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B.E. V SEMESTER

PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH

(TREATMENT OF THE SUBJECT TO BE APPLICATION ORIENTED THEOREMS AND DERIVATIONS ARE NOT NECESSARY)

MODULE – I

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF O.R., LINEAR PROGRAMMING: MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF THE

MODULE – II

LINEAR PROGRAMMING: THE SIMPLEX METHOD.

MODULE – III

LINEAR PROGRAMMING: BIG-M METHOD, CONCEPT OF DUALITY, DUAL SIMPLEX METHOD.

MODULE – IV

TRANSPORTATION MODEL: BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTION BY DIFFERENT METHODS, FINDING OPTIMAL

PROBLEMS.

MODULE – V

ASSIGNMENT MODEL: BALANCED AND UNBALANCED ASSIGNMENTS, ASSIGNMENT TO GIVEN

SCHEDULES.

MODULE – VI

GAMES THEORY: TWO-PERSONS ZERO SUM GAMES, PURE AND MIXED STRATEGIES, RULES OF

MODULE – VII

QUEUING MODEL: QUEUING SYSTEMS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, THE M/M/1/FIFO/

QUEUING SYSTEM. BASIC CONCEPT AND APPLICATIONS OF NON-LINEAR PROGRAMMING

TEXT BOOKS:

1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP

2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY

3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA

4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA

DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI

B.E. V SEMESTER

PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH

TUTORIAL SHEET

MODULE – I

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF O.R., LINEAR PROGRAMMING: MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF THE

PROBLEM. GRAPHIC SOLUTION.

b) An advertising company is planning a media campaign for a client, willing to spend Rs.20, 00,000 to promote a

new fuel economy model of a pressure cooker. The client wishes to limit his campaign media to a daily

newspaper, radio and prime time television. The agency’s own research data on cost effectiveness of

advertising media suggests the following:

Advertising Media Cost per unit (Rs.) Estimated number

of housewives exposed to each

advertising unit

Radio 40,000 5,00,000

Television 1,00,000 10,00,000

The client wishes that at least 50,00,000 housewives should be exposed to TV advertising. Also the expense

on newspaper advertising must not exceed Rs.5, 00,000. Formulate the problem as a linear programming

program.

2. a) What are the areas of applications of O.R..

b) The manager of an oil refinery must decide on optimum mixing of two possible blending processes of which

inputs-outputs are as follows:

For process I, an input of one barrel of crude oil A and three barrels of crude oil B gives an output of 50 gallons

of gasoline X and 20 gallons of gasoline Y. For process II, an input of four barrels of crude oil A and two barrels

of crude oil B yields an output of 30 gallons of gasoline X and 80 gallons of gasoline Y. The maximum amounts

available of crude oil A and B are 120 barrels and 180 barrels respectively.

Sales commitments require at least 2800 gallons of gasoline X and 2200 gallons of gasoline Y are produced.

The profits per production run from process I and from process II are Rs.4000 and Rs. 5000 respectively.

Formulate the above blending problem as LP model.

3. a) Give the main characteristics of O.R.

b) A manufacturer intends to market a new fertilizer produced from a mixture of two ingredients A and B. The

compositions of the ingredients are as follows:

Composition

Ingredients

Bonemetal Nitrogen Lime Phosphate

A 20% 30% 40% 10%

(i) must be sold in bags of 20 kgs

(ii) must contain at least 25% bonemetal

(iii) must contain at least 15% nitrogen

(iv) must contain at least 10% phosphate.

The cost of ingredients is Rs.20 per kg. for A and Rs.16 per kg. for B. Write the LP formulation for the quantities

of the ingredients to be mixed to minimize material cost.

4. a) Discuss the various phases in solving an O.R. problem.

b) A research laboratory has two malts of copper (Cu)-nickel (Ni) alloy to make up a new alloy .The composition of

metals are as under:

Composition (parts)

Melts Cost per Kg. Rs.

Cu Ni

I 2 1 25

II 1 1 30

To make up the new alloy, at least 10 kg of copper and 6 kg of nickel is needed. Melt I costs Rs.25 per kg

while melt II costs Rs.30 per kg. Write the LP model for the quantities of each melt to be used to minimize

cost.

5. a) What are the limitations of OR.

b) A kitchen manager at Pune Govt. hospital has to decide the food mix for the patients. Dietary instructions are

that each patient must get at least:

(a) one gram of protein

(b) one gram of fat

(c) 3 grams of carbohydrates

Additional instructions are that in no case the carbohydrate should exceed 6 grams per Patient. The availability of

protein, fat and carbohydrate in gram per kg chicken, rice and bread is given as follows:

Protein Fat Carbohydrates Price/kg

Chicken 10 2 0 30

Rice 2 1 15 5

Bread 2 0 10 4

Formulate a suitable mathematical model for the above diet mix assuming 100 patients on that day.

6. Dadabhai and Sons has two flourmills, one at Pune and another at Ahmednagar. The mills have different

production capacities for wheat, maize and grams flour. It has entered into a contract with a wholeseller to

supply every week 40,8 and 30 tonnes of wheat, maize and grams flour. It costs Rs.1,500 and Rs.1,000 per

day respectively to run Pune Mill and Ahmednagar Mill. In a day, Pune Mill can Produce 4,1 and 5 tonnes of

wheat, maize and gram flour respectively. Ahmednagar Mill can produce 10,1 and 3 tonnes of these three

varieties per day respectively. Formulate a suitable mathematical model for the above problem.

7. Solve the following LP problem graphically: 3.6x + 4y 3600

Maximize Z = 30x + 40y x 500

Subject to: y 400

2x + 4y 200 x, y 0

3x + 2y 180

x, y 0 12. Solve the following LP problem graphically:

Maximize Z = 100x + 150y

Subject to:

8. Solve the following LP problem graphically:

Maximize Z = 40x + 30y 0.8x + 1.2y 720

Subject to: x 600

2x + y 1000 y 400

x + y 800 x, y 0

x 400

y 700 13. Solve the following LP problem graphically:

Maximize Z = 10x + 20y

x, y 0

Subject to:

2x + 3y 6

9. Solve the following LP problem graphically:

Maximize Z = 400x + 300y 4x + y 4

Subject to:

5x + 3y 6000 x, y 0

x + 3y 2400 14. Solve the following LP problem graphically:

x + 1.5y 1500 Maximize Z = 3x + 2y

x, y 0 Subject to:

3x + 5y 15

10. Solve the following LP problem graphically: 2x + 3y 6

Minimize C = 25x + 30y

Subject to: x, y 0

4x + 3y 60 15. Solve the following LP problem graphically:

2x + 3y 36 Maximize Z = 8000x + 7000y

x, y 0 Subject to:

3x + y 66

11. Solve the following LP problem graphically: x + y 45

Maximize Z = 25x + 20y x 20

Subject to: y 40

6x + 4y 3600 x, y 0

2x + 4y 2000

HOME ASSIGNMENTS

1. A toy company manufactures two types of doll, a basic version-doll A and a deluxe version-doll B. Each doll of

type B takes twice as long to produce as one of type A, and the company would have time to make a maximum

of 2000 per day. The supply of plastic is sufficient to produce 1500 dolls per day (both A and B combined). The

deluxe version requires a fancy dress of which there are only 600 per day available. If the company makes

profit of Rs. 3.00 and Rs. 5.00 per doll, respectively on doll A and B. Formulate this problem in order to

maximize total profit.

2. A firm can produce three types of cloth, say: A, B, and C. Three kinds of wool are for it, say: red, green and

blue wool. One unit length of type A cloth needs 2 meters of red wool and 3 meters of blue wool; one unit of

type B cloth needs 3 meters of red wool, 2meters of green wool and 2 meters of blue wool; and one unit of C

type cloth needs 5 meters of green wool and 4 meters of blue wool. The firm has only a stock of 8 meters of

red wool, 10 meters of green wool and 15 meters of blue wool. It is assumed that the income obtained from

one unit length of type A cloth is Rs. 3.00, of type B cloth is Rs. 5.00, and of type C cloth is Rs. 4.00.

3. Old hens can be bought at Rs. 2 each and young ones at Rs. 5 each. The old hens lay 3 eggs per week and

the young ones lay 5 eggs per week, each egg being worth 30 paise. A hen costs Re. 1 per week to feed. I

have only Rs. 80 to spend for hens, how many of each kind should I buy to give a profit of more than Rs. 6 per

week, assuming that I cannot house more than 20 hens. Solve the above LP problem graphically.

4. Solve the following LP problem graphically: x, y 0

6. Solve the following LP problem graphically:

Minimize Z = 1.5x – 2.5y

Maximize Z = -3x + 2y

Subject to:

Subject to:

x + 3y 3

x-y0

x + 6y 2

x3

x, y 0

x, y 0

5. Solve the following LP problem graphically:

7. Solve the following LP problem graphically:

Maximize Z = 3x + 2y

Maximize Z = 5x + 3y

Subject to:

Subject to:

x-y1

3x + 5y = 15

x+y3

5x + 2y = 10

REFERENCES

1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP

2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY

3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA

4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA

DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI

B.E. V SEMESTER

PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH

TUTORIAL SHEET

MODULE – II

LINEAR PROGRAMMING: THE SIMPLEX METHOD.

1. Solve the problem by simplex method: 8. Solve the problem by simplex method:

Maximize Z = 10x + 6y + 6z Minimize Z = x2 - 3x3 + 2x5

Subject to: Subject to:

3x + 2y + 2z 240 x1 + 3x2 – x3 + 2x5 7

2x + 3y + 3z 270 -2x2 +4x3 + x4 12

x 60 -4x2 + 3x3 + 8x5 + x6 10

x, y, z 0 x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6 0

2. Solve the problem by simplex method: 9. Solve the problem by simplex method:

Maximize Z = 20x + 10y Maximize Z = 5x + 3y

Subject to: Subject to:

8x + 10y 240 3x + 5y 15

4x + 4y 120 5x + 2y 10

x, y 0 x, y 0

10. Solve the problem by simplex method:

3. Solve the problem by simplex method: Maximize Z = 7x + 5y

Maximize Z = 60x + 20y Subject to:

Subject to: -x - y -6

2x + 4y 120 4x + 3y 12

8x +6y 240 x, y 0

x, y 0 11. Solve the problem by simplex method:

4. Solve the problem by simplex method: Maximize Z = 5x + 7y

Maximize Z = 3x + 2y Subject to:

Subject to: x+y4

x+y4 3x - 8y 24

x-y 2 10x + 7y 35

x, y 0 x, y 0

5. Solve the problem by simplex method: 12. Solve the problem by simplex method:

Minimize Z = x - 3y + 2z Maximize Z = 3x + 2y

Subject to: Subject to:

3x - y + 3z 7 2x + y 40

-2x +4y 12 x + y 24

-4x + 3y + 8z 10 2x + 3y 60

x, y, z 0 x, y 0

6. Solve the problem by simplex method: 13. Solve the problem by simplex method:

Maximize Z = 3x + 2y + 5z Maximize Z = 8x + 19y + 7z

Subject to: Subject to:

x + 2y + z 430 3x + 4y + z 25

3x + 2z 460 x + 3y + 3z 50

x + 4y 420 x, y, z 0

x, y, z 0 14. Solve the problem by simplex method:

7. Solve the problem by simplex method: Maximize Z = x - y + 3z

Maximize Z = 3x + 5y + 4z Subject to:

Subject to: x + y + z 10

2x + 3y 8 2x - z 2

2y + 5z 10 2x - 2y + 3z 0

3x + 2y + 4z 15 x, y, z 0

x, y, z 0

15. Solve the problem by simplex method:

Maximize Z = x + y + z 3. Solve the problem by simplex method:

Subject to: Maximize Z = 4x1 +3x2 + 4x3 + 6x4

4x + 5y + 3z 15 Subject to:

10x + 7y + z 12 x1 +2x2 + 2x3 + 4x4 80

x, y, z 0 2x1 + 2x3 + x4 60

Home Assignment 3x1 +3x2 + x3 + x4 80

x1, x2, x3, x4 0

1. Solve the problem by simplex method: 4. Solve the problem by simplex method:

Maximize Z = 2x + y Maximize Z = 2x + 4y + 3z

Subject to: Subject to:

x + 2y 10 3x + 4y + 2z 60

x+y6 2x + y + 2z 40

x-y2 x + 3y + 2z 80

x - 2y 1 x, y, z 0

x, y 0 5. Solve the problem by simplex method:

2. Solve the problem by simplex method: Maximize Z = 2x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x4

Maximize Z = x + y + 3z Subject to:

Subject to: 2x1 +x2 + 2x3 + 3x4 12

3x + 2y + z 3 3x1 + 2x3 + 2x4 20

2x + y + 2z 2 2x1 +x2 + 4x3 16

x, y, z 0 x1, x2, x3, x4 0

REFERENCES

1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP

2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY

3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA

4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA

DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI

B.E. V SEMESTER

PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH

TUTORIAL SHEET

MODULE – III

LINEAR PROGRAMMING: BIG-M METHOD, CONCEPT OF DUALITY, DUAL SIMPLEX METHOD.

Minimize C = 25x + 30y x, y unrestricted.

Subject to: 8. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method:

4x + 3y 60 Maximize Z = 3x - y

2x + 3y 36 Subject to:

x, y 0 2x + y 2

2. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: x + 3y 3

Minimize C = 8x + 10y + 6z y4

Subject to: x, y 0

x + y + z = 100 9. Obtain the dual of

x 30 Maximize Z = 4x1 + 2x2

y 20 Subject to:

z 40 x1 + x2 20

x, y, z 0 3x1 + 2x2 30

3. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: 2x1 + 5x2 20

Maximize Z = 4x + 5y x1, x2 0

Subject to:

5x + 4y 200 10. Obtain the dual of

3x + 5y 150 Maximize Z = 12x1 + 10x2

5x + 4y 100 Subject to:

8x + 4y 80 2x1 + 3x2 60

x, y 0 5x1 + 2x2 50

4. a) Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: x1, x2 0

Maximize Z = 3x + 2y

Subject to: 11. Obtain the dual of

x+y4 Maximize Z = 8x1 + 10x2

2x + y 10 Subject to:

x, y 0 5x1 + 3x2 120

b) What is infeasible solution? How is it identified x1 + 3x2 30

in the simplex tableau? x 1 , x2 0

5. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: 12. Obtain the dual of

Maximize Z = -2x - y Minimize C = 5x1 + 8x2 + 4x3

Subject to: Subject to:

3x + y = 3 3x1 + x2 + x3 24

4x + 3y 6 2x1 + 4x2 + x3 40

x + 2y 4 x 1 , x2 , x3 0

x, y 0

6. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: 13. Obtain the dual of

Maximize Z = x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 - x4 Minimize C = 12x1 + 8x2

Subject to: Subject to:

x1 +2x2 + 3x3 = 15 2x1 + x2 100

2x1 + x2 + 5x3 = 20 3x1 + 2x2 60

x1 +2x2 + x3 + x4 = 10 x1, x2 0

x1, x2, x3, x4 0 14. Obtain the dual of

Maximize Z = 3x1 + 6x2

7. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: Subject to:

Maximize Z = 8y 2x1 - 3x2 6

Subject to: x1 2

x-y0 x1 + 2x2 = 4

Home Assignments

15. Obtain the dual of

Minimize Z = 30x1 + 40x2 1. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method:

Subject to: Maximize Z = 4x + 5y –3z

2x1 - 3x2 16 Subject to:

3x1 + 5x2 = 60 x + y + z = 10

x 1 , x2 0 x-y1

x +2y 30

x, y, z 0

2. Food X contains 6 units of vitamin A per gram and 7 units of vitamin B per gram and costs 12 paise per gram.

Food Y contains 8 units of vitamin A per gram and 12 units of vitamin B per gram and costs 20 paise per gram.

The daily minimum requirements of vitamin A and vitamin B are 100 units and 120 units respectively. Find the

minimum cost of product mix by using Big-M-method.

Minimize Z = 2x + 9y + z 6x1 -2x2 + 4x3 40

Subject to: x1, x2 0, x3 unrestricted in sign.

x + 4y + 2z 5 5. Obtain the dual of

3x + y + 2z 4 Maximize Z = 2x1 + x2

x, y, z 0 Subject to:

4. (a) State the general rules for converting a 3x1 + x2 3

primal problem into its dual. 4x1 + 3x2 6

(b) Obtain the dual of x1 +2x2 3

Maximize Z = 2x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 x1, x2 0

Subject to:

REFERENCES

1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP

2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY

3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA

4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA

DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI

B.E. V SEMESTER

PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH

TUTORIAL SHEET

MODULE – IV

TRANSPORTATION MODEL: BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTION BY DIFFERENT METHODS, FINDING OPTIMAL

SOLUTIONS, DEGENERACY IN TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS, UNBALANCED TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS.

1. A firm has three factories located at Ahmedabad, Ernakulam and Kanpur, which produce the same product.

There are four major distribution centers situated in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. The daily production

in terms of units produced varies from factory to factory as given below:

Factory : Ahmedabad Ernakulum Kanpur

Production : 30 40 50

(units per day)

Average daily demand at the distribution centers is as follows:

Centre : Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras

Demand : 35 28 32 25

(units per day)

The transport cost from each factory to each distribution center is as under:

Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras

Ahmedabad 6 5 8 5

Ernakulum 5 11 9 7

Kanpur 8 9 7 13

a) Obtain an initial feasible solution by using:

i. North-west-corner method.

ii. Least cost method

iii. Vogel’s approximation method

b) Is the solution obtained under (i) above is optimal? Why?

c) Using suitable method, carry out one iteration to obtain an improved solution.

2. A company has three factories that supply to four marketing areas. The transportation cost of shipping from

each factory to each marketing area is given in table below. Factory capacities and market requirements are

also given in the table:

Marketing area

Factory Capacity

W1 W2 W3 W4

F1 19 30 50 10 1600

F2 70 30 40 60 1200

F3 40 8 70 20 1700

Demand 1000 1500 800 1200

a) Find the initial feasible solution by VAM method.

b) Is the solution obtained in (a) optimum?

c) Carry out one iteration for improvement if solution under (a) is not optimal.

3. JayCee company has two flour mills (F1 and F2) and three godowns (G1, G2, and G3). The variables cost of

manufacturing and transporting one tonne of flour from each flour mill to each godown are shown in the

transportation table below. The capacities of the factories and requirements of the godowns are also shown in

this table:

G1 G2 G3 Slack

F1 75 80 70 0 75

50 80 55 0 50

F2

Demand 20 55 40 10 125

b) Is the solution obtained in (a) optimum?

d) If no, find out optimal solution.

4. A hotel corporation has three restaurants around the country all of which use standard drinking (disposable)

cups. Three suppliers have been invited to bid on supplying the cups. Their bid are as follows:

Supplier Price (Rs. Per 100) Annual capacity

A 9 30,000

B 10 70,000

C 11 1,35,000

The cost of transportation (in Rs. per 100 cups) varies from each supplier to each restaurant as given below:

From Restaurant

1 2 3

A 2 4 1

B 5 3 6

C 3 2 7

The annual requirements of cups for three restaurants are 30,000, 60,000 and 1,20,000 respectively. How

many cups should be purchased from each supplier for each restaurant?

5. A company has three factories manufacturing the same product and five sole selling agencies in different parts

of the country. Production costs differ from factory to factory and sales price from agency to agency. Find the

production and distribution schedule most profitable to the company. Given the following data:

Factory I II III Sale Demand

Production price

cost (Rs.) 20 22 18 per unit

(Rs.)

Agency Transport cost per unit

I 3 9 4 30 80

II 1 7 5 32 100

III 5 8 3 31 75

IV 7 3 2 34 45

V 4 6 7 29 125

Capacity 150 200 125

6. A company has two factories A and B which supply three warehouses E, F and G. Factory capacities are 200

and 300 units respectively.

If overtime is utilized, the production capacity can be increased to 275 and 450 units respectively. Incremental

overtime cost per unit is Rs.10 and Rs.15 respectively. The requirements of warehouses are 150,200 and 300

units respectively. The transport costs per unit between the plants and warehouses are as follows:

From/To E F G

A 20 15 25

B 10 5 10

a) Which plant should be given overtime?

b) Find the optimum manufacturing and shipping schedule to minimize costs.

7. A company has four warehouses altogether have a surplus of 22 units of a given commodity, divided among

them as follows:

Warehouses 1 2 3 4

Surplus 5 6 2 9

The six stores altogether need 22 units of the commodity. Individual requirement at stores 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

are 4, 4, 6, 2, 4 and 2 units respectively.

Distribution Centre

Plants 1 2 3 4 Supply

1 7 2 5 5 6

2 4 4 6 5 1

3 5 3 3 2 10

Requirement 7 5 3 2

Cost of shipping one unit of commodity from warehouse I to store j in rupees is given in the matrix below:

Agency Stores

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 9 12 9 6 9 10

2 7 3 7 7 5 5

3 6 5 9 11 3 11

4 6 8 11 2 2 10

How should the products be shipped from the warehouse to the stores so that the transportation cost is

minimum? Also explain degeneracy in transportation technique in the context of this example.

8. A product is produced by four factories A, B, C and D. The unit productions cost in them are Rs. 2, Rs. 3, Rs. 1

and Rs. 5 respectively. There production capacities are, factory A-50 units, B-70 units, C-30 units, and D-50

units. These factories supply the product to four stores, demands of which are 25, 35, 105, and 20 units

respectively. Unit transport cost in rupees from each factory is given in the table below:

Stores

1 2 3 4

A 2 4 6 11

Factories B 10 8 7 5

C 13 3 9 12

D 4 6 8 3

Determine the extent of deliveries from each of the factories to each of the stores so that the total production

and transportation cost is minimum.

9. A company manufacturing air-coolers has two plants located at Bombay and Calcutta with a capacity of 200

units and 100 units per week respectively. The company supplies the air-coolers to its four show rooms

situated at Ranchi, Delhi, Lucknow and Kanpur, which have a maximum demand of 75, 100, 100 and 30 units

respectively. Due to the differences in raw material cost and transportation cost, the profit per unit in rupees

differs which is shown in the table below:

Ranchi Delhi Lucknow Kanpur

Bombay 90 90 100 110

Calcutta 50 70 130 85

Plan the production programme so as to maximize the profit. The company may have its production capacity at

both plants partly or wholly unused.

10. A company has 3 factories manufacturing the same product and 5 sales agencies in

different parts of the country. Production costs differ from factory to factory and the sales

prices from agency to agency. The shipping cost per unit product from each factory to each

agency is known. Given the following data, find the production and distribution schedules

most profitable to the company.

Factory I Production cost/unit (Rs.) Max. capacity (no. of units)

1 18 140

2 20 190

3 16 115

1 2 2 6 10 5

Factory i 2 10 8 9 4 7 Shipping

3 5 6 4 3 8 cost

Agency j 1 2 3 4 5 (Rs.)

Demand 74 94 69 39 119

Sales price (Rs.) 35 37 36 39 34

Home Assignments

1. Explain in brief with examples for transportation problem:

a) Least Cost Method

b) North West Corner Rule

c) Vogel’s Approximation Method

2. a) Describe the technique of getting a first feasible solution of a transportation problem and how the solution is

improved at each stage.

b) Table below gives the relevant data of a typical transportation problem:

Destinations

D1 D2 D3 D4 Availability

S1 17 11 45 30 15

S2 18 19 14 31 13

Demand 9 6 7 6 28

i) Obtain an initial feasible solution using Least cost method, North West corner rule, Vogel’s approximation

method.

ii) Is the solution obtained in (a) optimal? Why?

iii) Using a suitable method, carry out one iteration to obtain an improved solution.

3. A company has three plants at locations A, B and C which supply to warehouses located at D, E, F, G and H.

Monthly plant capacities are 800, 500, and 900 units respectively. Monthly warehouse requirements are 400,

400, 500, 400 and 800 units respectively. Unit transportation costs (in Rs.) are given below:

To

D E F G H

A 5 8 6 6 3

From B 4 7 7 6 6

C 8 4 6 6 4

Determine an optimum distribution for the company in order to minimize the total transportation cost.

4. A company produces a small component for all industrial products and distributes it to five whole salers at a

fixed delivered price of Rs. 2.50 per unit. Sales forecasts indicate that monthly deliveries will be 3000, 3000,

10000, 5000, 4000 units to whole salers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The monthly production capacities are

5000, 10000 and 12500 at plants 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The direct costs of production of each unit are Re 1,

Re 0.90 and Re 0.80 at plants 1, 2 and respectively. The transportation costs of shipping a unit from a plant to

a whole saler are given below:

Wholesaler

1 2 3 4 5

1 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.15

Plant 2 0.08 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.14

3 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.15

Find how many components each plant supplies to each whole saler in order to maximize profit.

5. A company has three plants A, B and C and three warehouses X, Y and Z. Number of units available at the

plants is 60, 70 and 80 respectively. Demands at X, Y, and Z are 50, 80 and 80 respectively. Unit costs of

transportation are as follows:

X Y Z Available

A 8 7 3 60

B 3 8 9 70

C 11 3 5 80

Requirements 50 80 80

What would be your transportation plan? Give minimum distribution cost.

REFERENCES

1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP

2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY

3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA

4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA

DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI

B.E. V SEMESTER

PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH

TUTORIAL SHEET

MODULE – V

ASSIGNMENT MODEL: BALANCED AND UNBALANCED ASSIGNMENTS, ASSIGNMENT TO GIVEN SCHEDULES.

SEQUENCING: PROCESSING OF 2 JOBS THROUGH MACHINES –GRAPHICAL METHOD, PROCESSING OF N

JOBS THROUGH TWO MACHINES, PROCESSING N JOBS THROUGH THREE MACHINES.

1. A departmental head has four subordinate and four tasks for completion. The subordinates differ in

their capabilities and tasks differ in their work contents. His estimates of time for each task-

subordinate combination is as under:

Task Subordinate

I II III IV

A 17 35 26 20

B 22 37 13 35

C 47 28 27 24

D 28 35 33 19

2. A machine shop supervisor has four machines and four tasks for completion. Each of the machines

can perform each of the four tasks. Time taken at each of the machines to complete the tasks is given

in the matrix below:

Task Subordinate

M1 M2 M3 M4

1 31 62 29 42

2 12 19 39 55

3 17 29 50 41

4 35 40 38 42

How should the tasks be assigned to minimize total time required for processing?

3. A company has four service centers set up at cities S1, S2, S3, and S4 to service and repair equipment

installed at the customer’s plants throughout the country. Four requests have been received from customers

located at cities C1, C2, C3, and C4. The company finds that four engineers are available one at each service

center. The distance between each of the service centers and the customer’s plant is given in the following

table:

Customer (city)

C1 C2 C3 C4

Service Distance (kms)

Engineer

S1 500 360 460 280

S2 660 380 530 460

S3 450 490 820 600

S4 520 580 720 560

How should the engineers be deputed to different customers plants so as to minimize the total distance to be

traveled?

4. A company has five jobs to be done. The following matrix shows the cost of assigning each job

(Wj=1, 2, 3…..) to each machine (Mi=1, 2, 3…..). Assign five jobs to the five machines so as to

minimize the total cost.

Machine Job

W1 W2 W3 W4 W5

M1 5 11 10 12 4

M2 2 4 6 3 5

M3 3 12 14 6

M4 6 14 4 11 7

M5 7 9 8 12 5

5. Five machines are available to process five jobs. Their processing times in hours, are given below:

Machine Job

I II III IV V

A 3 10 3 1 8

B 7 9 8 1 7

C 5 7 6 1 4

D 5 3 8 1 4

E 6 4 10 1 6

a) Determine the assignment, one job to one machine that minimizes the total processing time.

b) What is the total processing time for optimal assignment?

c) What is the machine cost optimality?

6. A company has one surplus trailer in cities P, Q, R, and S and one deficit trailer in cities A, B, C, and D. the

distances in kilometers between the cities are shown below:

From To

A B C D

P 8 5 8 2

Q 9 3 6 9

R 4 10 7 4

S 3 5 6 1

The management wishes to determine the assignment of surplus trailer to the cities with a deficit to minimize

the total kilometers traveled. Give alternate optimal assignment if possible. Compute the total distance for

optimum assignment.

7. A public health officer finds that there is a surplus of one nurse in each location 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 and

a deficit of one nurse in each location A, B, C, D, D, E, and F. The distance in kilometers between

locations are given below:

Surplus Deficit Locations

A B C D E F

locations

1 42 72 40 52 25 51

2 22 29 49 65 81 50

3 27 39 60 51 32 33

4 45 50 58 52 37 43

5 29 40 39 26 30 33

6 82 40 40 60 51 30

How should the nurses be reassigned to minimize the total distance? Assuming that nurses are paid traveling

allowance at Rs. 0.75 per km. What is the cost of reassignment?

8. An engineering company has branches in Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras. A branch manager is

to be appointed, one at each city out of four candidates A, B, C, and D. depending on the branch

manager and the city, the monthly business in the city varies in lakhs of rupees as per detail below:

City

Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras

Service

(Business Rs. in lakhs)

Engineer

A 2 3 1 1

B 5 8 3 3

C 4 9 5 1

D 8 7 8 4

Suggest which manager should be assigned to which city so as to get maximum total monthly business.

9. The marketing director of a multi unit company Mr. X is faced with the problem of assigning five

senior marketing managers to six zones. From past experience he knows that the efficiency

percentage judged by sales, operating cost, increase on market share etc. depends a lot on marketing

manager zone combination given in the table below:

Marketing Zones

I II III IV V VI

manager

Mr. A 73 91 87 82 78 80

Mr. B 81 85 69 76 74 85

Mr. C 75 72 83 84 78 91

Mr. D 93 96 86 91 83 82

Mr. E 90 91 79 89 69 76

As an advisor to Mr. X, recommend which zone should be manned by a junior manager because of non-

availability of one more senior marketing manager so as to maximize the overall efficiency achievement?

10. Three buildings are added to a university campus. Five contractors submit bids. The bid figures are

given in million of rupees and are as follows:

Contractors Buildings

A B C

1 2.90 1.62 3.11

2 3.10 1.74 2.82

3 3.05 1.80 2.92

4 2.87 1.57 2.78

5 3.11 1.68 2.99

Find the assignment of buildings to contractors that will result in a minimum total cost for the building program.

11. There are five jobs, each of which must go through the two machines A and B in the order AB. Processing

times are given below:

Job 1 2 3 4 5

Machine A 5 1 9 3 10

Machine B 2 6 7 8 4

Determine a sequence for five jobs that will minimize the elapsed time T.

12. Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time required to complete the following tasks:

Tasks A B C D E F G H I

Time on I machine 2 5 4 9 6 8 7 5 4

Time on II machine 6 8 7 4 3 9 3 8 11

13. Following table shows the machine time (in hrs) for five jobs to be processed on two different machines:

Job 1 2 3 4 5

Machine A 3 7 4 5 7

Machine B 6 2 7 3 4

Passing is not allowed. Find the optimal sequence in which jobs should be processed.

14. We have seven jobs each of which has to go through the machines M1 and M2 in the order M1, M2.

Processing times (in hrs) are given as:

Job 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Machine M1 3 12 15 6 10 11 9

Machine M2 8 10 10 6 12 1 3

Determine a sequence of these jobs that will minimize the total elapsed time T.

15. There are five jobs, each of which must go through machines A, B and C in the order A, B, C. Processing times

are given as follows:

Job Processing Times

A B C

1 8 5 4

2 10 6 9

3 6 2 8

4 7 3 6

5 11 4 5

Determine a sequence for five jobs that will minimize the elapsed time T.

16. There are five jobs, each of which must go through machines A, B and C in the order A, B, C. Processing times

are given as follows:

Job Processing Times

A B C

1 5 2 3

2 7 1 7

3 6 4 5

4 9 5 6

5 5 3 7

Determine a sequence for the jobs that will minimize the elapsed time T.

17. Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time required to complete the following tasks. Each job is

processed in the order ACB.

Job 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Machine A 12 6 5 11 5 7 6

Machine B 7 8 9 4 7 8 3

Machine C 3 4 1 5 2 3 4

18. Use graphical method to minimize the time needed to process the following jobs on the machines shown

below, i.e., for each machine find the job which should be done first. Also calculate the total time needed to

complete both the jobs.

Job 1 Sequence of Machines : A B C D E

Time : 2 3 4 6 2

Job 2 Sequence of Machines : C A D E B

Time : 4 5 3 2 6

19. Use graphical method to minimize the time needed to process the following jobs on the machines shown

below, i.e., for each machine find the job which should be done first. Also calculate the total time needed to

complete both the jobs.

Job 1 Sequence of Machines : A B C D E

Time : 3 4 2 6 2

Job 2 Sequence of Machines : B C A D E

Time : 5 4 3 2 6

Home Assignments

1. a) How a maximization problem is converted into a minimization problem.

b) Draw a flowchart for the solution of an assignment problem.

2. The owner of a smaller machine shop has four operators available for the day. Five jobs are offered to

be done on the day. The expected profits (in Rs.) hundred for each job done by each operator are

given below:

Job A B C D E

Operators

1 6.2 8.8 - 10.1 8.2

2 7.0 8.4 6.5 7.5 6.0

3 8.7 9.2 11.1 7.0 8.2

4 - 6.4 8.7 7.7 8.0

A dash indicates that job-operator combination is not possible. Find the assignment of jobs to operators that

will result in maximum profit. Which job goes undone?

3. The owner of a small workshop has four machines available on a particular day. Five jobs have been

offered to be done on that day. Expected profit (in Rs.) for each job-machine combination is as

follows:

Job Machines

1 2 3 4

A 38 49 68 32

B 55 65 73 50

C 48 49 92 63

D 83 52 50 55

E 68 45 67 66

4. A firm intends to purchase three different types of machines. Five manufacturers have submitted their

quotations to supply one or all three machines. The price (in lakhs of rupees) quoted by the different

manufacturers have been tabulated for comparison in the purchase department which appears as

under:

Manufacturer Buildings

M1 M2 M3

A 6.40 8.25 5.60

B 6.25 8.00 5.50

C 6.35 8.20 5.80

D 6.30 8.20 5.75

E 6.60 8.15 5.70

Determine how best the firm can purchase these machines assuming that the firm’s policy is not to buy more

than one machine from any manufacturer.

5. Four new machines M1, M2, M3 and M4 are to be installed in a machine shop. There are five vacant

places A, B, C, D and E available. Because of limited space, machine M2 cannot be placed at C and

M3 cannot be placed at A. Cij, he assignment cost of machine I to place j in rupees is shown below:

Machines Vacant Places

A B C D E

M1 4 6 10 5 6

M2 7 4 - 5 4

M3 - 6 9 6 2

M4 9 3 7 2 3

6. A trip from Chandigarh to Delhi takes six hours by bus. A typical table of the bus service in both

directions is given below:

Departure from Chandigarh Delhi-Chandigarh Service-line or Arrival at Delhi

route number

6.00 A 12.00

07.30 B 13.30

11.30 C 17.30

19.00 D 01.00

00.30 E 06.30

route number

11.30 1 05.30

15.00 2 09.00

21.00 3 15.00

00.30 4 18.30

06.00 5 00.00

The costs of providing this service by the transport depends upon the time spend by the bus crew (driver and

conductor) away from their places in addition to service times. There are five crews. There is a constraint that

every crew should be provided with more than four hours of rest before the return trip again and should not

wait for more than 24 hours for the return trip. The company has residential facilities for the crew at Chandigarh

as well as at Delhi. Suggest an optimal assignment of the crew.

7. a) Define the problem of sequencing.

b) What is no passing rule in a sequencing algorithm? Explain the principle assumptions made while dealing

with sequencing problem.

8. We have five jobs each of which has to go through the machines M1 and M2 in the order M1, M2. Processing

times (in hrs) are given as:

Job 1 2 3 4 5

Machine M1 10 2 18 6 20

Machine M2 4 12 14 16 8

Determine a sequence of these jobs that will minimize the total elapsed time T.

9. Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time required to complete the following jobs:

Job 1 2 3 4 5 6

Machine M1 4 8 3 6 7 5

Machine M2 6 3 7 2 8 4

10. a) Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time (in hrs) required to complete the following tasks on

three machines A, B and C in the order ABC.

Job 1 2 3 4 5

Machine A 4 9 8 6 5

Machine B 5 6 2 3 4

Machine C 8 10 6 7 11

b) Job 1 2 3 4 5

Machine A 5 7 6 9 5

Machine B 2 1 4 5 3

Machine C 3 7 5 6 7

11. A company has six jobs which go through three machines X, Y and Z in the order X, Y, Z. The processing times

(in minutes) for each job on each machine is as follows:

Job 1 2 3 4 5 6

Machine A 18 12 29 36 43 37

Machine B 7 12 11 2 6 12

Machine C 19 12 23 47 28 36

What should be the sequence of the jobs?

12. Two jobs are to be processed on four machines A, B, C and D. The technological order of these machines is as

follows:

Job 1 A B C D

Job 2 D B A C

Processing times are given in the following table:

Machines A B C D

Job 1 4 6 7 3

Job 2 4 7 5 8

Find the optimal sequence of jobs on each of the machines.

13. Use graphical method to minimize the time needed to process the following jobs on the machines shown

below, i.e., for each machine find the job which should be done first. Also calculate the total time needed to

complete both the jobs.

Time : 2 4 5 1

Job 2 Sequence of Machines : D B A C

Time : 6 4 2 3

REFERENCES

1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP

2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY

3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA

5. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA

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