QoS and we refer to it as proposedEQ (EQ stands for EQual power allocation). further we consider the case of maximizing the minimum user’s capacity using method in Rhee et al. we describe the OFDMA system model referenced throughout this thesis. In Chapter 4. Next. Firstly. we study the problem of power allocation for combined Guaranteed –6– . we present an overview of OFDMA based BWA system.to provide service to heterogeneous users. We assume that total power is allocated equally among all the subcarriers. Further we explain the channel and traﬃc model assumed. we extend the method used in Rhee et al. we focus on subcarrier allocation algorithms to provide service to heterogenous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of QoS in OFDMA system. We further decouple the optimal power allocation solution and present a computationally eﬃcient suboptimal algorithm which allocates power according to the QoS requirements. We consider the case of maximizing the system capacity while satisfying the QoS criterion of each user using Hungarian Algorithm. Simulation results illustrate the comparative performance of Hungarian Algorithm and Method in Rhee et al.
the remaining power is equally distributed among the subcarriers allocated to BE users. we review the system model and formulate optimization problem to support heterogeneous users (GP and BE users) under total power constraints. the power is allocated to GP users following optimal waterﬁlling strategy. First. Then. In the ﬁrst part of this chapter. In Chapter 5. we summarize the contributions of this thesis and present some directions of future study. we present an analytical framework for optimal power allocation and we further propose a reduced complexity suboptimal algorithm. Next.Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE) users in OFDMA system. Simulation results quantify the performance of these techniques and provide design guidelines for realistic systems. Our suboptimal algorithm consists of two stages. –7– .
which is currently the modulation choice for high speed data access systems such as IEEE 802. the wideband spectrum is divided into orthogonal narrowband subcarriers as in frequency division multiplexing. OFDMA is an extension of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). It has also been proposed by IEEE 802. each of –8– .1 Introduction Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) has been proposed as the modulation and multiple access method for several NextG Wireless standards. as a means of achieving high data rates. In OFDM. OFDM is based on the principal of multicarrier transmission.11a/g and ETSI HiperLAN/2 standards for Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) [5].16 working groups for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) and ﬁxed Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) [3] respectively.15 and IEEE 802. [7] as well as the digital audio/video broadcasting (DAB/DVB) standards [8]. which was applied earlier in high bitrate Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs). [6]. also known as Discrete MultiTone (DMT).Chapter 2 OFDMA System for Broadband Wireless Applications 2. The bit stream is split into subsets. [9] in Europe.
2 Channel for Broadband Wireless Applications An important requirement for assessing technology for Broadband wireless appli cations is to have an accurate description of the wireless channel. tapped delay line channel model. Modulation and demodulation of subcarriers during transmission and reception are implemented with Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) and DFT respectively. Next.. we developed a mathematical model for OFDMA system to be referenced throughout this thesis. traﬃc model for providing heterogeneous services is discussed and ﬁnally. Since. Channel models are heavily dependent upon the radio architecture. the signals are separated at the receiver.which constitutes a subsymbol. For example. the resource allocation issues in OFDMA based systems to provide NextG broadband wireless services are studied. OFDMA is based on OFDM we mathematically discussed the singleuser OFDM transmitter and receiver structure. Later.e. 2. In this chapter. we brieﬂy reviewed the channel fading characteristics and then we present a practical channel model i. Due to this orthogonality. a supercell or “singlestick” architecture is used where Base Station (BS) and the subscriber station are in LineofSight (LOS) condition and the system uses a –9– . in ﬁrst generation systems. The orthogonality of signals in diﬀerent subcarriers is preserved by appropriate selection of frequency spacing between the subcarriers. Each subsymbol modulates a diﬀerent subcarrier and several subsymbols of a user are transmitted in parallel over these low rate subcarriers. used for broadband wireless applications [10].
2. The quality of wireless link between a transmitter and receiver depends on radio propagation parameters (path loss. For second generation systems a scalable multicell architecture with NonLineofSight (NLOS) conditions becomes necessary [10]. Shadowing is caused by large obstacles such as buildings and the incurred loss is modeled as a lognormal distributed random variable. – 10 – . which is further used in the simulations. Path loss stems from wave propagation attenuation in free space. 2.1 Channel Fading Characteristics The inherent volatility of the wireless medium constitutes the major diﬃculty in the design of wireless networks. shadowing. multipath fading) and cochannel interference.1: A mobile user receiving two reﬂected rays that have the same path distance single cell with no cochannel interference. Mutipath fading arises due to the additive and subtractive eﬀect of delays and amplitudes from multiple paths.Figure 2. In the following subsections various channel fading characteristics are explained in brief and a tapped delay line (TDL) channel model is explained.
This problem is eﬀectively dealt using the frequency equalization used at the receiver side in actual systems. If the time diﬀerence between the time delays of the paths is smaller than the reciprocal of the transmitted signal bandwidth. in a way we assume that complete frequency estimation is well done and frequency equalization is not necessary. there exist a number of diﬀerent paths between the transmitter and the receiver due to the reﬂection and scattering of the radio waves. a broadband wireless link is characterized both by timevarying behavior due to the aforementioned factors and by frequency selectivity caused by the multipath propagation and delay spread.The timevarying nature of these factors due to transmitter or receiver mobility and movement of the surrounding objects causes the quality of a narrowband wireless link ﬂuctuate in time. In other words.2 Tapped Delay Line Channel Model In the wireless communication environments. the receiver sees only the superposition of the arriving signals without distinguishing several paths [33]. On the other hand. 2. In the simulations performed we assume that complete channel state information (CSI) is known at the receiver. In the following subsection we study the Tapped Delay Line (TDL) channel model which eﬀectively models multipath channel but is somehow ineﬀective to deal with the channels like frequency dispersive channels which lead to frequency oﬀset among the received spectrum.2. The frequency selectivity can lead to ISI and thus signiﬁcantly degrade the link quality. the paths with approximately same delays are combined together and regarded – 11 – .
As a result of high phase variations of such components. The twopath model is the simplest form of the TDL model which is composed of a direct path and one dominant delayed path. (2.2: Tapped delay line (TDL) channel model as one path in the receiver. the impulse response for the radio channel can be represented by a weighted sum of delayed delta functions: L−1 h(t) = l=0 dl δ(t − τl ) (2. the multipath channel is often represented by a TDL channel model with a ﬁnite number of paths.2. The corresponding frequency response. each tap coeﬃcient dl results from the vectorial sum of the multipath components with approximately the same delay. the amplitude – 12 – . Consequently.1) which is the wellknown TDL channel model shown in Figure 2.2) Due to scattering of each wave in the vicinity of a moving mobile.s(t) τ0 τ1 − τ 0 τ 2 − τ1 τ L−1 − τ L− 2 d0 d1 d2 dL1 r(t) Figure 2. By approximating the multiple paths as a ﬁnite number of L distinct paths. or the channel transfer function at the radian frequency ω is given by L−1 H(ω) = l=0 dl e−jωτl .
given by its direction relative to the mobile direction of movement. the eﬀect of shadowing (the largescale fading) and pathloss can also be included in the channel model.3) where fD = υ/λ is the maximum Doppler shift.5) – 13 – . a function of the mobile speed υ and the wavelength λ. If a signiﬁcant number of multipath components with approximately equal power are present in a time bin. τ ) = Gσ(t) l=0 dl (t)δ(t − τl ) (2. Several statistical distributions have been studied and applied to describe the fast variations of the signal amplitude. the timevarying fading of the path amplitude is well described by a Rayleigh distribution varying according to a classical Doppler spectrum: S(f ) ∝ 1 1 − (f /fD )2 (2. In addition to the multipath fading (the smallscale fading). In some cases a strong direct wave or specular reﬂection exists which gives rise to a nonfading path. the complete characterization of timevarying channel impulse response h(t.4) where fs is the Doppler frequency of the direct path. Therefore. τ ) is given by L−1 h(t. when there is a stronger path in a time bin. then the Doppler spectrum is: S(f ) = δ(fs ) (2. On the other hand. the amplitude fading follows a Rice distribution.and phase of each tap vary rapidly.
G is the pathloss. τ )dτ + η (t) ˜ (2. The basic principle of OFDM is to convert a highspeed serial data stream into a number of – 14 – .8) where.6) where. The transmitted signal is s(t) = x(t)ej2πfc t (2. L is the number of paths in the multipath and dl (t).where. Since it is important to study OFDM to have a complete understanding of OFDMA. ˜ 2. +∞ x(t) = i=−∞ b(i)g(t − iT ) (2. η (t) is the receiver noise process. fc is the carrier frequency and x(t) is the complex baseband signal. σ(t) denotes timevarying shadowing. This is expressed as. 2. T is the symbol duration and g(.3.) is the pulse shaping waveform. τl are the timevarying gain and time delay for the lth path.3 OFDM/OFDMA System Model OFDMA is a combination of modulation scheme that resembles OFDM and a multi ple access scheme that combine Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). {bi }+∞ −∞ is the symbol sequence. The signal at the receiver input is r(t) = s(t − τ )h(t. Hence.1 OFDM Overview OFDM is a parallel transmission scheme using multiple subcarriers. in the following subsections we will study the basic OFDM/OFDMA system model to be referenced throughout this thesis.7) where.
Increase in the symbol duration subsequently mitigates the intersymbol interference (ISI) eﬀect caused by timedispersion of a multipath channel. In addition. the OFDM symbol duration is N times long. The ISI can be completely removed if each OFDM symbol is preceded by a guard interval which is longer than the maximum channel delay.Channel State Information Adaptive Modulator 1 bit stream Serial to Parallel Adaptive Modulator 2 IDFT Cyclic Prefix D/A Baseband to RF Adaptive Modulator N Channel Channel State Information RF to Baseband A/D Remove Cyclic Prefix IDFT Frequency Domain Equalization (FEQ) Detection Parallel bits out to Serial Figure 2. the interchannel interference (ICI) can also be eliminated by ﬁlling the guard interval with a periodic extension of the OFDM symbol itself (cyclic preﬁx). For the OFDM system with N subcarriers. as compared to the symbol duration of the original serial data stream. – 15 – .3: Singleuser OFDM transmitter and receiver lowspeed parallel data streams transmitted simultaneously by means of a number of subcarriers.
N − 1}. A cyclic preﬁx of ν time samples with total duration larger than the maximum delay spread is appended to the N time samples.9) √ where. . All subsymbols are then fed into an IDFT module and are transformed into time samples {xi }N −1 . .OFDM Transmitter and Receiver Structure The schematic diagram of a singleuser OFDM transmitter and receiver with N subcarriers is depicted in Figure 2. The pulseshaping ﬁlter g(t) is taken to be normalized to unit. . 1 x(t) = √ N N −1 bn ej2πnt/T . whose i=0 output is a continuous signal. The number of allocated bits per subcarrier depends on the subcarrier quality. Assuming that OFDM symbols do not interfere with each other. The OFDM symbol is further divided into N bit subgroups. it suﬃces to concentrate on one OFDM symbol. 0 ≤ t ≤ T n=0 (2. The bit stream is divided into bit groups and each bit group constitutes one OFDM symbol. as a means of eliminating ISI. where xi is. i=0 1 xi = √ N N −1 bn ej2πin/N n=0 (2.3. Better quality subcarriers can carry more bits and maintain acceptable bit error rate (BER) at the receiver. The complex subsymbol bn at the output of the nth modulator is selected from QAM or QPSK constellation and the modulation level of bn depends on the number of allocated bits in the nth subcarrier. The sequence {xi }N −1 is then passed to a D/A converter. .10) where. T is the symbol duration. The bits in the nth subgroup are fed into the nth modulator and modulate the nth subcarrier. Note that the signal in the frequency domain consists of N sinc(πf T ) – 16 – . 1. 1/ N is a scale factor. n = {0.
5) simpliﬁes to L h(t) = l=1 βl δ(t − τl ) (2.14) L N −1 bn ξl (n)e−j2πnk/N + ηk l=1 n=0 (2.11) where. At the receiver. each shifted in frequency by 1/T . η(t) is the baseband noise process. The k th sample is given as 1 rk = √ N where ξl (n) = βl e−j2π(fc +n/T )τl (2. .13) captures the diﬀerent impact of the lth path delay on diﬀerent subcarriers and ηk are noise samples. The time samples {rk }N −1 enter the DFT module and the subsymbol k=0 at the subcarrier n is given as 1 Rn = √ N N −1 rk e−j2πnk/N k=0 (2. all the propagation eﬀects are captured by the parameter βl . If the channel is invariant for the duration of one OFDM symbol. . Then the signal is digitized by being sampled at time points kT /N . The baseband signal is upconverted and transmitted through the channel. the subsymbols at diﬀerent subcarriers can be distinguished at the receiver. (2.12) where. N − 1. The signal after downconversion is L r(t) = l=1 βl e−j2πfc τl x(t − τl ) + η(t) (2.15) – 17 – . 1. the signal is translated to baseband and its cyclic preﬁx is removed. where each such function corresponds to the Fourier transform of the unit pulse. . Due to the property of the sinc(πf T ) function that is zero at the integer multiples of 1/T . for k = 0.functions. .
. the receiver needs CSI in terms of frequencydomain channel transfer function values at subcarrier frequencies. Given that the transmitter communicates the utilized modulation level of each subcarrier at the receiver. .16) where. For slowly timevarying channels. the Maximum Likelihood (ML) detector decides ˜ about the transmitted subsymbol based on Rn /hn . 1.17) ˜ The estimates hn are used for frequencydomain equalization (FEQ). . N − 1 (2. ηn is the noise level at the subcarrier n. the minimummeansquarederror (MMSE) estimate of the complex gain is obtained hn is obtained as yn ηn ˜ hn = = hn + . . 1. N − 1 en en (2. namely compensation for the phase and amplitude for the phase and amplitude of received subsymbols prior to detection. Channel estimation can be performed with pilot symbols that are interspersed with transmitted data symbols. The received subsymbols are scaled versions of the transmitted ones and the complex parameters hn captures the eﬀects of the multipath channel at subcarrier n. we assume that perfect CSI is available at the transmitter and the receiver. . n = 0.After some algebraic manipulations and by using the orthogonality property we have L Rn = b n l=1 ξl (n) + ηn = hn bn + ηn . In order to retrieve the transmitted symbol. Assuming that all transmitted subsymbols are normalized to unit power. . The received n=0 pilot subsymbol at subcarrier n after DFT is yn = en hn + ηn . In this study. the transmitter can obtain reliable CSI with feedback from the receiver. A pilot symbol e consists of known subsymbols {en }N −1 . n = 0. the signaltonoise ratio – 18 – . . . Then.
OFDM transmission increases the eﬀective symbol duration and reduces the eﬀective symbol duration and reduces the eﬀective symbol transmission rate.19) √ pn multiplies subcarrier n in where.4.4: Spectrum of each subchannel in OFDM (SNR) at the receiver at the nth subcarrier is.18) becomes. since information is essentially transmitted over narrowband subcarriers. SN Rn = hn 2 pn = Hn pn σ2 (2. Hn is carriertonoise ratio (CNR) for the nth subcarrier.Figure 2. Thus.9) then. for much higher spectral eﬃciency than that of simple frequency division multiplexing (FDM). it provides high immunity to ISI and delay – 19 – . σ 2 is the noise variance and hn 2 is the link gain of subcarrier n.18) where. a term (2. SN Rn = hn 2 σ2 (2. When the transmitter uses power level pn for subcarrier n. as shown in Figure 2. Advantages of OFDM The orthogonality between the subcarrier frequencies in OFDM makes it possible to overlap subchannel spectra. (2.
the serial data stream from the K users are fed into the encoder block. The number of bits and power allocated to each subcarrier is also determined in the process. K denotes the total number of users and N denotes the total number of subcarriers. and divides the available subcarriers into logical groups called subchannels.5. In addition. (2) a subcarrier at a particular time is not being shared among users. alternatively one subcarrier is assigned to only one user at a time.spread. OFDM provides additional ﬂexibility in adapting transmission to varying link conditions. We invoke the following assumptions for rest of the thesis: (1) the transmitter has perfect knowledge of the CSI. At the transmitter. Unlike OFDM that transmits the same amount of energy in each subcarrier. the equalization procedure at the receiver simpliﬁes to scalar multiplication for each subcarrier. by allowing adaptation for each subsymbol in a subcarrier [31]. Furthermore. In this thesis. OFDMA may transmit diﬀerent amounts of energy in each subchannel. Here. we assume that a subcarrier at a particular time is not being shared among users. the subcarrier and bit/power allocation algorithm is applied to assign diﬀerent subcarriers to diﬀerent users. In the ﬁgure. since the frequencyselective broadband channel is divided into a set of frequency nonselective subcarriers. we consider the downlink OFDMA system model as shown in Figure 2. This information is used to conﬁgure the encoder and – 20 – . 2. Using the channel information from all K users.2 OFDMA System Model OFDMA typically uses FFT size much higher than OFDM.3.
….n User 1. Subcarrier N User k.…. User K. Rk Subcarrier and bit/power allocation information IFFT and Parallel to Serial Add cyclic prefix and D/A Channel for User 1 Channel for User 2 Figure 2.…. Hk. R1 User 2. Channel for User K Subcarrier 1 FFT and Serial to Parallel Subcarrier 2 Subcarrier Selector User k decoder .5: System model of a downlink OFDMA system – 21 – . Subcarrier N … Channel for User k ..Base Station Transmitter Subcarrier and bit/power allocation algorithm Channel condition from user k. R2 Encoder . RK Receiver for User 1 Receiver for User 2 Receiver for User K A/D and remove cyclic prefix Receiver for User k Subcarrier 1 Subcarrier 2 .
2.the input data is encoded and transmitted accordingly.4 Broadband Wireless Traﬃc Model The NextG broadband wireless communication systems are designed to provide broadband.n for the k th user’s nth subcarrier data symbol may be written as √ zk.21) is analogous to the SNR of singleuser OFDM system and can be derived similarly as in (2.5. B is assumed to be total available bandwidth.n = bk. N0 is the noise power spectral density and Hk.21) where.n is CNR for the k th user’s nth subcarrier.n denotes a set of data symbols and the power allocated for the k th user’s nth subcarrier respectively. hk. hence SNR for the k th user’s nth subcarrier signal is.n  hk.n Hk. We notice that (2.19). packet oriented connection to a wireless user that is comparable to wired – 22 – . At the receiver.n + ηn (2. According to the diagram in Figure 2.20) where.n pk.n is a random variable representing the fading for the nth subcarrier between the base station and k th users receiver. Under the assumptions above.n hk. the decision statistic zk.n B N0 N (2. ηn denotes the additive white Gaussian noise B (AWGN) with mean zero and variance σ 2 = N0 N . the transmitted signal from the base station is detected by the k th user’s receiver. we assume that bk and pk.n pk. the subcarrier and bit/power allocation information is used to conﬁgure the subcarrier selector and decoder to extract the data from the subcarriers assigned to the k th user.n 2 = = pk. SNRk.
the contract is signed and the communication is established. diﬀerentiated on the basis of – 23 – . rBERk ]. oBERk ] to user k plus a cost of service (CoS) estimation oCoSk . If the oﬀer fulﬁll the requirements and the cost is acceptable. Further. the NET layer is submitting the RRM layer the requested QoS proﬁles: rQoSk = [rRk . and then another rQoSk is submitted. This is in contrast to cellular wireless voice systems where the performance studies focused on physical and link layer performance with a relatively simple traﬃc generation model. Guaranteed Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE). At each traﬃc realization. we consider two types of QoS proﬁles (users). The system reference model considered in this thesis as in [16] consists of four communication layers: Application. For each user k. a given user chooses randomly the requested QoS proﬁles rQoSk from the set of available QoS proﬁles. traﬃc behavior is modelled in the following way. Radio Resource Management (RRM) and Physical (PHY). like that of wired systems. Network (NET). Otherwise some users are dropped or their rQoSk is downscaled if permitted (soft QoS approach). the traﬃc characteristics and system requirements of the various applications can vary widely. Here. which here is the BS transmission power. specifying the required rate rRk and bit error rate rBERk for user k. The RRM layer. responds with a set of QoS proﬁles that can be oﬀered oQoSk = [oRk . The performance of such broadband wireless systems is thus very much dependent on the details of applications and their traﬃc models. It is expected that there will be a mix of user applications. In this thesis. aiming at optimal resource allocation.broadband connections that are in use today.
such as voice communications. such as bounded BER.5 Resource Allocation Issues in OFDMA Systems The underlying philosophy in the problems that are considered in this thesis is how to provide high data rate. are called BE services. Applications that require guaranteed QoS. which can adapt to the bandwidth unused by the GP service classes. So far. are called GP services. On the other hand. several papers [14][22] have dealt with the problem of resource allocation in multiuser OFDM system under various constraints. that is left unused by the GP users. In particular. this corresponds to Available Bit Rate (ABR) service category [23]. applications which are less sensitive to instantaneous variations in available bandwidth and which do not require guarantees on throughput. To achieve higher data rates and support diverse applications in NextG wireless communication systems it becomes imperative to improve the spectral eﬃciency and to use available resources eﬃciently.required data rate and BER criteria. and to provide a wider range of services. videophones. and a guarantee on the throughput. In this section. we brieﬂy study the issues in providing QoS aware resource (subcarrier and power) allocation in OFDMA systems for broadband wireless applications. 2. – 24 – . In the context of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). and high speed internet access over scarce and unpredictable wireless channel. we suppose that the BE users share the remaining bandwidth.
In response to these diverse requirements network designer may choose to support a variety of services with guaranteed QoS and high bandwidth utilization while servicing maximum number of users.e.2 Subcarrier and Power Allocation for Heterogeneous Users In multiuser system using static TDMA or FDMA as multiple access schemes. Second. to maximize the sum capacity of the system under the transmit power constraints. to satisfy the QoS (data rate and BER) constraints of each user of the system. Recent researches in the area of providing QoS aware resource allocation in multiuser OFDM systems can be subdivided in two broad categories: One. is to provide userlevel QoS provisioning i. to provide highrate data communication over a wireless channel [3]. or to minimize the transmit power under the data rate constraints. For example. less interest is shown in the area of userlevel QoS provisioning. it requires more bandwidth to provide video service than one for data service. 2. Though several works are done in the area of systemlevel QoS provisioning.5. and in general voice service is given higher priority than either a data or a video service..1 QoS Aware Resource Allocation BWA based on OFDMA is considered as a standard for NextG communication systems.e. Since one of the goals of NextG is to provide heterogeneous services with diverse QoS requirements [12] and diﬀerent broadband services require diﬀerent amount of rates and diﬀerent priorities [27].2.5. each user is allocated a predetermined time slot or frequency band to apply OFDM with – 25 – . is to provide systemlevel QoS provisioning i..
involves discrete assignment and is thus not convex in the unknowns of subcarrier allocation and the available power. Since. As this problem is NPhard and exhaustive search over all possible allocations is impractical for large scale systems. Resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems could be divided into allocating subcarrier and power to individual users under various constraints. However. the joint optimization problem of allocating subcarrier and power optimally to satisfy userlevel QoS (required data rate and BER) under the total available power constraint. most eﬀorts in literature focus on developing eﬃcient heuristic algorithms which may provide optimal solutions for simple networks or special cases but are suboptimal in general [32]. the subcarriers which appear in deep fade to one user may not be in deep fade for other users. as the fading parameters for diﬀerent users are mutually independent. This approach will allow all the subcarriers to be used more eﬀectively because a subcarrier will be left unused only if it appears to be in deep fade to all users. the optimization problem has a closed form solution and can be solved using canonical algorithms. an optimal power allocation is proposed for a determined subcar – 26 – . Few recent researches like in [19]. making it a NPhard problem [25]. Consequently. This motivates us to consider an adaptive multiuser subcarrier allocation scheme where the subcarriers are assigned based on instantaneous channel information. it is quiet unlikely that a subcarrier will be in deep fade for all users. these unused subcarrier (as a result of adaptive modulation) within the allocated time slot or frequency band of a user are wasted and are not used by other users.adaptive modulation. However. if subcarrier allocation is known. In fact.
traﬃc model used in this thesis is explained i. Finally. 2. Further. combined GP and BE users. we describe the OFDMA system model to be referenced throughout the thesis. furthermore resource allocation issues in OFDMA were addressed.. Firstly. some research issues to provide QoS aware resource allocation in OFDMA system for broadband wireless applications were explained.rier assignment scheme to satisfy each user’s data rate proportionally. TDL channel model is studied which is a practical channel model used for the simulation of broadband wireless networks [10]. which makes it a superior technique to provide higher spectral eﬃciency than other static multiplexing schemes like FDM. – 27 – . Additionally. Next. This motivates us to carry out subcarrier allocation and power allocation algorithms separately and sequentially to provide service to heterogeneous users in OFDMA systems. basic principles of OFDM/OFDMA which makes them suitable for broadband wireless applications were summarized.6 Remarks In this chapter. we present a detailed overview of OFDM system (transmitter and receiver) and then we discussed the advantages of OFDM like orthogonality.e.
All these should be achieved with a minimum use of limited resources.1 Introduction The realization of wireless communication to support high data rates. is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). which satisﬁes these demands.Chapter 3 QoS Aware Subcarrier Allocation for Heterogeneous users in OFDMA System 3. OFDMA is a unique enhancement to existing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) technology. It overcomes interference and – 28 – . such as RF bandwidth and transmission power. and operation in hostile multipath radio channel environment is a new challenge for the future generation mobile communication systems. provision of various Quality of Service (QoS) proﬁles for multiple users. One of the most promising modulation and multiple access techniques. bidirectional and highspeed ﬂow of data for multiple subscribers is allocated according to customer requirements. OFDMA enables carriers to traverse the lastmile bottleneck and provide users with enhanced broadband services. OFDMA facilitates optimal use of bandwidth over the given frequencies without collision between channels. The optimized use of bandwidth for the simultaneous.
in a multiuser environment the subcarriers that are in deep fade over the links between the BS and the designated mobile user may not be in deep fade over the link between the BS and other mobile users. an OFDMA multiuser system is shown to oﬀer substantially large capacity increase over OFDMTDMA. In fact. Within each time slot.[20] have dealt with the problem of subcarrier allocation for downlink multiuser OFDM system. This motivates us to consider the multiple access scheme that users share the downlink transmission by adaptively using diﬀerent subcarriers. it is unlikely that a subcarrier will be in deep fade over all the links as the fading statistics over these links are mutually independent. This approach allows all the subcarriers to be used eﬀectively and a subcarrier is left unused only when it experiences deep fade in all the BS to mobile links. where subcarriers experiencing deep fade are wasted because they are not power eﬃcient to carry any information bit [18]. by using logical subchannels that support scalability. channel adaptation here is limited to singleuser loading. Though the OFDMTDMA scheme oﬀers certain capacity gain over conventional TDMA scheme with ﬁxed modulation. Existing subcarrier and power allocation schemes combine OFDM with static Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). OFDM plus waterﬁlling can be employed to maximize the capacity.provides maximum Bandwidth on Demand (BoD). However. We can subdivide the related previous works in – 29 – . many papers [14]. In [14]. multiple access and an advanced array of processing capabilities. instead of using diﬀerent time slots as in TDMA system. and handle multiple access by letting users communicate with the base station (BS) in separate time slot(s). Assuming that the transmitter knows the instantaneous channel transfer functions for all users.
and then singleuser bit allocation is applied on the allocated subcarriers. One of the earliest eﬀorts to provide analysis for the resource allocation in multiuser OFDM systems is done in [14]. to provide system level QoS provisioning i.two broad categories: One. Wong et al. [20]. In this work authors attempted to minimize the total transmit power under ﬁxed QoS requirements and a given set of user data rates by adaptively assigning subcarriers to the users along with the number of bits and power level to each subcarrier. Second is to provide userlevel QoS provisioning i. [16].. the transmit power can be reduced by about 35 dB from the conventional OFDM with adaptive modulation and adaptive – 30 – . Likewise.. the overall required transmit power can be reduced by about 510 dB from the conventional OFDM without adaptive modulation. In the following subsections the related previous works done towards QoS provisioning in OFDMA systems are brieﬂy discussed. They focus on the practical algorithms that can support realtime multimedia data whose data rates are generally ﬁxed and BER requirements are same. In particular they proposed a Lagrangian based algorithm to derive an adaptive subcarrier and bit allocation algorithm. [17].e. or to minimize the transmit power under the data rate constraints [14]. to satisfy the QoS (data rate and BER) constraints of each user of the system [18]. [19]. Given the instantaneous channel information. Using this scheme. the algorithm obtains a suboptimal subcarrier allocation. Systemlevel QoS Provisioning 1. to maximize the sum capacity of the system under the transmit power constraints.e. [15].
Rhee et al. In this paper an optimal solution is derived but is said to be not useful for real time communication.. minimization of transmit power under the data rate constraints) and rate adaptive (i.bit allocation. 2. dynamic subchannel allocation is performed to maximize the minimum capacity of all users under the total transmit power constraint. In [15]. This paper assumes perfect channel estimation.. Hence.e. but points out that channel estimation in wireless fading channels is in general not very accurate. detailed sensitivity studies are necessary before the algorithm can be applied to practical systems. Hence. Moreover. This paper’s result shows that the suboptimal algortihm with ﬂat energy distribution over all subchannels can perform almost as well as the optimal power and subchannel allocation scheme. An alternative approach to reduce the computation complexity in [22] propose a linear programming method for solving margin adaptive (i. the same improvement can also be translated to a reduction in the outage probability or to an increase in the area of coverage. This suboptimal algorithm oﬀers a signiﬁcant computational advantage while incurring small performance degradation. This reduction in transmit power can also be translated to a signiﬁcant reduction in the required bit SNR for a given BER. but without adaptive subacarrier allocation. a reduced complexity suboptimal adaptive subchannel allocation algorithm is proposed for the downlink of an OFDM broadband system. the eﬀect of nonideal channel information on the performance of any resource allocation scheme is very important. maximization of system capacity under the power constraints) problems and compared the performance with – 31 – .e.
to avoid the computational burden in calculating the waterﬁlling level this paper also has proposed an equalpower allocation scheme in which users with the best channel gain for each subcarrier are selected and then transmit power is equally distributed among the subcarriers. [15] can be converted into linear optimization with integer variables. and that the optimal subcarrier and bit allocation is achieved by integer programming (IP). which allows for eﬃcient management of resources on the system level (for use of any service proﬁle. Moreover. It is shown that for the maximization of sum capacity.[14] and [15] respectively. uplink requires more concern on synchronization issues. This paper conclude mentioning that the proposed solution can be applied both to the downlink and the uplink. 3. In [17] an analytical proof for optimal subcarrier allocation. for transmit power adaptation is given to maximize the sum capacity of the users. subcarrier should be assigned to only one user which has the best channel gain for the subcarrier and the transmit power should be distributed over the subcarriers following the waterﬁlling policy. which extends the set of required QoS parameters to bit rate and BER and ﬁxed modulation is assumed. They have shown that the nonlinear optimization problem in [14]. In [16] a simple modiﬁcation of [14] is made. However. The minimization of the total transmit power is a fair optimization criterion in both cases. Jang et al. Pietrzyk et al. 4. In this work a general contract based QoS framework is proposed. – 32 – . which is essential for multimedia traﬃc).
bit. 1. [19]. and is shown that this gives higher capacities over [15]. Subcarrier and power allocation is carried out sequentially to reduce the complexity. This paper further proposes two special cases where the computational complexity is shown to be of the order O(K). and an optimal power allocation procedure is derived. and (2) subcarrier assignment and bit loading based on the user’s channel proﬁles across all subcarriers. which is a NPhard combinatorial problem. In [19] an optimal power allocation is proposed to satisfy each users data rate proportionally for a determined subcarrier assignment scheme. 2. In [18] a two step suboptimal algorithm is proposed that maximizes total rate subject to each user’s data rate and the total power constraints. Yin et al. The results are compared with the suboptimal algorithm proposed in [15]. This algorithm uses Hungarian algorithm for subcarrier assignment which is an optimal scheme but is said to be suboptimal as it estimates the number of subcarriers given to each user in the ﬁrst step. Though this paper suggests a way to provide proportional fairness among users but it didn’t consider the BER diﬀerentiation among users. – 33 – . The proposed scheme determines the subcarrier.Userlevel QoS Provisioning Recent works [18]. and power allocation by decoupling a NPhard combinatorial problem into two steps: (1) estimate how much power and how many subcarriers for each user based on the user’s average channel gains and their rate requirements. [20] are done in the area of providing userlevel QoS provisioning. Shen et al.
[16]. Hungarian algorithm. [18]. Though swapping is a very logical step but very few papers present results considering subcarrier swapping in an OFDMA based system. [22] is described bit diﬀerently as compared to [15].2 we formulate a general problem for subcarrier allocation to maximize the total system throughput while satisfying the total power and each user’s QoS (data rate and BER) constraints. none of the papers studied to provide the userlevel QoS support for users diﬀerentiated both on the basis of rate and BER. which requires high complexity to be implemented in practical. Ergen et al. At the same time. In this author used linear programming technique as in [22] and Hungarian algorithm for subcarrier assignment. The outline of this chapter is as follows: In Section 3. The problem in this case should be solved by a nonlinear programming technique [15]. [19]. [17]. [18]. In Section 3. When the requirements for each user’s data rate and BER are given. The objective function used in [14]. the subcarrier assignment and transmit power allocation problem become more complex to be analytically solved as compared to when there are no constraints on each user’s data rate and BER [32]. One of the strengths of this algorithm is that it took advantage by swapping the subcarriers among users if it contributes towards the reduction of transmit power.3 an optimal method. [20]. So far several suboptimal algorithms have been proposed to solve the problem such as iterative method in [14] and heuristic methods in [15]. to solve the problem presented in Section 3.3.2 is – 34 – . In [20] an algorithmic (iterative) approach of resource allocation for proportionally fair and adaptive modulation in OFDMA systems is proposed. further they proposed an iterative approach for fair scheduling and to fulﬁll each users QoS.
eliminating the interchannel interference (ICI). cK.1 C= . · · · .n = 1 if the nth subcarrier is assigned to the k th user.. In Section 3. otherwise ck. .1 c1.5.n . To formulate the problem. and propose a subcarrier allocation algorithm to provide services to combined Guaranteed Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE) users where. [15]. The assignment matrix is deﬁned as c1. . R2 .2 Problem Formulation for Subcarrier Allocation in OFDMA System A schematic diagram of the downlink scenario where base station transmits signal simultaneously to K users is shown in Figure 2.2 · · · c1. .N Clearly. .described.1 cK. The rate requirements for these users are denoted as {R1 . . let ck. .n = 0. GP users are given priority in assigning subcarriers over BE users.N 2.4 we compare the performance of Hungarian algorithm to that of Rhee et al. .5.2 · · · c2. . we assume that a subcarrier at a particular time is not being shared among users.N c c2. . and the total transmission power is limited to Ptotal . and we draw conclusions in Section 3. Here.n be the assigned index for the k th user: ck.n = 1 k=1 – 35 – .2 · · · cK. 3. RK }. . We further modify the subcarrier allocation method in Rhee et al. Let the total number of OFDMA subcarriers be N and the channel gain associated with subcarrier n and user k be hk. K (3.1) ck.
2) The general downlink multiuser resource allocation to maximize the total system throughput while satisfying userlevel QoS. 2. K N ck.n Hk.and.n log2 1 + n=1 pk.p rk k=1 (3.n ≤ Ptotal rk ≥ Rk for k = 1. The optimization essentially attempts to solve the following two issues simultaneously: 1. In [14] a Lagrangian based algorithm is proposed which relaxes ck.3) K N subject to: k=1 n=1 ck.n is the power allocated to the k th user’s nth subcarrier. · · · .n = N k=1 n=1 Let pk.3) is a NPhard combinatorial problem with nonlinear constraints. Initial Allocation: determines how many subcarriers (Nk ) and how much power (Pk ) are needed for each user. K The optimization problem in (3.n Γk (3. and then solves an unconstrained nonlinear equation set iteratively. Let Nk and Pk be the number of subcarriers and power assigned to the k th user. Hence the achievable rate of k th user can be calculated as: B rk = N N ck.n pk. The eﬃciency and the convergence rate of the algorithm depend critically on the step size and the initial point of the searching. – 36 – . the algorithm becomes prohibitively expensive. hence can be formulated as K max C.n into real numbers. For systems with large number of subcarriers.
we will study a well known optimal solution. Diﬀerent partitions of the system resource. This motivates us to develop a cost eﬃcient suboptimal algorithm that decouples the optimization problem into two problems. will lead to diﬀerent subcarrier and bit assignment. we modify the suboptimal subcarrier allocation method in Rhee et al. Subcarrier Allocation: assigns a particular set of subcarriers (ck. This dependency of the two issues makes the multiuser optimization much more diﬃcult than that of singleuser.e. Nk and Pk .n ) and the number of bits to be transmitted for each user. Therefore. in this thesis the Hungarian solution is treated only as reference upperbound of the sum capacity of the system.3 Subcarrier Allocation for DualService Provisioning in OFDMA System In the ﬁrst part of this section. it is plausible to assume that the resource (subcarriers and power) allocated to a particular user depends primarily on its rate requirement Rk and its channel conditions. Hun garian Algorithm [28]. 3. for resource (subcarrier) allocation in order to maximize the sum capacity of the system. complexity and scalability (complexity increases with the size of the system i.. [15]..2. However from an application standpoint. number of subcarriers). On the other hand the optimality of subcarrier allocation is clearly more sensitive to the local channel characteristics. i. Further.e. and propose a subcarrier allocation algorithm to provide services to combined GP and BE users – 37 – . Since the price for the optimal solution is obviously the computational time.
the basestation may reserve the remaining resources for future use. Ptotal be the total available subcarrier and power. Pk )K . and (b) assign the remaining resources to the ﬁrst user (In reality. GP users are given priority in assigning subcarriers over BE users. RK } given one must (a) ﬁnd the minimum amount of resources to satisfy all the user’s requirements. Hence. as a ﬁrst step we have to estimate the (Nk .3. Nk . In this section Step 1 is discussed for the sole purpose of completeness as the objective of this chapter is to devise subcarrier allocation algorithm. Let Nk . Pk be the total allocated subcarriers and power to k th user. we assume that the amount of power assigned to the users should be proportional to the number of subcarriers allocated. Hence for simulation purposes we made a simple assumption as a replacement for Step 1. Pk must satisfy Pk ≤ Nk Ptotal N which is based on the reasonable assumption made in [18]. that equalpower is allocated to each subcarrier and number of subcarriers allocated to users is directly proportional to each user’s rate requirements. R2 .where. Step 1. · · · . In order to quantify the amount of combined resources (power and subcarriers). – 38 – .1 Hungarian Algorithm In the attempt to solve the decoupled resource allocation problem described in Section 3.) So the ﬁrst step is equivalent to eﬀectively estimate the minimum amount of resources to satisfy the rate requirements. With the rate requirements {R1 .2. N . 3. considering only user’s k=1 channel conditions.
Because the second user B pk.n Hk. rk. ﬁnd a N × N permutation matrix C = [ck. For example.n = and rk = [rk. rK ]T as row vectors. 1.5. Since.Step 2. · · · . 3. 4].n linearly approximates the achievable rate on k th user’s nth subcarrier.n (3.4) for R. By solving (3. rk. we let rk.N ] R is formed using [r1 . r2 . 3. consider a 2 users and 4 subcarriers system. which is equivalent to assign Nk subcarriers to the k th user.4) is maximum. · · · . where the ﬁrst user is assigned 1 subcarrier.2 . rk.1 .n ] so that K N R= k=1 n=1 rk. each has a row in R with the same rk . we eﬀectively ﬁnd a subcarrier assignment which maximizes the total system throughput when the number of subcarriers assigned to each user is given. The two user’s data rate vectors are r1 = [2. 4. we can just split it into Nk virtual users. each virtual user can be assigned one and only one diﬀerent subcarrier. In this way.n ]. and the second user is assigned 3 subcarriers. If the k th user is assigned Nk subcarriers. 4.5] and r2 = [3. Once we determine the number of subcarriers Nk and the power Pk allocated to the k th user the Subcarrier Assignment Problem is formulated as follows: Given N × N matrix R = [rk.n ck. For the k th user.n log2 1 + N Γk – 39 – .
Because R is always nonnegative after the ﬁrst step. The algorithm is based on following property of C: Lemma 3.5) A Hungarian algorithm is designed to solve the above Assignment Problem [28]. ¯ According to the above preposition.5 3. R can be transformed to: 2. so that K N rk.n diﬀers by a constant amount from its value with weight rk. if we eventually ﬁnd one permutation matrix C.needs 3 subcarriers. This operation will increase the number of zeros in the matrix R.n − uk − vn .n = rk.5 4 3 4. By applying the Hungarian algorithm. every time we can subtract the minimum element from each row and column.5 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 (3.5 3 1 4 3 1 4 3 1 4 (3.6) then the corresponding entry ones in C give us the optimal assignment which maximizes the total cost.1 For all values {uk }N and {vn }N . the value of any assignment with n=1 k=1 weight rk.5 0 R= 0 0 0 0 0. we need to duplicate r2 three times when forming the matrix R 2 3.5 R= 3.n ck. without changing the optimal permutation matrix C.n = 0 k=1 n=1 (3.7) – 40 – .
In assigning subcarrier we assume that total available power at BS is equally distributed among the subcarriers. we did not describe the details of the method in Rhee et al.2 Proposed Subcarrier Allocation Algorithm To support the dual class (GP and BE) users. In the proposed subcarrier assignment algorithm we give priority to GP users in assigning subcarriers to that of BE users.6). the ProposedEQ reduces to the suboptimal algorithm given in Rhee et al. we shall refer to this method of subcarrier assignment as proposedEQ. Since power is equally distributed among the subcarriers. 3.8) which satisﬁes (3. we here modify the suboptimal subcarrier assignment algorithm proposed in Rhee et al. the optimal subcarrier allocation is that the ﬁrst user is allocated subcarrier 3 and the second user is allocated subcarrier 1.(d) and Step 3 shown in Figure 3.1. as we present a more general algorithm than proposed in [15] considering heterogeneous users with priority. – 41 – . as is assumed in [15].Then we can ﬁnd the permutation matrix 0 1 R= 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 (3.2 and 4. In this example. [15].1.3. If we omit Step 2. In this chapter. The proposed subcarrier assignment algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users is represented in Figure 3.
n ≥ H k . find n satisfying H k . for k = 1 to K1 (allocate best subcarrier to each GP user) { (a) find n satisfying H k . j for all j ∈ A (b) let Ωk = Ωk ∪ {n}. j for all j ∈ A for the found k and n.1. A = A − {n} pH k . K } and A = {1.n ≥ H k .⋯. N } (b) p = Ptotal / N 2.1: ProposedEQ (EQ stands for EQual power): proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users – 42 – . let Ωk = Ωk ∪ {n}. j for all j ∈ A (b) let Ωk = Ωk ∪ {n}.⋯. Ωk = φ for all k = {1. repeat step (2) until the rate requirements of GP users are fulfilled 3.n B (c) Rk = Rk + N log 2 1 + Γ 2 } 4.n ≥ H k .n B (c) Rk = Rk + N log 2 1 + Γ 1 } (d) while A ≠ φ . A = A − {n} pH k . K1 + 1 ≤ i ≤ K for the found k.n B (d) Rk = Rk + N log 2 1 + Γ 2 } Figure 3. while A ≠ φ (iteratively give the lowest rate BE user first choice) { (a) (b) (c) find k satisfying Rk ≤ Ri for all i .2. A = A − {n} pH k . 2. Initialization (enforce zero initial conditions) (a) set Rk = 0. for k = K1 + 1 to K (allocate best subcarrier to each BE user) { (a) find n satisfying H k .
3080 bps/Hz. [15] is drawn for WSNR ranging from 0 to 40 dB. Note that for all the algorithms discussed under the heading of subcarrier allocation total power is assumed to be equally distributed among the subcarriers. The channel is considered to be frequency selective multipath channel consisting of six independent Rayleigh multipaths. The user locations are assumed to be equally distributed. BER. Hungarian algorithm is known to be optimal for resource assignment to optimize the total cost (i. In Figure 3. sum capacity using Hungarian algorithm and method in Rhee et al.2 the performance of Hungarian algorithm acts as an upper bound for sum capacity. decreases from 3.3. in Figure 3.. The power spectrum density of additive white Gaussian noise is −80 dBW/Hz.4 Simulation Results To compare the performance of the algorithms simulations has been performed with the following parameters: number of subcarriers. Pe = 10−3 giving SNR Gap. N = 64.2. The maximum delay spread is 5 microsecond.e. – 43 – . with an exponential decaying proﬁle.. The total power available at the base station is 64 W.53 or 5.5 = 3. The maximum doppler frequency spread is 30 Hz. Γ = −ln(5 × 10−3 )/1. power constraint) [28]. sum capacity) under the constraints (i.48 dB. WSNR is deﬁned as the worst possible average SNR of a user on the boundary of a hexagonal cell. and the performance is drawn after averaging over 500 diﬀerent channel realizations.e. We notice that as the WSNR increases from 0 dB to 40 dB the diﬀerence between sum capacities of Hungarian and Rhee et al. the number of users. was in between 4 and 16.4726 bps/Hz to 1. Hence. K. The number of users are assumed to be equal to four. The overall bandwidth is 1 MHz.
15 Sum Capacity [bit/s/Hz] 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 WSNR [dB] 30 35 40 Figure 3. is drawn for WSNR ranging from 0 to 40 dB.48 dB In Figure 3. Γ = 5. vs.2: Sum capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al. minuser’s capacity using Hungarian algorithm and method in Rhee et al. We notice that as WSNR increases from 0 dB to 40 dB the diﬀerence between minuser’s capacity of Rhee et al. Hungarian algorithm maximizes the sum – 44 – .20 Hungarian Method in Rhee et al. and Hungarian increases from 0. Method in Rhee et al. K = 4. Since.8762 bps/Hz. Result for ﬁxed TDMA resource allocation are shown for comparison. The number of users are assumed to be equal to four. N = 64. and the performance is drawn after averaging over 500 diﬀerent channel realizations.2138 bps/Hz to 0.3. maximizes the minimum capacity of all users under the total power constraint while. WSNR.
Figure 3. 4 TDMA min(Rk) [bit/s/Hz] 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 WSNR [dB] 30 35 40 Figure 3. N = 64. 16]. The WSNR is assumed to be equal to 38 dB. in Figure 3. We notice that sum capacity using both the algorithm increases as the number of users increases. K = [4. 8. WSNR. performs optimally. We also notice that – 45 – .5 Hungarian Method in Rhee et al.3: minuser’s capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al.3 we notice that method in Rhee et al.48 dB capacity not minuser’s capacity. Users are assumed to be uniformly distributed. K = 4. for the number of users. Hence. and the performance is drawn after averaging over 1000 diﬀerent channel realizations and 100 time samples for each realization for each number of the user. Γ = 5. vs.4 compares the sum capacity using Hungarian algorithm and method in Rhee et al.
16].5163 bps/Hz to 0. 17 Sum Capacity [bit/s/Hz] 16 15 14 13 4 6 8 10 12 Number of users (K) 14 16 Figure 3. is compared for the number of users. vs.48 dB. In Figure 3. and the performance is drawn after averaging over 1000 diﬀerent channel realizations and 100 time samples for each realization for each number of the – 46 – . K = [4. This could be explained by multiuser diversity. the lower the probability that a subcarrier is in deep fading to all users. minuser’s capacity using Hungarian algorithm and method in Rhee et al. N = 64. WSNR = 38 dB as the number of user increases from 4 to 16 the diﬀerence between sum capacities of Hungarian and Method in Rhee et al.18 Hungarian Method in Rhee et al. decreases from 1.9821 bps/Hz. 8.5. The more users in the system. The WSNR is assumed to be equal to 38 dB. Γ = 5. user number.4: Sum capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al.
WSNR = 38 dB user.3133 bps/Hz. vs. – 47 – .48 dB. user number.5 Hungarian Method in Rhee et al.5 4 6 8 10 12 Number of users (K) 14 16 Figure 3. is an order of magnitude. decreases from 0. Also we notice that computational complexity remains constant with the increase in number of users. about 10 times.5: minuser’s capacity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al.3.6 shows the comparison of computational complexity of Hungarian and Method used in Rhee et al.5 2 1. From the ﬁgure we can see that method used in Rhee et al. Γ = 5.5 1 0. Figure 3. 3 TDMA min(Rk) [bit/s/Hz] 2. N = 64. We notice that as the number of users increases from 4 to 16 the diﬀerence between minuser’s capacities of Hungarian and Method in Rhee et al.9807 bps/Hz to 0. faster in execution time than Hungarian Algorithm. Users are assumed to be uniformly distributed.
WSNR = 38 dB Results show that the Hungarian algorithm performs optimally for the sum capacity calculation under the total available power constraints.10 0 Hungarian Method in Rhee et al. is chosen and modiﬁed as proposedEQ algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users. Hungarian algorithm is found to be rather computationally complex and hence method in Rhee et al. maximizes the minuser’s capacity. Avg CPU Time [sec] 10 1 10 2 4 6 8 10 12 Number of users (K) 14 16 Figure 3. vs.6: Computational complexity comparison of Hungarian algorithm and method used in Rhee et al.48 dB. – 48 – . Additionally. user number. while method in Rhee et al. Γ = 5. N = 64.
method in Rhee et al. allocate the subcarriers so as to maximize the minuser’s capacity. proposedEQ. In Chapter 4. Hence. complexity and scalability. – 49 – . We found that Hungarian algorithm gives an upperbound for the sum capacity optimization while the method in Rhee et al. in this thesis Hungarian algorithm is treated as a reference upper bound of the sum capacity system performance. is modiﬁed and a subcarrier allocation algorithm. The proposed algorithm assumes perfect channel state information (CSI) and allocates equalpower to each subcarrier and hence is called proposedEQ where EQ stands for EQual power allocation. the performance of Hungarian algorithm which is known to give an optimal solution for given allocation problem is compared with the suboptimal subcarrier allocation method in Rhee et al. Certainly the price for the optimal solution is the computational time.3.5 Conclusions In this chapter. Later in the chapter. is proposed to provide service to combined GP and BE users. we initially formulated the problem to maximize the system through put while satisfying the total power and each user’s QoS requirements referring to the OFDMA system model explained in Chapter 2. Then. we present a power allocation algorithm to be used followed by the proposedEQ algorithm to provide services to combined GP and BE users.
we consider two types of users. In the context of – 50 – . to provide highrate data communication over a wireless channel [3]. applications which are less sensitive to instantaneous variations in available bandwidth and which do not require guarantees on throughput. are called BE services. diﬀerentiated on the basis of required data rate and bit error rate (BER) criteria. In this chapter. are called GP services. Applications that require guaranteed QoS. Guaranteed Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE). On the other hand. One of the goals of NextG mobile communication systems is to provide heterogeneous services to users with diverse qualityofservice (QoS) requirements [12]. and a guarantee on the throughput.1 Introduction Broadband wireless access (BWA) based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is considered as a standard for next generation (NextG) communication systems. such as bounded BER.Chapter 4 QoS Aware Power Allocation for Combined Guaranteed Performance and Best Eﬀort Users in OFDMA System 4.
several papers [14][20] have dealt with the problem of resource allocation for the multiuser OFDM system in a downlink transmission. which can adapt to the bandwidth unused by the GP service classes. In [17]. This algorithm oﬀers a signiﬁcant computational advantage while incurring small performance degradation. [18]. that is left unused by the GP users [41]. dynamic subchannel allocation is performed to maximize the minimum capacity of all users under the total transmit power constraint. an analytical proof for optimal subcarrier allocation. It is shown that for the maximization of sum capacity. [20]. [22] is described bit diﬀerently as compared to [15].Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Moreover. So far. subcarrier should be assigned to only one user which has the best channel gain for the subcarrier and the transmit power should be distributed over the subcarriers following the waterﬁlling policy. [17]. to avoid the computational burden in calculating the waterﬁlling level this paper also has proposed an equalpower allocation scheme in which users with the best channel gain for each – 51 – . [42] hence. for transmit power adaptation is given to maximize the sum capacity of the users. Since the objective function used in [14]. [16]. this corresponds to Available Bit Rate (ABR) service category [23]. In particular. we suppose that the BE users share the remaining bandwidth. In this scheme power is assumed to be equally distributed among the subcarriers. [19] and further in our work [41]. here we will discuss the later works for the performance comparison purposes. The suboptimal subcarrier allocation algorithm explained in this paper is the basis of the proposedEQ algorithm in Chapter 3. In [15].
considering a practical scenario with users of dual service class diﬀerentiated on the basis of rate and BER constraints in an OFDMA system. to make our problem tractable we separate the subcarrier and power allocation. however. Here. [17]. However this poses an extreme computational burden on the Base Station (BS) in order to reach the optimal allocation.subcarrier are selected and then transmit power is equally distributed among the subcarriers. Without the restriction on how to assign the services to the subcarriers. or target BER as an additional variable to optimize. we thus have Γ. For subcarrier assignment we modify the suboptimal subcarrier allocation algorithm proposed in [15] to provide services – 52 – . subcarriers and power should be allocated jointly to achieve the optimal solution. None of them [15]. Separating the subcarrier and power allocation is a way to reduce the complexity since the number of variables in the objective function is almost reduced by half [19]. an optimal power allocation is proposed to satisfy each users data rate proportionally for a known subcarrier assignment scheme. In [19]. [19]. SNR gap. we propose a resource allocation algorithm. Ideally. has considered the diﬀerentiation among the users on the basis of data rate and BER requirements simultaneously. In this chapter we generalize the resource allocation to applications where we are interested in simultaneously providing services with diﬀerent QoS characterized by rate and BER performance. Hence. Though this paper suggests a way to provide proportional fairness among users but it didn’t consider the BER diﬀerentiation among users.
5 contains the concluding remarks.n hk.1) – 53 – . Section 4. In this context we derive an optimal power allocation solution following analysis in [19] and propose a reduced complexity power allocation algorithm to provide services to GP and BE users. In Section 4.2 Problem Formulation for Power Allocation in OFDMA System According to the diagram of an OFDMA system shown in Figure 2.4.3 the optimal solution is derived and a suboptimal algorithm is proposed.n is the power allocated to the k th user’s nth subcarrier.to GP and BE users in Section 3.5. In assigning subcarrier we assume that total available power at BS is equally distributed among the subcarriers. let us assume that bk denotes a set of data symbols for the k th users and pk. The rest of this chapter is organized as follows. In the proposed reduced complexity power allocation algorithm.n for the k th user’s and nth subcarrier data symbol may be written as √ zk.n + ηn (4. The simulation results of the proposed reduced complexity power allocation algorithm are compared with the proposedEQ algorithm.n pk. GP users are given priority in assigning subcarriers to that of BE users. Section 4. the decision statistic zk. Under the assumptions above.n = bk. we allocate power to GP users so as to satisfy the data rate requirements of GP users and further allocate the rest of the power equally among the subcarriers assigned to BE users.3 where.2 contains system model and the problem formulation. is the transmitted signal from the base station is detected by the k th user’s receiver. 4. we give simulation results of the proposed algorithm. In Section 4.
5.n is carriertonoise ratio (CNR) for k th user’s nth subcarrier. Assuming the Mary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (MQAM) modulation and ideal phase detection as in [24].n Hk.n 2 = pk. the data rate of user k in the OFDMA system is represented by Rk = n∈Ωk B qk. B is assumed to be total available bandwidth.n Γ bps (4. N0 is the noise power spectral density and Hk. SNRk.3) yields the maximum number of bits in a symbol to be transmitted for the k th user’s nth subcarrier as qk. the BER for the k th user’s nth subcarrier signal is bounded by BER ≤ 1 exp 5 −1.3) where.where.n Hk.5SNRk.n ≥ 2 and 0 ≤ SNRk.3) is valid for qk.n ≤ 30 dB. Note that the BER bound (4.n B N0 N (4. qk.n (2qk.5) – 54 – .n is the number of bits in each data symbol. For a given BER rearranging (4.4) where Γ = − ln(5BER)/1.n  hk.n = log2 1 + SNRk. ηn denotes the additive white Gaussian noise B (AWGN) with mean zero and variance σ 2 = N0 N .n is a random variable representing the fading for the nth subcarrier between the base station and k th users receiver.n Γ bits/symbol (4. hence signaltonoise ratio (SNR) for the k th user’s nth subcarrier signal is.n = pk. Since the data rate of user k is viewed as the sum of the user’s subcarrier’s data rate.n = T N log2 1 + n∈Ωk pk. hk.2) where.n − 1) (4.
Γ1 = − ln(5BER1 )/1. ∪ ΩK ⊆ {1. {γi }K1 is a set of values proportional to the GP i=1 users rate.n . T is the OFDMA symbol duration i. out of total K users. Thus. – 55 – . : RK1 = γ1 : γ2 : . T = N B seconds. 2. N is the total number of subcarriers.where. ﬁrst K1 are assumed to be GP users and.n Hk.n and Ωk to maximize the sum capacity of BE users under the data rate constraints of GP users and the total power constraint.. K max pk. .n ≤ Ptotal k=1 n∈Ωk pk.6) subject to: n∈Ωk K pk.n log2 1 + N Γ2 = Rk (4. .n B log2 1 + N Γ1 pk.e. In this problem.5 are the SNR gap for GP and BE users respectively. Ωk is the set of subcarriers allocated to user k and is assumed to be mutually exclusive. .5 and Γ2 = − ln(5BER2 )/1. Ptotal is the total available power. we need to ﬁnd pk. N } where. .Ωk k=K1 +1 n∈Ωk B pk. .n Hk. . we formulate our optimization problem so as to maximize the sumcapacity of BE users for a given BER while satisfying the data rate requirements of all the GP users for a given BER under the total power constraint [25]. : γK1 Ω1 ∪ Ω2 ∪ .n ≥ 0 for all k. we can formulate the general optimization problem of interest as. . B is the total bandwidth. users are classiﬁed as either GP or BE users. . . the next (K − K1 ) are assumed to be BE users. . n R1 : R2 : . Since BE users have no strict data rate requirements. In this thesis.
2. for Discrete MultiTone (DMT) Systems. n R1 : R2 : . . ∪ ΩK ⊆ {1. Hence. .n ≤ Ptotal k=1 n∈Ωk pk. . : γK1 Ω1 ∪ Ω2 ∪ . it turns to be a hard problem to solve. . N } – 56 – .3. . Moreover. . the dualservice provisioning problem can be converted to a convex optimization problem. . once the subcarrier assignment is know the power allocation problem can be formulated as.n log2 1 + N Γ2 = Rk (4. : RK1 = γ1 : γ2 : . Subcarrier assignment is a widely studied area and several exhaustive and algorithmic approaches are available. we subdivide the problem into subcarrier assignment and power allocation problem. K max pk.7) subject to: n∈Ωk K B pk. . similar to the transformation used in [25].n Hk.n ≥ 0 for all k.n log2 1 + N Γ1 pk.n k=K1 +1 n∈Ωk B pk.n Hk. For our problem of providing service to combined GP and BE users we present a subcarrier assignment algorithm called proposedEQ in Section 3. However if subcarrier assignment Ωk is known.As discrete subcarrier assignment is involved in the above problem. . .
n 4..n H1. K L(pk.8) where.n .4.n Hk.n log2 1 + N Γ1 + k=1 n∈Ωk σk pk.3.10)..n γk N ln2 Γ1 + Hk. λk .n k=2 K (4.n and set each derivative to 0 to obtain.11) separately for the optimal power distribution among GP and BE user’s for the subcarrier assignment scheme.n k=K1 +1.3 Power Allocation for DualService Provisioning in OFDMA System The optimization problem in (4.9).9) and (4.n N ln2 Γ1 + H1.n log2 1 + N Γ1 K γ1 − γk n∈Ωk B pk. (4.n + k=2 λk n∈Ωk B p1.n . σk ) = k=K1 +1 n∈Ωk K1 B pk....K1 = −λ1 − λk + σk = 0 ∂pk.11) In this section we will solve (4. we assume that each user’s subcarriers are arranged according to the ascending – 57 – ..8) with respect to pk.10). Here.n p1.7) is a convex function of power and can be solved using Lagrangian multiplier techniques [21].n log2 1 + N Γ2 K + λ1 Ptotal − k=1 n∈Ωk pk. Power Distribution for GP Users The optimal power distribution for single GP user is derived using (4. We diﬀerentiate (4.1 Optimal Solution (4. λk and σk are positive constants.. (4.n pk.n pk.10) (4.n Hk. [41].n λk = −λ1 + + σ1 = 0 ∂p1.n N ln2 Γ2 + Hk.n ∂L B Hk.K = − λ1 + σk = 0 ∂pk.9) Hk..n ∂L γ1 B k=2. 1 ∂L B H1. and (4.
.1 Γ2 Hk.17) – 58 – .. Using (4.n − Hk.15) Wk = (4.n Hk.n Hk.1 P1 − V1 Γ1 N1 Hk.12) Equation (4.n Hk.n − Hk.1 n=2 Nk 1 Nk (4.12) and the rate requirements for GP users given in (4. . This is waterﬁlling in frequency domain [19].Nk [19].12) shows the optimal power distribution for a single user.2 ≤ .2.13) 1 Nk γk N Pk k=1. . Hk.1 + Hk. Power Distribution for BE Users Similarly.n (4. the optimal power distribution for a single BE user is derived. pk.n = pk.11)..1 (4.n = pk. pk. 1 N1 γ1 N = where.n − Hk.1 Hk.1 ≤ Hk.14) Vk = n=2 Hk. Nk log2 1 + log2 1 + H1.order of CNR i.16) and. ≤ Hk.7) we get.1 Γ1 Hk.e... More power will be put into the subcarriers with high CNR gain.1 Pk − Vk Γ1 Nk + log2 W1 + log2 Wk (4.1 Γ1 Hk.1 + Hk.K1 = n=1 Nk pk. using (4. Nk is the number of subcarriers in Ωk .n Hk.1 (4.
3.18) can be approximated to a single equation for special case of high CNR.18) Nk N log2 1 + Pk k=K1 +1. Set of nonlinear equations in (4. along with total power constraint can be solved iteratively for {Pk }K using Newton’s Method. power distribution among the BE users is derived using (4. (4... We notice from (4.e.1 PK − UK Γ2 NK Hk.17). (4. k=1 (4. we get NK N = where.17) that the only diﬀerence between power allocation to GP users and BE users is the SNR gap (i.13). which is a tedious task and the complexity of the system increases with the increase in the size of system (number of users and subcarriers)..1 (4.1 Γ2 Hk.12).19) Uk = n=2 Hk. (4..17) and assuming the data rate requirements for each BE user as equal. – 59 – .18).. Consequently (4.K1 +2.20) Set of nonlinear equations in (4. Γ1 and Γ2 ).14). we need to solve the set of nonlinear equations.1 Pk − Uk Γ2 Nk + log2 WK + log2 Wk (4. Nk log2 1 + HK.19) are solved for the power distribution among each subcarrier of each user.2 Proposed Power Allocation for Known Subcarrier Assignment Since to allocate power among GP and BE user’s optimally.12) and (4.n (4. The approximations follow exactly as in [19] and are not outlined here.13).n Hk.K = n=1 Nk pk.n − Hk.Subsequently. 4. (4.
This initial step is based on the reasonable assumption made in [18]. resources (power) are allocated according to the optimal approach. To user’s demanding strict QoS requirement (GP users). [41]. we propose an approach to deal with the high computational complexity issue for dualservice provisioning (combined GP and BE users). we assume that the amount of power assigned to the users should be proportional to the number of subcarriers allocated.e. while for the users with loose QoS requirement (BE users) we can save the computations by using lower complexity algorithm like equal power allocation scheme. It assumes that subcarrier assignment is known and is determined by aforementioned proposedEQ algorithm. the power allocated to GP users and BE users K1 is Ptemp = Ptotal k=1 N Nk and Ptemp = Ptotal − Ptemp respectively. In the proposed algorithm we subdivide the power allocation procedure for GP and BE users. We shall refer to this method as proposedRA. Hence. We use optimal waterﬁlling solution to allocate power to GP users [19]. and an equal power allocation scheme for BE users. – 60 – . estimate the total power allocated to GP and BE users respectively in proportion to the number of subcarrier allocated to GP and BE user class i. In the initial step.Hence. Figure 4. The equal power distribution among subcarriers is shown to be near optimal in [17] for the sum capacity maximization problem under total power constraints.1 summarizes the proposed power allocation algorithm. in order to quantify the amount of combined resources (power and subcarriers). where RA stands for resource allocation.. Details of the proposed power allocation scheme are described as follows: Step 1.
K = ∑ n∈Ω k B log 2 1 + N P '' ∑ k = K1 +1 K Nk H k . K1 + 2.1: Flowchart of the proposedRA (RA stands for Resource Allocation) algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users – 61 – .start ProposedEQ Algorithm Proposed Power Allocation Algorithm Distribute power among GP users and BE users proportional to the number of subcarriers allotted to each service Allocate power to GP users subcarrier under total power constraint of P’temp according to the optimal waterfilling solution ' Power allocated to GP users. Ptemp = Ptotal ∑N k =1 K1 k N Power allocated to BE users. Above found P” is then distributed equally among the subcarriers allotted to BE users stop Rk k = K1 +1.n Γ2 Figure 4.…. P " temp ' = Ptotal − Ptemp ' ' Ptemp = Ptemp + δ P ' ' Ptemp = Ptemp − δ P if Rk < ( Rk( req ) − ∆R) No Rk ≤ Rk( req ) ± ∆R Yes ' P ' = Ptemp ' P '' = Ptotal − Ptemp if Rk > ( Rk( req ) + ∆R) No Capacity of each BE user.
3 that we need to solve the set of nonlinear equations (4. The method used for solving the set of nonlinear equation in our simulations is same as in [40] which is called ZEROIN subroutine. bisection method.Step 2. secant method. Check whether the rate requirements of GP users are fulﬁlled or not.e. P = Ptotal − Ptemp ). Power allocated to BE users is then equally distributed among the subcarriers allocated to the BE users.n Γ2 (4.13). the capacity of each BE user is calculated as. and many others.18) for optimal power allocation among users using iterative root ﬁnding methods such as NewtonRaphson method. Step 3.21) Complexity Comparison of Optimal and Proposed Power Allocation In order to compare the computational complexity of the optimal solution and proposed power allocation algorithms we measure the reduction in the number of operations when using proposed power allocation algorithm over optimal solution. Hence. Rk = n∈Ωk P K k=K1 +1 B log2 1 + N Nk Hk. (4. a combination of bisection and secant method (the MATLAB implementation of the ZEROIN algorithm is called fzero [37]). This problem is similar to [19] with the exception that it didn’t consider BER diﬀerentiation. Allocate power to GP user’s using waterﬁlling solution under total power constraint Ptemp . We notice in Section 4. The – 62 – . If not then increase or decrease the Ptemp and reallocate the power to individual GP users. which is considered in [41]. Calculate the eﬀective power given to BE users (i..
proposedEQ. and have the same asymptotic complexity. was in between 4 and 16. Video BE Users Last 50% 10−3 Not Applicable Internet Data Table 4. The maximum delay spread is 5 microsecond. K. Note since the subcarrier allocation algorithm used in optimal and proposed power allocation is same. The maximum doppler frequency spread is 30 Hz.4 Simulation Results To investigate the performance of the proposed algorithms simulation has been performed with the following parameters: number of subcarriers. n is typically around 10 for smooth functions [40]. hence the complexity reduction in using proposed power allocation algorithm over the optimal power allocation solution is of O((n − 1)(K − K1 )). 4.complexity of the method is O(nK). where n is the number of function evaluations. The complexity of the proposed power allocation algorithm is O(nK1 + (K − K1 )). the number of users. with an exponential decaying proﬁle. The total power available at the base GP Users Number of Users Required BER Required Capacity Example First 50% 10−5 1 bps/Hz Voice.1: Traﬃc proﬁle used in simulations – 63 – . hence the real computation saving can only be seen in power allocation. The channel is considered to be frequency selective multipath channel consisting of six independent Rayleigh multipaths. N = 64.
Also the equalpower allocation is shown to give near similar performance as that of optimal power – 64 – .3. a ﬁxed time slot is allotted to each user in TDMA.2 that dynamic resource allocation achieve signiﬁcantly higher capacity gain over ﬁxed time division multiple access (TDMA) i. The user locations are assumed to be equally distributed. We can see from Figure 4.2 shows the plot of the minuser’s capacity vs. number of users station is 64 W. The overall bandwidth is 1 MHz. at P = 1e3 e Method in Rhee et al..e. The power spectrum density of additive white Gaussian noise is −80 dBW/Hz.2: Capacity in OFDMA system vs.5 Proposed Optimal at P = 1e3 e Proposed Optimal at P = 1e5 e Method in Rhee et al.5 min(Rk) [bits/s/Hz] 1. The traﬃc behavior is modeled according to the parameters given in Table 4.5 1 0.1. Figure 4. at P = 1e5 e FixedTDMA at P = 1e3 e 2 FixedTDMA at P = 1e5 e 3 2. number of users in the OFDMA system at diﬀerent BER.5 0 4 6 8 10 12 Number of users (K) 14 16 Figure 4.
number of users allocation. Figure 4. We can see that capacity gain of optimal power allocation and equal power allocation over TDMA increases as the number of user increases. Also we can see that in a system of 16 users with the proposed optimal power allocation solution achieves 18.4 shows an example of capacity comparison between proposedEQ and – 65 – .64% more capacity gain than the scheme with equal power. when compared to ﬁxed TDMA at BER of 10−3 and 10−5 respectively.67% and 19. Figure 4. at P = 1e5 e 80 70 60 50 40 4 6 8 10 12 Number of users (K) 14 16 Figure 4. at P = 1e3 e 90 Method in Rhee et al.3: Capacity gain over TDMA vs. the number of users at diﬀerent BER.3 shows the capacity gain vs.110 Proposed Optimal at P = 1e3 e 100 Capacity gain over TDMA [%] Proposed Optimal at P = 1e5 e Method in Rhee et al. This phenomenon is also known as multiuser diversity.
1 bps/Hz) after proposedRA algorithm. (c) K = 12. (d) K = 16 proposedRA algorithms. (b) K = 8.e.5 compares minuser’s capacity of GP and BE users vs. (a) K = 4.Capacity [bit/s/Hz] 10 Capacity [bit/s/Hz] GP Users BE Users 4 GP Users BE Users 5 2 0 10 1 2 User Index 1 2 0 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 User Index 3 4 Capacity [bit/s/Hz] Capacity [bit/s/Hz] GP Users BE Users GP Users BE Users 5 2 0 1 2 User Index 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 User Index 3 4 (a) 2 Capacity [bit/s/Hz] Capacity [bit/s/Hz] (b) BE Users 2 GP Users GP Users BE Users 1 1 0 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 User Index 4 5 6 0 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 User Index Capacity [bit/s/Hz] Capacity [bit/s/Hz] GP Users BE Users GP Users BE Users 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 User Index 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 User Index (c) (d) Figure 4. This is because we use equal power allocation method for BE users in both proposedEQ and proposedRA algorithms. number of users. Figure 4.4: Example capacity performance comparison between proposedEQ (ﬁgure above) and proposedRA (ﬁgure below) for diﬀerent user index.. while for the BE users rate distribution is found to be almost same as that of after proposedEQ. We notice that GP users adapts to their data rate requirements (i. – 66 – .
We notice that the minuser’s capacity of GP users remains constant while those of BE users decreases as the number of users increases.. D proposedRAGP proposedEQGP proposedRABE proposedEQBE TDMA 4 E 2 A. as the number of users (K) increases the BE user’s capacity decreases and hence the minuser’s capacity of BE users. number of users Here.8 6 min(Rk) [bit/s/Hz] A: B: C: D: E: C. a ﬁxed time slot is allotted to each user in TDMA. This trend can easily be understood from Figure 4.e. and similar representation stands true for BE users. proposedRAGP and proposedEQGP represent the GP user’s performance using proposedRA and proposedEQ algorithms respectively.5: minuser’s capacity of GP and BE users vs. B 0 4 6 8 10 12 Number of Users (K) 14 16 Figure 4.. BE user’s capacity performance is also compared with that of the minuser’s capacity performance of ﬁxed time division multiple access (TDMA) i.4. We notice that adaptive resource allocation performs better – 67 – .
as the number of users increases. it becomes imperative to evaluate the performance of a network supporting heterogeneous users. Since the applications supported in the NextG mobile communication systems are expected to be heterogeneous in nature hence. we present an analytical solution for optimal power allocation to provide services to heterogeneous users diﬀerentiated on the basis of QoS requirements.for smaller number of users than for higher number of users. Result shows that the equalpower allocation solution has almost same performance as an optimal solution.5 Conclusions In the ﬁrst part of this chapter. Furthermore. At the same time we see a proportional reduction in computational complexity with the increase in the number of BE users. 4. an eﬃcient subcarrier and power allocation algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users diﬀerentiated on the basis of QoS requirements in OFDMA system is proposed and simulations are performed to evaluate the performance. more resources (subcarrier and power) are needed to fulﬁll the rate requirements of GP users while BE users are left with lesser resources. we propose a reduced complexity power allocation algorithm. In this section. where we allocate power to GP users using waterﬁlling solution and BE users according to the equalpower allocation method. which is found to be well known waterﬁlling solution in frequency domain. This is because. and hence we notice the decrease in minuser’s capacity gain over TDMA with the increase in number of users. This follows from the fact that for the equalpower allocation we need – 68 – .
and to distribute the left resources fairly among the GP and BE users. The proposed power allocation algorithm could be easily modiﬁed for multiservice provisioning by accordingly formulating the problem to suit the traﬃc scenario.. dualservice provisioning. – 69 – .to equally divide the power among the subcarriers allocated to that of BE users. we concentrated on discussing a special case of supporting heterogeneous users i. Since we cannot use a traﬃc model universally hence for the proposed power allocation algorithm to be useful in various scenarios we may need to modify the algorithm according to the necessary traﬃc demands. and only have to calculate for the optimal power allocation for tight QoS GP users. An example could be to limit the minimum and maximum capacity given to GP and BE users respectively. In this chapter.e.
Since the joint optimization problem of subcarrier and power allocation to satisfy userlevel QoS under the total available power constraint. further we consider the case of maximizing the minimum user’s – 70 – . the optimization problem has a closed form solution and can be solved using canonical algorithms. We consider the case of maximizing the system capacity while satisfying the QoS criterion of each user using Hungarian Algorithm. However. The resource (subcarrier and power) allocation issues in OFDM and OFDMA are overviewed in Chapter 2 along with the detailed OFDM system.1 Conclusions The underlying philosophy in the problems that are considered in this thesis is how to provide QoS aware subcarrier and power allocation in OFDMA systems broadband wireless applications. involves discrete assignment and is thus not convex in the unknowns of subcarrier allocation and the available power. if subcarrier allocation is known. Following this strategy we propose a decoupled subcarrier and power allocation algorithm to provide service to heterogeneous users. the problem of subcarrier allocation in singlecell downlink OFDMA system to provide service to heterogeneous users is studied. channel and traﬃc model.Chapter 5 Conclusions and Further Works 5. In Chapter 3. making it a NPhard problem.
we study the problem of power allocation for combined Guaranteed Performance (GP) and Best Eﬀort (BE) users in OFDMA system. and we further propose a reduced complexity suboptimal algorithm to provide service to combined GP and BE users. the power is allocated to GP users following optimal waterﬁlling strategy. we review the system model and formulate optimization problem to support heterogeneous users (combined GP and BE users) under total power constraints. we present an analytical framework for optimal power allocation. Simulation results quantify the performance of these techniques and provide design guidelines for realistic systems. Next. [15]. the remaining power is equally distributed among the subcarriers allocated to BE users. Hence. we see a proportional reduction in computational complexity with the increase in the number of BE users. Next. Then. This follows from the fact that for the equal power allocation we need to equally divide the power among the subcarriers allocated to that of BE users. we extend the method used in Rhee et al. We assume that total power is allocated equally among all the subcarriers. and only have to calculate for the optimal power allocation for tight QoS GP users. In Chapter 4. and propose an algorithm to provide service to dualclass users diﬀerentiated on the basis of QoS and we refer to it as proposedEQ (EQ stands for EQual power allocation). Our suboptimal algorithm consists of two stages: First. In the ﬁrst part of this chapter.capacity using method in Rhee et al. – 71 – .
2 Further Works In this thesis. Based on our observations. we proposed a computationally eﬃcient subcarrier and power allo cation algorithm in OFDMA system to provide service to heterogeneous users. By no means.5. but it does provide one viewpoint of the technical challenges and emerging research areas that will lead to a new network implementation that will support the amalgamation of user services and QoS requirements. do we wish to suggest that these are necessarily the best problems to solve. Crosslayer Design As wireless communication evolves from circuitswitched infrastructure to packetbased infrastructure the crosslayer design approach appear to be real as well as advantageous. however. – 72 – . The associated design problem would be to come up with good algorithm which handle the cochannel interference (CCI) caused by the RF bandwidth reuse. The advantages of this thesis is that it provides us with a more practical and emerging framework in soon to be prevailing broadband wireless communication industry. Extending this study to a multicell case would be of great interest as is tried recently in [35]. Multicell Environment In this study we conﬁned our interest to singlecell scenario as most of other studies in this area. it appears that the following research areas are important for successful buildout of future broadband wireless networks.
an interesting area to explore is the design of good algorithm with low complexity [39]. In the crosslayer networking context. Since the present wireless systems (3G wireless systems) are based on singlecarrier (such as shared time division) system. Emerging NextG wireless systems are expected to be based on multicarrier scheme (OFDM) with hundreds or even thousands of carriers. – 73 – .Crosslayer networking is becoming increasingly important as capacities oﬀered through the Wireless LAN interface approach the level of capacity that can be handled over the internet backbone [38].
Abbreviations ABR ATM AWGN BE BER BoD BRAN BS BWA BWIF CoS CSI DAB DFT DMT DSL DVB ETSI FDM FDMA FFT GP available bit rate asynchronous transfer mode additive white Gaussian noise best eﬀort bit error rate bandwidth on demand broadband radio access network base station broadband wireless access broadband wireless internet forum cost of service channel state information digital audio broadcasting discrete Fourier transform discrete multitone digital subscriber line digital video broadcasting European telecommunications standards institute frequency division multiplexing frequency division multiple access fast Fourier transform guaranteed performance – 74 – .
HIPERLAN/2 HPi ICI IDFT IFFT ISI ISTO LAN LMCS LMDS LOS MAC MAN NextG NLOS OFDM OFDMA PDP PHY QAM QoS QPSK high performance radio LAN type 2 highspeed portable internet interchannel interference inverse discrete Fourier transform inverse fast Fourier transform intersymbol interference industry standards and technology organization local area network local multipoint communication system local multipoint distribution system lineofsight medium access control metropolitan area network next generation nonlineofsight orthogonal frequency division multiplexing orthogonal frequency division multiple access power delay proﬁle physical layer quadrature amplitude modulation qualityofservice quaternary phaseshift keying – 75 – .
RF SNR TDL TDMA VOFDM WSNR radio frequency signaltonoise ratio tappeddelayline time division multiple access vector orthogonal frequency division multiplexing worst signaltonoise ratio – 76 – .
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India. Aligarh Muslim University (AMU). Republic of Korea Professional Activities 2004. Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI).01 Study and Design of Multirate and Multicarrier Receiver for Satellite Communication. 1980 3 Civil Lines. Republic of Korea 2003. Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST). India (B. 209801 Education 2003.02 KOSEF scholarship (Full Support) from Ministry of Science and Technology.06–2002.Tech) Work Experience 2004.02–2004.03–2005. Uttar Pradesh.S) 1998. Republic of Korea : Unnao.02 Information and Communications. Aligarh. Republic of Korea 2003.Curriculum Vitae Name Birth Date Birth Place : : Mohmmad Anas June 30. Gwangju.06–2002.03–2005.02 Brain Korea 21 (BK21) scholarship from Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development.08–Present Student Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 2000. Agency for Defense Development (ADD). India Honors and Awards 2003.02 Study on QoS Aware Resource Allocation for OFDMA Based HighSpeed Portable Internet Services. India Permanent Address : .06–2005. Republic of Korea (M. Unnao.06 Electronics Engineering.03–2005.06 Student Member of the Institute of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers (IETE).
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