You are on page 1of 29

DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI


B.E. V SEMESTER
PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH

(TREATMENT OF THE SUBJECT TO BE APPLICATION ORIENTED THEOREMS AND DERIVATIONS ARE NOT NECESSARY)

MODULE – I
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF O.R., LINEAR PROGRAMMING: MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF THE

PROBLEM. GRAPHIC SOLUTION.

MODULE – II
LINEAR PROGRAMMING: THE SIMPLEX METHOD.

MODULE – III
LINEAR PROGRAMMING: BIG-M METHOD, CONCEPT OF DUALITY, DUAL SIMPLEX METHOD.

MODULE – IV
TRANSPORTATION MODEL: BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTION BY DIFFERENT METHODS, FINDING OPTIMAL

SOLUTIONS, DEGENERACY IN TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS, UNBALANCED TRANSPORTATION

PROBLEMS.

MODULE – V
ASSIGNMENT MODEL: BALANCED AND UNBALANCED ASSIGNMENTS, ASSIGNMENT TO GIVEN

SCHEDULES.

SEQUENCING: PROCESSING OF 2 JOBS THROUGH MACHINES –GRAPHICAL METHOD, PROCESSING OF

N JOBS THROUGH TWO MACHINES, PROCESSING N JOBS THROUGH THREE MACHINES.

MODULE – VI
GAMES THEORY: TWO-PERSONS ZERO SUM GAMES, PURE AND MIXED STRATEGIES, RULES OF

DOMINANCE, SOLUTION METHODS WITHOUT SADDLE POINT.

MODULE – VII
QUEUING MODEL: QUEUING SYSTEMS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, THE M/M/1/FIFO/
QUEUING SYSTEM. BASIC CONCEPT AND APPLICATIONS OF NON-LINEAR PROGRAMMING

TEXT BOOKS:
1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP
2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY
3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA
4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA
DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI
B.E. V SEMESTER
PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH
TUTORIAL SHEET

MODULE – I
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF O.R., LINEAR PROGRAMMING: MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF THE
PROBLEM. GRAPHIC SOLUTION.

1. a) Define OR and discuss its scope.


b) An advertising company is planning a media campaign for a client, willing to spend Rs.20, 00,000 to promote a
new fuel economy model of a pressure cooker. The client wishes to limit his campaign media to a daily
newspaper, radio and prime time television. The agency’s own research data on cost effectiveness of
advertising media suggests the following:
Advertising Media Cost per unit (Rs.) Estimated number
of housewives exposed to each
advertising unit

Newspaper 20,000 1,00,000


Radio 40,000 5,00,000
Television 1,00,000 10,00,000
The client wishes that at least 50,00,000 housewives should be exposed to TV advertising. Also the expense
on newspaper advertising must not exceed Rs.5, 00,000. Formulate the problem as a linear programming
program.
2. a) What are the areas of applications of O.R..
b) The manager of an oil refinery must decide on optimum mixing of two possible blending processes of which
inputs-outputs are as follows:
For process I, an input of one barrel of crude oil A and three barrels of crude oil B gives an output of 50 gallons
of gasoline X and 20 gallons of gasoline Y. For process II, an input of four barrels of crude oil A and two barrels
of crude oil B yields an output of 30 gallons of gasoline X and 80 gallons of gasoline Y. The maximum amounts
available of crude oil A and B are 120 barrels and 180 barrels respectively.
Sales commitments require at least 2800 gallons of gasoline X and 2200 gallons of gasoline Y are produced.
The profits per production run from process I and from process II are Rs.4000 and Rs. 5000 respectively.
Formulate the above blending problem as LP model.
3. a) Give the main characteristics of O.R.
b) A manufacturer intends to market a new fertilizer produced from a mixture of two ingredients A and B. The
compositions of the ingredients are as follows:
Composition
Ingredients
Bonemetal Nitrogen Lime Phosphate
A 20% 30% 40% 10%

B 40% 15% 40% 5%

The management decision is that the fertilizer:


(i) must be sold in bags of 20 kgs
(ii) must contain at least 25% bonemetal
(iii) must contain at least 15% nitrogen
(iv) must contain at least 10% phosphate.
The cost of ingredients is Rs.20 per kg. for A and Rs.16 per kg. for B. Write the LP formulation for the quantities
of the ingredients to be mixed to minimize material cost.
4. a) Discuss the various phases in solving an O.R. problem.
b) A research laboratory has two malts of copper (Cu)-nickel (Ni) alloy to make up a new alloy .The composition of
metals are as under:
Composition (parts)
Melts Cost per Kg. Rs.
Cu Ni
I 2 1 25
II 1 1 30
To make up the new alloy, at least 10 kg of copper and 6 kg of nickel is needed. Melt I costs Rs.25 per kg
while melt II costs Rs.30 per kg. Write the LP model for the quantities of each melt to be used to minimize
cost.
5. a) What are the limitations of OR.
b) A kitchen manager at Pune Govt. hospital has to decide the food mix for the patients. Dietary instructions are
that each patient must get at least:
(a) one gram of protein
(b) one gram of fat
(c) 3 grams of carbohydrates
Additional instructions are that in no case the carbohydrate should exceed 6 grams per Patient. The availability of
protein, fat and carbohydrate in gram per kg chicken, rice and bread is given as follows:
Protein Fat Carbohydrates Price/kg

Chicken 10 2 0 30
Rice 2 1 15 5
Bread 2 0 10 4
Formulate a suitable mathematical model for the above diet mix assuming 100 patients on that day.
6. Dadabhai and Sons has two flourmills, one at Pune and another at Ahmednagar. The mills have different
production capacities for wheat, maize and grams flour. It has entered into a contract with a wholeseller to
supply every week 40,8 and 30 tonnes of wheat, maize and grams flour. It costs Rs.1,500 and Rs.1,000 per
day respectively to run Pune Mill and Ahmednagar Mill. In a day, Pune Mill can Produce 4,1 and 5 tonnes of
wheat, maize and gram flour respectively. Ahmednagar Mill can produce 10,1 and 3 tonnes of these three
varieties per day respectively. Formulate a suitable mathematical model for the above problem.
7. Solve the following LP problem graphically: 3.6x + 4y  3600
Maximize Z = 30x + 40y x  500
Subject to: y  400
2x + 4y  200 x, y  0
3x + 2y  180
x, y  0 12. Solve the following LP problem graphically:
Maximize Z = 100x + 150y
Subject to:
8. Solve the following LP problem graphically:
Maximize Z = 40x + 30y 0.8x + 1.2y  720
Subject to: x  600
2x + y  1000 y  400
x + y  800 x, y  0
x  400
y  700 13. Solve the following LP problem graphically:
Maximize Z = 10x + 20y
x, y  0
Subject to:
2x + 3y  6
9. Solve the following LP problem graphically:
Maximize Z = 400x + 300y 4x + y  4
Subject to:
5x + 3y  6000 x, y  0
x + 3y  2400 14. Solve the following LP problem graphically:
x + 1.5y  1500 Maximize Z = 3x + 2y
x, y  0 Subject to:
3x + 5y  15
10. Solve the following LP problem graphically: 2x + 3y  6
Minimize C = 25x + 30y
Subject to: x, y  0
4x + 3y  60 15. Solve the following LP problem graphically:
2x + 3y  36 Maximize Z = 8000x + 7000y
x, y  0 Subject to:
3x + y  66
11. Solve the following LP problem graphically: x + y  45
Maximize Z = 25x + 20y x  20
Subject to: y  40
6x + 4y  3600 x, y  0
2x + 4y  2000

HOME ASSIGNMENTS
1. A toy company manufactures two types of doll, a basic version-doll A and a deluxe version-doll B. Each doll of
type B takes twice as long to produce as one of type A, and the company would have time to make a maximum
of 2000 per day. The supply of plastic is sufficient to produce 1500 dolls per day (both A and B combined). The
deluxe version requires a fancy dress of which there are only 600 per day available. If the company makes
profit of Rs. 3.00 and Rs. 5.00 per doll, respectively on doll A and B. Formulate this problem in order to
maximize total profit.
2. A firm can produce three types of cloth, say: A, B, and C. Three kinds of wool are for it, say: red, green and
blue wool. One unit length of type A cloth needs 2 meters of red wool and 3 meters of blue wool; one unit of
type B cloth needs 3 meters of red wool, 2meters of green wool and 2 meters of blue wool; and one unit of C
type cloth needs 5 meters of green wool and 4 meters of blue wool. The firm has only a stock of 8 meters of
red wool, 10 meters of green wool and 15 meters of blue wool. It is assumed that the income obtained from
one unit length of type A cloth is Rs. 3.00, of type B cloth is Rs. 5.00, and of type C cloth is Rs. 4.00.

Formulate this problem in order to maximize total profit.


3. Old hens can be bought at Rs. 2 each and young ones at Rs. 5 each. The old hens lay 3 eggs per week and
the young ones lay 5 eggs per week, each egg being worth 30 paise. A hen costs Re. 1 per week to feed. I
have only Rs. 80 to spend for hens, how many of each kind should I buy to give a profit of more than Rs. 6 per
week, assuming that I cannot house more than 20 hens. Solve the above LP problem graphically.
4. Solve the following LP problem graphically: x, y  0
6. Solve the following LP problem graphically:
Minimize Z = 1.5x – 2.5y
Maximize Z = -3x + 2y
Subject to:
Subject to:
x + 3y  3
x-y0
x + 6y  2
x3
x, y  0
x, y  0
5. Solve the following LP problem graphically:
7. Solve the following LP problem graphically:
Maximize Z = 3x + 2y
Maximize Z = 5x + 3y
Subject to:
Subject to:
x-y1
3x + 5y = 15
x+y3
5x + 2y = 10

REFERENCES
1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP
2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY
3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA
4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA
DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI
B.E. V SEMESTER
PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH
TUTORIAL SHEET
MODULE – II
LINEAR PROGRAMMING: THE SIMPLEX METHOD.

1. Solve the problem by simplex method: 8. Solve the problem by simplex method:
Maximize Z = 10x + 6y + 6z Minimize Z = x2 - 3x3 + 2x5
Subject to: Subject to:
3x + 2y + 2z  240 x1 + 3x2 – x3 + 2x5  7
2x + 3y + 3z  270 -2x2 +4x3 + x4  12
x  60 -4x2 + 3x3 + 8x5 + x6  10
x, y, z  0 x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6  0
2. Solve the problem by simplex method: 9. Solve the problem by simplex method:
Maximize Z = 20x + 10y Maximize Z = 5x + 3y
Subject to: Subject to:
8x + 10y  240 3x + 5y  15
4x + 4y  120 5x + 2y  10
x, y  0 x, y  0
10. Solve the problem by simplex method:
3. Solve the problem by simplex method: Maximize Z = 7x + 5y
Maximize Z = 60x + 20y Subject to:
Subject to: -x - y  -6
2x + 4y  120 4x + 3y  12
8x +6y  240 x, y  0
x, y  0 11. Solve the problem by simplex method:
4. Solve the problem by simplex method: Maximize Z = 5x + 7y
Maximize Z = 3x + 2y Subject to:
Subject to: x+y4
x+y4 3x - 8y  24
x-y 2 10x + 7y  35
x, y  0 x, y  0
5. Solve the problem by simplex method: 12. Solve the problem by simplex method:
Minimize Z = x - 3y + 2z Maximize Z = 3x + 2y
Subject to: Subject to:
3x - y + 3z  7 2x + y  40
-2x +4y  12 x + y  24
-4x + 3y + 8z  10 2x + 3y  60
x, y, z  0 x, y  0
6. Solve the problem by simplex method: 13. Solve the problem by simplex method:
Maximize Z = 3x + 2y + 5z Maximize Z = 8x + 19y + 7z
Subject to: Subject to:
x + 2y + z  430 3x + 4y + z  25
3x + 2z  460 x + 3y + 3z  50
x + 4y  420 x, y, z  0
x, y, z  0 14. Solve the problem by simplex method:
7. Solve the problem by simplex method: Maximize Z = x - y + 3z
Maximize Z = 3x + 5y + 4z Subject to:
Subject to: x + y + z  10
2x + 3y  8 2x - z  2
2y + 5z  10 2x - 2y + 3z  0
3x + 2y + 4z  15 x, y, z  0
x, y, z  0
15. Solve the problem by simplex method:
Maximize Z = x + y + z 3. Solve the problem by simplex method:
Subject to: Maximize Z = 4x1 +3x2 + 4x3 + 6x4
4x + 5y + 3z  15 Subject to:
10x + 7y + z  12 x1 +2x2 + 2x3 + 4x4  80
x, y, z  0 2x1 + 2x3 + x4  60
Home Assignment 3x1 +3x2 + x3 + x4  80
x1, x2, x3, x4  0
1. Solve the problem by simplex method: 4. Solve the problem by simplex method:
Maximize Z = 2x + y Maximize Z = 2x + 4y + 3z
Subject to: Subject to:
x + 2y  10 3x + 4y + 2z  60
x+y6 2x + y + 2z  40
x-y2 x + 3y + 2z  80
x - 2y  1 x, y, z  0
x, y  0 5. Solve the problem by simplex method:
2. Solve the problem by simplex method: Maximize Z = 2x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x4
Maximize Z = x + y + 3z Subject to:
Subject to: 2x1 +x2 + 2x3 + 3x4  12
3x + 2y + z  3 3x1 + 2x3 + 2x4  20
2x + y + 2z  2 2x1 +x2 + 4x3  16
x, y, z  0 x1, x2, x3, x4  0

6. What is simplex? Describe simplex method of solving linear programming problems.

REFERENCES
1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP
2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY
3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA
4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA
DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI
B.E. V SEMESTER
PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH
TUTORIAL SHEET
MODULE – III
LINEAR PROGRAMMING: BIG-M METHOD, CONCEPT OF DUALITY, DUAL SIMPLEX METHOD.

1. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: 2x + 3y  -6


Minimize C = 25x + 30y x, y unrestricted.
Subject to: 8. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method:
4x + 3y  60 Maximize Z = 3x - y
2x + 3y  36 Subject to:
x, y  0 2x + y  2
2. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: x + 3y  3
Minimize C = 8x + 10y + 6z y4
Subject to: x, y  0
x + y + z = 100 9. Obtain the dual of
x  30 Maximize Z = 4x1 + 2x2
y  20 Subject to:
z  40 x1 + x2 20
x, y, z  0 3x1 + 2x2  30
3. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: 2x1 + 5x2  20
Maximize Z = 4x + 5y x1, x2  0
Subject to:
5x + 4y  200 10. Obtain the dual of
3x + 5y  150 Maximize Z = 12x1 + 10x2
5x + 4y  100 Subject to:
8x + 4y  80 2x1 + 3x2  60
x, y  0 5x1 + 2x2 50
4. a) Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: x1, x2  0
Maximize Z = 3x + 2y
Subject to: 11. Obtain the dual of
x+y4 Maximize Z = 8x1 + 10x2
2x + y  10 Subject to:
x, y  0 5x1 + 3x2  120
b) What is infeasible solution? How is it identified x1 + 3x2  30
in the simplex tableau? x 1 , x2  0
5. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: 12. Obtain the dual of
Maximize Z = -2x - y Minimize C = 5x1 + 8x2 + 4x3
Subject to: Subject to:
3x + y = 3 3x1 + x2 + x3  24
4x + 3y  6 2x1 + 4x2 + x3  40
x + 2y  4 x 1 , x2 , x3  0
x, y  0
6. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: 13. Obtain the dual of
Maximize Z = x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 - x4 Minimize C = 12x1 + 8x2
Subject to: Subject to:
x1 +2x2 + 3x3 = 15 2x1 + x2  100
2x1 + x2 + 5x3 = 20 3x1 + 2x2  60
x1 +2x2 + x3 + x4 = 10 x1, x2  0
x1, x2, x3, x4  0 14. Obtain the dual of
Maximize Z = 3x1 + 6x2
7. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: Subject to:
Maximize Z = 8y 2x1 - 3x2  6
Subject to: x1  2
x-y0 x1 + 2x2 = 4
Home Assignments
15. Obtain the dual of
Minimize Z = 30x1 + 40x2 1. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method:
Subject to: Maximize Z = 4x + 5y –3z
2x1 - 3x2  16 Subject to:
3x1 + 5x2 = 60 x + y + z = 10
x 1 , x2  0 x-y1
x +2y  30
x, y, z  0

2. Food X contains 6 units of vitamin A per gram and 7 units of vitamin B per gram and costs 12 paise per gram.
Food Y contains 8 units of vitamin A per gram and 12 units of vitamin B per gram and costs 20 paise per gram.
The daily minimum requirements of vitamin A and vitamin B are 100 units and 120 units respectively. Find the
minimum cost of product mix by using Big-M-method.

3. Solve the LP problem by using Big-M-method: 2x1 + x2 + 3x3  12


Minimize Z = 2x + 9y + z 6x1 -2x2 + 4x3  40
Subject to: x1, x2  0, x3 unrestricted in sign.
x + 4y + 2z  5 5. Obtain the dual of
3x + y + 2z  4 Maximize Z = 2x1 + x2
x, y, z  0 Subject to:
4. (a) State the general rules for converting a 3x1 + x2  3
primal problem into its dual. 4x1 + 3x2  6
(b) Obtain the dual of x1 +2x2  3
Maximize Z = 2x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 x1, x2  0
Subject to:

REFERENCES
1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP
2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY
3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA
4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA
DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI
B.E. V SEMESTER
PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH
TUTORIAL SHEET
MODULE – IV
TRANSPORTATION MODEL: BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTION BY DIFFERENT METHODS, FINDING OPTIMAL
SOLUTIONS, DEGENERACY IN TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS, UNBALANCED TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS.

1. A firm has three factories located at Ahmedabad, Ernakulam and Kanpur, which produce the same product.
There are four major distribution centers situated in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. The daily production
in terms of units produced varies from factory to factory as given below:
Factory : Ahmedabad Ernakulum Kanpur
Production : 30 40 50
(units per day)
Average daily demand at the distribution centers is as follows:
Centre : Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras
Demand : 35 28 32 25
(units per day)
The transport cost from each factory to each distribution center is as under:
Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras
Ahmedabad 6 5 8 5
Ernakulum 5 11 9 7
Kanpur 8 9 7 13
a) Obtain an initial feasible solution by using:
i. North-west-corner method.
ii. Least cost method
iii. Vogel’s approximation method
b) Is the solution obtained under (i) above is optimal? Why?
c) Using suitable method, carry out one iteration to obtain an improved solution.
2. A company has three factories that supply to four marketing areas. The transportation cost of shipping from
each factory to each marketing area is given in table below. Factory capacities and market requirements are
also given in the table:
Marketing area
Factory Capacity
W1 W2 W3 W4

F1 19 30 50 10 1600
F2 70 30 40 60 1200
F3 40 8 70 20 1700
Demand 1000 1500 800 1200
a) Find the initial feasible solution by VAM method.
b) Is the solution obtained in (a) optimum?
c) Carry out one iteration for improvement if solution under (a) is not optimal.
3. JayCee company has two flour mills (F1 and F2) and three godowns (G1, G2, and G3). The variables cost of
manufacturing and transporting one tonne of flour from each flour mill to each godown are shown in the
transportation table below. The capacities of the factories and requirements of the godowns are also shown in
this table:

Factory Godown Capacity


G1 G2 G3 Slack

F1 75 80 70 0 75

50 80 55 0 50
F2

Demand 20 55 40 10 125

a) Find the initial feasible solution.


b) Is the solution obtained in (a) optimum?
d) If no, find out optimal solution.
4. A hotel corporation has three restaurants around the country all of which use standard drinking (disposable)
cups. Three suppliers have been invited to bid on supplying the cups. Their bid are as follows:
Supplier Price (Rs. Per 100) Annual capacity
A 9 30,000
B 10 70,000
C 11 1,35,000
The cost of transportation (in Rs. per 100 cups) varies from each supplier to each restaurant as given below:
From Restaurant
1 2 3
A 2 4 1
B 5 3 6
C 3 2 7
The annual requirements of cups for three restaurants are 30,000, 60,000 and 1,20,000 respectively. How
many cups should be purchased from each supplier for each restaurant?

5. A company has three factories manufacturing the same product and five sole selling agencies in different parts
of the country. Production costs differ from factory to factory and sales price from agency to agency. Find the
production and distribution schedule most profitable to the company. Given the following data:
Factory I II III Sale Demand
Production price
cost (Rs.) 20 22 18 per unit
(Rs.)
Agency Transport cost per unit

I 3 9 4 30 80
II 1 7 5 32 100
III 5 8 3 31 75
IV 7 3 2 34 45
V 4 6 7 29 125
Capacity 150 200 125

6. A company has two factories A and B which supply three warehouses E, F and G. Factory capacities are 200
and 300 units respectively.
If overtime is utilized, the production capacity can be increased to 275 and 450 units respectively. Incremental
overtime cost per unit is Rs.10 and Rs.15 respectively. The requirements of warehouses are 150,200 and 300
units respectively. The transport costs per unit between the plants and warehouses are as follows:
From/To E F G
A 20 15 25
B 10 5 10
a) Which plant should be given overtime?
b) Find the optimum manufacturing and shipping schedule to minimize costs.
7. A company has four warehouses altogether have a surplus of 22 units of a given commodity, divided among
them as follows:
Warehouses 1 2 3 4
Surplus 5 6 2 9
The six stores altogether need 22 units of the commodity. Individual requirement at stores 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
are 4, 4, 6, 2, 4 and 2 units respectively.
Distribution Centre
Plants 1 2 3 4 Supply
1 7 2 5 5 6
2 4 4 6 5 1
3 5 3 3 2 10
Requirement 7 5 3 2

Cost of shipping one unit of commodity from warehouse I to store j in rupees is given in the matrix below:
Agency Stores

1 2 3 4 5 6
1 9 12 9 6 9 10
2 7 3 7 7 5 5
3 6 5 9 11 3 11
4 6 8 11 2 2 10
How should the products be shipped from the warehouse to the stores so that the transportation cost is
minimum? Also explain degeneracy in transportation technique in the context of this example.
8. A product is produced by four factories A, B, C and D. The unit productions cost in them are Rs. 2, Rs. 3, Rs. 1
and Rs. 5 respectively. There production capacities are, factory A-50 units, B-70 units, C-30 units, and D-50
units. These factories supply the product to four stores, demands of which are 25, 35, 105, and 20 units
respectively. Unit transport cost in rupees from each factory is given in the table below:
Stores
1 2 3 4
A 2 4 6 11
Factories B 10 8 7 5
C 13 3 9 12
D 4 6 8 3
Determine the extent of deliveries from each of the factories to each of the stores so that the total production
and transportation cost is minimum.
9. A company manufacturing air-coolers has two plants located at Bombay and Calcutta with a capacity of 200
units and 100 units per week respectively. The company supplies the air-coolers to its four show rooms
situated at Ranchi, Delhi, Lucknow and Kanpur, which have a maximum demand of 75, 100, 100 and 30 units
respectively. Due to the differences in raw material cost and transportation cost, the profit per unit in rupees
differs which is shown in the table below:
Ranchi Delhi Lucknow Kanpur
Bombay 90 90 100 110
Calcutta 50 70 130 85
Plan the production programme so as to maximize the profit. The company may have its production capacity at
both plants partly or wholly unused.
10. A company has 3 factories manufacturing the same product and 5 sales agencies in
different parts of the country. Production costs differ from factory to factory and the sales
prices from agency to agency. The shipping cost per unit product from each factory to each
agency is known. Given the following data, find the production and distribution schedules
most profitable to the company.
Factory I Production cost/unit (Rs.) Max. capacity (no. of units)
1 18 140
2 20 190
3 16 115

1 2 2 6 10 5
Factory i 2 10 8 9 4 7 Shipping
3 5 6 4 3 8 cost
Agency j 1 2 3 4 5 (Rs.)
Demand 74 94 69 39 119
Sales price (Rs.) 35 37 36 39 34

Home Assignments
1. Explain in brief with examples for transportation problem:
a) Least Cost Method
b) North West Corner Rule
c) Vogel’s Approximation Method
2. a) Describe the technique of getting a first feasible solution of a transportation problem and how the solution is
improved at each stage.
b) Table below gives the relevant data of a typical transportation problem:
Destinations

D1 D2 D3 D4 Availability

Source [Transport cost per unit (Rs.)]

S1 17 11 45 30 15
S2 18 19 14 31 13
Demand 9 6 7 6 28
i) Obtain an initial feasible solution using Least cost method, North West corner rule, Vogel’s approximation
method.
ii) Is the solution obtained in (a) optimal? Why?
iii) Using a suitable method, carry out one iteration to obtain an improved solution.
3. A company has three plants at locations A, B and C which supply to warehouses located at D, E, F, G and H.
Monthly plant capacities are 800, 500, and 900 units respectively. Monthly warehouse requirements are 400,
400, 500, 400 and 800 units respectively. Unit transportation costs (in Rs.) are given below:
To

D E F G H
A 5 8 6 6 3
From B 4 7 7 6 6
C 8 4 6 6 4
Determine an optimum distribution for the company in order to minimize the total transportation cost.
4. A company produces a small component for all industrial products and distributes it to five whole salers at a
fixed delivered price of Rs. 2.50 per unit. Sales forecasts indicate that monthly deliveries will be 3000, 3000,
10000, 5000, 4000 units to whole salers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The monthly production capacities are
5000, 10000 and 12500 at plants 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The direct costs of production of each unit are Re 1,
Re 0.90 and Re 0.80 at plants 1, 2 and respectively. The transportation costs of shipping a unit from a plant to
a whole saler are given below:
Wholesaler

1 2 3 4 5
1 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.15
Plant 2 0.08 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.14
3 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.15
Find how many components each plant supplies to each whole saler in order to maximize profit.
5. A company has three plants A, B and C and three warehouses X, Y and Z. Number of units available at the
plants is 60, 70 and 80 respectively. Demands at X, Y, and Z are 50, 80 and 80 respectively. Unit costs of
transportation are as follows:
X Y Z Available
A 8 7 3 60
B 3 8 9 70
C 11 3 5 80
Requirements 50 80 80
What would be your transportation plan? Give minimum distribution cost.

REFERENCES
1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP
2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY
3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA
4. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA
DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
B.I.T. MESRA: RANCHI
B.E. V SEMESTER
PE 5107: OPERATIONS RESEARCH
TUTORIAL SHEET
MODULE – V
ASSIGNMENT MODEL: BALANCED AND UNBALANCED ASSIGNMENTS, ASSIGNMENT TO GIVEN SCHEDULES.
SEQUENCING: PROCESSING OF 2 JOBS THROUGH MACHINES –GRAPHICAL METHOD, PROCESSING OF N
JOBS THROUGH TWO MACHINES, PROCESSING N JOBS THROUGH THREE MACHINES.

1. A departmental head has four subordinate and four tasks for completion. The subordinates differ in
their capabilities and tasks differ in their work contents. His estimates of time for each task-
subordinate combination is as under:
Task Subordinate
I II III IV
A 17 35 26 20
B 22 37 13 35
C 47 28 27 24
D 28 35 33 19

How should the tasks be assigned to minimize requirements of man-hours?


2. A machine shop supervisor has four machines and four tasks for completion. Each of the machines
can perform each of the four tasks. Time taken at each of the machines to complete the tasks is given
in the matrix below:
Task Subordinate
M1 M2 M3 M4
1 31 62 29 42
2 12 19 39 55
3 17 29 50 41
4 35 40 38 42

How should the tasks be assigned to minimize total time required for processing?
3. A company has four service centers set up at cities S1, S2, S3, and S4 to service and repair equipment
installed at the customer’s plants throughout the country. Four requests have been received from customers
located at cities C1, C2, C3, and C4. The company finds that four engineers are available one at each service
center. The distance between each of the service centers and the customer’s plant is given in the following
table:

Customer (city)
C1 C2 C3 C4
Service Distance (kms)
Engineer
S1 500 360 460 280
S2 660 380 530 460
S3 450 490 820 600
S4 520 580 720 560

How should the engineers be deputed to different customers plants so as to minimize the total distance to be
traveled?
4. A company has five jobs to be done. The following matrix shows the cost of assigning each job
(Wj=1, 2, 3…..) to each machine (Mi=1, 2, 3…..). Assign five jobs to the five machines so as to
minimize the total cost.
Machine Job
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5
M1 5 11 10 12 4
M2 2 4 6 3 5
M3 3 12 14 6
M4 6 14 4 11 7
M5 7 9 8 12 5

5. Five machines are available to process five jobs. Their processing times in hours, are given below:
Machine Job
I II III IV V
A 3 10 3 1 8
B 7 9 8 1 7
C 5 7 6 1 4
D 5 3 8 1 4
E 6 4 10 1 6

The machine burden rate is Rs. 100 per machine hour.


a) Determine the assignment, one job to one machine that minimizes the total processing time.
b) What is the total processing time for optimal assignment?
c) What is the machine cost optimality?
6. A company has one surplus trailer in cities P, Q, R, and S and one deficit trailer in cities A, B, C, and D. the
distances in kilometers between the cities are shown below:
From To
A B C D
P 8 5 8 2
Q 9 3 6 9
R 4 10 7 4
S 3 5 6 1

The management wishes to determine the assignment of surplus trailer to the cities with a deficit to minimize
the total kilometers traveled. Give alternate optimal assignment if possible. Compute the total distance for
optimum assignment.
7. A public health officer finds that there is a surplus of one nurse in each location 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 and
a deficit of one nurse in each location A, B, C, D, D, E, and F. The distance in kilometers between
locations are given below:
Surplus Deficit Locations
A B C D E F
locations
1 42 72 40 52 25 51
2 22 29 49 65 81 50
3 27 39 60 51 32 33
4 45 50 58 52 37 43
5 29 40 39 26 30 33
6 82 40 40 60 51 30

How should the nurses be reassigned to minimize the total distance? Assuming that nurses are paid traveling
allowance at Rs. 0.75 per km. What is the cost of reassignment?
8. An engineering company has branches in Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras. A branch manager is
to be appointed, one at each city out of four candidates A, B, C, and D. depending on the branch
manager and the city, the monthly business in the city varies in lakhs of rupees as per detail below:
City
Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras
Service
(Business Rs. in lakhs)
Engineer
A 2 3 1 1
B 5 8 3 3
C 4 9 5 1
D 8 7 8 4

Suggest which manager should be assigned to which city so as to get maximum total monthly business.
9. The marketing director of a multi unit company Mr. X is faced with the problem of assigning five
senior marketing managers to six zones. From past experience he knows that the efficiency
percentage judged by sales, operating cost, increase on market share etc. depends a lot on marketing
manager zone combination given in the table below:
Marketing Zones
I II III IV V VI
manager
Mr. A 73 91 87 82 78 80
Mr. B 81 85 69 76 74 85
Mr. C 75 72 83 84 78 91
Mr. D 93 96 86 91 83 82
Mr. E 90 91 79 89 69 76

As an advisor to Mr. X, recommend which zone should be manned by a junior manager because of non-
availability of one more senior marketing manager so as to maximize the overall efficiency achievement?
10. Three buildings are added to a university campus. Five contractors submit bids. The bid figures are
given in million of rupees and are as follows:
Contractors Buildings
A B C
1 2.90 1.62 3.11
2 3.10 1.74 2.82
3 3.05 1.80 2.92
4 2.87 1.57 2.78
5 3.11 1.68 2.99

Find the assignment of buildings to contractors that will result in a minimum total cost for the building program.
11. There are five jobs, each of which must go through the two machines A and B in the order AB. Processing
times are given below:
Job 1 2 3 4 5
Machine A 5 1 9 3 10
Machine B 2 6 7 8 4
Determine a sequence for five jobs that will minimize the elapsed time T.
12. Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time required to complete the following tasks:
Tasks A B C D E F G H I
Time on I machine 2 5 4 9 6 8 7 5 4
Time on II machine 6 8 7 4 3 9 3 8 11
13. Following table shows the machine time (in hrs) for five jobs to be processed on two different machines:
Job 1 2 3 4 5
Machine A 3 7 4 5 7
Machine B 6 2 7 3 4
Passing is not allowed. Find the optimal sequence in which jobs should be processed.
14. We have seven jobs each of which has to go through the machines M1 and M2 in the order M1, M2.
Processing times (in hrs) are given as:
Job 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Machine M1 3 12 15 6 10 11 9
Machine M2 8 10 10 6 12 1 3
Determine a sequence of these jobs that will minimize the total elapsed time T.
15. There are five jobs, each of which must go through machines A, B and C in the order A, B, C. Processing times
are given as follows:
Job Processing Times
A B C
1 8 5 4
2 10 6 9
3 6 2 8
4 7 3 6
5 11 4 5
Determine a sequence for five jobs that will minimize the elapsed time T.
16. There are five jobs, each of which must go through machines A, B and C in the order A, B, C. Processing times
are given as follows:
Job Processing Times
A B C
1 5 2 3
2 7 1 7
3 6 4 5
4 9 5 6
5 5 3 7
Determine a sequence for the jobs that will minimize the elapsed time T.
17. Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time required to complete the following tasks. Each job is
processed in the order ACB.
Job 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Machine A 12 6 5 11 5 7 6
Machine B 7 8 9 4 7 8 3
Machine C 3 4 1 5 2 3 4
18. Use graphical method to minimize the time needed to process the following jobs on the machines shown
below, i.e., for each machine find the job which should be done first. Also calculate the total time needed to
complete both the jobs.
Job 1 Sequence of Machines : A B C D E
Time : 2 3 4 6 2
Job 2 Sequence of Machines : C A D E B
Time : 4 5 3 2 6
19. Use graphical method to minimize the time needed to process the following jobs on the machines shown
below, i.e., for each machine find the job which should be done first. Also calculate the total time needed to
complete both the jobs.
Job 1 Sequence of Machines : A B C D E
Time : 3 4 2 6 2
Job 2 Sequence of Machines : B C A D E
Time : 5 4 3 2 6

Home Assignments
1. a) How a maximization problem is converted into a minimization problem.
b) Draw a flowchart for the solution of an assignment problem.
2. The owner of a smaller machine shop has four operators available for the day. Five jobs are offered to
be done on the day. The expected profits (in Rs.) hundred for each job done by each operator are
given below:
Job A B C D E
Operators
1 6.2 8.8 - 10.1 8.2
2 7.0 8.4 6.5 7.5 6.0
3 8.7 9.2 11.1 7.0 8.2
4 - 6.4 8.7 7.7 8.0

A dash indicates that job-operator combination is not possible. Find the assignment of jobs to operators that
will result in maximum profit. Which job goes undone?
3. The owner of a small workshop has four machines available on a particular day. Five jobs have been
offered to be done on that day. Expected profit (in Rs.) for each job-machine combination is as
follows:
Job Machines
1 2 3 4
A 38 49 68 32
B 55 65 73 50
C 48 49 92 63
D 83 52 50 55
E 68 45 67 66

Determine optimal assignment schedule. Which job should be declined?


4. A firm intends to purchase three different types of machines. Five manufacturers have submitted their
quotations to supply one or all three machines. The price (in lakhs of rupees) quoted by the different
manufacturers have been tabulated for comparison in the purchase department which appears as
under:
Manufacturer Buildings
M1 M2 M3
A 6.40 8.25 5.60
B 6.25 8.00 5.50
C 6.35 8.20 5.80
D 6.30 8.20 5.75
E 6.60 8.15 5.70

Determine how best the firm can purchase these machines assuming that the firm’s policy is not to buy more
than one machine from any manufacturer.
5. Four new machines M1, M2, M3 and M4 are to be installed in a machine shop. There are five vacant
places A, B, C, D and E available. Because of limited space, machine M2 cannot be placed at C and
M3 cannot be placed at A. Cij, he assignment cost of machine I to place j in rupees is shown below:
Machines Vacant Places
A B C D E
M1 4 6 10 5 6
M2 7 4 - 5 4
M3 - 6 9 6 2
M4 9 3 7 2 3

Find the optimal assignment schedule.


6. A trip from Chandigarh to Delhi takes six hours by bus. A typical table of the bus service in both
directions is given below:
Departure from Chandigarh Delhi-Chandigarh Service-line or Arrival at Delhi
route number
6.00 A 12.00
07.30 B 13.30
11.30 C 17.30
19.00 D 01.00
00.30 E 06.30

Arrival at Chandigarh Delhi-Chandigarh Service-line or Departure from Delhi


route number
11.30 1 05.30
15.00 2 09.00
21.00 3 15.00
00.30 4 18.30
06.00 5 00.00

The costs of providing this service by the transport depends upon the time spend by the bus crew (driver and
conductor) away from their places in addition to service times. There are five crews. There is a constraint that
every crew should be provided with more than four hours of rest before the return trip again and should not
wait for more than 24 hours for the return trip. The company has residential facilities for the crew at Chandigarh
as well as at Delhi. Suggest an optimal assignment of the crew.
7. a) Define the problem of sequencing.
b) What is no passing rule in a sequencing algorithm? Explain the principle assumptions made while dealing
with sequencing problem.
8. We have five jobs each of which has to go through the machines M1 and M2 in the order M1, M2. Processing
times (in hrs) are given as:
Job 1 2 3 4 5
Machine M1 10 2 18 6 20
Machine M2 4 12 14 16 8
Determine a sequence of these jobs that will minimize the total elapsed time T.
9. Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time required to complete the following jobs:
Job 1 2 3 4 5 6
Machine M1 4 8 3 6 7 5
Machine M2 6 3 7 2 8 4
10. a) Find the sequence that minimizes the total elapsed time (in hrs) required to complete the following tasks on
three machines A, B and C in the order ABC.
Job 1 2 3 4 5
Machine A 4 9 8 6 5
Machine B 5 6 2 3 4
Machine C 8 10 6 7 11

b) Job 1 2 3 4 5
Machine A 5 7 6 9 5
Machine B 2 1 4 5 3
Machine C 3 7 5 6 7
11. A company has six jobs which go through three machines X, Y and Z in the order X, Y, Z. The processing times
(in minutes) for each job on each machine is as follows:
Job 1 2 3 4 5 6
Machine A 18 12 29 36 43 37
Machine B 7 12 11 2 6 12
Machine C 19 12 23 47 28 36
What should be the sequence of the jobs?
12. Two jobs are to be processed on four machines A, B, C and D. The technological order of these machines is as
follows:
Job 1 A B C D
Job 2 D B A C
Processing times are given in the following table:
Machines A B C D
Job 1 4 6 7 3
Job 2 4 7 5 8
Find the optimal sequence of jobs on each of the machines.
13. Use graphical method to minimize the time needed to process the following jobs on the machines shown
below, i.e., for each machine find the job which should be done first. Also calculate the total time needed to
complete both the jobs.

Job 1 Sequence of Machines : A B C D


Time : 2 4 5 1
Job 2 Sequence of Machines : D B A C
Time : 6 4 2 3

REFERENCES
1. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – KANTI SWAROOP
2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING – HADELY
3. QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE IN MANAGEMENT – N.D. VOHRA
5. OPERATIONS RESEARCH – P.K. GUPTA & D. S. HIRA