UltraWideband Radio
Propagation Channels
A Practical Approach
Pascal Pagani
Friedman Tchoffo Talom
Patrice Pajusco
Bernard Uguen
Series Editor
PierreNoël Favennec
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UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
This page intentionally left blank
UltraWideband Radio
Propagation Channels
A Practical Approach
Pascal Pagani
Friedman Tchoffo Talom
Patrice Pajusco
Bernard Uguen
Series Editor
PierreNoël Favennec
First published in France in 2007 by Hermes Science/Lavoisier entitled: “Communications ultra large
bande : Le canal de propagation radioélectrique”
First published in Great Britain and the United States in 2008 by ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as
permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced,
stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers,
or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licenses issued by the CLA.
Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the
undermentioned address:
ISTE Ltd John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2737 St George’s Road 111 River Street
London SW19 4EU Hoboken, NJ 07030
UK USA
www.iste.co.uk www.wiley.com
© ISTE Ltd, 2008
© LAVOISIER, 2007
The rights of Pascal Pagani, Friedman Tchoffo Talom, Patrice Pajusco and Bernard Uguen to be
identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright,
Designs and Patents Act 1988.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Communications ultra large bande. English
Ultrawideband radio propagation channels / Pascal Pagani ... [et al.].
p. cm.  (A practical approach)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 9781848210844
1. Broadband communication systems. I. Pagani, Pascal. II. Title.
TK5103.4.C6213 2008
621.382dc22
2008030345
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data
A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN: 9781848210844
Cover image created by Atelier Isatis, based on an original photograph by Denis Stenderchuck.
Printed and bound in Great Britain by CPI Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire.
Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Chapter 1. UWB Technology and its Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.2. Deﬁnition and historical evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.2.1. Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.2.2. Historical evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.3. Speciﬁcities of UWB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.4. Considered applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.5. Regulation evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.5.1. Regulation in the USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.5.2. Regulation in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.5.3. Regulation in Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.6. UWB communication system and standardization . . . . . . . . . 34
1.6.1. Impulse radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.6.1.1. Pulse position modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.6.1.2. Pulse amplitude modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.6.2. Direct sequence UWB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1.6.3. Multiband OFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.7. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Chapter 2. Radio Wave Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.2. Deﬁnition of the propagation channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.2.1. Free space propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.2.2. Multipath propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.3. Propagation channel variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
2.2.3.1. Spatial selectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.2.3.2. Frequency selectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.2.3.3. Doppler eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.3. Propagation channel representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.3.1. Mathematical formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.3.2. Characterization of deterministic channels . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.3.2.1. The time varying impulse response . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.3.2.2. The frequency domain function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.3.2.3. The time varying transfer function . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.3.2.4. The delayDoppler spread function . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.3.3. Characterization of linear random channels . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.3.4. Channel classiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.3.4.1. Wide sense stationary channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.3.4.2. Uncorrelated scattering channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.3.4.3. Wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering channels 57
2.4. Channel characteristic parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.4.1. Frequency selectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.4.1.1. RMS delay spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.4.1.2. Coherence bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.4.1.3. Delay window and delay interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.4.1.4. Exponential decay constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.4.1.5. Cluster and ray arrival rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.4.2. Propagation loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.4.3. Fast fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.4.4. Spectral analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.5. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Chapter 3. UWB Propagation Channel Sounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.2. Speciﬁcity of UWB channel sounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.3. Measurement techniques for UWB channel sounding . . . . . . . 70
3.3.1. Frequency domain techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.3.1.1. Vector network analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.3.1.2. Chirp sounder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.3.2. Time domain techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.3.2.1. Pulsed techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.3.2.2. Correlation measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
3.3.2.3. Inversion techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
3.3.3. Multipleband time domain sounder for dynamic channels . 78
3.3.3.1. Principle of multipleband time domain sounding . . . 80
3.3.3.2. Description of the SIMO channel sounder . . . . . . . . 81
3.3.3.3. Extension towards UWB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.3.3.4. Experimental validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Contents 7
3.4. UWB measurement campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.4.1. Overview of UWB measurement campaigns . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.4.2. Illustration of channel sounding experiments . . . . . . . . . 91
3.4.2.1. Static measurement campaign over the 3.1–10.6 GHz
band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.4.2.2. Static measurement campaign over the 2–6 GHz band 95
3.4.2.3. Dynamic measurement campaign over the 4–5 GHz
band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.5. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Chapter 4. Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel . . . . . . . . 99
4.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
4.2. Overview of deterministic modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
4.2.1. FDTD based approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.2.2. MoM based approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.2.3. Ray based approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4.3. Speciﬁcity of deterministic modeling in UWB . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4.4. Overview of UWB deterministic modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.4.1. Qiu model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.4.2. Yao model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.4.3. Attiya model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.4.4. Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.5. Illustration of a deterministic model formalism . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.5.1. Received signal synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
4.5.2. Ray impulse response without delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
4.5.3. Ray channel matrix without delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
4.5.4. Described model results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.5.4.1. Emitted waveform and considered scenario . . . . . . . 110
4.5.4.2. Channel matrix of each emitted waveform in the LOS
case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4.5.4.3. Received signal with ideal antennas . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.6. Consideration of real antenna characteristics in deterministic
modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4.7. Building material eﬀects on channel properties . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.8. Simulation and measurement comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.8.1. Evaluation of real antenna consideration . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.8.2. Evaluation of impulse response reconstruction . . . . . . . . 125
4.9. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Chapter 5. Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel . . . . . . . . . . 133
5.1. Experimental characterization of channel parameters . . . . . . . 134
5.1.1. Propagation loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
5.1.1.1. Frequency propagation loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
8 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
5.1.1.2. Distance propagation loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
5.1.2. Impulse response characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5.1.2.1. Delay spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5.1.2.2. Power delay proﬁle decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
5.1.2.3. Ray and cluster arrival rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
5.1.3. Study of smallscale channel variations . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
5.1.4. Eﬀect of moving people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
5.1.4.1. Observation of temporal variations . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
5.1.4.2. Slow fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
5.1.4.3. Fast fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
5.1.4.4. Spectral analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.2. Statistical channel modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
5.2.1. Examples of statistical models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.2.1.1. IEEE 802.15.3a model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.2.1.2. IEEE 802.15.4a model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
5.2.1.3. Other models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
5.2.2. Empirical modeling principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
5.2.2.1. Propagation loss model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
5.2.2.2. Modeling the channel impulse response over an inﬁnite
bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
5.2.2.3. Modeling the channel impulse response over a limited
bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5.2.2.4. Simulation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5.3. Advanced modeling in a dynamic conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.3.1. Space variation modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.3.2. Modeling the eﬀect of people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
5.4. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Appendices
A. Baseband Representation of the Radio Channel . . . . . . . . . . . 177
B. Statistical Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
B.1. Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
B.1.1. Rayleigh distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
B.1.2. Rice distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
B.1.3. Nakagami distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
B.1.4. Weibull distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
B.1.5. Normal distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
B.1.6. Lognormal distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
B.1.7. Laplace distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
B.2. KolmogorovSmirnov goodnessofﬁt test . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
C. Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction . . . . . . . . 189
C.1. Geometric optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
C.1.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Contents 9
C.1.2. Field locality principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
C.1.3. Field expression in geometric optics . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
C.1.4. Change of local basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
C.1.5. Incident ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
C.1.6. Reﬂected ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
C.1.7. Refracted and transmitted ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
C.2. Uniform theory of diﬀraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
C.2.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
C.2.2. Diﬀracted ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
C.2.3. UTD 2D coeﬃcient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
C.2.4. UTD 3D coeﬃcient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
D. Ray Construction Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
D.1. Ray launching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
D.2. Ray tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
D.3. Other techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
E. Description of the TimeFrequency Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
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Foreword
Although the origins of distant signal transmission are ancient, the
theoretical foundations of modern telecommunication techniques are
owed to Claude Shannon’s 1948 publications. Since then, the ﬁeld of
telecommunications has not stopped evolving. In particular, spread spectrum
techniques enabled unprecedented improvements in the quality and security of
digital communications under harsh transmission conditions.
Today, the main players in the telecommunication world are facing an
increasing demand for multimedia wireless applications, linked to a real need
for very high throughput radio communication systems. Among the most recent
innovations in this ﬁeld, the scientiﬁc community is particularly interested
in ultrawideband (UWB) technology. This technique consists of transmitting
radio signals spreading over very large frequency bandwidths, typically in the
order of 500 MHz to several GHz. Initially developed in the ﬁeld of radar
localization, UWB technology is now seen as a promising candidate for future
wireless transmission systems. As such, it is considered with an increasing
interest in both scientiﬁc and industrial communities.
UWB technology undeniably oﬀers numerous advantages and
unprecedented possibilities in the design of radio systems. Its very large
spectral bandwidth optimally exploits the beneﬁts of spread spectrum
techniques, by increasing the transmission capacity and by improving the
jamming immunity. Simultaneously, UWB presents a high resolution in
the time domain, which may be used to eﬃciently process the multiple
propagation paths or handle localization issues. In particular, the capacity
of UWB pulses to travel through diﬀerent materials allows us to consider
throughwall imaging applications. It is also noteworthy that UWB systems
present a low power spectral density, which not only increases the discretion
and security of wireless communications, but also reduces the potential
jamming experienced by other spectrum users. Finally, the complexity of
12 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
UWB transceivers may be considerably reduced with respect to traditional
architectures.
These characteristics are unique to UWB technology and enable the
design of communication systems oﬀering very high data rates, up to several
hundred Mbps. In 2002, the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) –
an American regulation body – authorized the transmission of UWB signals
in the 3.1–10.6 GHz band, encouraging the research eﬀorts in this ﬁeld in
all continents. In Europe, a transmission mask for UWB signals has been
deﬁned and the coexistence between UWB systems and other applications is
under study. In the current context of high demand for wireless multimedia
applications, UWB seems to be an innovative and attractive solution for
future radio communication systems. As an illustration, important industrial
consortiums such as UWB Forum and WiMedia Alliance are currently
involved in the design of UWB based equipment.
These systems are particulary well suited to ad hoc communication
networks, but a number of other applications may be envisioned by exploiting
the unique characteristics of UWB. The possibility of accurate localization
enable the development of sensor networks known as radio frequency
identiﬁcation (RFID), for industrial environment applications or for mass
market geographical information services. Radar identiﬁcation techniques
based on UWB signals may be exploited to design anticollision systems for
vehicles, but may also be used in the ﬁelds of civil engineering, medicine and
imaging. Numerous applications still need to be explored, associating UWB
with advanced techniques such as multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO)
antennas techniques or time reversal techniques.
In order to develop such systems, many challenges are still to be
encountered. The short duration of UWB signals requires a high accuracy in
the system synchronization procedure. Also, electronic components need to be
adapted in order to process such a wide frequency band, while maintaining
a tractable complexity. In particular, the antenna characteristics largely vary
with increasing frequency and require an accurate characterization.
Among these scientiﬁc challenges, a complete knowledge of the radio
channel properties is fundamental. Indeed, the performance of a wireless
transmission system is directly linked to the propagation conditions between
the emitter and the receiver. These devices need to be designed in order
to beneﬁt from the channel characteristics and to mitigate the channel
impairments. For instance, modeling the propagation loss allows us to estimate
the radio system coverage, while link level simulations may be used to assess
the communication robustness. Owing to the width of its frequency band, the
Foreword 13
UWB propagation channel is intrinsically diﬀerent from traditional wideband
channels. For instance, the interactions between the radio waves and their
environment need to be described more accurately and the variations of the
material properties with frequency need to be taken into account. It is thus
necessary to closely study the propagation channel in order to evaluate the
potential and the constraints attached to UWB communication systems.
This textbook results from an intense collaboration between France
Telecom’s Research and Development Division and the IETR–UMR CNRS
6164 (Institut d’Electronique et de T´el´ecommunications de Rennes/Institute
of Electronics and Telecommunications in Rennes). These research teams
conducted joint studies on UWB techniques and on the impact of the
transmission channel on UWB communication systems. Through its didactic
presentation and the detailed illustration of the discussed topics, this
document is an excellent introduction for engineers and communication
systems designers as well as for researchers and lecturers willing to expand
their knowledge to the ﬁeld of the UWB transmission channel. The originality
of this textbook lies in its experimental approach, which allows the reader
to follow step by step the theoretical and practical aspects of radio channel
characterization and modeling. This approach may easily be adapted to
diﬀerent contexts: for diﬀerent applications, in other environments or in
diﬀerent frequency bands, such as the available bands around 17 GHz and
60 GHz. It should also be noted that the accurate knowledge of the UWB
channel in the 3.1–10.6 GHz band gives access to all the useful information for
developing systems included in this frequency band, such as WiFi systems
operating around 5 GHz.
This book is divided into ﬁve distinct parts.
Chapter 1 presents UWB technology. Its historical evolution, the
envisioned applications and its main characteristics are detailed. UWB
spectrum regulation issues and the proposed communications techniques are
also discussed.
Chapter 2 describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves in general.
All large scale and small scale radioelectric phenomena at play are highlighted.
The reader is then introduced to the area of mathematical representation and
its characteristic parameters. This didactic presentation covers both indoor and
outdoor environments and is applicable in both contexts of mobile radio and
wireless networks.
Chapter 3 presents an overview of the channel sounding techniques adapted
to UWB technology. A distinction is made between frequency domain and
time domain techniques, with a discussion on the application domains and the
14 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
limitation of each solution. The main UWB channel measurement campaigns
available in the literature, including those conducted by the authors, are listed
and illustrated by a few examples.
For the study of the propagation phenomena and the design of
communication systems, the UWB propagation channel is simulated using
deterministic or statistical models. These two modeling approaches are detailed
and illustrated in the last two chapters. Chapter 4 focuses on deterministic
UWB modeling. A literature review of the proposed deterministic models
is given, comparing the advantages and drawbacks of each proposal. The
fundamental issues and the theoretical formalism of a UWB deterministic
model are then detailed. To illustrate this presentation, some examples are
given, where the authors describe a comprehensive deterministic simulator for
the UWB channel.
Chapter 5 is dedicated to the statistical modeling of the UWB transmission
channel. The characterization of the most representative radio channel
parameters is ﬁrst presented. Diﬀerent results available in the literature
are compared and commented upon, hence providing a rich experimental
database on the UWB propagation channel characteristics. After a description
of diﬀerent statistical models, the principles of statistical modeling and the
diﬀerent related issues are presented following an experimental method. This
approach is illustrated using a model designed by the authors, allowing for the
simulation of the UWB channel in both static and dynamic environments.
Finally, the interested reader will ﬁnd useful additional information
regarding channel analysis and modeling in the appendices. The discussed
technical material includes the ﬁelds of signal processing, statistics, geometrical
optics and diﬀraction theory. It should also be noted that the numerous
bibliographical references constitute an abundant source of information, which
may easily be exploited to learn more about the last advances in this ﬁeld.
This book examines all the characteristics of the UWB transmission
channel and provides useful tools for designing eﬃcient UWB systems.
Nonspecialists will be introduced to UWB technology in general and more
particularly to the propagation channel, which is the key element in a
communication system. Specialists will ﬁnd valuable information and a
practical approach in order to design simulators, setup measurements, study
the channel characteristics and deﬁne models for UWB or in other contexts.
This reference document is also an excellent basis for further research on
advanced techniques, such as time reversal or UWB transmission in a MIMO
Foreword 15
conﬁguration. I am convinced that this textbook will prove essential reading
in future research in the ﬁeld of UWB communications.
Professor Gha¨ıs El Zein
Deputy Director at IETR
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Acronyms
ADC Analogtodigital converter
AGC Automatic gain control
BER Bit error rate
BPSK Binary phase shift keying
CDF Cumulative density function
CDMA Code division multiple access
CEPT Conference of European Postal and Telecommunications
DAA Detect and avoid
DAC Digitaltoanalog converter
DCS Digital communication system
DOA Direction of arrival
DOD Direction of departure
DSO Digital sampling oscilloscope
DSUWB Direct sequence ultrawideband
ECC Electronic Communication Committee
EIRP Eﬀective isotropic radiated power
ESD Energy spectral density
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
FCC Federal Communication Commission
FDML Frequency domain maximum likelihood
FDTD Finite diﬀerence time domain
GO Geometrical optics
GPS Global positioning system
GSM Global system for mobiles
GTD Geometrical theory of diﬀraction
IDA Infocom Development Authority of Singapore
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IF Intermediate frequency
IMST Institut f¨ ur Mobil und Satellitenfunktechnik
18 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
IR Impulse response
ISB Incident shadow boundary
ISM Industrial, scientiﬁc and medical
ITU International telecommunication union
LDC Low duty cycle
LNA Low noise ampliﬁer
LO Local oscillator
LOS Line of sight
MBOFDM Multiband orthogonal frequency division mutliplexing
MIC Ministry of Internal Aﬀairs and Communications
MIMO Multipleinput multipleoutput
MoM Method of moments
NLOS Nonline of sight
OFDM Orthogonal frequency division mutliplexing
OOK Onoﬀ keying
PAM Pulse amplitude modulation
PDA Personal digital assistant
PDF Probability density function
PDP Power delay proﬁle
PLL Phase locked loop
PN Pseudonoise
PPM Pulse position modulation
PSD Power spectral density
QAM Quadrature amplitude modulation
QPSK Quadrature phase shift keying
RF Radio frequency
RFID Radio frequency identiﬁcation
RIR Ray impulse response
RSB Reﬂection shadow boundary
SAGE Space alternating generalized expectation
SHF Super high frequencies
SIMO Singleinput multipleoutput
SISO Singleinput singleoutput
SWR Standing wave ratio
UHF Ultra high frequencies
UMTS Universal mobile telecommunications system
UNII Unlicensed national information infrastructure
US Uncorrelated scattering
UTD Uniform theory of diﬀraction
UWB Ultrawideband
VCO Voltage control oscillator
VNA Vector network analyzer
WBAN Wireless body area network
Acronyms 19
WiFi Wireless ﬁdelity
WLAN Wireless local area network
WPAN Wireless personal area network
WSS Widesense stationary
WSSUS Widesense stationary uncorrelated scattering
802.11 IEEE task group on WLAN
802.15.3 IEEE task group on high rate WPAN
802.15.4 IEEE task group on low rate WPAN
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Chapter 1
UWB Technology and its Applications
1.1. Introduction
By the end of the 20
th
century, studies in the telecommunication ﬁeld had
made signiﬁcant progress. The advent of new radiocommunication technologies
allowed telephony to change from a telegraphic transmission support to a
radio transmission support. Over the last few years, the processing speed and
storage size of the computers have increased considerably. This explains the
general public’s passion for communicating objects, which require the high
speed transfer of a great amount of information.
One of the current scientiﬁc challenges, where signiﬁcant research eﬀorts
are engaged, is related to the use of very high data rate radio transmissions
techniques on relatively short ranges. In this context, ultrawideband (UWB)
technology, initially used in radar, appears to be an ideal candidate for future
wireless communication systems.
This chapter presents the UWB technology and its applications for wireless
communication systems. After a deﬁnition of UWB and of its historical
evolution, its characteristics are ﬁrst outlined, then the considered applications
and the regulation spectrum in the USA, Asia and Europe are detailed. The
chapter ends by presenting the modulation techniques proposed for UWB and
by a state of the art of standardization today.
22 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
1.2. Deﬁnition and historical evolution
1.2.1. Deﬁnition
The generic term UWB is used to represent a radio technique which was
studied under various names. In the earliest writings on this ﬁeld, we can ﬁnd
the terms impulse radio, carrierfree radio, baseband radio, time domain radio,
nonsinusoid radio, orthogonal function radio and large relative bandwidth
radio [BAR 00]. The relative bandwidth is deﬁned by:
B
f,3 dB
= 2
f
H
−f
L
f
H
+f
L
[1.1]
where f
H
and f
L
respectively represent the upper and lower cutoﬀ frequencies
of the band deﬁned at −3 dB. Initially, UWB signals were deﬁned by a relative
bandwidth of 25% or more [TAY 95]. In 2002, the American regulation
authority, the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), extended this
deﬁnition to a broader category of signals, by including signals with a relative
bandwidth B
f,10 dB
higher than 20% or with a frequency band higher than
500 MHz [FCC 02]. Typically, the bandwidth of UWB signals is about
500 MHz to several GHz. Thus, the denomination UWB not only includes
impulse techniques, but also all the modulations presenting an instantaneous
band higher than or equal to 500 MHz.
P
o
w
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
d
B
m
.
M
H
z

1
)
41.3 dB m. MHz
1
Bandwidth (Hz)
Ultrawideband
Conventional
narrowband
modulation
Spread
spectrum
GHz
MHz
kHz
Figure 1.1. Comparison of various radio system spectrums
Figure 1.1 illustrates the comparison between conventional radio systems,
which generally modulate a narrowband signal on a carrier frequency, wideband
UWB Technology and its Applications 23
systems, with spreading spectrum for example, and ultrawideband systems,
which show a weak power spectral density. As a comparison, the bandwidth of
UMTS signals is 5 MHz.
1.2.2. Historical evolution
The study of electromagnetism in the time domain began 40 years ago. The
ﬁrst research was concentrated on radar applications because of the broadband
nature of the signals, which implies a strong resolution
1
in the time domain.
It was in 1960 that impulse radars were developed by the American and
Soviet armies. Indeed, impulse systems have good space resolution properties.
The resolution in distance of a system is conversely proportional to its
bandwidth; the brevity of an impulse signal determines its spectrum width.
In the 1970s, Bennett and Ross presented a complete study of the ﬁrst
research carried out on UWB [BEN 78]. Two decades later, Taylor described
the bases of the UWB technology applied to radar [TAY 95]. Since the middle
of the 1960s, research on this ﬁeld regularly progressed, as mentioned in the
historical bibliography published by Barrett [BAR 00]. However, the use of
UWB signals for radio communication was not really considered before the end
of the 20
th
century. In 1990, the Department of Defense of the US government
published the results of its evaluation of UWB technology. These results were
mainly concentrated on radar systems, since no application of UWB technology
to communication systems was considered at that point [FOW 90].
More recently, research focused on UWB signals for radio communication
[SCH 93, SCH 97a], by using the main characteristics of this technique: a time
resolution around one nanosecond due to the huge frequency bandwidth, a short
duty cycle allowing for modulations such as time hopping and the management
of multiusers, as well as a possible transmission without carrier, which can
lead to a simpliﬁcation of the radio system architecture [FOE 01a].
In 1998, the FCC launched the ﬁrst study on UWB. In February 2002, a
ﬁrst regulatory report was published, allowing particularly for the transmission
of signals in the 3.1–10.6 GHz band for wireless communications, with strong
constraints on the power spectral density [FCC 02]. From this date, intensive
academic and industrial research was undertaken with the aim of proposing a
powerful communication systems using UWB technology.
1. The resolution of a system is its capacity to separate very close energy paths.
24 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
1.3. Speciﬁcities of UWB
With the need for increasing the data rate of wireless systems, the UWB
technology seems to be an ideal candidate for future radio communication
systems in various types of networks, which can be residential, oﬃce, ad hoc,
etc.
As shown in section 1.2.1, the main characteristic of the UWB signal is the
width of the occupied frequency band, typically about 500 MHz to several GHz.
Information theory teaches us that with the use of an appropriate code, it is
possible to transmit data with a binary error rate (BER) lower than a ﬁxed
arbitrarily low threshold, that is, if the data rate is lower than the theoretical
value of the transmission channel capacity. Thus, channel capacity C gives an
indication of the theoretical maximum data rate reachable with a given channel.
It can be obtained using Shannon’s theorem [SHA 49]:
C = B
w
log
2
1 +
S
N
[1.2]
where C is the channel capacity (bit/s), B
w
is the signal bandwidth (Hz), S is
the signal power level (W) and N is the noise power level (W).
We can note that for a given bandwidth the channel capacity increases in a
logarithmic way with the signal to noise ratio. In the case of a constant signal
to noise ratio, the capacity increases linearly with the signal bandwidth.
2
In the context of an increasing demand for communication systems with
high data rates, radio technologies using a broad spectral band are more able
to propose convenient data rates. So, with a frequency band reaching several
GHz, the UWB is well adapted to an increase of data rate than the systems
showing a high constraint on the bandwidth [FOE 01a].
The main properties of UWB systems are described below:
• High temporal resolution capability
Because of their great bandwidth, UWB signals have a high temporal
resolution, typically about one nanosecond. A ﬁrst implication of this
property is related to the localization: knowing the delay of a signal with
2. We can note that for a given signal power level S, the capacity increases nonlinearly
with the bandwidth and reaches the asymptotic value of C
lim
=
S
N
0
· log
2
(e), where
N
0
is the noise power spectral density.
UWB Technology and its Applications 25
a precision of about 0.1 to 1 ns, it is possible to obtain information on
the position of the transmitter with an accuracy of 3 to 30 cm.
• Robustness against fading related to multipath propagation
In usual propagation channels, narrowband systems suﬀer from fading
related to the multipath which combine in a destructive way. In the case of
impulse signals, the transmitted waveforms can have a great bandwidth,
so the multipath presenting delays lower than one nanosecond can be
resolved and added in a constructive way. This recombination causes some
complications on the system implementation, as it leads to the design of
a receiver with a great number of diversity branches.
• Low power spectral density
This characteristic is not intrinsic to UWB signals as they were deﬁned
(see equation [1.1]), but it is imposed by the radio spectrum regulation
authorities. Indeed, as UWB signals present a wide spread spectrum,
the occupied frequency band necessarily covers the frequencies already
allocated to existing radio systems. To allow a peaceful coexistence of
UWB with existing narrowband radio technologies, the FCC has limited
the power spectral density of UWB signals to −41.3 dBm.MHz
−1
,
which corresponds to the power spectral density limit of authorized
nonintentional radio transmissions.
3
This low power spectral density
improves the safety of UWB radio communications, since it becomes
more diﬃcult to detect the transmitted signals. Another consequence
of this characteristic concerns the propagation distance, which is thus
limited to about ten meters. So, the applications considered for UWB
systems are short range and high data rate, and are particularly adapted
to the development of ad hoc networks.
• Less sensitivity to jamming
UWB systems oﬀer a great processing gain.
4
Thus, the interference UWB
systems may have on other systems is reduced, thanks to the low level of
the power spectral density authorized by the FCC. On the contrary, the
interference caused by narrowband systems on UWB systems is a priori
minimized by the bandwidth covered by the impulse signals.
3. Thus, we can consider that UWB radio signals are transmitted “under the noise
level”, although the imposed limits remain above the thermal noise.
4. The processing gain of a system is a parameter which gives an indication of the
resistance of this system against the jamming caused by the other systems.
26 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
• Protected and secured communications
UWB signals are signals that are by nature diﬃcult to detect. Indeed, they
are spread over a broad band and transmitted with a low power spectral
density close to the noise ﬂoor level of traditional radiocommunication
receivers. These characteristics enable secured transmissions with a weak
probability of detection and a weak probability of interception.
• Relative simplicity of the systems design
In terms of implementation, the conventional radio systems are generally
of heterodyne design: the signal which codes the transmitted data is
generated in baseband and is then transposed to higher frequencies
before being emitted. The UWB technology allows the use of impulse
generated in baseband and directly transmitted on the radio channel
without modulation. This possibility of transmission without carrier may
simplify the architecture of the radio systems. Indeed, it is possible to
design UWB transmitterreceivers without any synthesizer using a phase
locked loop (PLL), any voltage control oscillator (VCO) or any mixer.
Thus, this can lead to the design of systems with low manufacturing and
marketing costs.
• Good obstacle penetration properties
UWB signals oﬀer good capabilities of penetration in the walls and the
obstacles, in particular for the low frequencies part of the spectrum. This
makes it possible to have a good precision in terms of localization and
tracking [DEN 03b]. The American company Time Domain, pioneer in
the topic of UWB for communication, has developed a broad activity
around radar systems of vision through walls.
1.4. Considered applications
For a few years, the world of telecommunications has faced an increasing
demand for wireless numerical applications, in the industrial environment as
well as from the general public. Moreover, we can add to this tendency an
important need for total connectivity, the information having to be available
for anybody, anywhere and at any time [POR 03b]. This increasing need for
wireless connectivity leads to the development of many standards for wireless
and short range communication systems. We can mention Bluetooth, the WiFi
standards family (IEEE 802.11 a, b and g), Zigbee (IEEE 802.15.4) and the
recent standard 802.15.3. We may note that the majority of these technologies
for wireless local area networks (WLAN) and personal area networks (WPAN)
uses free frequencies in ISM and UNII bands, with a maximum bandwidths of
about 10 MHz.
A comparative study of the characteristics of some wireless technologies is
presented in Table 1.1. Taking into consideration other wireless systems like
UWB Technology and its Applications 27
Bluetooth or WiFi, the UWB technology presents a very low level of emission.
However, we can reach transmission data rates that are deﬁnitely higher than
the two other technologies.
Figure 1.2 shows the position of UWB in comparison with the leading
WLAN and WPAN standards in terms of rate and maximum achievable
ranges. We can note that contrarily to WiFi standards, UWB technology
mainly addresses short range WPAN networks. However, its potential data
rate exceeds the performances of all current WLAN and WPAN standards.
UWB
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
b
i
t
r
a
t
e
(
M
b
p
s
)
Maximum indoor range (m)
10 20 30 40 50 100
0.1
1000
100
10
1
WiFi 802.11a
WiFi 802.11b
WiFi 802.11g
Zigbee
Bluetooth
802.15.3
802.15.4a (Low rate UWB)
Figure 1.2. WLAN and WPAN main standards: rate and maximum ranges
In order to provide a high data rate anywhere, the future networks will have
to be designed considering an optimization of the space capacity, namely the
global available data rate per unit of area.
In narrow band, we generally regard the spectral capacity of the systems
in (bps/Hz) as one of the main parameters for a transmission. The various
elements of a communication system, like the modulation, the coding, the
implementation, etc. make it possible to improve it. By increasing only the
transmission power or the signal band, the capacity also increases. However,
the spectral resource for these systems is limited and their power cannot be
increased indeﬁnitely. It is limited by medical or commercial considerations,
for example the pollution of the spectrum or the life duration of the batteries.
For UWB systems, the transmission level or the transmitted power spectral
density must be kept suﬃciently low because these systems operate in already
28 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
D
a
t
a
r
a
t
e
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
b
a
n
d
E
I
R
P
M
o
d
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
S
p
e
c
i
ﬁ
c
a
t
i
o
n
U
W
B
≥
1
0
0
M
b
p
s
3
.
1
–
1
0
.
6
G
H
z
−
4
1
.
3
d
B
m
/
M
H
z
P
P
M
,
O
F
D
M
,
C
D
M
A
,
.
.
.
I
E
E
E
8
0
2
.
1
5
.
3
a
≥
5
0
0
k
b
p
s
3
.
1
–
1
0
.
6
G
H
z
−
4
1
.
3
d
B
m
/
M
H
z
P
P
M
,
O
F
D
M
,
C
D
M
A
,
.
.
.
I
E
E
E
8
0
2
.
1
5
.
4
a
B
l
u
e
t
o
o
t
h
≤
7
0
0
k
b
p
s
I
S
M
2
.
4
G
H
z
t
y
p
e
1
:
2
0
d
B
m
t
y
p
e
2
:
0
d
B
m
G
M
S
K
I
E
E
E
8
0
2
.
1
5
.
1
W
i
F
i
≤
5
4
M
b
p
s
5
G
H
z
0
.
2
–
1
W
B
P
S
K
,
1
6

Q
A
M
,
Q
P
S
K
,
6
4

Q
A
M
I
E
E
E
8
0
2
.
1
1
a
≤
1
1
M
b
p
s
I
S
M
2
.
4
G
H
z
0
.
1
–
2
W
C
C
K
,
B
P
S
Q
,
Q
P
S
K
,
D
S
S
I
E
E
E
8
0
2
.
1
1
b
≤
5
4
M
b
p
s
I
S
M
2
.
4
G
H
z
0
.
1
–
1
W
B
P
S
K
,
1
6

Q
A
M
,
Q
P
S
K
,
6
4

Q
A
M
,
O
F
D
M
I
E
E
E
8
0
2
.
1
1
g
T
a
b
l
e
1
.
1
.
C
o
m
p
a
r
i
s
o
n
o
f
s
o
m
e
w
i
r
e
l
e
s
s
c
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
i
e
s
UWB Technology and its Applications 29
occupied bands. These low levels are compensated by the use of a broad band.
So, compared to the existing wireless systems (see Table 1.2), UWB technology
has a low spectral capacity. Thus, it is more correct to speak about the spatial
capacity [GHA 04b]. This parameter corresponds to the maximum data rate of
a system divided by the surface covered by this system.
Rate Distance Spatial Spectral
capacity capacity
(Mbps) (m) (kbps/m
2
) (bps/Hz)
UWB 100 10 318.3 0.013
IEEE 802.11a 54 50 6.9 2.7
Bluetooth 1 10 3.2 0.012
IEEE 802.11b 11 100 0.350 0.1317
Table 1.2. Comparison of the spatial and spectral capacity of some wireless systems
Wireless and very high data rate radio technologies like UWB will make
it possible to considerably increase the spatial capacity, by the development
of dynamic ad hoc networks [POR 03b]. Finally, we can note that a
standardization work is currently in progress in the IEEE 802.15.4a work
group to use UWB spectrum within the framework of low data rate and short
range radio links. The expected data rate is typically the same as that of the
Zigbee standard, with a range of about a hundred meters.
Thus, the potential applications of UWB radio technology are mainly related
to two techniques: high data rate for short range systems (typically 200 Mbps up
to 10 m), and low data rate for long range systems (typically 200 kbps at 100 m).
These two ways of using the UWB radio spectrum allow us to consider a
given number of typical applications for UWB systems [YAN 04, POR 03b].
Firstly, UWB technology will make it possible to increase the data rate of
traditional personal wireless networks. So, it will be useful for WiFi networks
which make wireless access to the Internet network possible, or for connections
between various peripherals (printer, readers, etc.) in limited size environments
of, for example, one or more rooms. Because of a potential of very high data
rate in short range, applications requiring a higher data rate are also possible
with a range from 1 to 4 meters, for example a high quality multimedia transfer
between a DVD player and a screen. In the same manner, the UWB promoters
also proposed a wireless alternative for the Ethernet standard.
30 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
In addition, UWB applications are expected to be used for house
automation, where a great number of devices able to communicate at a
distance of several dozen meters are deployed in an oﬃce or residential
environment. In this usage, the exploited characteristics of UWB systems are
the low costs of the equipment and the possibility of obtaining localization
information. Such potential house automation applications include detection
of intrusion, or the electronic reception (owner detection and launching of
services like the unlocking of doors).
In outdoor scenarios, UWB technology will be used for pointtopoint
communication applications. An example usage is the transfer of data between
several personal devices. In addition, some studies are in progress concerning
services of multimedia contents diﬀusion from electronic kiosks. An example
of application typical of such electronic kiosks is the download of stockmarket
information on a portable digital assistant (PDA) every time the user is
waiting at his regular subway station.
Finally, UWB applications are also envisioned in the industrial context.
By exploiting the possibilities of long range localization combined with
information transfer, sensor networks could be deployed in the productions
lines or warehouses, in order to followup and automatically manage the
operations. This kind of application is well suited for UWB low data rate and
long range communication. The main challenge to be raised for this type of
applications is the control of radio communication under diﬃcult propagation
and interference conditions.
1.5. Regulation evolution
The bandwidth of UWB signals requires a strict regulation of their
transmission spectrum. Indeed, many systems, whether licensed or not,
are presented in UHF and SHF bands, which are very favorable for radio
systems deployment. To allow the use of UWB signals over several GHz,
regulatory authorities imposed a strict limitation on the transmission power.
Figure 1.3 shows some radio systems existing in UHF and SHF bands.
We can note that there are reserved bands for several systems like the
standards of cellular telephony GSM (900 MHz), DCS (1.8 GHz) and UMTS
(2 GHz). The global positioning system (GPS) also occupies a reserved band
around 1.5 GHz. Other frequency bands are already used for unlicensed
communication systems. For example, the ISM band is used by systems such
as Bluetooth, WiFi and DECT, and is also authorized for domestic devices
such as microwave ovens. The UNII band is the frequency band where the
WiFi 802.11a and HiperLAN standards operate.
In order to limit the UWB signals eﬀects on the other radio systems, the
regulatory agencies agree on the use of the 3.1–10.6 GHz band for UWB
UWB Technology and its Applications 31
signals [AIE 03b].
5
This part of the radio spectrum allows us to use a
bandwidth as wide as 7.5 GHz, while avoiding telephony systems and GPS.
The very low authorized power spectral density, located under the level of
unintentional emission ﬁxed by the FCC (−41.3 dBm.MHz
−1
), is compensated
by the bandwidth, allowing it to emit a total power of 0.6 mW.
3.1 5 10.6 2.4 2.0 1.5 0.9
P
o
w
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
d
B
m
.
M
H
z

1
)
Frequency (GHz)
Unintentional
radiation limit
(41.3 dBm.MHz
1
)
G
S
M
G
P
S
D
C
S
I
S
M
U
N
I
I
UWB
Bluetooth,
802.11b,
DECT,
microwave
ovens
802.11a,
HiperLAN
1.8
U
M
T
S
Figure 1.3. Radio systems in UHF and SHF bands
1.5.1. Regulation in the USA
In the USA, the regulatory agency FCC launched its ﬁrst works on UWB
radio technology as early as 1998 [MOR 03, POR 03a]. In May 2000, a ﬁrst
proposal for a regulation was published (Notice of Proposed Rule Making),
which led to the current regulatory text Report & Order of February 2002
[FCC 02].
The FCC rules of the UWB spectrum regulation enable it to emit signals
mainly in the frequency band 3.1–10.6 GHz, by respecting a power spectral
density lower than the one applied to nonintentional radio transmissions. Three
diﬀerent classes of equipment are considered:
• Visualizing systems: ground penetrating radars, throughwall visualizing
systems, medical systems and monitoring systems.
5. We will see that in certain regions of the world (Europe, Asia), only a part of the
3.1–10.6 GHz band is considered.
32 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
• Onboard radar systems: for example, the radars for cars in the 24–29 GHz
band.
• Communication and measurement systems.
Each class of equipment has its own emission mask. Figure 1.4 presents the
emission mask of the communication systems, for indoor use. The spectrum
was deﬁned to ensure a protection of the sensitive systems, more particularly
the GPS (1.2–1.5 GHz), and the bands dedicated to civil aviation.
U
W
B
E
I
R
P
e
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
l
e
v
e
l
(
d
B
m
.
M
H
z

1
)
Frequency (GHz)
FCC (indoor)
CEPT
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
1 10
1.61
GPS
band
3.1
MIC
(proposal)
6 8.5
3.8
7.25
2.7
Singapore
(UWB
Friendly
Zone)
1.99
10.25
10.6
0.96
Figure 1.4. UWB systems emission masks
1.5.2. Regulation in Europe
In Europe, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
has operated since 2001 on the attribution of the frequencies in Europe for UWB
systems. The studies are carried out in close cooperation with group SE24 of
the Conf´erence Europ´eenne des Postes et T´el´ecommunications (CEPT), which
more particularly analyzes the possible impact of the UWB systems on the
existing ones [POR 03b]. Normally, these European authorities aim to reach a
given accord for all the European Union States, but each national regulatory
agency keeps the right to manage its radio spectrum independently.
Compared to the American regulation, a more restrictive position was
adopted by the CEPT. In a decision presented in March 2006 [ECC 06],
the regulatory organization Electronic Communication Committee (ECC)
proposed a spectral mask limiting the emission of UWB signals to the
UWB Technology and its Applications 33
6–8.5 GHz band with a power spectral density of −41.3 dBm.MHz
−1
, are
shown in Figure 1.4. The emission is also authorized in the band 3.8–6 GHz
with a power spectral density of −70 dBm.MHz
−1
. However, we should
note that such a power limitation does not make it possible to carry out
reliable communication systems for a distance of about one meter. In
order to encourage a fast emergence of UWB systems in Europe, the ECC
currently considers the possibility of using mitigation techniques to ensure the
compatibility of UWB systems with the other radio services in the 3.1–4.8 GHz
band. Among these mitigation mechanisms, we can ﬁnd the detection and
avoidance (DAA) systems which allow us to avoid bands already used by other
systems and the use of low duty cycle (LDC). Hence, all UWB systems using
satisfactory mitigation mechanisms could be authorized to emit with a power
spectral density of −41.3 dBm.MHz
−1
in the 3.1–4.8 GHz band. Temporarily
– until June 2010 – the ECC authorizes the emission in the 4.2–4.8 GHz band
with a power spectral density of −41.3 dBm.MHz
−1
.
1.5.3. Regulation in Asia
In Asia, the regulation of UWB is particularly well advanced in Japan and
Singapore.
In Japan, from September 2002, the Information and Technology
Communication SubCouncil working group presented its ﬁrst investigations
on UWB technology at the ministry for telecommunications, in order to
prepare the regulation of UWB. Moreover, the Communications Research
Laboratory (CRL) is developing a project with many industrial partners
in order to design marketable UWB systems. However, the emission mask
proposed by their ministry of internal aﬀairs and communications, MIC,
remains more restricted than the American mask. As illustrated in Figure 1.4,
a preliminary proposal presented in August 2005 suggests a limitation of
UWB emissions to the 7.25–10.25 GHz frequency bands with a power spectral
density of −41.3 dBm.MHz
−1
.
At the beginning of 2003, the Singaporean regulatory agency named
Infocom Development Authority (IDA) created a UWB research area,
called UWB Friendly Zone, which makes it possible to deploy tests and
demonstrators in Singapore with experiments using an emission power of
about 10 dB above the FCC limit and a band spreading from 2 GHz to
10 GHz [POR 03b]. With that, the IDA tries to give an signiﬁcant advance
in Singapore to new telecommunication technologies, in order to remain
scientiﬁcally and economically competitive.
To conclude, it should be speciﬁed that the greatest constraint of regulation
comes from management of the interference. The problems of UWB regulation
34 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
do not come from the eﬀect of only one UWB system, but from the aggregation
of hundreds of devices using this technology, creating a sum of signals which
can possibly interfere with other systems, like the navigation or safety systems.
So, the UWB scientiﬁc community currently works to test and deﬁne systems
which remain inoﬀensive, even when using several colocalized equipments.
1.6. UWB communication system and standardization
The emission mask of UWB radio signals established by the FCC allows
the use of various signals. Figure 1.5 presents various solutions which can
be considered. For each approach, the used frequency band as well as the
emission mask of the FCC are presented in the lefthand graph. In each case,
the righthand graph presents the time domain signal corresponding to the
band represented in solid line. As we can observe, the duration of the obtained
impulse is inversely proportional to the bandwidth used.
The monoband approach consists of using all the frequency band available.
It is characterized by very short impulses, therefore resistant to the eﬀects of
superimposed multipaths, and the signals can be created from an arbitrary
impulse modeled by an adequate ﬁlter. However, this approach allows little
ﬂexibility in the use of the radio spectrum, and requires us to use very powerful
radio frequency (RF) components.
Another solution consists of dividing the allocated UWB spectrum into
two parts: it is the dual bands approach. It makes it possible to use cheaper
integrated circuit technologies, especially for the low band (typically 3–6 GHz),
the high band being used according to the development of new RF components.
The ﬂexibility of the spectrum radio remains moderate, but this solution allows
it to avoid an arbitrarily sensitive band, as the UNII band around 5 GHz for
example.
Finally, the multiband approach consists of using frequency bands of
minimal width about 500 MHz. This solution has a very great ﬂexibility
for radio spectrum management. For example, if the emission mask is
more restricted in a given country, we can avoid the subbands which are
not authorized. The management of the multiuser communications is also
simpliﬁed, as many frequency combinations or temporal multiplexings are
possible.
Many modulation techniques were developed from these various UWB
signals. Historically, the ﬁrst form of modulation suggested for UWB was the
impulse radio [SCH 93]. Regarding standardization, the American institute
IEEE began the work of deﬁning a high data rate communication system
UWB Technology and its Applications 35
using the UWB spectrum in 2002. The choice of the type of modulation for
this system was the subject of a procedure of very strict selection, within the
802.15.3a work group. The debate for a single solution was mainly articulated
around two proposals: Direct Sequence UWB (DSUWB), proposed by the
consortium UWB Forum [FIS 04] and MultiBand Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing (MBOFDM), proposed by the consortium MultiBand
OFDM Alliance/WiMedia Alliance [BAT 04b]. In January 2006, as no
consensus could be found for a single solution, the IEEE 802.15.3a group
was disbanded. Today, only one industrial standard exists concerning UWB
systems: the standard ECMA368 [ECM 05], developed by the consortium
WiMedia Alliance and based on MBOFDM.
1.6.1. Impulse radio
The impulse radio concept, developed from radar studies, corresponds to the
emission of impulses of very short duration (around 100 ps to 1 ns). Typically,
this type of impulses occupies a very broad spectrum (about 1 to several
GHz). It is thus a monoband approach. The impulse signals generally adopted
for UWB communications include the Gaussian impulse, its ﬁrst derivative
(Gaussian monocycle), and its second derivative, as represented in Figure 1.6.
The drawback of the Gaussian impulse lies in its nonzero mean value, which
corresponds in the frequency domain to an important continuous component.
Thus, the Gaussian impulse cannot be propagated without deformation, and
we generally prefer the Gaussian monocycle [BAT 03].
1.6.1.1. Pulse position modulation
Relation [1.3] gives the typical expression of a transmitted impulse radio
signal, using a pulse position modulation (PPM) [SCH 97a]:
s(t) =
¸
j
w
t −j T
f
−c
j
T
c
−Δ d
j
N
s
[1.3]
where w(t) represents the waveform of a transmitted monocycle, normally
starting from t = 0.
Thus, the transmitted signal corresponds to a sequence of impulses
transmitted at diﬀerent times, the j
th
impulse being transmitted at
j T
f
+c
j
T
c
+ Δ d
j
N
s
.
The term j T
f
allows a uniform spacing of the impulses. Indeed, the signal
deﬁned by:
s(t) =
¸
j
w
t −j T
f
[1.4]
36 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
0 5 10 15
80
70
60
50
40
P
o
w
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
d
B
m
.
M
H
z

1
)
(a)
0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4
1
0.5
0
0. 5
1
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
s
i
g
n
a
l
0 5 10 15
80
70
60
50
40
P
o
w
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
d
B
m
.
M
H
z

1
)
(b)
0 0. 5 1 1. 5 2
1
0.5
0
0. 5
1
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
s
i
g
n
a
l
0 5 10 15
80
70
60
50
40
Frequency
(GHz)
P
o
w
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
d
B
m
.
M
H
z

1
)
(c)
0 2 4
1
0.5
0
0. 5
1
Time (ns)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
s
i
g
n
a
l
Figure 1.5. UWB spectrum and signals: monoband approach (a), dualband
approach (b) and multiband approach (c)
UWB Technology and its Applications 37
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
Time (ns)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
s
i
g
n
a
l
Gaussian
pulse
Gaussian
monocycle
Second
derivative
Figure 1.6. UWB impulse waveforms
corresponds to a sequence of impulses uniformly distributed, with a pulse
spacing equal to T
f
seconds.
The impulse sequence of relation [1.4] is represented in Figure 1.7(a). T
f
is
generally called “frame duration” and is about 100 to 1000 times the impulse
duration. This makes it possible to obtain signals with a low duty cycle, and
therefore with a low power spectral density. However, we should note that the
periodicity of this signal generates parasitic spikes in the radio spectrum. In
addition, impulses cyclically transmitted by the users of the network are very
sensitive to collision when the signals access the channel.
These two problems are solved by the use of a temporal pseudorandom
hopping code. The frame of duration T
f
is subdivided in a given number
of time intervals (chip) of duration T
c
. Each user is provided with a
pseudorandom code ¦c
j
¦ of length N
s
which indicates in which chip of each
frame the impulse must be transmitted. The use of a pseudorandom code
makes it possible to decrease the eﬀect of appearance of spikes due to the
periodicity of the frame, and the spectrum appears much more smoothed
[PEZ 03]. If the pseudorandom sequence is suﬃciently long, the UWB
signal can be compared, on the occupied band, to a Gaussian white noise.
In addition, the pseudorandom code allows the management of multiusers
on the radio channel. The transmitted signal with the considered code is
expressed by:
s(t) =
¸
j
w
t −j T
f
−c
j
T
c
[1.5]
and its shape is given by Figure 1.7(b).
38 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
T
f
T
c
(a)
(b)
(c)
t
t
t
Figure 1.7. Sequences of radio impulses: (a) sequence of uniformly distributed
impulses, (b) spreading code at position 0, and (c) spreading code at position 1
In relation [1.3], the modulation used to transmit data is PPM. Indeed, the
term Δ represents a time interval of about
T
c
2
, and the d
k
terms are the 0 and
1 symbols to be transmitted. The index d
j
N
s
, where  indicates the integer
part, shows that the same symbol is used over the whole length of the code.
There is thus a redundancy of information, which makes it possible to increase
the processing gain. Under these conditions, when zero is transmitted, there
is no temporal shift in the emission of the data, while a duration shift of Δ
is applied over the entire code duration when one is transmitted. These two
states are shown in Figure 1.7(b) and (c). We can note that PPM modulations
using a greater number of states are possible.
Concerning impulse radio, the signals reception is done by correlation. The
basic idea is to multiply the received signal by a model signal, which makes it
possible to demodulate the transmitted data. So, the model signal corresponds
to a given pseudorandom emitted code. Thus, the use of time codes allows the
management of multiaccess [SCH 93]. If several users emit simultaneously by
using orthogonal pseudorandom codes, only the signal corresponding to the
selected code will be demodulated, the other users will appear as noise. This
scheme corresponds to the traditional code multiple division access (CDMA).
1.6.1.2. Pulse amplitude modulation
The pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is an alternative to the pulse
position modulation. This technique consists of varying the amplitude of the
transmitted impulses to code the diﬀerent states.
Theoretically, an unlimited number of diﬀerent values can be used for the
signal amplitude. In practice, the PAM modulation is often reduced to two
UWB Technology and its Applications 39
states, 1 and 1. Under these conditions, 2PAM modulation may be regarded
as a form of binary phase shift keying (BPSK). This BPSK modulation has a
good robustness to the eﬀects of the channel and simpliﬁes the synchronization.
Indeed, the position of the impulse remains ﬁxed, and it is only its phase which
varies.
Another alternative of the PAM modulation consists of transmitting two
states: 1 and 0. This corresponds to an onoﬀ keying (OOK) modulation. In each
deﬁned transmission timeslot, an impulse is emitted to code 1, and nothing is
emitted to code 0.
Finally, we may also consider hybrid modulations. We can for example
create a modulation of 512 states by using a combination of 256PPM with
a modulation 2PAM.
The impulse radio modulation technique was implemented by the American
company Time Domain, and was marketed in an electronic chip, named PulsOn
210. However, because of the diﬃculty of implementation and the low spectral
ﬂexibility of this type of system, the standardization authorities have chosen
other types of modulations, presented in the following subsections.
1.6.2. Direct sequence UWB
The direct sequence ultrawideband (DSUWB) modulation is a solution
proposed by the industrial group UWB Forum [FIS 04]. This modulation
uses the frequency band allocated to UWB under two dual bands covering
respectively 3.1–4.85 GHz and 6.2–9.7 GHz. This conﬁguration make it
possible to avoid the UNII band at 5 GHz used by WiFi systems. On these
dual bands, the transmitted impulses have a time duration of about 0.3–0.5 ns
and present several cycles (see Figure 1.5(b)). In a ﬁrst step, only the low
band is used, in order to simplify the architecture of the radio transmission
systems.
As with the PPM modulation, the DSUWB modulation uses a frame
divided in chips. However, an impulse can be transmitted in each chip of
the frame. So, the signal is transmitted continuously and there is no low
duty cycle as in the case of the impulse radio. The transmitted symbols are
represented by ternary spreading codes of one frame length, composed of a
series of 1, 0 or −1. According to the speciﬁcations proposed by the UWB
forum, all the DSUWB systems will be able to provide these codes using a
BPSK baseband modulation. Optionally, a more eﬃcient modulation, named
MBOK, is deﬁned in order to ensure a more robust transmission. The length
of the spreading code varies from 1–24 chips according to the considered
data rate. The transmission data rate proposed for the DSUWB systems
40 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
range from 28–1,320 Mbps. The management of multiple users, clustered in
subnetworks called piconets, is performed by the use of orthogonal codes.
In this prospect, the DSUWB modulation is similar to the CDMA system
used in UMTS. Finally, we can note that the isolation of users belonging to
diﬀerent piconets is improved by the use of slightly diﬀerent chip frequencies
into each piconet. More details on this technology can be found in [WEL 03].
Compared to impulse radio, the DSUWB systems seem easier to
implement, because the considered frequency bands are narrower, which
imposes less constraints on RF components. The used modulation still being
based on impulses, this radio access technique is robust against the multipath
eﬀects of the channel. In terms of regulation, the separation into two dual
bands makes it possible to protect the sensitive frequency bands, but the
transmitted spectrum is not very ﬂexible. In terms of standardization, we may
notice that following the disbanding of the IEEE 802.15.3a working group,
no oﬃcial norm is currently based on the DSUWB modulation. However,
some industrial companies are developing this technical solution, starting
from the speciﬁcations proposed by the UWB Forum group. As an example,
the company Freescale Semiconductor, founder of the UWB Forum group,
implemented the DSUWB modulation in the component Freescale XS110.
1.6.3. Multiband OFDM
Multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MBOFDM) is a
solution based upon the UWB spectrum proposed in standardization and used
by the industrial groups MBOA and WiMedia Alliance [BAT 04b]. It is a
multiband approach, where the FCC spectrum is subdivided into 14 subbands
of 528 MHz. Figure 1.8 shows these subbands which are divided into diﬀerent
groups. First of all, the industrial companies focussed their development eﬀorts
on group 1 (3.1–4.9 GHz). The other groups should be quickly exploited in order
to produce systems in conformity with the European and Asian regulation.
In each subband, an OFDM modulation is applied, the signal being
distributed over 100 carriers with narrow bandwidth. For each carrier, the
baseband modulation is either BPSK or QPSK. This conﬁguration facilitates a
very ﬂexible management of the radio spectrum. Indeed, to avoid the jamming
of any frequency band, we can forbid a series of carriers or the totality of
a subband. This management can possibly be performed according to the
legislation of the country of use or in a dynamic way according to the potential
jammers. The management of the multiusers of the same group of subbands
is performed using timefrequency code techniques. In a group of subbands,
the communication of a given user regularly hops from one band to another,
according to a cycle of approximately 1 μs duration. The hopping pattern
UWB Technology and its Applications 41
from one band to another corresponds to the considered timefrequency code,
which is unique to each user. The data rates oﬀered by this technology extend
from 53.3–480 Mbps. References [BAT 04a, BAT 04b] give all the necessary
details for the implementation of this system.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
80
70
60
50
40
Frequency (GHz)
P
o
w
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
d
B
m
.
M
H
z

1
)
← ← ← → → → ← ← → → ← ← ←
Group 1 Gr. 5 Gr. 3 Gr. 2 Gr. 4
Figure 1.8. Subbands for the MBOFDM solution
The advantages of the MBOFDM radio access technique are mainly related
to its low complexity of implementation, as the OFDM modulation shows a high
degree of maturity. Moreover, it is currently the only UWB communication
technique developed as an international standard, ECMA – 368, available since
December 2005. The restriction on the used frequency band to the ﬁrst group
of subbands allows it to use existing systems and RF components. However,
in order to achieve an international deployment of the MBOFDM solution,
it will be necessary to develop systems operating under the European and
Asian frequency regulations. In technical terms, it should be noted that signals
are no longer impulsional, and the technology no longer beneﬁts from the
advantages related to a very wide frequency band, such as the robustness
to the radio channel eﬀects or the possibilities of localization. The integrated
circuit UBLink proposed by the company Wisair is an example of commercially
available MBOFDM design.
1.7. Conclusion
Initially used for radar localization applications, UWB technology has
been studied for the last 15 years in the ﬁeld of wireless communications.
The main characteristics of this technology, like the width of the spectrum
42 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
and its strong temporal resolution, made it possible for the scientiﬁc and
industrial communities to propose a certain number of interesting applications:
high data rate WLAN networks, home automation applications, etc. As
developed in this chapter, various types of UWB modulations were proposed
in standardization, in particular DSUWB and MBOFDM. UWB regulation
has been eﬀective in the USA since 2002. In Europe, a mask of emission for
UWB signals was established in 2006, but the coexistence of UWB systems
with other applications is still under study.
As for any radio access technique, an accurate knowledge of the propagation
channel as well as the antennas is predominant for the development of
UWB communication systems. Thus, the following section presents the radio
waves propagation phenomena inside buildings, and describes the principal
parameters for UWB radio channel characterization. In this book, we address
antennas by including them in the channel. A thorough study of the antennas
in the speciﬁc case of UWB could be the subject of a speciﬁc book. Indeed,
the realization of an antenna presenting good characteristics in terms of
adaptation and radiation on such a broad band is still a challenging task
[SCH 03c, SCH 03b, OSS 03].
Chapter 2
Radio Wave Propagation
2.1. Introduction
The existence of electromagnetic waves was theoretically predicted by
J.C. Maxwell as early as 1855 [MAX 55]. The German physicist Hertz tried to
demonstrate that electromagnetic waves travel at a ﬁnite speed, and in 1886
he performed the very ﬁrst radio propagation experiments. The oscillating
circuit designed by Hertz consisted of two discharging metallic spheres, which
produced an observable spark on an open wire loop [SCH 86]. Interestingly,
the signal used by Hertz consisted of a short duration pulse, which could
hence be regarded as an ultrawideband signal [AIE 03a].
In order to facilitate the industrial use of radio transmission, a large
amount of research has been conducted to characterize the electromagnetic
wave propagation mechanisms. This research ﬁrst focused on signals conﬁned
in narrow frequency bands and then extended to wideband signals. This
chapter details the deﬁnition of the propagation channel and its mathematical
representation. The characteristic parameters of the radiomobile channel are
then presented.
2.2. Deﬁnition of the propagation channel
By deﬁnition, a radio transmission system transforms an emitted electrical
signal e(t) into a received electrical signal s(t) by means of electromagnetic
waves. The propagation channel corresponds to the system converting the
signal e(t) into the signal s(t) and thus accounts for the interactions between
the electromagnetic waves and their environment. At this point, a distinction
should be made between the propagation channel and the transmission
44 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
channel. The propagation channel represents the transformation of the
electromagnetic waves throughout their propagation, while the transmission
channel also includes antenna radiation patterns (cf. Figure 2.1). In the
literature, some authors assimilate these two concepts, but the distinction
comes fully into play when considering multipleinput multipleoutput
(MIMO) channels [COS 04]. The full study of antennas in the speciﬁc
UWB context would require a dedicated book. Indeed, the development of
a UWB antenna presenting adequate characteristics in terms of adaptation
and radiation over such a wide frequency band is still a challenging issue
[SCH 03c, SCH 03b, OSS 03].
Emitted
signal
e(t)
Received
signal
s(t)
Propagation channel
Transmission channel
Figure 2.1. Propagation channel and transmission channel
2.2.1. Free space propagation
Let us ﬁrst consider an ideal case where the transmission system is placed
in free space, i.e. in an environment where no obstruction is present. Denoting
by G
E
the emission antenna gain and P
E
the emitted signal power, the power
density observed at a distance d is given by [PAR 00]:
W =
P
E
G
E
4πd
2
[2.1]
The power P
R
collected at the output of a receiving antenna with gain G
R
relates to the power density W as follows:
P
R
= WA
R
= W
λ
2
G
R
4π
[2.2]
where A
R
represents the eﬀective area of the receiving antenna, and λ represents
the wavelength at the working frequency.
Radio Wave Propagation 45
Equations [2.1] and [2.2] yield the Friis formula, giving the signal attenuation
in free space:
P
R
P
T
= G
T
G
R
c
4πfd
2
[2.3]
where we used the relation c = fλ existing between the wavelength λ, the
frequency f and the propagation speed c.
It should be noted that this relation holds for a distance d large enough for
the receiving antenna to be considered in the far ﬁeld region with respect to
the transmitting antenna [AFF 00]. A receiver is situated in the far ﬁeld if the
distance d is larger than the Fraunhofer distance d
F
, which is related to the
largest dimension of the transmitting antenna D and to the wavelength λ as
follows:
1
d
F
=
2D
2
λ
[2.4]
Free space propagation is a theoretical or reference situation. In realistic
propagation conditions, the transmitted wave is aﬀected by the system
environment through diﬀerent mechanisms, which are presented in the
following section.
2.2.2. Multipath propagation
In a realistic environment, signal transmission follows not only the direct
path, but also a number of distinct propagation paths. These paths undergo
various eﬀects depending on the type of interaction between the wave and the
surrounding objects. At the output port of the receiving antenna, the observed
signal corresponds to a combination of diﬀerent waves, each of them presenting
a diﬀerent attenuation and a diﬀerent phase rotation. Moreover, each wave
reaches the receiver with a distinct delay, linked to the length of the propagation
path. Multipath propagation mechanisms may lead to a signiﬁcant distortion
of the received signal. On the other hand, a direct path, known as the line
of sight (LOS) path, is not always available, which is particularly frequent in
indoor conﬁgurations. In this case, so called nonline of sight (NLOS) paths
are necessary to enable eﬃcient radio communication. Figure 2.2 illustrates the
concept of multipath propagation, as well as the main propagation phenomena.
1. It should be noted, though, that for systems operating at diﬀerent frequencies, the
antenna dimension D is generally adapted to the wavelength. For a wire antenna, the
antenna length is for instance deﬁned as D =
λ
2
, and hence the Fraunhofer distance
follows d
F
=
λ
2
.
46 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Receiver
Transmitter
Diffuse
reflection
Specular
reflection
Diffraction
Diffuse
scattering
Ȝ
Transmission
Waveguide
effect
Figure 2.2. Main propagation mechanisms
• Reﬂection: reﬂection takes place on obstacles of large dimensions with
respect to wavelength. When two diﬀerent materials are separated by a plane
surface (i.e. a surface where possible rough spots are small with respect to the
wavelength), the reﬂection is said to be specular. In this case, the direction
and the amplitude of the reﬂected ray are governed by the SnellDescartes
and Fresnel laws. When the surface separating the two materials presents
nonnegligible random rough spots, the reﬂection is called diﬀuse reﬂection.
Most of the energy is then directed along the reﬂected ray, but part of the
energy is diﬀused in neighbor directions.
Radio Wave Propagation 47
• Transmission: when the medium where a reﬂection takes place is not
perfectly radioopaque, part of the incident wave travels through the material
following a socalled transmission mechanism. Most of the building materials
used in indoor environments signiﬁcantly attenuate the transmitted wave. For
a given material, the attenuation and the direction of the transmitted signal
are related to the wavelength, since the refractive index of the material varies
with the frequency. Finally, for layered materials such as plasterboard, multiple
reﬂection may occur within the material.
• Diﬀraction: diﬀraction takes place on the edges of large sized
obstacles with respect to the wavelength. This mechanism accounts for the
electromagnetic ﬁeld continuum on either side of the optical line of sight. The
calculation of a diﬀracted ﬁeld uses Huygens’ principle, which considers every
point of a wavefront as a secondary spherical source. Hence, diﬀracted waves
are distributed along a geometrical cone, with an angle corresponding to the
incident angle.
• Diﬀusion: when an electromagnetic wave travels towards a group of
obstacles of small dimensions with respect to the wavelength, the observed
phenomenon corresponds to the superimposition of a large number of random
diﬀractions. In this case, the behavior of the incident wave is handled in a
statistical way and the resulting phenomenon is called diﬀusion. In general, the
electromagnetic wave is directed in all directions with a variable attenuation.
This phenomenon is generally observed in outdoor environments, for instance
in the presence of tree foliage. In indoor environments, diﬀusion may occur on
a group of small objects.
• Waveguide eﬀect: the waveguide eﬀect occurs in indoor environments,
between two corridor walls for instance. Successive reﬂections on two parallel
obstacles lead to a global wave motion along the guiding direction. This
phenomenon also occurs in urban environments, for instance between two
buildings lining a narrow street.
2.2.3. Propagation channel variations
Owing to the diﬀerent interactions between the radio waves and their
propagation medium, signiﬁcant variations of the channel characteristics are
observable at diﬀerent scales. When isotropic antennas are used in free space,
the resulting power attenuation is proportional to the square of the distance
d between the antennas (cf. section 2.2.1). However, actual observations
present large scale power variations linked to the propagation environment.
In practice, the obstacles within the environment as well as the combination
of multiple propagation paths lead to an additional attenuation of the
48 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
transmitted waves. In general, this attenuation is a function of the distance d
between the transmitter and the receiver. It is characterized by the path loss
exponent N
d
, the received signal power decreasing proportionally to d
−N
d
.
The parameter N
d
is equal to 2 in free space, and varies between 2 and 5 in
NLOS conﬁgurations. In LOS conﬁgurations, waveguide eﬀects may lead to a
value of N
d
lower than 2. Finally, we may note diﬀerences in the order from
1 to several dB between the received power and the mean trend following a
d
−N
d
law. This is due to occasional obstructions known as shadowing or slow
fading.
Small scale ﬂuctuations are directly linked to multipath propagation
mechanisms. Multiple versions of a single signal presenting diﬀerent
attenuations and diﬀerent phase delays may eventually combine at the
receiver, which produces signiﬁcant fast ﬂuctuations in the order of 10 to
20 dB.
2.2.3.1. Spatial selectivity
Let us consider a signal composed of a single carrier frequency propagating
along two paths, the direct path and a reﬂected path. If the reﬂection occurs in
the vicinity of the LOS path, we may consider that these two paths will cause a
similar attenuation. However, depending on the wavelength of the transmitted
signal and on the length diﬀerence between the two paths, the two versions
of the signal may arrive in phase or antiphase. This concept is illustrated in
Figure 2.3. In the ﬁrst case, the signals are adding constructively and some
power gain is observed. In the second case, the signals are adding destructively
and the total received power is strongly attenuated. When the mobile device is
displaced, the phase rotation linked to each path leads to a series of signal peaks
and signal fades, which is called a fast fading signal. When this phenomenon
occurs with a large amount of paths, the received signal may be considered as
a random process.
2.2.3.2. Frequency selectivity
Let us now consider a more realistic signal, spreading over a given
frequency bandwidth. As explained in the previous section, the spatial
selectivity phenomenon depends on the phase diﬀerence between multiple
paths. Thus, spatial selectivity also depends on signal frequency. When the
frequency band is narrow, all frequencies forming the transmitted signal
undergo similar phase variations. Hence, the possible power fades are constant
over the whole considered frequency band. This phenomenon is known as ﬂat
fading.
For signals occupying wider frequency bands, the various frequencies
may be aﬀected in a diﬀerent way, and thus the received signal is somehow
Radio Wave Propagation 49
t
V
global signal
t
V
t
V
t2
t2 + ǻt
reflected path
(case 1)
t
V t1
direct path
reflected path
(case 2)
case 1
case 2
Figure 2.3. Constructive and destructive addition of two propagation paths
distorted with respect to the transmitted signal. In this case, we may
observe frequency selective fading, which consists of a variation in the power
received with increasing frequency. The bandwidth over which the frequency
components are aﬀected in a similar way is called the coherence bandwidth or
correlation bandwidth.
In the delay domain, frequency selectivity corresponds to a delay between
the various versions of the signal propagating along diﬀerent paths. This delay is
in the order of a few nanoseconds in indoor environments, and in the order of a
few microseconds in outdoor environments. Depending on the signal bandwidth,
these echoes may superimpose on each other, which results in signiﬁcant fades.
For signals presenting a very wide frequency band, and particularly for UWB
signals, the time domain resolution is very high, which limits the possible
interference between diﬀerent delayed versions of the transmitted signal. In
this case, signal fading is less pronounced. It is then possible to apply advanced
reception techniques, such as channel equalization or RAKE reception,
2
in order
to collect as much energy as possible from the multiple propagation paths
[CRA 98, FOE 01b, GAU 03].
2. A RAKE receiver combines the signals from diﬀerent multipaths, by using several
reception branches in parallel [HAY 01].
50 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Finally, it should be noted that in the case of wideband signals, frequency
selectivity leads to a time domain spreading of the transmitted signal.
Characterizing this spreading is essential to calibrate communication systems
and mitigate intersymbol interference.
3
2.2.3.3. Doppler eﬀect
The spatial selectivity phenomenon demonstrates that the properties of
the radio propagation channel may vary signiﬁcantly when the receiving
antenna is positioned at diﬀerent locations. It is thus questionable how the
propagation channel is aﬀected when the transmitting antenna, the receiving
antenna or even the environment are moving. The Doppler eﬀect corresponds
to an observed shift in the frequency of an electromagnetic signal due to the
variation of its propagation path. As a simple example, let us consider a
mobile receiver moving at a speed v and receiving a radio signal as a plane
wave arriving with an angle α with respect to the mobile direction. In this
case, the observed Doppler shift is [PAR 00]:
ν = f
v
c
cos(α) [2.5]
where f is the signal frequency and c is the wave propagation speed.
The statistical case where the ray distribution is represented by the
probability density function (PDF) of their angle of arrival p
α
(α) was
developed in [CLA 68]. For a simple case where the handset moves at a
constant speed, the PDF of the Doppler shift p
ν
(ν) is given by:
p
ν
(ν) =
1
1−
ν
ν
max
2
¸
p
α
−arccos
ν
ν
max
+p
α
arccos
ν
ν
max
[2.6]
where ν
max
is the maximum Doppler shift given by:
ν
max
= f
v
c
[2.7]
This theoretical PDF of the Doppler shift may be linked to the Doppler
spectrum of a measured signal. In particular, for a uniform distribution of the
arrival angles, the PDF of the Doppler shift is proportional to the Jakes Doppler
spectrum [JAK 93]:
p
ν
(ν) =
1
π
1 −
ν
ν
max
2
[2.8]
3. Intersymbol interference consists of the corruption of a transmitted symbol by the
previous symbols due to the time domain spreading generated by the propagation
channel. It is one of the main sources for the degradation of the transmission quality.
Radio Wave Propagation 51
In what follows, a distinction will be made between the concepts of temporal
and spatial variations. Spatial channel variations are due to the displacement
of at least one of the antennas in an otherwise static environment. Temporal
variations are linked to a change in the close environment of a ﬁxed radio link
[HAS 94a]. In the radiomobile context, both types of variation are generally
observed, but one or the other may be considered as predominant, depending
on the situation. In the indoor environment, temporal variations are mainly
due to moving people.
In both cases of spatial and temporal variations, propagation paths between
the transmitter and the receiver may appear, disappear or undergo successive
transformations. In the case of a stationary channel, only the existing paths
are considered, and the channel variations consist of an evolution of the path
length, which may be positive or negative. Hence, both spatial and temporal
channel variations lead to an observed Doppler eﬀect.
2.3. Propagation channel representation
2.3.1. Mathematical formulation
Owing to the multipath propagation phenomena, the received signal s(t)
is composed of a number of superimposed replicas of the transmitted signal
e(t), each of them presenting a diﬀerent delay and a diﬀerent attenuation. The
propagation channel thus behaves like a linear ﬁlter. Hence, the propagation
channel may be represented by its impulse response (IR) h(τ), corresponding
to the output of this ﬁlter when the excitation is a Dirac function. The received
signal may thus be written as:
s(t) =
∞
−∞
e(t −τ)h(τ)dτ [2.9]
In most radio systems, the transmitted signal spreads over a frequency band
which is not centered around zero. A given signal x(t) may thus be represented
by its complex envelope γ
x
(t) deﬁned as:
x(t) = '
¸
γ
x
(t)e
j2πf
0
t
¸
[2.10]
where '¦¦ represents the real part of a complex number and f
0
represents
a given frequency in the considered band. The complex envelope γ
x
(t) is also
named the equivalent baseband term of x(t).
52 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
It can be shown that there are two ways of deﬁning the baseband ﬁlter
h
eq
(τ) equivalent to the passband ﬁlter h(τ) (cf. Appendix A):
h
eq1
(τ) =
1
2
γ
h
(τ)
h
eq2
(τ) = h(τ)e
−j2πf
0
τ
[2.11]
The three representations in Figure 2.4 are thus equivalent to observing
the channel eﬀect on the transmitted signal. In the remainder of this book, we
will use, unless otherwise stated, the channel impulse response in its complex
envelope form γ
h
(τ), which will be denoted h(τ) for the sake of simplicity.
h(τ)
h
eq1
(τ) =
1
2
γ
h
(τ)
h
eq2
(τ) = h(τ)e
−j2πf
0
τ
E
E
E
E
E
E
e(t)
γ
e
(t)
γ
e
(t)
s(t)
γ
s
(t)
γ
s
(t)
Figure 2.4. Equivalent representations of a static radiomobile channel
2.3.2. Characterization of deterministic channels
The representation of the radio channel in the form of an IR h(τ) is valid for
static channels only. In practice, the environment or the antenna position may
be modiﬁed, and hence the radio channel may vary with time. The IR h(t, τ)
is thus dependent on both time and delay. The inputs and outputs of a linear
ﬁlter may be described in the time domain or in the frequency domain. This
leads to a set of four transfer functions that may be used to describe the radio
channel [BEL 63]. Figure 2.5 illustrates the relations between these functions.
Radio Wave Propagation 53
h(t, τ)
T(f, t)
H(f, ν)
S(τ, ν)
timedelay
frequencytime
frequencyDoppler
delayDoppler
© d
d
d
d
d
d
ds
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
ds
©
T
−1
T
−1
T T
T T
T
−1
T
−1
Figure 2.5. Characteristic functions for a deterministic channel. Arrows represent a
Fourier transform (F) or an inverse Fourier transform (F
−1
)
2.3.2.1. The time varying impulse response
The function h(t, τ) is called the timevariant impulse response. It relates
the received signal s(t) to the transmitted signal e(t) according to the following
ﬁltering operation:
s(t) =
∞
−∞
e(t −τ)h(t, τ)dτ [2.12]
The magnitude of this impulse response may be observed to distinguish
between diﬀerent signal echoes according to their propagation delay. Equation
[2.12] thus provides a physical representation of the channel as a continuum
of scatterers that are ﬁxed – since their delay is constant – and scintillating –
which corresponds to the channel’s temporal evolution.
2.3.2.2. The frequency domain function
The function H(f, ν) is also called the output Dopplerspread function and
reﬂects the Doppler shift phenomenon caused by the channel. It is the dual
function of the function h(t, τ) in the frequencyDoppler shift space. It thus
54 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
relates the received signal spectrum S(f) to the transmitted signal spectrum
E(f) as follows:
S(f) =
∞
−∞
E(f −ν)H(f −ν, ν)dν [2.13]
Using this representation, the output signal spectrum S(f) is considered
as the sum of superimposed input signal spectrum replicas E(f), each replica
being Doppler shifted and ﬁltered.
2.3.2.3. The time varying transfer function
Another approach to characterizing the radio channel consists of describing
the relation between the time domain output signal s(t) to the input signal
spectrum E(f), using the time varying transfer function T(f, t):
s(t) =
∞
−∞
E(f)T(f, t)e
j2πft
df [2.14]
The function T(f, t) is related to the functions h(t, τ) and H(f, ν) through a
simple Fourier transform. If the bandwidth of the considered channel is narrow
enough, the timevariant transfer function may be directly measured using a
network analyzer.
2.3.2.4. The delayDoppler spread function
A ﬁnal approach consists of representing the radio channel in the
delayDoppler shift space. The corresponding function allows us to
simultaneously observe the channel dispersion in both the time domain and
the frequency domain. For this reason it is referred to as the delayDoppler
spread function. The function S(τ, ν) relates the output signal s(t) to the
input signal e(t) through the following relation:
s(t) =
∞
−∞
∞
−∞
e(t −τ)S(τ, ν)e
j2πνt
dνdτ [2.15]
Equation [2.15] represents the output signal s(t) as a sum of superimposed
replicas the input signal e(t), each replica being delayed and Dopplershifted.
The function S(τ, ν) is related to the functions h(t, τ) and H(f, ν) through a
simple Fourier transform.
2.3.3. Characterization of linear random channels
In practical situations, the propagation channel ﬂuctuations are due to a
number of superimposed phenomena, which cannot be measured individually.
Radio Wave Propagation 55
The radio channel variations may thus be regarded as a random process and it
is no longer valid to describe them deterministically. The propagation channel is
thus characterized in a statistical way. In practice, the statistical description of
the channel is limited to the second order, and we consider the autocorrelation
functions of the channel system functions only. These functions are deﬁned as
follows:
R
h
(t, u; τ, η) = E
h(t, τ)h
∗
(u, η)
R
H
(f, m; ν, μ) = E
H(f, ν)H
∗
(m, μ)
R
T
(f, m; t, u) = E
T(f, t)T
∗
(m, u)
R
S
(τ, η; ν, μ) = E
S(τ, ν)S
∗
(η, μ)
[2.16]
where E[] represents the mathematical expectation and ()
∗
represents the
complex conjugation operation.
These four autocorrelation functions are linked through double Fourier
transforms in a similar scheme to the one linking the channel system functions
(cf. Figure 2.5). The second order moments of the input and output signals
are then given by:
R
s
(t, u) =
∞
−∞
∞
−∞
e(t −τ)e
∗
(u −η)R
h
(t, u; τ, η)dτdη
R
es
(t, u) =
∞
−∞
R
e
(t, u −η)h(u, η)dη
[2.17]
The ﬁrst and second order moments are suﬃcient to completely describe
the output signal s(t) in the case of a Gaussian signal.
2.3.4. Channel classiﬁcation
The representation of the random radio channel may be simpliﬁed by
considering diﬀerent assumptions about the channel characteristics.
2.3.4.1. Wide sense stationary channels
A channel is considered as wide sense stationary (WSS) if its temporal (or
spatial) variation meets the statistical conditions of second order stationarity.
In other words, the expectation of the channel impulse response needs to be
invariant with time, and its autocorrelation R
h
(t, u; τ, η) will depend on the
56 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
variables t and u through the diﬀerence ξ = t − u only. In practice, these
conditions mean that the channel ﬂuctuation statistics are constant over a
short time interval ξ, which is a reasonable assumption for traditional channels
(e.g. indoor or urban environment). Under these conditions, the autocorrelation
functions of the timevariant impulse response and the timevariant transfer
function may be written as:
R
h
(t, t +ξ; τ, η) = R
h
(ξ; τ, η)
R
T
(f, m; t, t +ξ) = R
T
(f, m; ξ)
[2.18]
Considering the double Fourier transform relationship between R
h
(t, u; τ, η)
and R
S
(τ, η; ν, μ), and using ξ = t −u, this yields:
R
S
(τ, η; ν, μ) =
∞
−∞
∞
−∞
R
h
(t, u; τ, η)e
j2π(uμ−tν)
dtdu
= δ(ν −μ)
∞
−∞
R
h
(ξ; τ, η)e
−j2π(ξν)
dξ
= δ(ν −μ)P
S
(τ, η; ν)
[2.19]
where the term P
S
(τ, η; ν) may be identiﬁed as a power spectral density
obtained from R
h
(ξ; τ, η) by applying the WienerKinchine theorem.
This last relation indicates that the spectral content of the signal is
uncorrelated for diﬀerent Doppler shifts. Physically, this means that echoes
generating diﬀerent Doppler shifts are uncorrelated. Similarly, we may write
the autocorrelation of the frequency domain function as:
R
H
(f, m; ν, μ) = δ(ν −μ)P
H
(f, m; ν) [2.20]
2.3.4.2. Uncorrelated scattering channels
Under the uncorrelated scattering (US) assumption, we consider that the
contributions from elemental scatterers corresponding to diﬀerent delays are
uncorrelated. This condition is equivalent to an assumption of second order
stationarity in the frequency domain. As in the WSS case, we may simplify the
autocorrelation functions of the frequency domain function and the timevariant
transfer function as follows (and noting by Ω the frequency diﬀerence m−f):
R
H
(f, f + Ω; ν, μ) = R
H
(Ω; ν, μ)
R
T
(f, f + Ω; t, u) = R
T
(Ω; t, u)
[2.21]
Radio Wave Propagation 57
The timevariant impulse response and the delayDoppler spread function
may be rewritten in the form of power spectral densities:
R
h
(t, u; τ, η) = δ(η −τ)P
h
(t, u; τ)
R
S
(τ, η; ν, μ) = δ(η −τ)P
S
(τ; ν, μ)
[2.22]
2.3.4.3. Wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering channels
A wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) channel follows
both the WSS and US assumptions. It corresponds to the simplest class of
channels, which presents an uncorrelated spread in both the delay domain and
the Doppler shift domain. In this case, the autocorrelation functions of the four
channel system functions may be simpliﬁed as follows:
R
h
(t, t +ξ; τ, η) = δ(η −τ)P
h
(ξ; τ)
R
H
(f, f + Ω; ν, μ) = δ(ν −μ)P
H
(Ω; ν)
R
T
(f, f + Ω; t, t +ξ) = R
T
(Ω; ξ)
R
S
(τ, η; ν, μ) = δ(η −τ)δ(ν −μ)P
S
(τ; ν)
[2.23]
Figure 2.6 illustrates the simple Fourier transform relationships linking the
four autocorrelation functions for a WSSUS channel.
Two of the obtained functions are of particular interest. The function
P
S
(τ; ν) is called a scattering function. It physically represents the Doppler
spectrum of radio wave paths as a function of their propagation delay.
For ergodic signals, the function P
h
(ξ; τ) may be written as:
P
h
(ξ; τ) = E
h(t +ξ, τ)h
∗
(t, τ)
= lim
T→∞
1
T
T
2
−
T
2
h(t +ξ, τ)h
∗
(t, τ)dt
[2.24]
Hence, the term P
h
(0, τ) corresponds to the temporal average of the impulse
response power. This function is called the power delay proﬁle (PDP).
In practice, it is generally assumed that observed channels fall under the
WSSUS assumption. For measured channels, it is sometimes necessary to
58 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
P
h
(ξ, τ)
R
T
(Ω, ξ)
P
H
(Ω, ν)
P
S
(τ, ν)
timedelay
frequencytime
Dopplerfrequency
delayDoppler
© d
d
d
d
d
d
ds
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
ds
©
T
−1
T
−1
T T
T T
T
−1
T
−1
Figure 2.6. Autocorrelation functions of a WSSUS random channel
conﬁrm this postulation. A thorough discussion about the validation of the
WSSUS assumption for experimental measurements has been published in
[BUL 02]. In particular, the RUN method is based on assessments of the
process variance over successive subintervals [BEN 66].
2.4. Channel characteristic parameters
In order to evaluate the characteristics of a propagation channel, a set
of measured impulse responses need to be analyzed. This section presents
a number of parameters describing diﬀerent aspects of the radio channel.
In general, their computation requires the WSSUS assumption. As it is not
practically feasible to collect a set of statistical channel realizations, we
generally assume that the channel system functions are ergodic. Hence, it
is for instance possible to approximate the statistical expectation using a
temporal (or spatial) average over a set of successive measurements.
2.4.1. Frequency selectivity
Frequency selectivity is characterized by the presence of multiple paths,
particularly observable on the channel’s impulse response. The power
repartition as a function of the delay is given by the PDP, deﬁned by equation
Radio Wave Propagation 59
[2.24]. In order to mitigate the local eﬀects of fast channel fading, the PDP is
calculated from a set of M impulse responses, successively measured over a
path length in the order of 20–40 wavelengths [LEE 85]. This calculation is
valid under the stationarity assumption. The following equation presents the
PDP calculation:
P
h
(0, τ) =
1
M
M
¸
m=1
h
t
m
, τ
2
[2.25]
2.4.1.1. RMS delay spread
The root mean squared (RMS) delay spread τ
RMS
, sometimes simply
referred to as delay spread, represents the standard deviation of the PDP. It is
calculated as follows:
τ
RMS
=
∞
−∞
τ −τ
m
2
P
h
(0, τ)dτ
∞
−∞
P
h
(0, τ)dτ
[2.26]
where τ
m
is the mean delay given by:
τ
m
=
∞
−∞
τP
h
(0, τ)dτ
∞
−∞
P
h
(0, τ)dτ
[2.27]
2.4.1.2. Coherence bandwidth
The RMS delay spread is a signiﬁcant parameter for the analysis of the
intersymbol interference. It is also closely linked to the correlation between the
diﬀerent frequencies of the signal spectrum. In order to quantify this frequency
dependence, the n% coherence bandwidth is deﬁned from the autocorrelation
of the channel transfer function R
T
(Ω, ξ):
B
c,n%
= min
Ω :
R
T
(Ω, 0)
R
T
(0, 0)
=
n
100
[2.28]
The function R
T
(Ω, 0) is referred to as the frequency correlation function
and is obtained from the PDP P
h
(0, τ) by a simple Fourier transform. The
coherence bandwidth is thus the frequency lag above which the frequency
autocorrelation function crosses a given threshold. Thresholds generally given
in the literature are 90% and 50% [BAR 95].
60 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Ĳ
0
Ĳ
2
Ĳ
3
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
m
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Noise level
Delay (ns) Ĳ
1
q% of the total energy
Figure 2.7. Power delay proﬁle deﬁning the delay window
2.4.1.3. Delay window and delay interval
Two other parameters are also used to give a more precise idea of the PDP
spread [COS 89]. The q% delay window is the duration of the central part of
the PDP containing q% of the total energy. Referring to the delays represented
in Figure 2.7, the delay window is given by:
W
q%
=
τ
2
−τ
1
q%
[2.29]
The delays τ
1
and τ
2
are deﬁned by:
τ
2
τ
1
P
h
(0, τ)dτ =
q
100
τ
3
τ
0
P
h
(0, τ)dτ [2.30]
and the energy which is outside the window is split into two equal parts. The
delays τ
0
and τ
3
are the delays at which the PDP ﬁrst rises and ﬁnally falls
through the signal noise level.
The p dB delay interval refers to a threshold positioned at p dB below the
maximum of the PDP. It simply corresponds to the interval from the ﬁrst delay
at which the PDP exceeds this threshold to the last delay at which it falls below
this threshold.
Radio Wave Propagation 61
2.4.1.4. Exponential decay constants
A number of analyses of the UWB radio propagation channel agree on
a representation of the impulse response in the form of a discrete sum of
individual contributions. Each contribution, known as ray, corresponds to a
propagation path and is characterized by its distinct delay and amplitude.
This representation is widely used for wideband channels [HAS 93]. In order to
account for the possible presence of ray clusters, this discrete impulse response
is represented using the formalism proposed by Saleh and Valenzuela [SAL 87]:
h(t, τ) =
L(t)
¸
l=1
K
l
(t)
¸
k=1
β
k,l
(t)e
jθ
k,l
(t)
δ
τ −T
l
(t) −τ
k,l
(t)
[2.31]
where L(t) is the number of clusters, K
l
(t) is the number of rays in the l
th
cluster, and T
l
(t) is the arrival time of the l
th
cluster. Parameters β
k,l
(t),
θ
k,l
(t) and τ
k,l
(t) respectively represent the magnitude, the phase and the
arrival time associated with the k
th
ray within the l
th
cluster. Theoretically,
all these parameters vary with time. Deﬁning the PDP from a set of
measurements according to equation [2.25], and assuming that the delay of
each ray is approximately constant during the measurements, the Saleh and
Valenzuela formalism yields the following formula:
P
h
(0, τ) =
L
¸
l=1
K
l
¸
k=1
β
2
k,l
δ
τ −T
l
−τ
k,l
[2.32]
As shown in Figure 2.8, the magnitude of the PDP rays generally follows
a decay which is close to an exponential function. This exponential decay may
be observed at both the cluster level and the ray level within a single cluster.
The inter and intracluster exponential decay constants, respectively denoted
Γ and γ, are thus deﬁned so that the magnitude of the rays obeys the following
rule:
β
2
k,l
= β
2
1.1
e
−
T
l
−T
1
Γ
e
−
τ
k,l
γ
[2.33]
These constants may be retrieved from measurements by applying a linear
least squares ﬁtting procedure on the PDP represented in dB.
2.4.1.5. Cluster and ray arrival rates
Without more accurate knowledge about the environment, it is generally
assumed that ray arrivals correspond to independent events, and that the
number of these events is dependent on the observation duration only. By
62 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
T
1
T
2
T
3
Ĳ
k1
Ĳ
k2
Ĳ
k3
Delay (ns)
P
o
w
e
r
(
m
W
)
e
Ĳ/ī
e
Ĳ/Ȗ
e
Ĳ/Ȗ
Cluster
e
Ĳ/Ȗ
Figure 2.8. Power delay proﬁle following the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism
deﬁnition, the ray – or cluster – arrivals may reasonably be regarded as a
Poisson process. In the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism, it is thus proposed that
the arrival probability for a new cluster or a new ray follows an exponential
law, with respective parameters Λ and λ. Parameters Λ and λ are respectively
called cluster and ray arrival rates, and the numbers
1
Λ
and
1
λ
represent the
mean duration between two successive clusters or rays. These parameters are
assessed by studying the intercluster and interray duration distributions.
2.4.2. Propagation loss
When expressed in dB, equation [2.3] corresponding to the Friis formula for
free space propagation is written:
PL(f, d) = 20 log
4πfd
c
−G
T
(f) −G
R
(f) [2.34]
where PL(f, d) represents the ratio between the transmitted power and the
received power.
The slow variations of the propagation channel are mainly due to
propagation loss and shadowing eﬀect. For a practical channel, in order to
Radio Wave Propagation 63
characterize the double frequency and distance dependence of the path loss,
the parameter PL(f, d) is approximated by the following formula:
PL(f, d) = PL
f
0
, d
0
+ 10N
f
log
f
f
0
+ 10N
d
log
d
d
0
+S(f, d) [2.35]
where f
0
and d
0
correspond to an arbitrary frequency and an arbitrary
distance.
4
N
f
and N
d
are called frequency and distance dependent path loss
exponents. Parameter N
d
accounts for the interactions between the radio wave
and the environment, such as the transmission phenomenon or the waveguide
eﬀect, and can signiﬁcantly diﬀer from the theoretical value N
d
= 2. Parameter
N
f
accounts for the frequency dependence of the propagation phenomena,
and also includes the variations of the eﬀective area for an ideal isotropic
antenna. By considering the propagation channel without antennas in a LOS
situation, this parameter should be close to its theoretical value N
f
= 2. Some
authors consider antennas as a part of the propagation channel; in this case,
additional variations of the parameter N
f
may be observed, which is linked to
the measurement antenna gain. Finally, the term S(f, d) corresponds to the
slow variations of the propagation channel. As the parameters N
f
and N
d
are
calculated by linear regression, the parameter S(f, d) presents a zero average.
When expressed in dB, this variable is generally considered as Gaussian, and
it is characterized by its standard deviation σ
S
.
In order to calculate the parameter N
f
from measurements, we introduce the
power transfer function P
T
(f), equivalent to the PDP P
h
(0, τ) in the frequency
domain. This takes the average received power as a function of frequency for a
number of locally measured transfer functions:
P
T
(f) =
1
M
M
¸
m=1
T
f, t
m
2
[2.36]
2.4.3. Fast fading
The fast fading of the propagation channel corresponds to the magnitude
ﬂuctuations in the received signal. It may be assessed for a narrowband signal
or for a given delay in the case of a wideband signal. Mathematically, it is
characterized by the statistical law of the random variable [h(t, τ)[ for a
given τ. In practice, we study a set of samples [h(t
m
, τ)[ corresponding to M
measurements taken at close locations (or in a timevariant environment),
4. We may use the central frequency in the considered band for f
0
, and the distance
d
0
is generally 1 m.
64 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
while verifying that the channel stationarity condition holds. The distributions
generally used to assess fast fading include Rayleigh, Rice, Nakagami,
Weibull, and lognormal laws (cf. Appendix B). In order to select a speciﬁc
theoretical distribution, a goodnessofﬁt test is employed, such as the
KolmogorovSmirnov test (cf. Appendix B.2).
Some useful tools also exist to characterize the temporal behavior of a signal.
The level crossing rate consists of determining the frequency at which the signal
magnitude decreases below a given threshold. The average fade duration is an
estimate of the time during which the signal magnitude stays below a given
threshold [PAR 00].
2.4.4. Spectral analysis
Another way to characterize temporal variations in the channel consists of
studying the Doppler spectrum for the main impulse response paths. These
spectra may be observed on the scattering function P
S
(τ, ν). In order to
characterize the channel variations independently of the delay, we use the
mean Doppler spectrum deﬁned as:
P
H
(0, ν) =
∞
−∞
P
S
(τ, ν)dτ [2.37]
As in the PDP case, we may deﬁne the Doppler spread as:
ν
RMS
=
∞
−∞
ν −ν
m
2
P
H
(0, ν)dν
∞
−∞
P
H
(0, ν)dν
[2.38]
where ν
m
is the mean Doppler shift deﬁned by:
ν
m
=
∞
−∞
νP
H
(0, ν)dν
∞
−∞
P
H
(0, ν)dν
[2.39]
As explained earlier (section 2.2.3.3), the Doppler spectrum is closely linked
to the arrival direction of the multiple propagation paths. Parameters such as
the angular spectrum may be used to characterize the signal’s departure and
arrival directions. This is of particular interest for MIMO applications [COS 04].
2.5. Conclusion
In order to design and optimize wireless communication systems, an accurate
knowledge of the radio propagation channel is required. The performance of a
Radio Wave Propagation 65
wireless transmission system is indeed dictated by the propagation conditions
between the transmitter and the receiver. These devices need to be designed in
order to beneﬁt from the channel characteristics and to mitigate its negative
eﬀects.
In this chapter, the propagation channel characteristics have been presented
in terms of power attenuation and multipath propagation. The spatial and
frequency selectivity concepts as well as the Doppler eﬀect were introduced.
Multipath propagation may be regarded as a ﬁlter causing a distortion and a
temporal variation to the transmitted signal. A mathematical framework was
presented in order to describe both deterministic and random channels. For
this, the particular case of WSSUS channels has been thoroughly discussed.
A number of parameters are available to characterize the propagation
phenomena. We generally model the propagation loss with respect to
frequency and distance, the channel impulse response’s general shape and its
variations in terms of fast fading. The physical concepts and mathematical
tools presented in this chapter will serve as a basis to describe the simulation
and modeling techniques detailed in Chapters 4 and 5.
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Chapter 3
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding
3.1. Introduction
Experimental characterization of the radio channel requires the analysis
of a large number of propagation measurements. In order to set up a
measurement campaign, a large number of sounding techniques are available
[GUI 99]. Selecting one method or the other depends on the measurement
environment, on the observed frequency band, and on the acquisition speed
constraints.
Sounding UWB channels raises some particular issues, which are developed
in this chapter. The diﬀerent sounding methods for wideband channels are
then exposed, by distinguishing between frequency domain and time domain
techniques. In order to observe the UWB channel ﬂuctuations in more detail,
it is necessary to employ a real time measurement technique. For this purpose,
we present an advanced sounding technique, exploiting the performances of a
wideband, singleinput multipleoutput (SIMO) sounder.
The end of the chapter illustrates the diﬀerent channel sounding techniques
by presenting a few measurement campaigns. First, the most signiﬁcant UWB
channel measurement campaigns are listed. For each experiment, the equipment
and the measurement conditions are described. We then present the setting up
of a sounding campaign through a few examples.
3.2. Speciﬁcity of UWB channel sounding
The purpose of channel sounding is to measure the impulse response
h(t, τ) linking the received signal s(t) to the transmitted signal e(t) through
68 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
a ﬁltering operation (see equation [2.9]). Such measurements characterize
both the frequency selectivity and the time variability of the channel. In
practice, there is no inverse convolution operation available, that would allow
for the extraction of the impulse response from arbitrary signals e(t) and s(t).
However, a number of techniques using speciﬁc exciting signals e(t) may be
used, where the impulse response is obtained by processing the signals e(t)
and s(t). The transmitted signal needs to fulﬁll some properties depending on
the method used for calculating the impulse response.
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
m
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Delay (ns) Delay (ns)
Delay (ns)
Convolution
Sounder impulse
response
Channel impulse
response over an infinite
bandwidth
Measured impulse
response Unresolved
path
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
m
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
m
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
Figure 3.1. Time resolution of a wideband sounder
The main characteristics of a wideband sounder are the following:
• Analyzed bandwidth: the analyzed bandwidth corresponds to the
frequency band over which the impulse response is estimated. It generally
corresponds to the bandwidth of the transmitted probe signal. Propagation
channel measurements over bandwidths in the order of 100 MHz is well
supported by the currently available sounders [GUI 99]. In the case of UWB
signals, the bandwidth of several GHz may represent a challenge for channel
measurements.
• Time resolution: the time resolution characterizes the sounder’s
capability to distinguish between two paths with very close delays. The
impulse response estimated by the sounder corresponds to a convolution
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 69
between the channel impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth and the
sounder’s impulse response over the analyzed band (see Figure 3.1). The
latter may be obtained by directly cableconnecting the transmitter and the
receiver. The time resolution is generally deﬁned as half the width of the
sounder impulse response peak. As an approximation, it may also be deﬁned
as the inverse of the analyzed bandwidth. In order to avoid the shadowing of
some paths by the side lobes of the sounder impulse response, a weighting
window may be applied [HAR 78]. Such a window is selected as a compromise
between the level of the side lobes and the width of the main lobe.
• Maximum Doppler shift: when the propagation channel varies with time,
we can measure its frequency dispersion by studying its Doppler spectrum (see
section 2.4.4). For this purpose, the sounder needs to be able to quickly measure
successive impulse responses. The measurement repetition duration ΔT
(meas)
is deﬁned as the duration separating two successive channel measurements. It
encompasses the measurement acquisition duration t
(meas)
and some time for
data processing and storage. It is then possible to measure a maximum absolute
Doppler shift ν
(meas)
max
=
1
2ΔT
(meas)
. However, it should be noted that during the
measurement of a single impulse response, the channel should be considered as
static. Thus, a sounder capable of measuring the time varying channel needs
to present a very low acquisition duration t
(meas)
.
• Dynamic and length of the channel impulse response: the impulse
response dynamic corresponds to the power ratio between the maximum
impulse response and the noise level. A high dynamic allows the sounder to
detect strongly attenuated paths. The length of the channel’s impulse response
corresponds to the maximum delay that can be measured.
In the case of the UWB propagation channel, the time resolution is generally
high, due to the wide analyzed bandwidth. Consequently, developing UWB
sounders with a low measurement duration is a challenging task.
Some constraints are common in UWB channels, because of the wide
measured frequency band. Over an analyzed bandwidth of several GHz, the
behavior of the sounding equipment may vary strongly, and this needs to
be accounted for in the measurement process. In particular, the antennas
characteristics need to be stable across the measured frequency band.
Narrowband antennas (dipoles, horns, etc.) and dispersive wideband antennas
(spiral and logperiodical antennas, etc.) may thus not be used for this purpose
[SCH 03a]. In practice, biconical, monoconical or planar UWB antennas are
70 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
used. Some examples of these antennas are given in Figure 3.2. In any case, it
is necessary to properly characterize the antennas used for the measurement
[SIB 04]. The properties of some other pieces of equipment, such as cables or
ampliﬁers, may also vary in frequency, and it is important to characterize each
item accurately before the measurement.
Ideal biconical
antenna
Biconical
antenna
Bowtie planar
antenna
Monoconical
antenna
Figure 3.2. UWB measurement antennas
Finally, a UWB receiver is sensitive to any radio emission at frequencies
near or within the analyzed frequency band. Before the measurement starts,
we need to make sure that the analyzed radio spectrum is free of any jamming
from external systems. Outofband emissions, such as the GSM and WiFi
signals, should also be ﬁltered. This can be done using a highpass ﬁlter. This
ﬁlter should be taken into account during the calibration phase in order not to
aﬀect the measured signal.
3.3. Measurement techniques for UWB channel sounding
This section presents the main UWB radio channel measurement methods:
frequency domain methods and time domain methods. For each method, the
basic principles are presented, and the advantages and drawbacks of this
method are detailed. We ﬁnally present an innovative hybrid method for the
real time measurement of UWB channels.
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 71
3.3.1. Frequency domain techniques
The frequency domain method is the most commonly used UWB channel
sounding technique, on account of its ease of implementation. It consists of
sampling the channel transfer function T(f, t). This is done by transmitting a
narrowband signal at a ﬁxed frequency, and by measuring the attenuation and
the relative phase of the received signal [GUI 99]. In practice, the analyzed band
is divided into N samples separated by a frequency step Δf
(meas)
. The impulse
response is obtained using an inverse Fourier transform along the frequency
axis.
The obtained time resolution
1
is:
R
(meas)
t
=
1
NΔf
(meas)
[3.1]
and the length of the channel impulse response is:
τ
(meas)
max
=
N −1
NΔf
(meas)
[3.2]
3.3.1.1. Vector network analyzer
The tool best suited to characterizing the channel using a frequency
sweeping method is the vector network analyzer (VNA). This device is
generally used to characterize high frequency quadripoles through the
measurement of Sparameters. For the purpose of channel sounding, port 1 is
connected to the transmitting antenna and port 2 is connected to the receiving
antenna. The channel transfer function is derived from parameter S
21
(f).
In general, a sine signal is used to sweep the analyzed band. The received
signal is downconverted towards an intermediate frequency (IF), where it
is passband ﬁltered around a ﬁxed frequency and analyzed. Hence, this
device is capable of sweeping a very wide frequency band. Using narrowband
ﬁlters at the receiver leads to a very good measurement dynamic, but also
increases the overall measurement duration. In addition, the measurement of
the transfer function phase requires a very good synchronization between the
local oscillators (LO) at the transmitter and at the receiver. Figure 3.3 gives a
schematic view of this device.
1. This time resolution is calculated without applying any frequency domain
windowing.
72 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
LO
S
21
measurement
at IF
LO
Propagation
channel
Reference
signal
Analysis
and storage
Figure 3.3. Propagation measurement using a frequency domain sounder
This technique oﬀers advantages in terms of bandwidth and dynamic.
As a result, it has been frequently used for the purpose of UWB channel
sounding [GUN 00, OPS 01, GHA 02a, CHE 02, KEI 02, HOV 02, KUN 02a,
GHA 03b, BUE 03, DAB 03, ALV 03, CHA 04, SCH 04, BAL 04a, KAR 04b,
JAM 04, CHO 04b, CAS 04a, HAN 05]. However, the measurement duration
is proportional to the number of measured frequency tones. For an analyzed
bandwidth of several GHz, the measurement duration is in the order of 10
seconds. Hence, this technique cannot be used for time varying channels.
When conducting VNAbased measurements, we should thus ensure that the
environment remains static for the measurement duration. In addition, the
distance from transmitter to receiver is limited to approximately 20 m, due to
power attenuation in the feeding cables.
3.3.1.2. Chirp sounder
A chirp sounder is a frequency domain method providing a solution to the
issue of acquisition duration. Indeed, the sounding signal is no longer a pure sine
wave, but a frequency chirp. Such a signal is generated using digital frequency
synthesis components [COS 04].
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 73
This frequency chirp may be characterized by the sequence duration T
c
and
the covered frequency range B
c
, as illustrated in Figure 3.4. For a B
c
T
c
product
larger than 100, over 98% of the energy is conﬁned in the analyzed bandwidth
B
c
.
The channel impulse response may be calculated either by matched
ﬁltering or using a heterodyne receiver and a lowpass ﬁlter. In the ﬁrst case,
the impulse response of the matched ﬁlter corresponds to a time reversed
version of the emitted chirp signal [ART 95]. The channel impulse response
is directly obtained at the output of the matched ﬁlter. In the case of a
heterodyne reception, the output of the lowpass ﬁlter provides the channel
transfer function, represented on a compact frequency band. Its bandwidth
depends on the parameters B
c
and T
c
[COS 04]. The signal acquisition may
thus be performed at a reduced sampling frequency. However, generating
a chirp signal with a bandwidth larger than a few hundred MHz is still a
challenging task. For this reason, chirp sounders have not yet been used for
UWB channel sounding.
Time Time
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
T
c
B
c
Frequency
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
B
c
T
c
> 98%
energy
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Figure 3.4. Chirp signal
3.3.2. Time domain techniques
The common characteristic of all time domain techniques is the use of a
wideband excitation signal at the emitter. This way, the receiver processes
the whole frequency band simultaneously, which drastically reduces the
measurement duration. This section presents the most common time domain
methods, and in particular those that have been used for UWB channel
sounding.
3.3.2.1. Pulsed techniques
The pulsed technique is mathematically the most straightforward
time domain measurement method. Indeed, if the transmitted signal e(t)
corresponds to a Dirac pulse, the received signal s(t) is directly proportional
to the channel impulse response h(t, τ). However, such a Dirac pulse would
present an inﬁnite ﬂat spectrum and is not physically implementable. In
74 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
practice, we use pulse generators enabling the emission of short signals with a
duration Δt in the order of 100 picoseconds. Denoting by Π
Δt
(t) the emitted
pulse, the received signal is given by:
s(t) = h(t, τ) ⊗Π
Δt
(t) [3.3]
and represents a close approximation of the channel impulse response.
At the receiver, a very fast acquisition of the signal is necessary. A digital
sampling oscilloscope (DSO) is generally used, with sampling rates up to
20 Gsamples.s
1
. Other types of receivers are also implemented: for instance,
a correlation receiver has been developed by the company Time Domain
[YAN 02].
This technique is particularly interesting for the measurement of UWB
channels. Indeed, pulse generators capable of emitting directly in the FCC
frequency band (3.1–10.6 GHz) are now available. Generally, UWB sounders
based on this principle do not require an upconverter stage, which simpliﬁes the
experimental setup. It should be noted, though, that the signals synthesized by
the current pulse generators are limited to a maximum bandwidth of 1–2 GHz,
with an upper frequency limited to 5 GHz. Hence, only parts of the FCC band
may be measured using a direct pulse generator technique. In order to sound
the upper part of the FCC spectrum, it is possible to add an upconverter stage,
composed of an LO and a mixer at both the transmitter and the receiver. This
solution is presented as a dashed line in Figure 3.5.
The main advantage of the pulsed sounding technique is its low acquisition
duration, the channel impulse response being recorded in real time. This
technique should thus be selected for the measurement of space or time
channel variations. However, this method also presents a number of drawbacks.
Firstly, generating short duration pulses requires the ampliﬁers to deliver
a high power directly followed by idle periods. The resulting low average
power leads to a poor signal to noise ratio, and this method is not suited
to large distances in NLOS conﬁgurations. Secondly, the power dynamic at
the ampliﬁer stage does not allow for an accurate control of the pulse shape.
Finally, this technique requires a perfect synchronization between the emitter
and the receiver, which may be solved by connecting the terminals using a
cable.
The attractive simplicity of this solution led a number of scientists to use
this method for UWB channel sounding, but with a sounded frequency band
generally below the FCC band [WIN 97a, WIN 97b, GUN 00, OPS 01, CHE 02,
YAN 02, TER 03, LI 03]. Two measurement programs have been established
using this technique within the 3.1–10.6 GHz band [PEN 02, BUE 03].
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 75
LO
DSO
LO
Propagation
channel
Reference
signal
Analysis
and storage
Pulse
generator
0°
90°
Q I
Synchronization
Figure 3.5. Propagation measurement using a pulsed technique
3.3.2.2. Correlation measurements
A possible way to increase the signal to noise ratio at the receiver is to use
the autocorrelation properties of pseudonoise (PN) sequences. Let R
ee
(t) and
R
es
(t) respectively denote the input signal autocorrelation and the correlation
function of the input signal e(t) with the output signal s(t). According to the
convolution and correlation function properties, these functions are also linked
by a convolution equation:
R
es
(t) = h(t, τ) ⊗R
ee
(t) [3.4]
If the input signal is close to a white noise, its autocorrelation function is
close to a Dirac pulse. In this case, the identiﬁcation problem is similar to the
one occurring in the pulsed technique. In practice, we use maximum length PN
sequences, also called msequences. This corresponds to a good approximation
of a colored noise with zero mean and limited bandwidth. An msequence may
76 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
be generated using a shift register with m bits and an adder, which results in
a sequence of length 2
m
−1. Its autocorrelation function presents a theoretical
dynamic of 20 log(2
m
− 1) dB. In the frequency domain, the −3 dB analyzed
bandwidth is equal to the clock frequency f
c
used at the PN sequence generator.
At the transmitter, a correlation sounder is thus composed of a PN sequence
generator and an upconverter stage towards the working frequency. Typically,
wideband correlation sounders transmit signals in the order of 100 MHz. For
UWB channel sounding, the frequency band may be widened by increasing the
clock frequency, but the sounder implementation becomes more complex. The
University of Ilmenau, Germany, presented a MIMO UWB sounder working in
the 0.8–5 GHz frequency band [SAC 02]. For this purpose, an integrated circuit
shift register has been speciﬁcally developed.
At the receiver, once the received signal has been downconverted in
baseband, several acquisition techniques may be used. The ﬁrst consists of
using an analog ﬁlter matching the transmitted PN sequence. This principle
enables the measurement of the impulse response in real time. However,
the analyzed bandwidth is limited by the passband of the ﬁlter, and the
measurement dynamic is low. Another technique consists of sampling the
received signal and computing the convolution function using digital ﬁlters.
The maximum analyzed bandwidth is then limited by the speed of the
analogtodigital converters. This solution is presented in Figure 3.6. It has
been used by the University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy, to sound the
3.6–6 GHz band [DUR 04]. The receiver was simply composed of a DSO.
Time domain correlation sounders present the advantages of a high
impulse response dynamic, and a possible functioning in real time. Their
implementation is however complex, and the quality of the measured impulse
response largely depends on the performance of the sounder components.
In particular, an accurate synchronization between the transmitter and the
receiver is necessary. This may be achieved using a stable reference (e.g. a
rubidium oscillator) or a direct cable connection between the two terminals.
Sliding correlation technique
The sliding correlation sounder is a similar technique that proceeds the
convolution operation in the analog domain while increasing the measurement
dynamic. The convolution is performed using a replica of the original PN
sequence with a clock frequency f
c2
slightly diﬀerent from the initial clock
frequency f
c1
. This leads to a time domain sliding of the PN sequences with
respect to each other. Hence, using an integrator, one point of the correlation
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 77
OL
Fast acquisition
OL
Propagation
channel
Reference
signal
Analysis
and storage
Arbitrary
sequence
generator
(e.g. shift
register)
0°
90°
Q I
Synchronization
Correlation
or inversion
Figure 3.6. Propagation measurement using a PN sequence. The illustrated
acquisition technique consists of digitizing the received signal
prior to convolution processing
function between the transmitted signal and the received signal is calculated
at each instant.
The obtained impulse response is expanded by a ratio k =
f
c1
f
c2
−f
c1
in
the time domain and compressed by a ratio k in the frequency domain.
This compression enables the use of narrower ﬁlters at the receiver, which
improves the dynamic. In addition, a lower sampling rate may be used for the
analogtodigital conversion.
This technique has been used by the University of Kyoto Sangyo (Japan)
to develop a UWB sounder operating in the 5.5–8.5 GHz frequency band
[TAK 01]. The main drawback of this technique is the duration of the impulse
response calculation, which precludes any Doppler analysis of fast time varying
channels.
78 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
3.3.2.3. Inversion techniques
Inversion techniques are based on the transmission of an arbitrary sequence
and are thus similar to correlation sounding techniques (see Figure 3.6). The
main diﬀerence lies in the impulse response estimation, which is performed
using an estimation ﬁlter. Filtering is generally applied in the digital domain
after the acquisition of the analog signal. The used ﬁlter minimizes the squared
error between the impulse response and the estimated response. In particular,
such a ﬁlter accounts for the imperfections of the measurement device.
The inversion technique is notably used in the sounder developed at France
Telecom Research and Development [CON 03]. It uses a Wiener ﬁlter, with a
frequency spectrum given by:
G
Wiener
(f) =
E
∗
(f)I
∗
(f)
[E(f)I(f)[
2
+α
[3.5]
where E(f) represents the transmitted signal spectrum, I(f) represents the
sounder response spectrum, and α is a nonzero constant linked to the signal
to noise ratio [BAR 95].
As a main advantage, the inversion technique improves the impulse
response calculation by accounting for the imperfections of the sounder
components. The used PN sequence is optimized in order to spread over
a wide band with a relatively constant envelope. The limitations of this
technique are directly linked to the performances of the digitaltoanalog and
analogtodigital converters. In particular, the analyzed bandwidth is in the
order of a few hundred MHz.
For the sake of comparison, Table 3.1 presents the main advantages and
drawbacks of the presented frequency domain and time domain techniques.
3.3.3. Multipleband time domain sounder for dynamic channels
Classical frequency or time domain sounding techniques are not intrinsically
well adapted to the measurement of time varying UWB channels. On the
one hand, frequency domain techniques lead to a long measurement duration.
On the other hand, time domain techniques are fast enough to enable the
measurement of time varying channels, but their implementation within the
FCC band is challenging. This section presents a hybrid solution consisting
of using a wideband time domain sounder and successively measuring several
adjacent partial bands. This principle was initially exploited by the University
of Kassel (Germany). They developed a sounder capable of measuring a channel
of 600 MHz divided into 10 partial bands of 60 MHz, with a measurement
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 79
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80 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
repetition duration of 300 μs [KAT 00]. In the following, we present the diﬀerent
issues linked to the development of such a sounder, and we illustrate how it can
be implemented on the basis of a wideband SIMO sounder [PAJ 03].
3.3.3.1. Principle of multipleband time domain sounding
The technique of multipleband time domain sounding exploits the
performance of a time domain sounder, such as the sounder developed by
France Telecom Research & Development. In its standard version, this sounder
allows for the measurement of 250 MHz frequency bands. At the upconverter
stage, an LO signal is responsible for the upconversion of the transmitted
sequence towards the analyzed band. By appropriately driving this LO signal,
it is possible to sound several adjacent bands. The diﬀerent challenges are the
following:
• Analyzed band: the number of measured partial bands determines the
width of the global analyzed band. At both the transmitter the receiver, the
global analyzed band needs to be ﬁltered and cleared from any interfering
signal, such as the LO signal and its harmonics.
• Measurement repetition duration: in an indoor conﬁguration, the
maximum speed of mobile terminals is about 2 m.s
−1
. Considering an extreme
case, i.e. a mobile terminal and a maximum frequency of 10.6 GHz, the
maximum Doppler shift is
v
λ
= 70 Hz. This maximum Doppler shift increases
to
2v
λ
= 140 Hz if we consider mobile scatterers, taking into account the paths
with one reﬂection as signiﬁcant paths. Thus, to characterize time varying
channels, the equipment has to sample the channel every 3.5 ms. This time
includes the necessary switching from one band to another, which needs to be
synchronized with the transmitted sequence.
• Calibration: when measuring adjacent bands, a simple process needs to be
set up for an accurate calibration of the sounder in terms of phase, magnitude
and absolute delay, for each of the adjacent bands.
• Measurement dynamic: when working as a multipleband sounder, the
dynamic performance of the original wideband sounder needs to be preserved,
in order to obtain a reliable result.
These diﬀerent issues are similar to those occurring when characterizing
the wideband channel with multiple antennas at the receiver, in a SIMO
conﬁguration. A SIMO sounder may thus be easily adapted to perform
multipleband time domain sounding. For a better understanding, the next
section reviews the general structure of the SIMO sounder available at France
Telecom. A further description of this sounder is available in [CON 03].
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 81
3.3.3.2. Description of the SIMO channel sounder
The sounder developed at France Telecom Research & Development is a
time domain sounder allowing for radio channel measurement over diﬀerent
frequency bands between 2 GHz and 60 GHz. The sounding method is the
Wiener inversion technique, applied on a PN sequence exhibiting a ﬂat
spectrum over the analyzed bandwidth. For frequency bands below 17 GHz,
a multiple sensor mode enables the simultaneous measurement of the radio
channel over 10 receiving antennas.
In terms of performance, the sensitivity of this sounder is about −85 dBm.
The impulse response dynamic depends on the length of the PN sequence, the
signal to noise ratio at the sounder input, and the oscillator phase noise. For a
received signal of about −60 dBm over a band of 250 MHz around 5 GHz and
a sequence of 8192 samples, the measurement dynamic is larger than 40 dB.
Figure 3.7 presents a simpliﬁed block diagram of the receiver. To repeat the
measurement as quickly as possible, a fast switch selects the following antenna
every other sequence. The ﬁrst PN sequence is used for the measurement,
while the antennas switch during the next PN sequence. The signal is then
ampliﬁed using a wideband (3–18 GHz) low noise ampliﬁer (LNA). It is then
passband ﬁltered around the RF carrier frequency. A ﬁrst downconverter
stage driven by an external frequency synthesizer displaces the signal around
an IF at 1.5 GHz. Automatic gain control (AGC) is then applied using variable
attenuators to compensate for the power variations in the received signal.
AGC is regularly performed, before the measurement of the signal received
by the diﬀerent sensors. Thus, the AGC duration limits the measurement
repetition duration. In a traditional conﬁguration with 10 antennas, the
minimum repetition duration is about 1.2 ms. A second downconverter stage
displaces the signal around a second IF at 250 MHz. The received signal is
then sampled using an analogtodigital converter (ADC) at a sampling rate
of 1 Gsample.s
−1
. We may note that the transmitter and the receiver use the
same IF at 1.5 GHz. Thus, the LO frequency is the same for the external
synthesizers at the transmitter and the receiver. All LO are synchronized
using a reference rubidium at 10 MHz.
3.3.3.3. Extension towards UWB
In order to perform measurements over adjacent frequency bands, it is
necessary to modify the LO frequency at the transmitter and at the receiver.
Traditional oscillators present a locking time in the order of 10–50 ms. This
transition duration is mainly due to the positioning duration of the internal
phase locked loop, and cannot be reduced. Directly driving a single external
synthesizer thus leads to a total measurement duration in the order of
40–200 ms for an analyzed band of 1 GHz. Taking into account the constraints
82 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
LNA
F
a
s
t
s
w
i
t
c
h
1
0
1
AGC
A
D
1.5
GHz
250
MHz
External
synthesizer
LO
RF
Figure 3.7. Receiver block diagram
linked to real time measurements (see section 3.3.3.1), this solution cannot be
used.
The extension of the SIMO sounder towards a real time UWB sounder
exploits the duality between multipleinput measurements and multipleband
measurements. The main idea is to reuse the fast antenna switching module,
in order to switch between the carrier frequencies of each partial band to be
measured.
A practical implementation of this concept is presented in Figure 3.8. As
can be seen, the input connector is now directly connected with the LNA,
and a single antenna is available. The sounder is thus in a singleinput
singleoutput (SISO) measurement conﬁguration. The fast switching module
is used to sequentially feed the mixer of the ﬁrst downconverter stage with
one of the 10 LO signals (f
1
to f
10
) in turn. These signals are generated
by external synthesizers and tuned so that the receiver actually sweeps the
selected partial bands. As each synthesizer is locked at a ﬁxed frequency, no
delay is experienced for the locking of the LO frequency. In this conﬁguration,
the sounder is capable of sweeping up to 10 partial bands of 250 MHz each.
Hence, UWB measurements are theoretically possible up to a bandwidth of
2.5 GHz.
On account of its development concept, this sounder fulﬁlls most of
the required criteria for real time UWB channel measurement. Indeed, the
multipleinput architecture is directly used for the measurement over multiple
bands. For the calibration of each partial band in terms of phase, magnitude
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 83
LNA
F
a
s
t
s
w
i
t
c
h
1
0
1
AGC
External
synthesizers
Towards
the emitter
upconverter
f
1
f
10
A
D
1.5
GHz
250
MHz
LO
Figure 3.8. Block diagram of the modiﬁed receiver with UWB extension
and delay, the procedure used in the SIMO conﬁguration is still valid. In
addition, regarding the fast switching of partial bands, the overall switching
time through all partial bands may be as low as 1.2 ms, which allows for the
measurement of channel variations with a maximum Doppler shift of 416 Hz.
In the original version of the SIMO sounder, the ﬁlter preceding the ﬁrst
downconverter stage was only a few hundred MHz wide to reject undesirable
signals and reduce the noise level. The same type of ﬁltering was performed at
the emitter. In the UWB conﬁguration, however, the sounded frequency band
needs to be ﬁltered by one single passband ﬁlter, in order to avoid unnecessary
ﬁlter switching. In its current version, the UWB sounder is equipped with ﬁlters
of 1 GHz bandwidth.
Unlike the SIMO channel sounding case, UWB measurements using
the sweeping method necessitates a periodical modiﬁcation of the emitted
signal central frequency. For this reason, the frequency switch performed
at the receiver and at the transmitter need to be perfectly synchronized.
To solve this problem, the same LO signal may be used to feed both the
receiver downconverter and the transmitter upconverter stages. The main
drawback of this solution is that the transmitter and the receiver need to be
cable connected. However, in most indoor conﬁgurations, this connection is
realizable using a cable of acceptable length. Advantageously, this solution
allows us to use only one set of external synthesizer, which considerably
reduces the global cost of the equipment.
84 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
3.3.3.4. Experimental validation
The modiﬁcations presented above have been applied to the sounder
developed by France Telecom for its extension to real time UWB
measurements. To sweep the 5–6 GHz frequency band, 5 external synthesizers
have been connected to the fast switching module. In this conﬁguration, the
impulse response dynamic was measured at 40 dB. Using 5 partial bands,
the minimum measurement repetition duration is about 1 ms and the actual
measurement duration is 20.5 μs. With its 256 MB memory, the acquisition
card is able to sound the time varying UWB channel for a duration of 80 s in
standard conditions (bandwidth of 1 GHz and observable Doppler spread of
150 Hz).
Figure 3.9 presents the results obtained during a real time radio channel
measurement in a dynamic environment. During this experiment, the
transmitting antenna was ﬁxed and the receiving antenna was held by a
moving person. This conﬁguration corresponds to the practical situation where
a user with a mobile terminal walks in the proximity of a ﬁxed access point.
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

d
e
l
a
y
(
m
)
Time (s)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
a
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
o
n
(
d
B
)
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Figure 3.9. Time varying impulse response in a dynamic environment
The impulse response represented in Figure 3.9 corresponds to a 12.5 s
record of the signal obtained at the receiving antenna moving during
the experiment. Acquisitions were performed every 10 ms. For ease of
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 85
interpretation, the path delay on the yaxis has been converted to path length
in meters. In the ﬁrst part of the trajectory (between t = 0 s and t = 7 s), the
person is moving towards the emitter antenna, reducing its relative distance
from 6 m to 2 m. Hence, we can observe a main path with increasing power
(a). In the second part of the trajectory (between t = 7 s and t = 11 s), the
person is moving away from the transmitter antenna, partially obstructing
the line of sight. This explains the shadowing experienced by the shortest
path (b). In this part of the curve, three other main paths are observable, one
with increasing length (c) and two with decreasing lengths (d, e). These two
last paths might correspond to echoes transmitted via a reﬂection on a wall
opposite the transmitter location.
This feasibility study shows that it is possible to develop the UWB channel
sounder by applying minor modiﬁcations to a wideband SIMO sounder. By
exploiting the duality between multiple inputs and multiple bands, most of the
SIMOcapable sounders could be extended towards UWB channel sounding.
The prototype presented here allows for the measurement of UWB channels
over a band of 1 GHz with a dynamic of 40 dB.
3.4. UWB measurement campaigns
3.4.1. Overview of UWB measurement campaigns
A number of UWB radio channel measurement campaigns were cited in
this chapter. These diverse campaigns used diﬀerent sounding techniques,
but also diﬀer in the measured frequency band, the type of environment, the
antennas used and the measurement setup. In order to compare the analysis
results from these experiments, it is necessary to recall the conditions of
each campaign. Table 3.2 summarizes the inventoried UWB measurement
campaigns and provides some useful information for each of them.
Among the ﬁrst UWB studies, the UltRaLab laboratory from the University
of South California undertook two measurement programs in 1997, but most
UWB experiments started from the year 2000 onwards. Most measurement
programs used the VNA frequency domain method. Other experimental setups
are based on a time domain method, using pulses or PN sequences. Diﬀerent
indoor environments, such as the oﬃce or residential environments, and some
outdoor environments (forest, urban) were sounded. We may also note some
original experiments, on a metal ship or in an industrial environment. Finally,
regarding the analyzed band, only seven measurement campaigns cover the
entire FCC band [KUN 02a, BUE 03, ALV 03, CAS 04c, KAR 04b, HAN 05,
PAG 06b]. Within the FCC band, three experiments only permitted real time
UWB measurements [PEN 02, CAS 03, PAG 06a].
86 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
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2
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4
]
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2
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0
4
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0
4
a
]
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90 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
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UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 91
3.4.2. Illustration of channel sounding experiments
The previous study of the diﬀerent UWB channel sounding techniques
shows that the frequency domain technique using a VNA is the only available
method that enables a full characterization over the whole FCC band. In the
following, two measurement campaigns using this method are presented. The
ﬁrst campaign covers the 3.1–10.6 GHz band [PAG 06b], and the second one
covers the 2–6 GHz band. A third campaign is then described, presenting real
time measurements in the 4–5 GHz band.
3.4.2.1. Static measurement campaign over the 3.1–10.6 GHz band
The measurement system used for the static measurement campaign over
the 3.1–10.6 GHz band is presented in Figure 3.10.
VNA
HP8510C
Port
1
Driving and
storage
Rotating
arm driver
Webcam
RS 232
Port
2
USB
GPIB
Propagation
channel
Rotating arm
Figure 3.10. Equipment setup for the static UWB sounding
over the 3.1–10.6 GHz band
Measurements were taken using a VNA (see Figure 3.11(a)) in the
frequency band 3.1–11.1 GHz with a frequency step Δf
(meas)
of 2 MHz.
The full acquisition process consists of measuring 4005 frequency tones in a
duration of about 15 seconds. Using a Hanning window, side lobes may be
reduced to −32 dB. This compromise corresponds to an impulse response
resolution R
(meas)
t
of 0.25 ns.
92 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(a) (b)
Figure 3.11. Measurement equipment: (a) HP8510C sounder and (b) rotating arm
In order to estimate the local PDP and assess the signal spatial ﬂuctuations,
a rotating arm with radius 20 cm was used to measure the radio channel at 90
diﬀerent locations (see Figure 3.11(b)). This conﬁguration corresponds to a
circular path of 45λ and to a distance between two successive sensors below
λ
2
at the maximum frequency of 10.6 GHz.
Measurements were performed using two CMA118/A antennas from the
company Antenna Research Associates. These antennas are monoconical
antennas with a metallic ground plane. Their radiation pattern is
omnidirectional in the azimuth plane and a standing wave ratio (SWR) lower
than 2 in the 1–18 GHz frequency band. It should be noted that the radiation
pattern of these antennas strongly varies, especially in the elevation plane, as
the frequency increases several octaves. Their complex gain has thus been
characterized in 3D in the 1–10 GHz band with a 1 GHz step. Figure 3.12
illustrates the antenna characterization process.
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 93
Figure 3.12. Measurement antennas. CMA 118/A antennas
(from the ARA company) during their characterization
This sounding equipment was complemented with up to three wideband
power ampliﬁers. The sounder calibration consists of a measurement sample
taken while the receiver and the transmitter are directly cable connected.
In order to achieve an accurate time reference, all cables involved in the
measurement process need to be taken into account at the calibration stage.
As active components, the ampliﬁers are not included in this measurement.
Instead, they are characterized separately and their transfer function is
subtracted from the measurements at the digital postprocessing stage.
Measurements were taken in an indoor oﬃce environment. External
walls are made of brick and concrete, and internal walls consist of thinner
plaster and plastic boards. Two typical radio access conﬁgurations have been
studied. In both cases, the transmitter was situated at a height of 1.40 m and
was considered as the mobile terminal. The receiver was considered as the
access point and was ﬁrst placed in a meeting room at a height of 2.19 m,
and then in a corridor at a height of 2.45 m. Figure 3.13 presents these two
conﬁgurations. In both cases, LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations were assessed.
The transmitterreceiver distance varied between 1 m and 20 m. Over the
whole measurement campaign, the rotating arm was placed at more than 120
diﬀerent locations, which corresponds to a set of over 10,000 UWB impulse
responses available for statistical characterization. The analysis of these
measurements is presented in Chapter 5.
94 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
4
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UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 95
3.4.2.2. Static measurement campaign over the 2–6 GHz band
The schematic description of the equipment used for the static measurement
campaign over the 2–6 GHz band is presented in Figure 3.14. Measurements
were performed using the VNA HP8753 D over the frequency band 2–6 GHz
with a frequency step Δf
mes
of 2.5 MHz. The acquisition process for a
full measurement consists of the measurement of 1601 frequency tones in a
duration of 4 seconds. The CMA 118/A antennas have also been used for this
measurement. The measurement did not require the use of power ampliﬁers
at the transmitter or at the receiver. Indeed, the link budget without the
ampliﬁers was high enough to support transmitterreceiver distances up to
12 m.
MATLAB/SCILAB
Post processing
Analysis
PC
Labview
Tx (Port 1)
Vector
Network
Analyzer
HP 8753 D
Rx (Port 2)
Tx Ant
Rx Ant
Propagation channel
CMA – 118/A
Cable 20 m
Cable 20 m GPIB
CMA – 118/A
Figure 3.14. Equipment setup for the static UWB
sounding over the 2–6 GHz band
The environments sounded during these measurements are residential
houses: the ﬁrst house is a modern building and the second one is an older
building. The external walls of the ﬁrst house consist of concrete blocks,
bricks and insulation material made of glass wool. The external walls of the
older house do not incorporate any insulating material. Internal walls of both
houses are made of brick and plasterboards. Both dwellings are twoﬂoor
houses. However, measurements have been performed at the ground level only.
The transmitter and the receiver are placed at the same height of 1.40 m.
Figure 3.15(a) represents the ﬁrst house with LOS measurement locations.
Figures 3.15(b) and 3.15(c) represent the second house with both LOS and
NLOS measurement locations. In these two environments, the number of
measurements is respectively 89 and 230.
3.4.2.3. Dynamic measurement campaign over the 4–5 GHz band
Finally, in order to study the eﬀect that mobile people have on the UWB
channel, we present a real time measurement campaign performed over a
bandwidth of 1 GHz [PAG 06a].
96 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 3.15. Measurement locations during the UWB sounding campaign over
the 2–6 GHz band. Squares represent ﬁxed locations (Tx: transceiver)
and circles represent mobile locations (receiver): (a) modern house;
(b) old house in LOS; and (c) NLOS
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 97
A few channel sounders only are currently capable of measuring the UWB
channel in real time. This experimental study has been performed using the
UWB sounder presented in section 3.3.3. The channel impulse response was
measured every 10 ms, which enables the measurement of Doppler shifts
up to 50 MHz. The analyzed band extends from 4 GHz to 5 GHz, with a
resolution of 2 MHz, which corresponds to a maximum delay of 500 ns. At the
transmitter and the receiver, CMA118/A antennas were used, as presented in
section 3.4.2.1.
Tx antenna
Rx antenna
People
motion
B
F
Rx
Tx
B
F
Figure 3.16. Environment of the real time experiment. F: forward movement,
B: backward movement, Tx: transmitter, Rx: receiver
The experiment took place in a typical indoor oﬃce environment. All
measurements were taken near a bend of the building’s main hallway, as
depicted in Figure 3.16. The receiving antennas was ﬁxed on a wall at a height
of 2.10 m. The transmitting antenna was placed in the middle of the corridor
at a distance of 11 m from the receiving antenna and at a height of 1.35 m.
In order to assess the time variations of the UWB channel, measurements
were taken over the ﬁxed radio link as groups of people walked towards the
end of the hallway and back. During this displacement, people occasionally
obstructed the LOS path and other main paths of the channel impulse
response. The number of people within each group varied from 1 to 12. This
experiment corresponds to a practical situation where the user of a WLAN
is standing in a crowd of people, in a subway corridor for instance. The
measurement campaign consisted of a collection of 27 records of the time
varying UWB radio channel, containing about 3,000 impulse responses each.
Chapter 5 presents a statistical analysis of this experimental data.
98 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
3.5. Conclusion
In this chapter, the diﬀerent channel sounding techniques adapted to UWB
measurements have been presented. Frequency domain methods use either a
vector network analyzer or a chirp sounder. Time domain methods include
pulsed techniques, correlation measurements and inversion techniques. Due to
the wide analyzed bandwidth, the vector network analyzer method seems to
be the most appropriate technique for static UWB channel sounding. However,
its main limitation lies in its long measurement duration. Several seconds are
indeed required to measure the 3.1–10.6 GHz band. For the acquisition of real
time UWB channel measurements, an innovative sounding technique based on
the extension of a wideband SIMO sounder has been presented. This adaptation
corresponds to minor modiﬁcations of the original equipment and allows for real
time measurements over a 1 GHz band.
A literature survey made it possible to inventory about 20 UWB
measurement campaigns since 1997. Most of these campaigns used a
VNAbased frequency domain method. The reported campaigns cover
the indoor residential and oﬃce environment, as well as some outdoor
environments. Finally, the experimental setup of a typical sounding campaign
has been illustrated through three examples: two measurement campaigns
using a VNA over the 3–10.6 GHz and 2–6 GHz frequency bands respectively,
and a series of real time measurements performed over the 4–5 GHz band
using a multipleband time domain sounder.
Chapter 4
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel
4.1. Introduction
Deterministic models are often used as site speciﬁc models allowing us to
realistically predict signal propagation in a given environment using simulation
software. Currently, little simulation software of this type is proposed for UWB
in comparison to narrowband systems, where they are widely used to determine
radio system deployment.
The use of classical deterministic modeling software for UWB needs a
particular adjustment in order to cover the entire frequency band of impulse
signals. Concerning the total calculation ﬁeld, it is mandatory to consider
not only the power loss amplitude but also the phase information in order to
easily reconstruct in the time domain the received signal corresponding to the
modeled UWB link.
This chapter describes the UWB deterministic modeling. After the
presentation of classical techniques used for deterministic modeling,
the speciﬁcities of UWB applications are described. Then, the diﬀerent
deterministic models proposed in the literature for UWB signal propagation
are presented. Finally, theoretical formalisms are detailed and compared to
measurement results in order to illustrate the deterministic modeling in the
UWB context.
4.2. Overview of deterministic modeling
Propagation models considered to be deterministic are obtained from
simulations made in simpliﬁed propagation environments. They are based on
100 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
electromagnetic wave propagation theory. Their use requires a good knowledge
on the propagation environment and allows us to obtain precise as well as
accurate predictions of signal propagation in the channel corresponding to the
considered environment.
For a theoretical point of view, the wave propagation characteristics can
be calculated by solving Maxwell equations. However, this requires us to make
complex mathematical operations and to use powerful numerical calculations.
The most frequently used approaches are based on frequency diﬀerence in time
domain (FDTD) techniques, methods of moments (MoM) or ray techniques.
4.2.1. FDTD based approach
The FDTD based approach allows us to obtain a complete cartography of
the ﬁeld on all points of a given map. It is typically used for electromagnetic
ﬁeld coverage in a given environment [LAU 95, SCH 97b, KON 99].
The FDTD used for modeling consists of solving Maxwell equations using
regular spatial discretization in time. All derivations are simpliﬁed by algebraic
systems of equation. The studied volume is discretized in various elementary
cells, the size of which is related to wavelength of typically λ/10 or λ/15. The
solving method ﬁxes some restrictions in term of the considered cells sizes and
time grid in order to ensure computation stability. The studied environment is
limited by absorbing walls limiting the reﬂection phenomena on the boundaries
[IBA 00].
These approaches demand huge memory spaces to obtain the solutions
in all points of the considered environment and to update all iterative ﬁeld
calculations for the diﬀerent instants. This approach is often used for small
environments with respect to the wavelength or complementary to other
approaches [YIN 00].
4.2.2. MoM based approach
Similarly to the FDTD approach, the MoM based approach is a numerical
method which requires a large numerical memory for ﬁeld calculation and radio
coverage in a given environment [DEB 96, YAN 99].
The MoM is based on the use of an integral form of Maxwell equations. The
integral system is transformed by an impedance matrix discretization which
represents the interactions between elementary cells of the environment. The
accuracy of the solutions obtained with this approach depends on the size of
the considered cells.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 101
This approach is used when the structure size is roughly a few wavelengths.
It can also be considered complementary to other approaches like the ray based
approaches in order to obtain hybrid models. Nevertheless, the MoM based
approach is mainly used to validate results obtained with other approaches like
the ray based approach [YAN 98].
4.2.3. Ray based approach
Based on geometric optic (GO) combined with uniform theory of diﬀraction
(UTD) (see Appendix C), the ray based approach is well suited for the study
of radio wave propagation. The GO considers that the energy is radiated
along inﬁnite tubes called rays. These rays deﬁne the propagation directions
and can reﬂect or refract on all the surfaces they encounter. The use of UTD
complements the GO as it introduces the diﬀracted rays and ensures the
continuity of the ﬁeld on regions where the GO predicts a nonexistence of a
ﬁeld.
Before the determination of the propagated ﬁeld, we need to ﬁnd the rays
from which the GO and the UTD will be applied. This step of ray ﬁnding can
use various techniques. There are two main techniques of ray determination: ray
launching is considered to be a forward technique and ray tracing is considered
to be a backward technique [SAR 03] (see Appendix D). When the rays are
obtained, the propagated ﬁeld can thus be calculated from the transmission to
reception side.
The ray based approach needs less numerical resources than the FDTD and
MoM approaches for wave propagation prediction. Consequently, it is mostly
used for deterministic propagation modeling [IKE 91, MCK 91, TAM 95,
TAN 95, SAN 96, CHE 96, RIZ 97, VIL 99, ZHA 00]. Such approaches are
not valid for low frequencies (typically lower than 100 MHz), when the size
of objects interacting with rays become small or have the same order as the
wavelength.
An improvement of the propagation prediction with the ray based approach
can be made by combining it with exact approaches such as those using FDTD
or MoM.
4.3. Speciﬁcity of deterministic modeling in UWB
When studying narrowband transmission techniques using deterministic
software, much is made of the power loss of the transmitted signal. So, modeling
allows the establishment of radio coverage maps on any considered environment
at a given central frequency corresponding to the transmitted narrowband
102 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
signal. Indeed, we consider that the bandwidth is narrow enough to only focus
the propagation study on the central frequency.
In UWB, the frequency components of the transmitted signal cover a
vast bandwidth which can reach 7.5 GHz. So, the performed simulation will
necessarily address all the phenomena appearing on the entire bandwidth.
Thus, we cannot simply focus on the propagation around the central frequency.
This implies that we have to consider in the synthesized link both antennas
and material properties of the considered environment on the whole covered
frequency band.
Another particularity of the UWB deterministic modeling is the need to
consider the phase information related to the propagation as well as combining
the eﬀects of antennas and material properties. This phase information is
important as it allows the identiﬁcation of potential deformations (such
as attenuation, dispersion, etc.) appearing on the received signal during
the transmission. Deterministic modeling can thus be used in speciﬁc
environmental conﬁguration in order to better understand the eﬀects of
physical phenomena observed on results of channel propagation measurement
campaigns.
So, the use of site speciﬁc tool for deterministic modeling allows us on the
one hand to study the waves propagation in various types of environments and
in speciﬁc conﬁgurations, and on the other hand to physically understand the
eﬀects observed on measurements.
4.4. Overview of UWB deterministic modeling
In this section, the four principal deterministic models which appear in the
literature are described, with a main focus on their respective speciﬁcities.
4.4.1. Qiu model
Some authors consider the study proposed by Qiu [QIU 02] on the diﬀraction
undergone by an UWB signal as a UWB deterministic model. In the study made
by Qiu, he mainly focuses on the distortions and dispersions introduced in a
link and on system performances by single and multiple diﬀractions.
4.4.2. Yao model
The particularity of the model proposed by Yao is that it takes into
account the GO and UTD coeﬃcients in the time domain in order to account
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 103
for the eﬀects of the propagation channel interactions [YAO 03a, YAO 03b].
These time domain coeﬃcients allow us to directly express the impulse
response of each interaction [VER 90, BAR 91, ROU 95, YAO 97]. This
approach can appear appropriate for the UWB channel propagation modeling
as the reconstructed signal is a sum of each ray contribution. The contribution
of each ray at the receiver side is a successive convolution of the impulse
responses of each interaction of the considered ray with the transmitted signal.
Nevertheless, a deterministic modeling tool using this approach will need
signiﬁcant numerical resources. In fact, a numerical operation consisting of
a convolution needs great memory resources. So, although this model gives
acceptable results, its use can become very restrictive in term of calculation
time.
4.4.3. Attiya model
The deterministic model proposed by Attiya [ATT 04] considers the GO
and the UTD interactions coeﬃcients expressed in the frequency domain (see
Appendix C). The received signal is obtained in the time domain thanks to
the use of an inverse Fourier transform. This allows us to directly use all
the classical formulations corresponding to the frequency behavior of the
propagation phenomena.
Another diﬀerence between Yao and Attiya’s deterministic model lies in the
consideration of antennas, something Yao neglected entirely. Attiya’s proposed
model takes into account the antennas by inserting analytical formulations of
antenna radiation in the expression of the reconstructed signal. In his model,
he focuses on the case of horn antennas for which he proposes a time domain
characterization technique [ATT 03].
The same impulse response obtained from measurement in an anechoic
chamber between a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna is
directly applied in the time domain on each ray. For each ray, the relation
corresponding to the eﬀect of ray interactions is obtained after inverse
Fourier transformation. So, the determination of the received signals after
antennas are made by adding all the contributions of each ray. Each of these
contributions is obtained by convolution of the impulse response between
antennas with the relation corresponding to eﬀect of a channel without
antenna. So, it appears that this method shows two limits. The ﬁrst limit is
the consideration of the impulse response of antennas in order to insert their
behavior in the model. The second limit is the application of the same impulse
response for all rays, although they do not go and reach transmitting and
receiving antennas respectively from the same direction.
104 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
4.4.4. Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom model
The other deterministic model proposed in the literature is that of Uguen
and Tchoﬀo Talom [TCH 04, UGU 05]. The ﬁrst contribution of this model
mainly presents the synthesis of a received signal which adopts a formalism
considering the channel ray by ray [UGU 02]. In this ﬁrst contribution,
some important elements of the transmission channel were not considered,
such as the indoor multilayered materials and antennas. Eventually, a more
complete description was made [TCH 04, UGU 05]. In comparison to the ﬁrst
proposition, the introduced improvement concerns a better description of the
consideration of each channel element in the model.
This model is quite similar to the one proposed by Attiya [ATT 04].
However, unlike the Attiya model, the antennas are better taken into
account in the model proposed by Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom. Moreover,
the construction of each ray contribution is made separately, which allows
us to naturally access to the direction of departure (DoD) and direction of
arrival (DoA) information. So, each ray is aﬀected by the antenna functions
corresponding to the actual DoD and DoA of the ray, deﬁned in the frequency
domain.
4.5. Illustration of a deterministic model formalism
In this section, we illustrate the UWB deterministic modeling by presenting
the theoretical formalism of the model proposed by Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom
[TCH 04, UGU 05]. This model allows us to synthesize a received signal for an
indoor UWB link.
We consider the application of an impulse signal p(τ) on the transmitting
antenna feeding port. As explained previously, it is not helpful to sum all the ray
contributions before the transformation from the frequency domain to the time
domain (see Appendix E). It is better to apply the transformation separately
on each ray and then to sum each ray contribution directly in the time domain.
This approach allows us to reduce the number of frequency points to consider
and avoids unneeded frequency domain truncation of the complex exponential
corresponding to the phase shift introduced by the propagation.
The signal after the receiving antenna is obtained by summing all the
vectorial and complex component of the ﬁeld coming from the rays arriving
on the receiving antenna. After the frequency sweep on the band of interest,
the signal is expressed in the time domain using an inverse discrete Fourier
transformation. So, this signal can be considered as the convolution of the
signal p(τ) with the SISO impulse response of the propagation channel.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 105
The presentation of the theoretical formalism of the deterministic model is
made by the detailed synthesis of the received signal. This detail mainly focuses
on the ray by ray treatment of the propagation and antenna information as well
as the proper consideration of antennas in the modeling.
4.5.1. Received signal synthesis
The received signal r(τ) is constructed as the sum of the appropriately
shifted contribution ¯ r
k
(τ) of the N
ray
rays obtained from the ray tracing step
(see Figure 4.1) by:
r(τ) =
N
ray
¸
k=1
¯ r
k
τ −τ
k
[4.1]
The parameter τ
k
is the delay corresponding to the free space propagation
of the k
th
ray.
The nondelayed signal ¯ r
k
(τ) (see relation [4.2]) corresponds to the
convolution of the transmitted signal p(τ) applied at the transmitting antenna
port with the nondelayed ray impulse response (RIR)
¯
h
k
(τ).
¯ r
k
(τ) =
¯
h
k
(τ) ∗ p(τ) [4.2]
In relation [4.1], N
ray
is one of the important parameters for the
reconstruction of the received signal. It determines the realism of the obtained
synthesized signal r(τ).
Deterministic models using rays are strongly dependent on the number of
signiﬁcant rays contributing to the total ﬁeld. So, it is important to use rapid
and appropriate techniques allowing us to obtain the main contributors in LOS
or NLOS situations. Most of the time, this last situation requires us to consider
a great number of rays in order to improve the realism of the synthesized signal.
4.5.2. Ray impulse response without delay
The nondelayed ray impulse response (RIR) is noted
¯
h
k
(τ) and deﬁned in
the time domain by:
¯
h
k
(τ) = f
r
−τ, ˆ s
r
k
¯c
k
(τ) f
t
τ, ˆ s
t
k
[4.3]
106 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
˜
r
1
(
τ
)
˜
r
1
(
τ
−
τ
1
)
τ
τ
1
˜
r
2
(
τ
)
˜
r
2
(
τ
−
τ
2
)
τ
τ
2
˜
r
k
(
τ
)
˜
r
k
(
τ
−
τ
k
)
τ
τ
k
T
F
F
T
=
r
(
τ
)
τ
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
1
.
B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g
o
f
r
e
c
e
i
v
e
d
s
i
g
n
a
l
r
(
τ
)
b
y
t
h
e
s
u
m
o
f
s
h
i
f
t
e
d
¯r
k
(
τ
)
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 107
f
r
(τ, ˆ s
r
k
) is a line vector corresponding to the impulse response of the
received antenna in the arrival direction ˆ s
r
k
of the k
th
ray.
f
t
(τ, ˆ s
t
k
) is a column vector corresponding to the impulse response of the
transmitted antenna in the departure direction ˆ s
t
k
of the k
th
ray.
¯c
k
(τ) is a 22 matrix corresponding to the consideration of attenuations and
distortions introduced by the reﬂection, transmission or diﬀraction interactions
appearing on the k
th
ray when propagating through the channel. This term does
not consider the delay introduced by propagation τ
k
. This delay is directly used
when adding all the ¯ r
k
(τ) at the appropriated time position (see Figure 4.1).
ˆ s
t
k
and ˆ s
r
k
are the directions of departure (t) and arrival (r) of the k
th
ray.
They are respectively the couples of polar coordinates (θ
t
k
, φ
t
k
) and (θ
r
k
, φ
r
k
) in
the entire spherical base.
Nevertheless, as reﬂection, transmission and diﬀraction phenomena have a
simple analytical expression in the frequency domain, ¯ r
k
(τ) is obtained from
an inverse Fourier transform applied on its frequency expression
¯
R
k
(f):
¯
R
k
(f) = F
r∗
f, ˆ s
r
k
¯
C
k
(f) F
t
f, ˆ s
t
k
P(f) [4.4]
P(f) corresponds to the Fourier transform of the transmitted signal.
F
t,r
are the complex vectors corresponding respectively to the transmitting
and receiving antenna frequency behavior. They allow us to consider the
directivity D
t,r
, the return loss Γ
t,r
, the radiation eﬃciency η
t,r
and the
antenna polarization state U
t,r
[LO 88]:
F
t
f, ˆ s
t
k
=
G
t
1
f, ˆ s
t
k
U
t
f, ˆ s
t
k
[4.5]
F
r
f, ˆ s
r
k
= −j
λ
4π
G
r
2
f, ˆ s
r
k
U
r
f, ˆ s
r
k
[4.6]
G
t
1
f, ˆ s
t
k
= η
t
(f)
1 −
Γ
t
(f)
2
D
t
f, ˆ s
t
k
[4.7]
G
r
2
f, ˆ s
r
k
= η
r
(f) D
r
f, ˆ s
r
k
[4.8]
U
t,r
f, ˆ s
t,r
k
= U
t,r
θ
ˆ
θ
t,r
+U
t,r
φ
ˆ
φ
t,r
[4.9]
108 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
The terms U
t,r
are unitary vectors deﬁned in the basis corresponding to the
directions of departure ˆ s
t
k
and arrival ˆ s
r
k
for a given ray. These terms follow the
relation:
U
∗
U = 1 [4.10]
The term −j
λ
4π
in the expression of F
r
corresponds to the integration
operation made at the receiver side.
¯
C
k
is the 22 matrix corresponding to the frequency ﬁlter presented by the
propagation channel on the k
th
ray. This matrix is deﬁned from the GO/UTD
ﬁeld and is expressed in a vectorial form:
¯
C
k
(f) =
¯
E
k
E
inc
k
=
⎡
⎣
¯
C
θ,θ
¯
C
θ,φ
¯
C
φ,θ
¯
C
φ,φ
⎤
⎦
[4.11]
with
¯
E
k
the ﬁeld at the receiving antenna and E
inc
k
the ﬁeld coming from the
transmitting antenna in the direction ˆ s
t
k
by:
E
inc
k
= F
t
f, ˆ s
t
k
P(f) [4.12]
¯
E
k
= E
k
e
+j2πfτ
k
[4.13]
4.5.3. Ray channel matrix without delay
The ray channel matrix without delay is expressed in a vectorial way by
¯
C
k
. It depends on the expression of the GO and the UTD ﬁeld by the use
of the ﬁeld E
k
(see relation [4.14]). The superscript tilde corresponds to the
extraction of the delay related to the propagation in E
k
expression.
E
k
=
¯
C
k
E
inc
k
e
−j2πfτ
k
[4.14]
Typically, there can appear on a k
th
ray approximately N
k
interactions of
reﬂection, transmission or diﬀraction nature. So, E
k
is expressed by the relation:
E
k
=
1
s
0
k
A
k
G
k
e
−j2πfτ
k
E
inc
k
[4.15]
1
s
0
k
corresponds to the spherical nature of the wave coming from the
transmitting antenna.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 109
τ
k
is the delay related to the propagation of the k
th
ray. It is the sum of
delays associated with the distances between the interactions appearing on the
considered ray.
τ
k
=
N
k
¸
i=0
τ
i
k
[4.16]
A
k
corresponds to the product of all the divergence factors of each
interaction appearing on the ray. The expression of each divergence A
i
k
is
related to the considered interaction’s nature:
A
k
=
N
k
¸
i=1
A
i
k
[4.17]
G
k
is the interaction matrix representing the consecutive reﬂections,
transmissions or diﬀractions appearing on the k
th
ray. The term G
i
k
of
each interactions is related to the frequency, the polarization  or ⊥ and
the reﬂection, transmission and diﬀraction incidence angles. These terms
correspond to 2 2 matrices and are deﬁned according to the incidence basis
of reﬂection, transmission and diﬀraction interaction considered by:
G
i
k
=
⎡
⎣
¯
G
,
¯
G
,⊥
¯
G
⊥,
¯
G
⊥,⊥
⎤
⎦
[4.18]
In other terms, the matrix G
i
k
corresponds to the R, T or D matrix
according to the interaction nature (see Appendix C).
So, it is necessary to insert, in the global expression of G
k
[4.19], the matrix
used to change the basis related to the possible existence of an angle between the
incidence plane of an interaction and the reﬂection, transmission or diﬀraction
plane of the previous interaction.
G
k
= M
B
out,N
k
k
→B
r
k
¸
N
k
¸
i=2
G
i
k
M
B
out,i−1
k
→B
in,i
k
¸
G
1
k
M
B
t
k
→B
in,1
k
[4.19]
M
B
t
k
→B
in,1
k
is a matrix used to change the description of a ﬁeld from a basis
B
t
k
related to a given departure direction of a k
th
ray to the incoming basis
B
in,1
k
of the ﬁrst ray interaction.
110 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
M
B
out,N
k
k
→B
r
k
is a matrix used to change the ﬁeld from the outgoing basis
B
out,N
k
k
of the last interaction to the incoming basis B
r
k
of the arrival direction
of the k
th
ray.
M
B
out,i−1
k
→B
in,i
k
is a matrix allowing for a k
th
ray to express the ﬁeld,
initially in an outgoing basis B
out,i−1
k
of the (i−1)
th
interaction in the incoming
basis B
in,i
k
of the i
th
interaction.
4.5.4. Described model results
4.5.4.1. Emitted waveform and considered scenario
We consider the impulse waveform transmission p(τ), which is obtained
using the relation:
p(τ) =
E
p
ˆ p(τ) [4.20]
with E
p
the energy of the impulse signal p(τ) and ˆ p(τ) a Gaussian impulse
normalized in energy.
ˆ p(τ) can be expressed using relation [4.21]:
ˆ p(τ) =
2
√
2
β
√
π
sin
2πf
c
τ
e
−(
τ
β
)
2
[4.21]
B
α,β
=
2
πβ
α
ln 10
20
≈ 0.216
√
α
β
[4.22]
where B
α,β
is the band of ˆ p(τ) given at −αdB, β is a scaling factor allowing
us to adjust the time domain support of ˆ p(τ) and f
c
is the central frequency of
ˆ p(τ).
In the frequency domain, the applied impulse signal is given by:
P(f) =
E
p
ˆ
P(f) [4.23]
ˆ
P(f) =
β
√
π
√
2
e
−[π β (f+f
c
)]
2
−e
−[π β (f−f
c
)]
2
[4.24]
So, [P(f)[
2
is the energy spectral density (ESD) of the impulse signal. The
impulse energy E
p
is then obtained by integrating either the square of the
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 111
signal p(τ) or [P(f)[
2
, according to the following ParsevalPlancherel relation
[PRO 83]:
E
p
=
R
p
2
(τ) dτ =
R
P(f)
2
df [4.25]
To specify E
p
, relation [4.26] proposed by [UGU 04] can be used:
E
p
=
T
r
P
1MHz
max
σ
2
γ
1MHz
max
[4.26]
So, the impulse energy can be determined with respect to the emission
limits speciﬁed by regulation using P
1 MHz
max
, the pulse repetition period T
r
,
the considered modulation given by σ, and γ
1 MHz
max
the capability of the
transmitting antenna to emit an ampliﬁed signal in the channel over a 1 MHz
band.
According to the FCC speciﬁcations concerning the transmitted UWB
signal, the authorized maximum PSD is P
1 MHz
max
= −41.3 dBm/MHz. In this
case, E
p
is directly expressed by:
E
p
=
T
r
10
−4.13
σ
2
γ
1 MHz
max
[4.27]
Figure 4.2 shows two impulses obtained for a central frequency f
c
= 4 GHz
and an ideal
1
transmitting antenna. We can note that the signal time spreading
conversely increases with the band as well as the maximum level.
The previously described model is applied for an indoor link of a LOS
conﬁguration in the environment represented in Figure 4.3. The rays reported in
the ﬁgure are obtained using a 3D ray determination technique which combines
ray launching and ray tracing [TCH 05a].
The material properties of the environment shown in Figure 4.3 are reported
in Table 4.1. These properties are obtained from material characterizations
[TCH 05a]. The frequency dependence of the materials is introduced by the
permittivity expression in the interactions coeﬃcients (see Appendix C). In
this table, we can note that the ﬂoor and the ceiling are in reinforced concrete
because the environment is the ground ﬂoor of a house with two levels.
1. An ideal antenna is an omnidirectional isotropic antenna with a unitary gain in all
directions.
112 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.2. Impulses applied on an ideal transmitting antenna with f
c
= 4 GHz:
B
10 dB,β
= 0.5 GHz (a) and B
10 dB,β
= 2 GHz (b)
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 113
Figure 4.3. 3D rays obtained for an indoor link in LOS conﬁguration
Elements Materials
Material properties
r
r
μ
r
μ
r
σ (S/m) Δδ (m) e (cm)
Wall brick 3.8 0 1 0 0.05 0 10
Windows glass 3.1 0 1 0 0 0 1.5
Doors wood 2.84 −0.02 1 0 0 0 3
Ceiling reinforced concrete 7.7 0 1 0 1 0 10
Floor reinforced concrete 7.7 0 1 0 1 0 —
Table 4.1. Properties and structure of various elements of the considered environment
4.5.4.2. Channel matrix of each emitted waveform in the LOS case
Considering the two waveforms (see Figure 4.2) for p(τ) and the LOS
conﬁguration (see Figure 4.3), Figures 4.4 and 4.5 represent the four
components of the channel matrix c(τ):
c(τ) =
¸
c
θ,θ
(τ) c
θ,φ
(τ)
c
φ,θ
(τ) c
φ,φ
(τ)
[4.28]
These illustrations are an artiﬁce of representation which allows us to report
on the same time axis all the contributions of the rays associated with each
component of the matrix c. Each component of c(τ) is obtained by adding the
electric ﬁeld contribution of each of the N
ray
for the considered component.
114 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
This representation allows us to underline the time domain behavior of the
N
ray
ray ﬁelds arriving at the receiver without considering any transmitting or
receiving antenna.
We can note in these ﬁgures that the ﬁeld level is weak on the cross
components (c
θ,φ
and c
φ,θ
). So, in order to obtain the received signal, the
antennas considered at the transmitting and receiving sides will project these
c(τ) matrix components according to their characteristics [TCH 05b]. The
shape of the ﬁnal obtained signal will strongly depend on the components of
c(τ) modiﬁed by the chosen couple of antennas.
Moreover, when the frequency band of the impulse p(τ) decreases,
each contribution of all rays can no longer be clearly isolated. For a band
B
10 dB,β
= 500 MHz and for each component of c(τ), the obtained signal
corresponds to a compact grouping of the ray contributions arriving at a
time lap with approximately the same width as the transmitted signal. This
does not allow us to isolate the contribution of each ray but underlines the
progressive rise of shadowing as the transmitted signal bandwidth decreases.
4.5.4.3. Received signal with ideal antennas
In this part, from the components of channel matrix c (see Figure 4.5) and
for the LOS case as well as the transmitted pulse p(τ) of Figure 4.2(b), we
focus on the reconstructed waveform obtained in the case where the antennas
at transmission (Tx) and reception (Rx) sides are ideal omnidirectional, with
unitary gain.
Figures 4.6(a) and 4.6(b) show the reconstructed signal r(τ) obtained
respectively for a couple of antennas polarized along θ and φ.
In the considered conﬁgurations, the transmitting and receiving antennas
show a good accordance in term of polarization. So, the reconstructed signals
(see Figures 4.6(a) and 4.6(b)) are respectively a projection of the channel
matrix c(τ) components c
θ,θ
(see Figure 4.5(a)) and c
φ,φ
(see Figure 4.5(d)).
In the case of a real antenna, the received signal r(τ) will probably be a
less simple projection of diﬀerent matrix c components. So, it will no longer be
easily identiﬁed to one of the matrix c(τ) components.
One of the interests of the deterministic model detailed in section 4.5 is the
ease of identifying DOA and DOD information. This is because the signal r(τ)
is reconstructed thanks to the rays obtained after ray tracing which directly
gives the information corresponding to the direction of the rays. The other
interest is that no sum is beforehand applied on the contributions of each ray.
So, it is easy to extract the contribution associated with each ray.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 115
(
a
)
(
b
)
(
c
)
(
d
)
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
4
.
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
m
a
t
r
i
x
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
c
(
τ
)
f
o
r
t
h
e
s
c
e
n
a
r
i
o
o
f
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
3
w
i
t
h
t
h
e
i
m
p
u
l
s
e
p
(
τ
)
o
f
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
2
(
a
)
:
c
θ
,
θ
(
τ
)
(
a
)
,
c
θ
,
φ
(
τ
)
(
b
)
,
c
φ
,
θ
(
τ
)
(
c
)
a
n
d
c
φ
,
φ
(
τ
)
(
d
)
116 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(
a
)
(
b
)
(
c
)
(
d
)
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
5
.
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
m
a
t
r
i
x
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
c
(
τ
)
f
o
r
t
h
e
s
c
e
n
a
r
i
o
o
f
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
3
w
i
t
h
t
h
e
i
m
p
u
l
s
e
p
(
τ
)
o
f
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
2
(
b
)
:
c
θ
,
θ
(
τ
)
(
a
)
,
c
θ
,
φ
(
τ
)
(
b
)
,
c
φ
,
θ
(
τ
)
(
c
)
a
n
d
c
φ
,
φ
(
τ
)
(
d
)
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 117
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.6. Received signal r(τ) for the LOS scenario of Figure 4.3, the pulse p(τ)
of Figure 4.2(b) and the ideal omnidirectional antennas at Tx and Rx sides:
TxRx antennas polarized along θ (a) and TxRx polarized antennas along φ (b)
118 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Figure 4.7 illustrates the extraction of DOA information corresponding to
the signal reported in Figure 4.6(a). We can note that the obtained rays are
well described in 3D. The direct path is clearly identiﬁed. It arrives at the
receiving antenna side in the direction corresponding to the angles θ ≈ 95
◦
and
φ ≈ 245
◦
. Here, the θ direction is not 90
◦
because the transmitter and receiver
antennas are not placed at the same height.
4.6. Consideration of real antenna characteristics in deterministic modeling
Previously when ideal antennas were considered, we could easily identify
the matrix c(τ) component corresponding to the signal received after the Rx
antenna. Here, real couple of antenna radiation characteristics are considered.
In Figure 3.12, the used antennas which are called the CMA (Conical Monopole
Antenna) are represented. The characteristic of these antennas are obtained
from measurements performed on 4 π steradian in the Stargate 32 nearﬁeld
antenna measurement engine of Satimo (see Figure 4.8) [TCH 05b].
The considered modeling conﬁguration is the case illustrated in Figure 4.3.
The received signal is illustrated in Figure 4.9(a). We can note that the
omnidirectional characteristic of the CMA allows us to obtain a signal diﬀerent
from those obtained previously with ideal antennas. So, the obtained signal is
no longer easily identiﬁed to one component of the channel matrix c(τ) (see
Figure 4.5).
Figure 4.9(b) illustrates the amplitude and phase contribution applied by
the antennas on each ray. The rays corresponding to the main contribution on
the received signal are represented by a dark line. The contribution of a ray
is thus proportional to the gray intensity used for its drawing. The darkest
rays are those for which the combined directivity of transmitting and receiving
antennas are important. If a rotation is applied along θ in order to ﬁt both
antenna directions of maximum radiation in elevation, the received signal will
have a higher level than in the previous case (see Figure 4.10) and the other
directions will contribute less to the obtained signal.
2
We can note that the consideration of real antennas characteristics in the
deterministic model is crucial and contributes to the validation and realism of
the received signal synthesized with the modeling.
2. By comparing the two ﬁgures, it seems that the second RI is less dense. In fact, it
is the ﬁrst and main ray which has more energy in this case.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 119
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
7
.
I
l
l
u
s
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
r
(
τ
)
D
O
A
(
s
e
e
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
3
)
a
n
d
t
h
e
T
x

R
x
i
d
e
a
l
a
n
t
e
n
n
a
s
p
o
l
a
r
i
z
e
d
a
l
o
n
g
θ
120 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Figure 4.8. Satimo Stargate 32 nearﬁeld antenna measurement engine
4.7. Building material eﬀects on channel properties
The previously described studies were made for materials whose properties
are reported in Table 4.1. So, the received signal reported in Figure 4.11(a)
is obtained for a LOS link (see Figure 4.3), the waveform transmission in
Figure 4.2(b) and the use of a couple of CMA antennas. This signal is the
same as that reported in Figure 4.9(a).
Considering the properties reported in Table 4.2, the eﬀect of building
material properties on the received signal synthesized by deterministic modeling
is underlined. The new adopted properties correspond to a reduction of the
previous wall thickness values (see Table 4.1), to a change of window structure
and especially to an increase of ﬂoor and ceiling conductivity. In fact, the
reinforced concrete used for constructing ﬂoors and ceilings at various stages of
house building are made with metallic rods which can contribute to the increase
in conductivity.
The signal received with these new material properties shows important
diﬀerences in comparison to the previous signals (see Figure 4.11). There are
rays arriving after the direct path which show a higher level. These rays are
those which connected the transmitter and receiver and reﬂected on the ﬂoor or
the ceiling. So, the conductivity increase σ of the reinforced concrete introduces
a high level contribution on the received signal for the rays which interact with
the ceiling or the ﬂoor.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 121
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.9. Received signal and ray contributions corresponding to the CMA
antennas: received signal after the receiving antenna (a) and 3D rays
with their corresponding contribution (b)
122 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.10. Received signal and ray contributions corresponding to the CMA
antennas (rotation of 35
◦
in θ for both Tx and Rx antennas): received signal after
receiving antenna (a) and 3D rays with their corresponding contributions (b)
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 123
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.11. Received signal obtained with CMA antennas for two conﬁgurations
of building material properties: case of materials in Table 4.1 and
case of materials in Table 4.2
124 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Elements Materials
Material properties
r
r
μ
r
μ
r
σ (S/m) Δδ (m) e (cm)
Walls brick 3.8 0 1 0 0.05 0 7
Windows glass 3.1 0 1 0 0 0 0.5
air 1 0 1 0 0 0 0.5
glass 3.1 0 1 0 0 0 0.5
Doors wood 2.84 −0.02 1 0 0 0 3
Ceiling reinforced concrete 7.7 0 1 0 10 0 10
Floor reinforced concrete 7.7 0 1 0 10 0 —
Table 4.2. Properties and structure of various building environment
considered for the study of material inﬂuence
In addition to the antennas, the change of material properties strongly
aﬀects the received signal shape. In order to increase the realism of the
waveforms obtained with a deterministic modeling tool, the characterization
of building materials is needed to insert into the modeling the good
material properties for the environment considered in link modeling
[KRA 93, SAT 95, HUA 96, COU 98, MUQ 03a].
4.8. Simulation and measurement comparisons
In this section, comparisons are made between the results of the realized
measurements (see section 3.4.2.2) and the performed simulations using the
deterministic model described in section 4.5. These comparisons allow us to
evaluate the impact of the antenna characteristics in the described model and
the received signal building for various LOS links.
These comparisons consider a transmitted signal covering a band of
2–6 GHz. As the measurements were made in the frequency domain, no
impulse signal is applied. Nevertheless, the transmitted signal corresponds to
a sinc function in the time domain.
4.8.1. Evaluation of real antenna consideration
To evaluate the consideration of antenna radiation characteristics in
the deterministic model described in section 4.5, direct link measurements
were made in an anechoic chamber. This conﬁguration allows us to be free
from multipath and to obtain a direct link with only one ray [TCH 06]. For
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 125
this evaluation, two antenna couples are used: directive horn antennas and
omnidirectional CMA antennas.
In the anechoic chamber, the antennas are placed at the same height and
directed, in the case of horn antennas, so that both antenna directions of
maximum gain face each other. This conﬁguration is reproduced in simulation
for the same departure and arrival directions as in the measurement.
The simulation uses antenna characteristics data obtained from wideband
measurement made in the Stargate 32 engine [TCH 05b].
Figure 4.12 illustrates the impulse response and transfers functions obtained
with measurement and simulation in the case of the couple of horn antennas.
We can observe a good matching between measurements and simulation
results. Although there is only one ray, the obtained transfer functions are
not constant. This can be explained by the frequency dependencies of antenna
characteristics which aﬀect the channel transfer function.
Figure 4.13 illustrates the impulse responses and transfers functions
obtained with measurement and simulation in the case of the couple of
CMA antennas. We can also notice in this case a good matching between
measurements and simulation results.
The comparison of these two conﬁgurations testify to the relevance of
antenna characteristics in deterministic link modeling. Indeed, according to
their characteristics, antennas will aﬀect the shape of the received impulse
responses. Moreover, the comparison between measurement and simulation
validates the adopted vectorial insertion of antenna characteristics in the
described deterministic model.
4.8.2. Evaluation of impulse response reconstruction
To evaluate the impulse response reconstruction, the focus here is on LOS
links for which the measurement conﬁgurations are described in section 3.4.2.2.
In each of the shown ﬁgures, the measured and simulated impulse responses as
well as transfer functions are superimposed. The measurement and simulation
results are respectively represented in gray and black.
These illustrations concern four typical LOS situations extracted from 126
measurements points made in the environment described in section 3.4.2.2.
Figures 4.14 and 4.15 represent the results obtained considering the four
following positions corresponding to 1.14 m, 4.38 m, 6.78 m and 8.94 m
distances.
126 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
The measured and simulated transfer functions show a great similarity
in terms of level and ﬂuctuations in form (see Figure 4.14). The same
high frequency decrease is observed in measurement and simulation.
Nevertheless, some diﬀerences are presented on the transfer function reported
in Figure 4.14(a). These diﬀerences can be explained by the fact that for the
presented results the transmitter was placed near a stone made ﬁreplace. In
simulation, a normal wall made with concrete was considered. Moreover, some
diﬀerences can also be observed in phase information. This can be explained
by the rays considered for the modeling, which are insuﬃcient to provide
access to the degree of measurement detail.
Although the transfer functions seem diﬀerent, we can note a great
accordance between measured and simulated impulse responses (see
Figure 4.15). Moreover, the simulated impulse responses are less consistent
in term of rays compared to the measurement impulse responses. This can
be explained by the simpliﬁed description of the environment used in the
modeling. This simple description of the environment leads us to discard
furniture and the inappropriate material properties for the considered
environment walls.
We may keep in mind that in such situations of very good concordance
between simulation and measurement results, the simulation represents the
beneﬁt of giving additional information like departure and arrival angles. The
channel is here known on various dimensions and with less cost than using a
sounder with a single sensor.
4.9. Conclusion
For a long time, the deployment of narrowband technologies has used the
deterministic modeling of the radio propagation channel to establish coverage
maps. With the use of UWB technology, some deterministic models have
been proposed for signal prediction in new context. These models allow signal
prediction and the rapid study of various environments with low costs in
terms of channel transmission eﬀects on the UWB link.
From all the deterministic models presented, those which use frequency
domain formalisms clearly seem better suited for the study of UWB wave
propagation. More especially, the detailed Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom model
allows us to easily insert the antenna radiation information in the model.
Moreover, this model naturally enables the access to DoD and DoA information
as the electromagnetic calculations are performed ray by ray. The contributions
of all the rays are then summed to obtain the overall received signal.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 127
When deterministic modeling is used in UWB, it is important to take into
account antenna characteristics and to use appropriate material properties for
the considered environment. The reconstructed signal is strongly dependent on
the number and relevance of the rays used in modeling. This ﬁrstly depends
on the techniques used for ray determination and secondly on the details with
which the environment is described.
128 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(
V
)
delay (ns)
(a)
(
l
e
v
e
l
)
(
r
a
d
i
a
n
)
Magnitude
Phase
Freq (GHz)
Freq (GHz)
(b)
Figure 4.12. Measurement (gray) and simulation (black) received signals for
the couple of horn antennas: (a) impulse response and (b) transfer function:
magnitude and phase
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 129
(
V
)
delay (ns)
(a)
(
l
e
v
e
l
)
(
r
a
d
i
a
n
)
Magnitude
Phase
Freq (GHz)
Freq (GHz)
(b)
Figure 4.13. Measurement (gray) and simulation (black) received signals for
the couple of CMA antennas: (a) impulse response and (b) transfer function:
magnitude and phase
130 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
( l e v e l ) ( r a d i a n )
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
P
h
a
s
e
F
r
e
q
(
G
H
z
)
F
r
e
q
(
G
H
z
)
(
a
)
( l e v e l ) ( r a d i a n )
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
P
h
a
s
e
F
r
e
q
(
G
H
z
)
F
r
e
q
(
G
H
z
)
(
b
)
( l e v e l ) ( r a d i a n )
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
P
h
a
s
e
F
r
e
q
(
G
H
z
)
F
r
e
q
(
G
H
z
)
(
c
)
( l e v e l ) ( r a d i a n )
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
P
h
a
s
e
F
r
e
q
(
G
H
z
)
F
r
e
q
(
G
H
z
)
(
d
)
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
1
4
.
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
d
(
g
r
a
y
)
a
n
d
s
i
m
u
l
a
t
e
d
(
b
l
a
c
k
)
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s
f
o
r
4
d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
s
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
T
x
a
n
d
R
x
:
(
a
)
d
=
1
.
1
4
m
,
(
b
)
d
=
4
.
3
8
m
,
(
c
)
d
=
6
.
7
8
m
a
n
d
(
d
)
d
=
8
.
9
4
m
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 131
( V )
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
(
a
)
( V )
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
(
b
)
( V )
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
(
c
)
( V )
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
(
d
)
F
i
g
u
r
e
4
.
1
5
.
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
d
(
g
r
a
y
)
a
n
d
s
i
m
u
l
a
t
e
d
(
b
l
a
c
k
)
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
i
m
p
u
l
s
e
r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
s
f
o
r
4
d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
s
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
T
x
a
n
d
R
x
:
(
a
)
d
=
1
.
1
4
m
,
(
b
)
d
=
4
.
3
8
m
,
(
c
)
d
=
6
.
7
8
m
a
n
d
(
d
)
d
=
8
.
9
4
m
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Chapter 5
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel
Deterministic modeling makes a relatively accurate reproduction of the
UWB channel properties possible for a given conﬁguration in a known
environment. Assuming that the elementary propagation phenomena are well
modeled, the obtained impulse responses can be very realistic. The main
constraints linked to this type of model lie in their long calculation time and
the necessity of describing the considered environment in detail.
Statistical models represent an interesting alternative for the simulation of
UWB communication systems. They consist of reproducing a possible behavior
of the propagation channel in a given type of environment. They are based on
a large number of measurements, from which each parameter of the model is
deﬁned using a statistical law. These models enable the random generation of
diﬀerent impulse responses.
This chapter presents the statistical modeling of the UWB channel
through a practical approach. The principles of UWB propagation channel
characterization is ﬁrst illustrated from a series of measurements performed in
an indoor oﬃce environment. For each step of the characterization process,
experimental results are compared to the main anaylses published in the
literature. Following a description of the diﬀerent statistical models of the
UWB channel, a full channel model is detailed. Its practical conception
is based on a set of experimental characteristics. In particular, advanced
techniques are presented for the modeling of spatial and temporal variations
of the UWB channel.
134 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
5.1. Experimental characterization of channel parameters
In this section, the characterization process of the UWB propagation
channel is illustrated from a measurement campaign covering the whole FCC
frequency band. The description of this measurement campaign is given
in section 3.4.2.1. This study also compares the experimental results from
diﬀerent analyses of the UWB channel.
5.1.1. Propagation loss
5.1.1.1. Frequency propagation loss
One of the channel properties characteristic to UWB signals is the
power decay observed with increasing frequency. In an ideal free space
conﬁguration, the propagation loss is given by the Friis formula, as
recalled in equation [2.34]. This formula implies that for a given distance
d, the channel power transfer function (see equation [2.36]), expressed
in dB, should follow a frequency variation in the form of −20 log(f). It
should be noted that this frequency dependence is linked to the eﬀective
area of an isotropic antenna and is not strictly speaking a characteristic
of the propagation channel. In the literature, the attenuation of the
received power as the frequency increases has been observed in diﬀerent
studies dedicated to antennas [KOV 03, HOF 03], or to the UWB channel
[CHE 02, KUN 02a, ALV 03, BAL 04b, HAN 04, CHO 05, PAG 05]. As an
example, Table 5.1 presents diﬀerent estimates of the frequency dependent
path loss exponent N
f
. We may observe a relative diversity in the obtained
values, as some of the authors even reported an increase in the received power
with increasing frequency [KOV 03]. This may be explained by the high
dependence between the parameter N
f
and the measurement antenna.
Measurement
campaign
Whyless.com
[KUN 02a]
Aalborg University
[KOV 03]
Instit. for
Infocomm
Research
[BAL 04b]
Samsung
[CHO 05]
N
f
1.6 to 2.8 −0.3 to 5.5 1.0 to 3.7 2.0 to 3.1
Table 5.1. Estimation of the frequency dependent path loss exponent for diﬀerent
analyses of the UWB channel. The published values have been adapted to the
deﬁnition of the parameter N
f
used in this book
In order to estimate the frequency dependent path loss, we studied the
channel attenuation at diﬀerent frequencies regularly spaced between 4 GHz
and 10 GHz. For each measurement location, the path loss PL(f, d) was
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 135
extracted from the power transfer function at the selected frequencies. In order
to remove the distance dependency, each power transfer function was initially
normalized by arbitrarily setting the attenuation of the total received power
over the whole measurement bandwidth to 0 dB. The resulting normalized
path loss PL
norm
(f) can be compared to a model in the form:
PL
norm
(f) = PL
norm
f
0
+ 10N
f
log
f
f
0
+S(f) [5.1]
where S(f) represents a residual term with zero mean expressing the diﬀerence
in dB between the measurement and the model.
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Frequency (GHz)
P
L
n
o
r
m
(
f
)
(
d
B
)
Figure 5.1. Average normalized path loss vs. frequency
The normalized path loss averaged over all measurement locations is
represented as a function of frequency in Figure 5.1. It should be noted that
the antenna gains G
T
(f) and G
R
(f), measured in an anechoic chamber, were
subtracted from each power transfer function at the selected frequencies, prior
to path loss calculation. For each antenna, the antenna gain was selected by
taking the direction of the direct transmitterreceiver path into account. This
approach may seem simplistic a priori, as the total power is not only received
via the direct path, but also via numerous multipaths arriving from other
directions. However, with no further knowledge of the departure and arrival
direction of these secondary paths, this method makes a sensible compensation
of the antenna eﬀect possible. We may observe that the dispersion of the
measured plots around the linear approximation is reduced to a standard
deviation of σ
S
= 0.6 dB. The frequency dependent path loss exponent is
N
f
= 2.28. With respect to the error level inherent to the measurement
136 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
and calculation methods, this value may be considered close to the theory
(N
f
= 2). Hence, we recommend using the theoretical frequency loss of
20 log(f) in the modeling of UWB propagation channels, as suggested in
[BUE 03].
5.1.1.2. Distance propagation loss
In the previous section, we observed that the used antennas may have a
nonnegligible impact on the radio parameters. In the following analyses, in
order to minimize this eﬀect, the collected data were corrected by accounting for
the gain of both antennas, measured in the direction of the transmitterreceiver
path. The antenna radiation patterns, measured every GHz, were interpolated
in frequency.
According to the previous analysis on the frequency path loss, all
measurements were ﬁtted to a general formula as follows:
PL(f, d) = PL
f
0
, d
0
+ 20 log
f
f
0
+ 10N
d
log
d
d
0
+S(f, d) [5.2]
where f
0
represents the central frequency of 6.85 GHz and d
0
is an arbitrary
distance of 1 m.
0.6 0.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
Distance (m)
A
t
t
e
n
u
t
a
t
i
o
n
(
d
B
)
LOS
NLOS
Figure 5.2. Path loss vs. distance. Each point represents
the median attenuation in the FCC band
For each measurement location, the accounted path loss is the median
attenuation in the FCC band, after shifting each measurement to the reference
frequency f
0
. Path loss exponents were obtained by linear ﬁt in each LOS and
NLOS situation. Figure 5.2 presents the obtained results. The measurement
plots mainly follow a linear decay in logscale, which corresponds to an
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 137
exponential decay of the received power with respect to the distance. In the
LOS situation, a path loss exponent N
d
= 1.62 was recorded, with a standard
deviation σ
S
= 1.7 dB.
1
In the NLOS case, the measurement plots are
somewhat more dispersed, with a distance dependent path loss exponent N
d
= 3.22, and a standard deviation σ
S
= 5.7 dB.
2
The values of the parameter
PL(f
0
, d
0
) were respectively evaluated at 53.7 dB and 59.4 dB. Table 5.2
shows that these values are in line with other analyses of the UWB channel
published in the literature. For comparison purposes, the UWB path loss
parameters proposed by the standardization organization ITU [ITU 04] are
also reported.
More details regarding the inﬂuence of frequency on the path loss
coeﬃcients are given in [PAJ 07]. In general, these parameters undergo a
negligible variation when they are observed on partial frequency bands within
the 3.1–10.6 GHz band.
5.1.2. Impulse response characterization
Figure 5.3 presents typical PDP measured in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations,
as well as one of the 90 impulse responses. The delay on the xaxis has been
converted in path length in meters, to ease the interpretation of the main paths.
In both LOS and NLOS situations, we may observe one or several clusters,
corresponding to a main echo followed by an exponential decay of diﬀuse power.
In the LOS case, walls or pieces of furniture in the vicinity of the radio link
generate signiﬁcant reﬂected or diﬀracted echoes, which explains the presence
of peaks in the PDP. An attenuation of 10 dB to 20 dB has thus been observed
between the power of the main path of each cluster and the power of the
secondary paths. The general shape of the PDP is globally smoother in the
NLOS case.
5.1.2.1. Delay spread
The RMS delay spread τ
RMS
was calculated for each measured PDP,
over the whole 3.1–10.6 GHz band. In order to minimize the eﬀect of noise,
a threshold placed 20 dB below the maximum value of the PDP was used.
1. In the LOS case, the value of N
d
may be lower than in the theoretical case of free
space (N
d
= 2). This is due to the waveguide eﬀect, frequently observed in indoor
conﬁgurations (see section 2.2.2).
2. This signiﬁcant value of the standard deviation in the NLOS case may be explained
by the diversity of NLOS conﬁgurations, as the obstruction between the transmitter
and the receiver may result from a single plasterboard or several concrete walls.
138 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Measurement N
d
σ
S
(dB) PL(f
0
, d
0
) (dB)
campaign LOS NLOS LOS NLOS LOS NLOS
UltRaLab [CAS 01] 2.4 5.9
AT&T Labs  MIT [GHA 02a] 1.7 3.5 1.6 2.7 47 51
Time Domain Corporation
[YAN 02]
2.1 3.55
Intel Labs [CHE 02] 1.72 4.09 1.48 3.63
Whyless.com [KUN 02a] 1.58 1.96
UCAN  CEA LETI [KEI 03] 1.6 to
1.7
3.7 to
7.2
Ultrawaves  Oulu University
[HOV 03]
1.04 to
1.80
3.18 to
3.85
UCAN  Cantabria University
[ALV 03]
1.4 3.2 to
4.1
New Jersey Instit. of Tech.
[DAB 03]
1.55 to
1.72
0.77 to
1.98
NETEX  Virginia Tech
[MUQ 03b]
1.58 to
1.60
2.41 to
2.60
1.6 to
1.9
3.3 to
6.1
NETEX  Virginia Tech
[BUE 03]
1.3 2.3 to
2.4
2.8 to
3.6
2.8 to
5.4
AT&T  WINLAB [GHA 03b] 2.01 to
2.07
2.95 to
3.12
2.3 to
3.2
3.8 to
4.1
43.7 to
45.9
47.3 to
50.3
Hong Kong University [LI 03] 1.8 3.4 0.6 3.2
Ultrawaves  University of
Rome “Tor Vergata”
[CAS 04a]
1.92 3.66 1.42 2.18 48.68 47.24
Instit. for Infocomm Research
[BAL 04b]
1.8 1.8 to
2.1
1.5 2.4 to
4.2
36.6 46.4 to
52
ETH Z¨ urich [SCH 04] 1.2 to
1.6
2.2 49 to
51
45
Samsung [CHO 05] 1.18 to
2.48
2.18 to
2.69
0.93 to
1.50
1.43 to
4.69
46.5 to
50.1
41.3 to
47.3
France Telecom  INSA
[PAG 06b]
1.62 3.22 1.7 5.7 53.7 59.4
ITU Recommendation
[ITU 04]
1.7 3.5 to 7 1.5 2.7 to 4
Table 5.2. Estimate of the distance dependent path loss for diﬀerent analyses
of the UWB channel
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 139
(a)
0 20 40 60 80
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distancedelay (m)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
IR
PDP
(b)
0 20 40 60 80
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distancedelay (m)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
IR
PDP
Figure 5.3. Typical PDP and impulse response.
(a) LOS and (b) NLOS conﬁgurations
Over the whole set of measurements performed in LOS conﬁguration, the
mean delay spread is τ
RMS
= 4.1 ns, with a standard deviation σ
τ
= 2.7 ns.
In the NLOS conﬁguration, the mean delay spread is τ
RMS
= 9.9 ns, with
a standard deviation σ
τ
= 5.0 ns. Table 5.3 presents the results published
in other analyses of the UWB radio channel. Values obtained for τ
RMS
are in accordance with some of the previous experiments, although this
parameter may vary from one experiment to the other. This is due to the
high sensitivity of this parameter to the measurement environment and to the
used experimental setup. The large scope of values in the published results
may also be explained by the diﬀerent thresholds used when calculating τ
RMS
[CAS 04a].
140 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t
τ
R
M
S
(
n
s
)
σ
τ
(
n
s
)
c
a
m
p
a
i
g
n
L
O
S
N
L
O
S
L
O
S
N
L
O
S
U
C
A
N

C
E
A
L
E
T
I
[
K
E
I
0
3
]
1
0
.
9
t
o
1
2
.
2
9
.
9
t
o
2
2
.
4
1
.
9
t
o
2
.
1
1
.
4
t
o
9
.
5
T
i
m
e
D
o
m
a
i
n
C
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
D
S
O
)
[
P
E
N
0
2
]
5
.
2
7
8
.
7
8
t
o
1
4
.
5
9
T
i
m
e
D
o
m
a
i
n
C
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
c
o
r
r
e
l
a
t
o
r
)
[
Y
A
N
0
2
]
5
.
7
2
5
.
2
2
A
T
&
T
L
a
b
s

M
I
T
[
G
H
A
0
2
a
]
4
.
7
8
.
2
2
.
3
3
.
3
N
e
w
J
e
r
s
e
y
I
n
s
t
i
t
.
o
f
T
e
c
h
.
[
D
A
B
0
3
]
7
.
7
1
t
o
1
7
.
3
4
N
E
T
E
X

V
i
r
g
i
n
i
a
T
e
c
h
[
B
U
E
0
3
]
0
.
5
3
t
o
4
.
5
5
2
.
3
0
t
o
1
8
.
5
0
A
T
&
T

W
I
N
L
A
B
[
G
H
A
0
3
a
]
3
.
3
8
t
o
5
.
4
9
7
.
3
1
t
o
8
.
1
5
1
.
5
8
t
o
1
.
6
3
2
.
4
5
t
o
3
.
4
7
H
o
n
g
K
o
n
g
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
[
L
I
0
3
]
1
9
.
9
1
4
.
3
1
.
8
2
.
8
L
u
n
d
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
[
K
A
R
0
4
b
]
2
8
t
o
3
1
3
4
t
o
4
0
I
n
s
t
i
t
.
o
f
I
n
f
o
c
o
m
m
R
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
[
B
A
L
0
4
b
]
1
5
.
6
1
8
.
7
t
o
2
3
.
6
E
T
H
Z
¨ u
r
i
c
h
[
S
C
H
0
4
]
2
1
.
0
8
t
o
5
3
.
6
2
3
1
.
1
1
t
o
7
4
.
0
8
1
.
6
3
t
o
3
.
3
7
1
.
8
7
t
o
7
.
0
4
S
a
m
s
u
n
g
[
C
H
O
0
5
]
1
2
.
4
8
t
o
1
4
2
6
.
5
1
t
o
3
8
.
6
1
1
.
5
3
t
o
1
.
8
7
5
.
2
2
t
o
8
.
0
3
F
r
a
n
c
e
T
e
l
e
c
o
m

I
N
S
A
[
P
A
G
0
6
b
]
4
.
1
9
.
9
2
.
7
5
T
a
b
l
e
5
.
3
.
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
o
f
t
h
e
d
e
l
a
y
s
p
r
e
a
d
f
o
r
d
i
ﬀ
e
r
e
n
t
a
n
a
l
y
s
e
s
o
f
t
h
e
U
W
B
c
h
a
n
n
e
l
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 141
In order to observe the evolution of these parameters with frequency, the
mean values of τ
RMS
calculated for seven partial bands of 528 MHz each are
represented in Figure 5.4 as a function of the central frequency of each band.
For each band, the value of σ
τ
is represented by the length of the vertical line.
The values of τ
RMS
and σ
τ
obtained in each partial band are relatively close
to the values calculated from the global UWB frequency band. As can be seen,
the delay spread is not aﬀected by the frequency. This was also observed by
the University of Oulu from measurements performed in the 1–11 GHz band
[JAM 04].
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
0
5
10
15
Central frequency (GHz)
R
M
S
d
e
l
a
y
s
p
r
e
a
d
(
n
s
)
LOS NLOS
Figure 5.4. Mean delay spread for diﬀerent partial bands. The length of the vertical
line represents the corresponding standard deviation
5.1.2.2. Power delay proﬁle decay
Exponential decay constants
The typical PDP presented in Figure 5.3 shows that the received power
is grouped in diﬀerent clusters, corresponding to the main propagation
echoes. The decay of the received power with increasing delay is generally
characterized with the inter and intracluster exponential decay constants,
respectively denoted Γ and γ (see section 2.4.1.4).
To evaluate these parameters, the time intervals corresponding to the
clusters of each measured PDP are identiﬁed by visual inspection. This
technique was also used in [KAR 04a]. In each of the identiﬁed interval, a
linear ﬁt is performed at the delays included between the maximum and the
minimum values of the PDP (expressed in dB). This enables the extraction
of the intracluster exponential decay constant γ. The intercluster decay
142 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
constant Γ is obtained using a linear ﬁt on the maximum of each cluster.
In all cases, only the parts of the PDP presenting a power larger than 5 dB
above the noise level were considered. Figure 5.5 illustrates this parameter
extraction.
0 30 60 90 120
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Delay (ns)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
Intercluster decay
Intracluster decay
Figure 5.5. Extraction of the inter and intracluster exponential decay constants
Among all PDP measured in a LOS situation, between 3 and 8 clusters (5.6
on average) were identiﬁed. The mean exponential decay constants have been
evaluated as Γ = 15.7 ns and γ = 7.5 ns. In NLOS conﬁguration, the PDP
encompass between 1 and 4 clusters (2.4 on average). The mean exponential
decay constants have been assessed as Γ = 16.5 ns and γ = 12.0 ns.
Table 5.4 compares these experimental values with results published from
similar experiments. In some analyses [CAS 02, ALV 03], the whole PDP was
considered as a single cluster, which explains the lack of results regarding Γ.
The value of the parameters Γ and γ is generally between 7 ns and 30 ns,
even if some higher values have occasionally been reported [CRA 02, ALV 03,
CHO 04a]. The intercluster decay is generally stronger than the intracluster
decay. Results published in [KAR 04b] are a particular case where this tendency
is inversed, and where the values of Γ and γ are quite low. This may arise from
the measurement environment, as the experiment took place in a factory. For
this experiment, a dependency of the parameter γ with the delay has been
observed. In [CRA 02], the authors suggest that the constant Γ is linked to
the building architecture, while γ is determined by the objects in the vicinity
of the receiving antenna. The diversity of the sounded environments may thus
explain the variety of the obtained results.
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 143
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t
Γ
(
n
s
)
γ
(
n
s
)
c
a
m
p
a
i
g
n
L
O
S
N
L
O
S
L
O
S
N
L
O
S
W
h
y
l
e
s
s
.
c
o
m
[
K
U
N
0
2
a
]
1
3
.
6
U
l
t
R
a
L
a
b
[
C
A
S
0
2
]
1
6
.
1
U
l
t
R
a
L
a
b
[
C
R
A
0
2
]
2
7
.
9
8
4
.
1
U
C
A
N

C
E
A
L
E
T
I
[
K
E
I
0
3
]
1
4
.
5
t
o
2
1
9
t
o
2
0
6
t
o
8
5
t
o
1
5
U
C
A
N

C
a
n
t
a
b
r
i
a
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
[
A
L
V
0
3
]
1
0
0
1
2
5
t
o
1
6
7
N
E
T
E
X

V
i
r
g
i
n
i
a
T
e
c
h
[
B
U
E
0
3
,
M
C
K
0
3
]
7
.
1
2
1
2
8
I
n
t
e
l
L
a
b
s
[
F
O
E
0
3
b
]
7
.
6
1
6
1
.
6
8
.
5
U
l
t
r
a
w
a
v
e
s

U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
o
f
R
o
m
e
“
T
o
r
V
e
r
g
a
t
a
”
[
C
A
S
0
4
b
]
1
3
1
0
.
8
3
t
o
1
3
.
9
7
7
t
o
5
8
L
u
n
d
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
[
K
A
R
0
4
b
]
2
.
6
3
4
.
9
4
4
.
5
8
5
.
5
8
S
a
m
s
u
n
g
[
C
H
O
0
4
a
]
2
2
.
1
t
o
2
4
.
0
3
6
.
9
t
o
5
1
.
5
1
4
.
3
t
o
3
0
.
8
2
7
.
4
t
o
3
8
.
6
I
n
s
t
i
t
.
o
f
I
n
f
o
c
o
m
m
R
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
[
B
A
L
0
4
b
]
2
7
.
8
2
4
.
6
t
o
3
0
.
4
1
4
.
1
2
5
.
3
t
o
3
3
.
8
F
r
a
n
c
e
T
e
l
e
c
o
m

I
N
S
A
[
P
A
G
0
6
b
]
1
5
.
7
1
6
.
5
7
.
5
1
2
.
0
T
a
b
l
e
5
.
4
.
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
o
f
t
h
e
P
D
P
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l
d
e
c
a
y
c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t
s
f
o
r
d
i
ﬀ
e
r
e
n
t
a
n
a
l
y
s
e
s
o
f
t
h
e
U
W
B
c
h
a
n
n
e
l
.
T
h
e
p
u
b
l
i
s
h
e
d
v
a
l
u
e
s
h
a
v
e
b
e
e
n
a
d
a
p
t
e
d
t
o
t
h
e
d
e
ﬁ
n
i
t
i
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
Γ
a
n
d
γ
u
s
e
d
i
n
t
h
i
s
b
o
o
k
144 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Power decay constants
The assumption of an exponential decay for the cluster and ray amplitudes
was ﬁrst introduced by Saleh and Valenzuela from their observation of
the indoor wideband radio channel [SAL 87]. However, the analysis of the
results from the measurement campaign shows that exponential decay is not
completely satisfactory to model the slope of the PDP. Indeed, following
this assumption, the PDP expressed in logscale should present a linear
decrease with increasing delay. The whole PDP as well as each constitutive
cluster should hence ﬁt into a triangular shape. This general shape is not
representative of the experimental observations (see Figure 5.5).
By considering successive echoes of the main path, we may identify two main
sources of attenuation. On the one hand the propagation of the wavefront over
a longer path induces a stronger power loss. On the other hand, delayed echoes
undergo more propagation phenomena, which can be of a diﬀerent nature, such
as reﬂection or diﬀraction. This physical interpretation leads us to model the
multipath attenuation following a similar approach to that used for distance
path loss. We may recall that in this case, the observed attenuation at a
transmitterreceiver distance d is proportional to d
−N
d
, where N
d
represents
the distance dependent path loss exponent. Regarding the diﬀerent rays of the
impulse response, the length of a propagation path is proportional to its delay.
Hence, we suggest an adaptation of the Saleh and Valenzuela model, where
the cluster and ray amplitudes decrease according to a power function. In the
classical formalism presented in section 2.4.1.4, the amplitude β
k,l
of the k
th
ray in the l
th
cluster (see equation [2.33]) is replaced by the following formula:
β
2
kl
= β
2
11
T
l
T
1
−Ω
τ
k,l
+T
l
T
l
−ω
[5.3]
where T
l
represents the delay associated with the l
th
cluster and τ
k,l
is the delay
of the k
th
ray within the l
th
cluster. The parameters Ω and ω are respectively
called intercluster and intracluster power decay constants.
As for the case of exponential decay, the values of the parameters Ω and ω
have been assessed by linear ﬁt on the PDP clusters. In each case, the standard
deviation σ
ε
of the error in dB between the model and the measurement
has been calculated, in order to validate the proposed approach. Figure 5.6
illustrates the extraction of the parameters Ω and ω. It can be compared to the
results reported in Figure 5.5.
Regarding intercluster decay, using a power function instead of an
exponential function leads to a decrease in the average standard deviation
σ
ε
from 4.8 dB to 2.9 dB in the LOS case, and from 2.4 dB to 1.7 dB in the
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 145
0 30 60 90 120
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Delay (ns)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
Intercluster decay
Intracluster decay
Figure 5.6. Extraction of the inter and intracluster power decay constants
NLOS case. Regarding the intracluster decay, the average modeling error σ
ε
decreases from 1.9 dB to 1.8 dB in the LOS case, and from 1.7 dB to 1.6 dB
in the NLOS case. This validates the proposed model, which is closer to our
experimental measurements. Finally, in the LOS conﬁguration, we observed a
signiﬁcant power attenuation G between the main path of each cluster and the
following rays, as may be seen in the example of Figure 5.6. This phenomenon
was already observed for UWB channels in [CAS 02] and [KUN 03].
Over the whole set of experimental measurements, we observed the average
values Ω = 4.4 and ω = 11.1 in the LOS case, and Ω = 3.9 and ω = 10.2 in the
NLOS case. In the LOS conﬁguration, the average attenuation G was measured
at 12 dB.
5.1.2.3. Ray and cluster arrival rate
Study of the clusters
In order to estimate the arrival time statistics for a new cluster, we consider
the arrival time of the l
th
cluster, noted T
l
, over the whole set of measured
PDP presenting more than one cluster. This corresponds to the delay of the
maximum value of the PDP in each time interval representing a cluster. The
statistical distribution of the intercluster durations ΔT is then studied. ΔT is
calculated as follows:
ΔT = T
l+1
−T
l
, l ∈ [1; L −1] [5.4]
where L represents the number of clusters in the PDP.
Over the whole set of PDP presenting more than one cluster, the average
intercluster duration was ΔT = 27.4 ns in the LOS case and ΔT = 40.1 ns in
146 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
the NLOS case. The graphs in Figure 5.7 are percentilepercentile diagrams,
representing the experimental distribution percentiles of ΔT on the xaxis, and
the theoretical percentiles of an exponential distribution with parameter Λ on
the yaxis. The best ﬁt leads to a value Λ =
1
27.4 ns
= 36.5MHz in the LOS case,
and Λ =
1
40.1 ns
= 24.9 MHz in the NLOS case. In both cases, the alignment of
the plots on the diagram diagonal shows that the exponential distribution is a
reasonable approximation to modeling intercluster duration.
(a) (b)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Experimental ΔT (ns)
T
h
e
o
r
e
t
i
c
a
l
Δ
T
(
n
s
)
LOS
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
Experimental ΔT (ns)
T
h
e
o
r
e
t
i
c
a
l
Δ
T
(
n
s
)
NLOS
Figure 5.7. Percentilepercentile diagrams for the intercluster duration.
Experimental percentiles vs. theoretical percentiles corresponding to
an exponential distribution with parameter Λ = 36.5 MHz in the
LOS case (a) and Λ = 24.9 MHz in the NLOS case (b)
Study of the rays
Individual echoes due to the diﬀerent multiple paths are not directly
observable on the measured PDP. Because of the limited frequency band
of the measurement, each echo is received in the form of an impulse with
nonzero duration. The impulse response is a continuous waveform composed
of the sum of all individual contributions, each one presenting a diﬀerent
attenuation and a diﬀerent phase rotation.
Diﬀerent methods are available to extract the delay and amplitude
information of the main paths constituting an impulse response. The
CLEAN method, initially used in radio astronomy [H
¨
OG 74], was adopted
by diﬀerent researchers for the characterization of the UWB radio channel
[YAN 02, PEN 02]. This method was modiﬁed by the University of South
California for the study of the arrival direction [CRA 02]. The Tokyo Institute
of Technology used an algorithm based on the highresolution method called
space alternating generalized expectation (SAGE), also allowing the analysis
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 147
of the arrival direction [HAN 03]. It should be noted that these two studies
were based on measurements performed with a large number of colocated
sensors.
In order to illustrate the process of ray identiﬁcation we present
here the frequency domain maximum likelihood (FDML) algorithm
[DEN 03a, LEE 02]. The search of ray locations is performed in an iterative
way, from the representation of the impulse response in its real form h
(τ).
As an assumption, the channel is thus described in the form:
h
(τ) =
K
¸
k=1
β
k
δ
τ −τ
k
[5.5]
where K represents the number of rays, and β
k
and τ
k
are the real amplitude
and delay linked to the k
th
ray. The parameter β
k
may take negative values,
in order to account for the phase inversion linked to some interactions, such as
the reﬂections.
At each iteration of the process, a new ray is detected by ﬁnding the
correlation peak between the measured impulse response and a template
signal, corresponding to the sounding waveform. Contrarily to the CLEAN
algorithm, the FDML method proposes to optimize the whole set of detected
rays. This requires a minimization of the squared error between the measured
frequency spectrum and the synthetic spectrum, built from the identiﬁed
rays. This optimization presents two main advantages. First, it enables the
detection of superimposed rays, which does not always lead to a correlation
peak. Second, the processing is performed in the frequency domain, which
avoids the resolution limitations linked to the sampling rate in the time
domain. More details on adapting the FDML algorithm to accelerate the
calculation time are available in [PAG 05]. The results of the FDML algorithm
allow us to study the arrival time of the k
th
ray, over the whole set of selected
impulse responses. As with the clusters case, we study the distribution of the
interray durations, deﬁned as follows:
Δτ = τ
k+1
−τ
k
, k ∈ [1; K −1] [5.6]
where K represents the number of rays in the impulse response.
Over the whole set of measurements performed in both LOS and NLOS
conﬁgurations, the average interray duration was respectively evaluated at
Δτ = 0.168 ns and Δτ = 0.161 ns. Figure 5.8 presents a percentilepercentile
diagram used to compare the experimental distribution of Δτ to an exponential
distribution with parameter λ =
1
0.168 ns
= 5.95 GHz in the LOS case and
λ =
1
0.161 ns
= 6.19 GHz in the NLOS case. In this case, some diﬀerences may
148 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
be noted between the theoretical and experimental data, but the exponential
approximation still provides an acceptable ﬁt to the measurements.
(a) (b)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Experimental ΔT (ns)
T
h
e
o
r
e
t
i
c
a
l
Δ
T
(
n
s
)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Experimental ΔT (ns)
T
h
e
o
r
e
t
i
c
a
l
Δ
T
(
n
s
)
LOS NLOS
Figure 5.8. Percentilepercentile diagrams for the interray duration. Experimental
percentiles vs. theoretical percentiles corresponding to an exponential distribution
with (a) parameter λ = 5.95 GHz in the LOS case and (b) λ = 6.19 GHz
in the NLOS case
The experimental values obtained for the cluster arrival rate Λ and the ray
arrival rate λ are compared with the results available in the literature, shown in
Table 5.5. Regarding the cluster arrival rate, the observed values are generally
in the order of 10 to several hundreds of MHz. The average duration between
two clusters is thus in the order of 10 ns to 100 ns. It should be recalled that a
cluster within the PDP corresponds to a main path, arising from transmissions
or reﬂections on walls, on the ceiling or on the building ground. The parameter
Λ is thus dependent on the structure of the building where the measurement
took place. The ray arrival rate λ presents variable values depending on the
experiment. Indeed, values obtained depend highly on the ray identiﬁcation
technique that was used in the analysis. For this reason, researchers from the
German institute IMST advise to arbitrarily setting the interray duration at
the temporal resolution value obtained [KUN 02a]. In this case, the ray arrival
rate would be equal to the width B
w
of the analyzed band.
5.1.3. Study of smallscale channel variations
The last characteristic of the UWB radio channel studied from the
experimental campaign (see section 5.1) is related to the fast fading of the
impulse response. During the campaign, a rotating arm was used, which
enabled the measurement of the channel impulse response at 90 locations
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 149
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t
Λ
(
M
H
z
)
λ
(
M
H
z
)
c
a
m
p
a
i
g
n
L
O
S
N
L
O
S
L
O
S
N
L
O
S
W
h
y
l
e
s
s
.
c
o
m
[
K
U
N
0
2
a
]
1
0
0
t
o
1
0
0
0
B
w
U
l
t
R
a
L
a
b
[
C
R
A
0
2
]
2
1
.
9
8
4
3
4
.
7
8
U
C
A
N

C
E
A
L
E
T
I
[
K
E
I
0
3
]
1
0
t
o
2
5
1
0
t
o
8
0
0
4
5
t
o
1
8
0
1
5
0
0
t
o
5
5
0
0
N
E
T
E
X

V
i
r
g
i
n
i
a
T
e
c
h
[
B
U
E
0
3
,
M
C
K
0
3
]
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
4
2
9
7
1
4
I
n
t
e
l
L
a
b
s
[
F
O
E
0
3
b
]
1
6
.
7
9
0
.
9
2
0
0
0
2
8
5
7
U
l
t
r
a
w
a
v
e
s

U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
o
f
R
o
m
e
“
T
o
r
V
e
r
g
a
t
a
”
[
C
A
S
0
4
b
]
2
6
5
9
L
u
n
d
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
[
K
A
R
0
4
b
]
7
0
.
9
8
9
.
1
S
a
m
s
u
n
g
[
C
H
O
0
4
a
]
8
5
t
o
1
1
5
4
7
t
o
6
4
1
1
6
0
t
o
1
9
6
0
1
3
9
0
t
o
1
7
9
0
I
n
s
t
i
t
.
o
f
I
n
f
o
c
o
m
m
R
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
[
B
A
L
0
4
b
]
1
8
.
6
2
.
4
t
o
1
3
.
4
2
8
0
2
7
0
t
o
3
6
0
F
r
a
n
c
e
T
e
l
e
c
o
m

I
N
S
A
[
P
A
G
0
6
b
]
3
6
.
5
2
4
.
9
5
9
4
6
6
1
9
4
T
a
b
l
e
5
.
5
.
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
o
f
t
h
e
a
v
e
r
a
g
e
c
l
u
s
t
e
r
a
n
d
r
a
y
a
r
r
i
v
a
l
r
a
t
e
s
f
o
r
d
i
ﬀ
e
r
e
n
t
a
n
a
l
y
s
e
s
o
f
t
h
e
U
W
B
c
h
a
n
n
e
l
.
T
h
e
p
u
b
l
i
s
h
e
d
v
a
l
u
e
s
h
a
v
e
b
e
e
n
a
d
a
p
t
e
d
t
o
t
h
e
d
e
ﬁ
n
i
t
i
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
Λ
a
n
d
λ
u
s
e
d
i
n
t
h
i
s
b
o
o
k
150 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
situated around a circle of 20 cm in radius. For each measurement, the space
ﬂuctuation statistics were studied by comparing the 90 impulse responses
collected locally. The study consisted of analyzing the statistical distribution
of the amplitude of the received signal at each delay. In the literature,
previous studies showed that this distribution was well represented using a
Nakagami function [CAS 02]. The Nakagami m parameter was thus estimated
for each measured PDP, at delays separated by 0.5 ns on the time scale (see
Appendix B.1.3).
An example of values for the parameter mis given for a speciﬁc measurement
in Figure 5.9. As can be noted, the best ﬁtted Nakagami distribution presents
a parameter m close to 1 for the vast majority of the delays within the PDP.
Thus, the amplitude distribution of the impulse response for a given delay may
be correctly described using a Rayleigh distribution. This was observed for most
of the measured PDP. In addition, we may observe that the cases where the
parameter m takes higher values correspond to the main paths of the PDP. In
this case, the value of the parameter m may increase to m = 4 or m = 5, and
up to m = 8 in the extreme cases.
The characterization of amplitude distribution in the UWB impulse
response is a controversial issue in the literature. The Rayleigh distribution
has frequently been observed in the study of UWB radio channel fast
fading statistics [CRA 02, KUN 02a, SCH 04, KAR 04b]. Researchers
from ETH Z¨ urich [SCH 04] and from the Lund University [KAR 04b] also
noted a modiﬁcation of this distribution for the main path. Other studies
show that the fast fading is well represented by a Nakagami distribution
[CAS 02, CAS 04b, BAL 04b]. In this case, the parameter m may vary with
the delay. However, it has been demonstrated that a theoretical impulse
response presenting a Rayleigh fast fading may be observed as following a
Nakagami distribution, depending on the duration over which the received
power is integrated in the time domain [KUN 03]. Finally, it should be
noted that some analyses recommend that we use a lognormal distribution
[KEI 03, FOE 03b, LI 03, BUE 03, MCK 03] or a Rice distribution [HOV 02].
In practice, we may distinguish between two sources of channel ﬂuctuations
[HAS 94a]. Spatial variations arise when at least one of the antennas is moved in
an otherwise static environment. Temporal variations are due to environmental
modiﬁcations and may be observed in ﬁxed radio links. A study of the channel
variations when the transmitting antenna is moved on a 1 m
2
grid was presented
in [PAG 04]. Results show that in the case of the UWB channel, the delay
linked to the main paths of the impulse response signiﬁcantly varies while the
antenna is moved. This shift of the main paths in the time domain is due to
the high resolution of UWB signals and needs to be taken into account when
modeling the channel spatial variations. More details on these observations are
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 151
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
50
40
30
20
10
0
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
Delay (ns)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
1
2
3
4
N
a
k
a
g
a
m
i
m
Delay (ns)
PDP
Figure 5.9. Nakagami m parameter analysis. PDP measured in an NLOS situation
and parameter value m for each delay
available in [PAG 05]. In indoor environments, the temporal variations of the
propagation channel are mainly due to moving people. This phenomenon is
studied more particularly in the following section.
5.1.4. Eﬀect of moving people
The study of the eﬀect of moving people on the UWB channel is based on the
analysis of a measurement campaign performed in an indoor oﬃce environment.
For this campaign, a UWB sounder enabling real time measurements over the
4–5 GHz frequency band was used. During the measurement process, a group
of 1 to 12 people was walking in a corridor in the vicinity of a ﬁxed radio link.
A complete description of this campaign is given in section 3.4.2.3.
5.1.4.1. Observation of temporal variations
A typical impulse response collected during the experiment is given in
Figure 5.10. In this graph, the delay has been converted to path length in meters
to ease the interpretation of multipaths. After the direct path (a), whose length
corresponds to the transmitterreceiver distance (11 m), we may distinguish two
echoes (b) and (c) corresponding to reﬂections on the corridor walls.
152 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
110
100
90
80
70
Distancedelay (m)
P
o
w
e
r
a
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
o
n
(
d
B
)
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 5.10. Typical impulse response
A ﬁrst observation of the eﬀect that moving people have on the UWB
channel is given in Figure 5.11. The time varying impulse response is
represented in the case of 12 people walking back and forth through the radio
link. Successive measurements are represented from left to right, while the
vertical axis represents the excess delay converted in path length (m). The
inﬂuence that moving people have on the CIR appears clearly on this graph.
The main paths (a) and (b) are regularly obstructed by moving people, during
both forward (t = 15 s to t = 27 s) and backward (t = 63 s to t = 74 s)
displacements along the corridor. At other values of the excess path, we can
observe strong signal ﬂuctuations, with respect to the stationary part of the
diagram.
5.1.4.2. Slow fading
As a ﬁrst step in the analysis, we observed the slow fading generated by
human beings in the vicinity of the radio link. For this purpose, we studied the
slow temporal evolution of the mean power received in the LOS path in the
presence of people. Fast fading ﬂuctuations were eliminated by averaging the
received power using a sliding window.
Figure 5.12 presents the aggregate eﬀect of several people passing through
the main signal path. In general, the progression of one person through the
LOS path yields a maximum attenuation of about 8 dB, the shadowing eﬀect
lasting for about 4 s. The obstruction duration increases with the number of
people, up to about 15 s for a group of 12 people. In this case, the maximum
attenuation of the mean power is about 15 dB. We clearly see that the
shadowing pattern obtained for groups of people is composed of superimposed
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 153
Time (s)
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

d
e
l
a
y
(
m
)
0 20 40 60 80
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
a
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
o
n
(
d
B
)
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
(a)
(b)
(c)
← Backward mov. → ← Forward mov. →
Figure 5.11. Time varying impulse response in the case of 12 moving people
individual contributions. However, the particular eﬀect that each person has
on the received signal is not always observable, as, for example, in the case
involving 4 people.
5.1.4.3. Fast fading
In addition to the largescale fading generated by moving people,
smallscale fading is observed while people are walking in the vicinity of the
radio link. The signal received at a delay corresponding to the main paths
of the impulse response may be thought of as a vector summation of several
multipath components, as would be the case in a typical situation exhibiting
Rician fading. As depicted in Figure 5.13, we may distinguish between two
components of the received signal. The dominant component accounts for the
signal normally received in a static environment. The random component
represents the summation of all waves scattered by moving people.
In order to accurately analyze the fast fading observed during
experimentation, the random component was isolated by ﬁltering. Figure 5.14
represents both magnitude and phase ﬂuctuations of the random component
extracted from the signal received via the main path, when obstructed by
154 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
0
4
8
1
2
1
6

3
0

2
5

2
0

1
5

1
0

5 0 5
R e l a t i v e p o w e r ( d B )
1
p
e
o
p
l
e
T
i
m
e
(
s
)
0
4
8
1
2
1
6
2
0
2
4
2
8
3
2
3
6

3
0

2
5

2
0

1
5

1
0

5 0 5
4
p
e
o
p
l
e
T
i
m
e
(
s
)
0
4
8
1
2
1
6
2
0
2
4
2
8
3
2
3
6

3
0

2
5

2
0

1
5

1
0

5 0 5
1
2
p
e
o
p
l
e
T
i
m
e
(
s
)
R
e
c
e
i
v
e
d
p
o
w
e
r
S
l
o
w
f
a
d
i
n
g
F
i
g
u
r
e
5
.
1
2
.
T
y
p
i
c
a
l
l
a
r
g
e

s
c
a
l
e
f
a
d
i
n
g
p
a
t
t
e
r
n
s
f
o
r
t
h
e
L
O
S
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
.
E
ﬀ
e
c
t
o
f
1
,
4
a
n
d
1
2
p
e
o
p
l
e
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 155
Q
I
time
Dominant
component
Random
component
Figure 5.13. Vector decomposition of the received signal
12 moving people. This situation corresponds to the measurement depicted
in Figure 5.12 (graph on the right). We may notice that the magnitude of
the smallscale fading presents a high degree of regularity, compared to the
nonstationary largescale fading pattern.
Using a KolmogorovSmirnov testing procedure (see Appendix B.2), the
amplitude distribution of the random component is well suited to a Rayleigh
distribution. This observation could be made for most of the available
measurements, independently of the number of moving people. The signal
received via the main paths of the impulse response, composed of a Rayleigh
random component and a dominant component of greater amplitude, the
resulting signal hence follows a Rician distribution (see Appendix B.1.2).
The Rician K parameter is deﬁned as the power ratio between the dominant
component and the random ﬂuctuations. As the dominant component presents
a slowly timevariant amplitude, the parameter K varies over time accordingly,
depending on the obstruction of the main path. We may notice in this example
that the mean signal power of the random component is about 12 dB below the
unobstructed signal level. Depending on the attenuation level of the dominant
signal, the parameter K varies from about 12 dB down to less than −20 dB.
In this case, the total received signal follows a Rayleigh distribution. These
results were observed on other measurement records, with maximum values of
the parameter K varying between 8 dB and 13 dB.
In addition, the phase of the random component depicted in Figure 5.14
presents a rather unstable behavior while people are interfering with the main
path of the impulse response, with distinct periods of linear progress. However,
156 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
14 16 18 20 22 24
50
40
30
20
10
0
Time (s)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
↑
↑
14 16 18 20 22 24
2
0
2
Time (s)
P
h
a
s
e
(
r
a
d
)
↓
↓
Figure 5.14. Fast fading of the random component. LOS path, 12 people
we may note rapid and signiﬁcant phase shifts at instants corresponding to
fading nulls (indicated by arrows on the ﬁgure), due to the rapidly decreasing
power.
5.1.4.4. Spectral analysis
This section presents a spectral analysis the analysis of the temporal signal
variations received via the main paths of the impulse response. Figure 5.15
represents the average scattering function P
S
(τ, ν) of the random component,
for the delay τ corresponding to the LOS path. Measurements involving 1
to 12 moving people are taken into account, and the collected records were
distinguished according to the direction of the movement. The general shape
of the scattering function is triangular, with an average Doppler shift centered
around 0 Hz. The spectrum width was calculated in terms of Doppler spread
ν
RMS
, deﬁned in equation [2.38]. The calculated Doppler spread varied
between 0.6 and 3.3 Hz, with no marked inﬂuence from the number of moving
people. Similar 0 Hzcentered, triangular shapes of the Doppler spectrum
are reported from continuous wave measurements of the channel temporal
variations performed at frequencies around 1 GHz [HAS 94b, BUL 87].
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 157
15 10 5 0 5 10 15
25
20
15
10
5
0
Doppler shift (Hz)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
Forward
Backward
Figure 5.15. Average scattering function of the random component.
LOS path, forward and backward motions
Some asymmetry can be observed in Figure 5.15 between measurements
performed during forward and backward movements. This can be explained
by the location of the antennas, which emphasize either the lengthening or
the shortening of propagation paths, depending on the direction of the human
motion. More details on the interpretation of these results can be found in
[PAG 06a].
5.2. Statistical channel modeling
In section 5.1, the characterization of the radio channel parameters
was presented from a series of experimental measurements. The frequency
dependent and distance dependent attenuation linked to the radio signal
propagation was evaluated, as well as a number of parameters regarding the
impulse response. The RMS delay spread, the PDP magnitude decay and the
rays arrival rate are a few examples. Statistical models use these experimental
parameters to realistically reproduce the channel eﬀects. This section presents
a few statistical models for the UWB propagation channel available in the
literature. The analyses presented in section 5.1 are then exploited to illustrate
in more detail the design of a statistical model based on experimental data.
158 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
5.2.1. Examples of statistical models
In order to provide a unique channel model for the evaluation of diﬀerent
UWB systems proposals during standardization meetings, the IEEE 802.15
work group made several calls for contributions. Two statistical models were
deﬁned, the ﬁrst one for short range, high rate, indoor applications (IEEE
802.15.3a model), and the second one for applications with longer range in
both indoor and outdoor environments (IEEE 802.15.4a model). These models
are brieﬂy presented in the following sections.
5.2.1.1. IEEE 802.15.3a model
The IEEE 802.15.3a model [FOE 03a, MOL 03] was developed from
around 10 contributions, all referring to distinct experimental measurements,
performed in indoor residential or oﬃce environments [GHA 02a, PEN 02,
FOE 03b, HOV 03, KUN 02b, GHA 02b, CAS 02, CRA 02, SIW 02].
In order to reﬂect the phenomenon of ray clustering that was observed
in several measurement campaigns, the model is based on the Saleh and
Valenzuela formalism (see equation [2.31]). Parameters are provided to
characterize the clusters and ray arrival rates (Λ and λ), as well as the inter and
intracluster exponential decay constants (Γ and γ). Four sets of parameters
are provided to model the four following channel types:
• the channel model CM 1 corresponds to a distance of 0–4 m in a LOS
situation;
• the channel model CM 2 corresponds to a distance of 0–4 m in an NLOS
situation;
• the channel model CM 3 corresponds to a distance of 4–10 m in an NLOS
situation;
• the channel model CM 4 corresponds to an NLOS situation with a large
delay spread τ
RMS
= 25 ns.
Regarding channel attenuation, the IEEE 802.15.3a model proposes a
theoretical approach using a path loss exponent N
d
= 2 for the LOS situation,
which is equivalent to a free space propagation. The NLOS case was not
addressed.
Finally, the ﬂuctuations of ray amplitude modeled using a lognormal
law (see Appendix B.1.6), and a random inversion coeﬃcient is introduced
to simulate the phase inversion observed in the impulse response due to
reﬂections.
This comprehensive model is a reference for the study of UWB systems. It
can be applied in indoor environments and short range conditions. However,
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 159
modeling of the path loss is not practically addressed. It can also be noted that
the measurements used for the model calibration [PEN 02, CHE 02] are limited
to at most 6 GHz bandwidth (2 GHz for the models CM 1 and CM 2).
5.2.1.2. IEEE 802.15.4a model
In order to be representative of a larger number of potential applications,
the IEEE 802.15.4a working group proposed a model with a wider scope
in terms of both frequency and environments [MOL 04]. The targeted
applications are low rate communications (from 1 kbps to a few Mbps), in
the following environments: indoor (residential and oﬃce), outdoor, industrial
(factory, etc.) and onbody (for WBAN applications). Two UWB frequency
bands are considered: 2–10 GHz and 0.1–1 GHz. We present here the model
corresponding to the ﬁrst frequency band.
The general structure of this statistical model is similar to the IEEE
802.15.3a model (see equation [2.31]). Some diﬀerences are however noteworthy
regarding the shape of the impulse response:
• The phase θ
k,l
of each ray is no longer limited to the values 0 or π, but
is uniformly distributed between 0 and 2π. Thus, this model reproduces the
complex envelope of the baseband impulse response.
• Ray arrival follows a dual law composed of two Poisson processes.
Accordingly, the model proposes two ray arrival rates λ
1
and λ
2
, as well as
a mixing parameter.
• The exponential decay of each cluster increases with the delay. The
intracluster exponential decay constant is thus of the following form:
γ
l
= k
γ
T
l
+γ
0
[5.7]
where T
l
represents the time of arrival of the l
th
cluster and k
γ
accounts for
the increase of the coeﬃcient γ
l
with increasing delay.
The main diﬀerence between the IEEE 802.15.4a model and the IEEE
802.15.3a model is that the former accounts for a realistic path loss, in both
the distance and frequency domains. The proposed model is independent of
the transmitter and receiver antennas. After some changes in the proposed
variables, this path loss model can be expressed in the form given in equation
[2.35], and the model provides the parameter values equivalent to N
f
, N
d
,
PL(f
0
, d
0
) and σ
S
.
In addition, the small scale variations of the ray amplitude are modeled using
a Nakagami distribution (see Appendix B.1.3). As for the CassioliWinMolisch
model, the parameter value m is a delay function.
160 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Nine channel types were identiﬁed within the IEEE 802.15.4a work group.
Each channel type is deﬁned by a given set of parameters as follows:
• the CM 1 and CM 2 models correspond to the indoor residential
environment (respectively in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations);
• the CM 3 and CM 4 models correspond to the indoor oﬃce environment
(respectively in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations);
• the CM 5 and CM 6 models correspond to the outdoor environment
(respectively in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations);
• the CM 7 and CM 8 models correspond to the indoor industrial
environment (respectively in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations);
• the CM 9 model corresponds to the outdoor environment in an NLOS
conﬁguration, in the speciﬁc case of a farm area or an area covered with snow.
This model is more detailed than the IEEE 802.15.3a model, but is
also somewhat more complex. The provided parameter sets are based on
experimental measurements for each environment: residential [CHO 04b], oﬃce
[BAL 04a, SCH 04], industrial [KAR 04b] and outdoor [BAL 04a, KEI 04].
A survey of the results from the literature complements these measurement
campaigns. It should be noted, though, that the measurements performed in
the oﬃce and outdoor environments covered frequency bands limited to 3 or
6 GHz.
5.2.1.3. Other models
The CassioliWinMolisch model
The CassioliWinMolisch model [CAS 02] is the result of a joint research
work performed by the University of Rome “Tor Vergata” (Italy), Vienna
University (Austria) and the UltRaLab laboratory from the University of
South California (USA). This model is one of the ﬁrst statistical models
describing the UWB propagation channel. Despite some limitations, it is thus
frequently cited in the studies on UWB. This model is based on a series
of measurements performed by the UltRaLab laboratory in an indoor oﬃce
environment, over a frequency band of about 1 GHz [WIN 97b]. 686 impulse
responses were used: 14 antenna locations were selected, and at each location,
49 measurements were taken over an area of about 1 m
2
.
The CassioliWinMolisch model is based on a discrete scale on the delay
axis, with a delay bins deﬁned with a step Δτ of 2 ns. The overall impulse
response power received between the delays kΔτ and (k + 1)Δτ is integrated,
and it is assumed that a ray exists at each delay kΔτ. This corresponds to a
ray arrival rate λ =
1
Δτ
. The power of each ray follows an exponential decay,
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 161
but a single cluster is observed. Following the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism
(see section 2.4.1), the PDP model can be expressed in the form:
P
h
(0, τ) =
K
¸
k=1
β
2
k
δ
τ −
d
c
−(k −1)Δτ
[5.8]
where d indicates the distance between the transmitter and the receiver.
The PDP exponential decay is characterized by the coeﬃcient γ (see
equation [2.33]), but the model also introduces an additional coeﬃcient r in
order to account for a signiﬁcant attenuation between the 1
st
ray and the 2
nd
ray.
The propagation loss is characterized as a function of distance according to
a dualslope law:
PL(d) =
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
PL
d
0
+ 20.4 log
d
d
0
+S(d) d ≤ 11 m
PL
d
0
−56 + 74 log
d
d
0
+S(d) d > 11 m
[5.9]
The fast fading due to the antenna displacement is characterized by a ray
amplitude distribution following a Nakagami distribution (see Appendix B.1.3).
The Nakagami m parameter decreases with the delay to approach the value of
1 for the last rays in the PDP, where the ray amplitude follows a Rayleigh
distribution.
This model provides an accurate and reproducible description of the
observed measurements. Its main limitations lie in the low number of
measurements on which the statistical study is based, and in the reduced
frequency band.
Frequency domain approach
Most of the research eﬀorts regarding statistical modeling for the UWB
propagation channel concentrate on a time domain approach, where the
model provides a description of the channel impulse response. However, other
approaches are possible. The model proposed by the researchers from the
AT&T Research Laboratory and MIT [GHA 04a] is an interesting example
of a frequency domain approach. This model is designed from an extensive
measurement campaign performed in 23 residential houses.
The main concept of this model is to reproduce the channel transfer function
T(f, t) in a statistical way. As for the time domain approach, each parameter
162 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
can be described using a statistical law. The value of the frequency domain
approach lies in its opening up the possibility of describing the transfer function
components in a regressive way. The model can be expressed in the form of a
ﬁlter with inﬁnite impulse response, which can be mathematically represented
by:
T
f
i
, t
+a
1
T
f
i−1
, t
+a
2
T
f
i−2
, t
= n
i
[5.10]
where n
i
represents the input white Gaussian noise. The model can be
represented using ﬁve variables: the parameters a
1
and a
2
, the input conditions
T(f
1
, t) and T(f
2
, t), and the standard deviation of the Gaussian noise σ
n
.
Each of these parameters is then described in a statistical way as a function
of the distance. The model is complemented with a power attenuation law.
Other approaches were proposed regarding UWB channel modeling in the
frequency domain, such as the Prony method used by the Virginia Polytechnic
Institute (USA) [LIC 03]. The value of such a model lies in its low complexity:
only a few parameters are required for its description. However, there is no
direct knowledge of the traditional channel characterization parameters, such
as the shape of the PDP or the delay spread. For this reason, the comparison
between the two model types is not straightforward.
5.2.2. Empirical modeling principles
This section aims at illustrating UWB channel statistical modeling based
on experimental data. A statistical model based on the Saleh and Valenzuela
formalism is designed from the characteristic parameters observed in
section 5.1 [PAG 06d]. The following sections present a propagation loss model
and an impulse response model. Finally, simulation results are compared to
the experimental measurements.
5.2.2.1. Propagation loss model
The ﬁrst step in the design of the UWB channel model is the deﬁnition of
attenuation due to signal propagation. In section 5.1.1.1, it was shown that
when the antenna eﬀect is correctly compensated, the channel attenuation in
the frequency domain is close to the theoretical loss of 20 dB per decade. The
path loss model can thus be expressed in dB in the following form:
PL(f, d) = PL
f
0
, d
0
+ 20 log
f
f
0
+ 10N
d
log
d
d
0
+S(d) [5.11]
where d
0
= 1 m represents a reference distance, f
0
= 6.85 GHz corresponds
to the center frequency of the FCC analyzed band and S is a Gaussian
random variable with zero mean. The parameters of this model are deﬁned by
experimental characterization (see section 5.1.1) and are given in Table 5.6.
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 163
LOS NLOS
N
d
1.62 3.22
σ
S
(dB) 1.7 5.7
PL(f
0
, d
0
) (dB) 53.7 59.4
Table 5.6. Path loss model parameters. Values of PL(f
0
, d
0
)
are given for f
0
= 6.85 GHz and d
0
= 1 m
5.2.2.2. Modeling the channel impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth
The principle of the UWB impulse response model consists of generating
all constituent rays while maintaining the characteristics observed from the
experimental measurements. Among these characteristics, we mainly aim at
reproducing the clustering of multipath echoes, the ray and cluster arrival rates,
and the decreasing magnitude of the received power with increasing delay. For
a baseband representation, a ray is described by its delay τ, its amplitude β
and its phase θ. By generating these parameters, it is possible to describe the
impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth. We then process these parameters
in the frequency domain in order to include the eﬀect of the limited observation
bandwidth.
In order to account for the clustering of multiple paths, the impulse response
is modeled using the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism (see section 2.4.1). At a
given instant, the UWB channel impulse response is thus described by the
following formula:
h(τ) =
L
¸
l=1
K
l
¸
k=1
β
k,l
e
jθ
k,l
δ
τ −T
l
−τ
k,l
[5.12]
where L represents the number of clusters, K
l
is the number of rays within
the l
th
cluster and T
l
corresponds to the arrival time of the l
th
cluster. The
parameters β
k,l
, θ
k,l
and τ
k,l
represent the amplitude, phase and arrival time
associated with the k
th
ray within the l
th
cluster.
The experimental observations given in section 5.1.2.3 show that the
interclusters duration follows an exponential distribution. Hence, the arrival
of a new cluster can be modeled by a Poisson process, and the number of
clusters in the impulse response can be generated by drawing a random
variable L according to the following law [MOL 04]:
p
L
(L) =
(
¯
L)
L
exp(−
¯
L)
L!
[5.13]
164 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
where
¯
L represents the average number of clusters. During measurement
analysis, we observed an average number of clusters of
¯
L = 5.6 in the LOS
case and
¯
L = 2.4 in the NLOS case.
Having selected a transmitterreceiver distance d for the simulation, the
time of arrival of the ﬁrst cluster is given by T
1
=
d
c
, where c is the speed of
light. The time of arrival T
l
of the L −1 remaining clusters is then calculated
by generating intercluster durations following an exponential law [SAL 87]:
p
T
l
[ T
l−1
= Λexp
−Λ
T
l
−T
l−1
[5.14]
where Λ is the cluster arrival rate.
The intercluster power decay is accurately modeled by a power function
(see section 5.1.2.2). This approach diﬀers from the one followed by Saleh
and Valenzuela [SAL 87], but presents a closer ﬁt to the experimental
measurements. The amplitude of the ﬁrst ray within each cluster is thus given
by:
β
2
1,l
= β
2
1.1
T
l
T
1
−Ω
[5.15]
where Ω represents the intercluster power decay constant.
In accordance to the results of the static UWB channel study, it is
recommended to use the values Λ = 36.5 MHz and Ω = 4.4 in the LOS case.
In the NLOS case, the recommended values are Λ = 24.9 MHz and Ω = 3.9.
The rays are iteratively generated for each cluster. The arrival time of
each ray is calculated using interray durations following an exponential law
[SAL 87]:
p
τ
k,l
[ τ
k,l−1
= λexp
−λ
τ
k,l
−τ
k,l−1
[5.16]
A power function is used to calculate the ray amplitude (see section 5.1.2.2):
β
2
k,l
= 10
−
G
10
β
2
1,l
τ
k,l
+T
l
T
l
−ω
[5.17]
where ω represents the intracluster power decay constant and G accounts for
the observed attenuation between the ﬁrst path of each cluster and the following
multipaths. For each cluster, the ray generation stops when the ray amplitude
reaches a given threshold D, ﬁxed at −50 dB.
According to the characterization study presented in section 5.1 and to
the observation of the measured PDP, we recommend using the parameters
λ = 5.95 GHz, ω = 11.1 and G = 12 dB in the LOS case. The recommended
values in the NLOS case are λ = 6.19 GHz and ω = 10.2.
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 165
Finally, the phase θ
k,l
of each ray is generated using a uniform law over
the interval [0, 2π[. This approach was also adopted in the IEEE 802.15.4a
model [MOL 04]. Figure 5.16 presents the rays obtained in a LOS situation
for a transmitterreceiver distance of 6 m, where we may observe 5 clusters. It
may be noted that this representation corresponds to an inﬁnite observation
bandwidth, each ray being represented by a Dirac function.
0 20 40 60 80 100
50
40
30
20
10
0
Delay (ns)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
Figure 5.16. Impulse response simulated over an inﬁnite bandwidth. LOS situation,
with the parameters d = 6 m, Λ = 36.5 MHz, λ = 5.95 GHz, Ω = 4.4, ω = 11.1 and
G = 12 dB
Table 5.7 summarizes all experimental parameters used in our statistical
model of the UWB channel.
LOS NLOS
f
min
(GHz) 3.1≤ f
min
< f
max
f
max
(GHz) f
min
< f
max
≤ 10.6
D (dB) 50
Λ (MHz) 36.5 24.9
¯
L 5.6 2.4
λ (GHz) 5.95 6.19
Ω 4.4 3.9
ω 11.1 10.2
G (dB) 12 0
Table 5.7. Parameters of the UWB impulse response model
166 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
5.2.2.3. Modeling the channel impulse response over a limited bandwidth
In practice, impulse response is observed on a limited bandwidth, situated
within the 3.1–10.6 GHz band. We note by f
min
and f
max
the minimum and
maximum frequencies in the observation band, and by f
c
=
1
2
(f
min
+ f
max
)
the center frequency. The channel transfer function limited to the observation
bandwidth hence appears (for positive frequencies):
T
lim
(f)=
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
f
c
f
1
¸
L
l=1
¸
K
l
k=1
β
2
k,l
L
¸
l=1
K
l
¸
k=1
β
k,l
e
j(θ
k,l
−2πf(T
l
+τ
k,l
))
if f
min
≤f ≤f
max
0 otherwise
[5.18]
where the coeﬃcient
PL(f
c
,d)
¸
L
l=1
¸
K
l
k=1
β
2
k,l
normalizes the power received at the
frequency f
c
according to the proposed path loss model. In addition, the
term
f
c
f
accounts for the power decrease in −20 log(f) described previously.
This transfer function normalization procedure was also proposed in
[FOE 03a, ALV 03].
The impulse response observed over a limited bandwidth h
lim
(τ) is simply
obtained from the transfer function T
lim
(f) using an inverse Fourier transform.
In order to limit the side lobes level, it is possible to use a Hanning window for
instance at this stage [HAR 78].
Figure 5.17(a) represents an impulse response example observed over the
3.1–10.6 GHz frequency band. We may note that the low delay between two
consecutive rays (see Figure 5.16) naturally induces constructive or destructive
interferences. Figure 5.17(b) presents the same impulse response observed over
3.1–4.1 GHz frequency band: we may note that the multipath resolution is less
accurate when the observation bandwidth decreases.
5.2.2.4. Simulation results
A series of simulations was conducted using the static UWB radio channel
model presented in section 5.2.2. A set of 119 PDP was generated using
the same transmitterreceiver distances as in our measurement campaign
(see section 3.4.2.1), for the LOS and NLOS situations. Each PDP was
calculated from a set of 90 impulse responses, simulating the motion of the
antenna around a circle of radius 20 cm. The generation of the fast fading
characteristics for the 90 locally simulated impulse responses was performed
using an advanced algorithm, taking the ray arrival angle into account. This
algorithm is fully described in section 5.3.1.
Figure 5.18 presents two typical PDP obtained by simulation. One of the
90 constituting impulse responses is also represented. Note that on the xaxis,
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 167
(a)
0 20 40 60 80 100
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
Delay (ns)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
(b)
0 20 40 60 80 100
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
Delay (ns)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
Figure 5.17. Impulse response simulated over a limited bandwidth. Identical set of
rays, observed over the 3.1–10.6 GHz band (a) and the 3.1–4.1 GHz band (b)
the delay was converted in path length. As a general observation, simulations
are similar to the measured PDP (see Figure 5.3).
Two parameters representative of the channel temporal dispersion were
calculated for the entire set of generated PDP: the delay spread τ
RMS
and the
75% delay window W
75%
. The average values obtained for these parameters in
measurement and simulation are compared for the LOS and NLOS situations
in Table 5.8. We may note that the proposed model correctly reproduces the
dispersion parameters experimentally measured over the UWB radio channel.
The delay spread of the simulated PDP is particularly close to the measurement,
in both LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations. The values obtained for the delay
window are somewhat diﬀerent from the experimental data, but stay in the
same range as the measured characteristics. The proposed model therefore
allows us to reproduce not only the impulse response structure, but also channel
dispersion.
168 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(a)
0 20 40 60 80
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distancedelay (m)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
IR
PDP
(b)
0 20 40 60 80
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distancedelay (m)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
IR
PDP
Figure 5.18. PDP and impulse responses obtained by simulation.
(a) LOS and (b) NLOS conﬁgurations
LOS NLOS
Parameter Measurement Simulation Measurement Simulation
τ
RMS
(ns) 4.1 4.0 9.9 9.7
W
75%
(ns) 7.6 9.7 23.7 21.2
Table 5.8. Comparison of the dispersion parameters: measurement vs. simulation
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 169
5.3. Advanced modeling in a dynamic conﬁguration
Section 5.2.2 describes how to simulate an impulse response from statistical
parameters obtained through experimental measurements, in the case of a static
channel. In instances of practical use for future UWB systems, the antenna
displacement or the motion of people may generate signiﬁcant variations in the
channel impulse response. This section describes two adaptations to the statical
model for an advanced modeling of the spatial and temporal ﬂuctuations of the
UWB radio channel [PAG 06c].
5.3.1. Space variation modeling
Spatial variations are due to the displacement of at least one of the
transmitting or receiving antennas. In this case, the lengths of most
propagation paths undergo signiﬁcant variation. Only a few studies on the
statistical modeling of the UWB channel spatial variations are available. The
IMST model is one example where a simpliﬁed ray tracing algorithm is used
to calculate a ﬁxed delay variation for each cluster [KUN 03]. We here propose
to model these spatial ﬂuctuations by taking the angle formed between the
antenna motion and each propagation path into account. In the remainder
of this section, we will assume a displacement of the receiving antenna and
consider the arrival angle of each path. For the sake of clarity, the presented
model allows an antenna displacement in the (O, x, y) plane only, by taking
the ray azimuth ϕ into account. A 3D model including ray elevation is
forwardly derivable.
The ﬁrst step of this spatial ﬂuctuation model consists of generating an
impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth h(x
0
, y
0
, τ), corresponding to a
location (x
0
, y
0
), as described in section 5.2.2. This impulse response observed
over an inﬁnite bandwidth may be expressed as in equation [5.12]. In order to
calculate the impulse response observed over an inﬁnite bandwidth at a location
(x, y) close to the location (x
0
, y
0
), we consider that each ray corresponds to
a plane wave. This assumption holds when the receiving antenna is placed in
the far ﬁeld with respect to the surrounding walls and furniture where the
transmission, reﬂection or diﬀraction phenomena occur. Figure 5.19 illustrates
the obtained conﬁguration for a given ray. The path elongation Δl of the
incident ray is given by:
Δl = −
x −x
0
cos(ϕ) −
y −y
0
sin(ϕ) [5.19]
where ϕ represents the incident ray azimuth.
A limited number of statistical studies are available in the literature
regarding the departure and arrival angles for UWB channels [CRA 02,
170 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
x
y
(x
0
, y
0
)
Į
ĳ
r
Figure 5.19. Path elongation related to an antenna displacement
HAN 05, VEN 05]. To determine the azimuth of each ray in the impulse
response, we can use the model derived by Spencer et al. from wideband
indoor measurements [SPE 97]. In this model, the arrival azimuth of the
k
th
ray within the l
th
cluster is decomposed in Φ
l
+ ϕ
k,l
, where Φ
l
is the
mean arrival azimuth in the l
th
cluster. Without further knowledge about the
environment, we may consider that Φ
l
is uniformly distributed in the [0, 2π[
interval. ϕ
k,l
represents the distribution of the ray azimuth within a cluster,
and follows a Laplace distribution with zero mean and standard deviation σ
ϕ
:
p
ϕ
k,l
ϕ
k,l
=
1
√
2σ
ϕ
e
−
√
2ϕ
k,l
σ
ϕ

[5.20]
In [HAN 05], the standard deviation of the arrival azimuth σ
ϕ
is lower than
or equal to 6.7
◦
.
3
As a ﬁrst approximation, we recommend using this value
for the parameter σ
ϕ
. This value could be reﬁned as more experimental data
becomes available. For instance, [VEN 05] proposes a 2cluster model, where
the azimuth distribution follows a Laplace law in the ﬁrst cluster (σ
ϕ
= 5
◦
)
and a uniform law in the second cluster.
From the impulse response generated at the location (x
0
, y
0
) and knowing
the arrival azimuth Φ
l
+ϕ
k,l
of each ray, we can calculate the transfer function
3. For the indoor LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations on a single ﬂoor.
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 171
over a limited bandwidth at a location (x, y) close to location (x
0
, y
0
):
T
lim
(x, y, f)
=
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
f
c
f
1
¸
L
l=1
¸
K
l
k=1
β
2
k,l
L
¸
l=1
K
l
¸
k=1
β
k,l
e
j(θ
k,l
−2πf(T
l
+τ
k,l
+Δτ
k,l
))
if f
min
≤f ≤f
max
0 otherwise
[5.21]
with:
Δτ
k,l
= −
1
c
x −x
0
cos
Φ
l
+ϕ
k,l
+
y −y
0
sin
Φ
l
+ϕ
k,l
[5.22]
The impulse response h
lim
(x, y, τ) observed over a limited bandwidth is
simply obtained using an inverse Fourier transform.
Figure 5.20 presents a simulation of the space varying impulse response
observed over the 3.1–10.6 GHz band. The delay, amplitude and phase of each
ray correspond to the parameters already used in the previous examples. The
spatial variations of the impulse response were calculated for a displacement of
the receiving antenna along the Ox axis over a distance of 2 m with 1 cm step.
We may clearly distinguish the evolution of the main echoes (ae), depending
on their arrival direction. For instance, the length of the ﬁrst path shortens
from approximately 6 m to 4 m.
Location x (cm)
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

d
e
l
a
y
(
m
)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
)
0 50 100 150 200
0
5
10
15
20
25
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Figure 5.20. Simulation of a space variant impulse response. Displacement of the
receiving antenna along the Ox axis over a distance of 2 m
172 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
5.3.2. Modeling the eﬀect of people
This section describes a method to model the eﬀect of people, based on the
experimental analysis given in section 5.1.4. The main idea is to reproduce the
time variance observed on each ray of a given impulse response. This model
is based on the results of a real time UWB measurement campaign performed
over the 4–5 GHz band (see section 3.4.2.3). As a result, the presented model
is valid for simulating UWB channels with bandwidths up to 1 GHz only.
However, the modeling methodology may be used in other conﬁgurations as
more experimental characteristics of the timevariant UWB channel will become
available.
The extension of the model to temporal variations is based on an initial
impulse response h(t
0
, τ) corresponding to a static environment at a given
instant t
0
. The method described in section 5.2.2 can be used to obtain a
description of the impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth. The initial
impulse response can thus be expressed according to equation [5.12], where
α
k,l
(t
0
) = β
k,l
e
θ
k,l
denotes the initial complex magnitude of the k
th
ray within
the l
th
cluster.
As observed in our experimental characterization, we will diﬀerentiate
between (a) the main path of each cluster, where each person generates a
shadowing pattern in addition to fast amplitude ﬂuctuations, and (b) the
clusters of dense multipath where Rayleigh fading occurs [PAG 06a]. When
observing a radio channel over a relatively low bandwidth, in our case lower
than 1 GHz, the observed main path encompasses not only the ﬁrst ray in
each cluster, but also several rays situated within the observation resolution
R. This resolution R is equal to 2 ns for a bandwidth of 1 GHz when using
a Hanning window [HAR 78]. For all rays within the main path of each
cluster, the timevariant amplitude α
k,l
(t) is generated according to the
algorithm below. A more detailed description of this algorithm may be found
in [PAG 05]. Assuming that a group of N
p
people is interfering with the UWB
radio link, the algorithm steps are as follows:
i) Select N
p
instants ¦t
n
¦
n=1...N
p
corresponding to the instants where each
of the N
p
people are crossing the main path of the cluster. These passing
instants may be randomly chosen, or calculated according to the environmental
geometry.
ii) Generate N
p
slow shadowing patterns ¦s
n
(t)¦
n=1...N
p
corresponding to
the individual eﬀects of N
p
moving people, using the following Gaussianshaped
attenuation function:
s
n
(t) = −A
s
exp
−2
t −t
n
2
T
s
2
[5.23]
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 173
where A
s
represents the maximal shadowing attenuation in dB, T
s
represents
the shadowing duration in seconds, and t
n
represents the shadowing instant.
According to our experimental characterization, the parameter values may be
selected in the range of 5 dB to 10 dB for A
s
, and in the range of 3 s to 5 s for
T
s
.
iii) Calculate the amplitude variations of the dominant component d
l
(t) in
the linear scale as follows:
d
l
(t) =
N
p
¸
n=1
10
s
n
(t−t
n
)
20
[5.24]
iv) Generate additional fast fading ﬂuctuations r
k,l
(t) following a Rayleigh
amplitude distribution and having a Laplacian scattering function. As observed
from the experimental data, the Doppler spread ν
RMS
should be in the range
of 1–3 Hz. The mean power P
r
of the random component r
k,l
(t) should be 8 dB
to 13 dB below the power level of the dominant component α
k,l
(t
0
).
v) Finally, calculate the timevariant amplitude α
k,l
(t) for rays within the
main path of the l
th
cluster as:
α
k,l
(t) = α
k,l
t
0
d
l
(t) +r
k,l
(t) [5.25]
Regarding step iv), several methods for the generation of a random signal
presenting a Rayleigh distribution and an arbitrary Doppler spectrum are
thoroughly discussed in [PAE 02].
The algorithm presented above allows us to generate the eﬀect that
moving people have on the main path of each cluster. For the remaining
rays, corresponding to regions of dense multipath, we propose to model
the amplitude α
k,l
(t) variations by using a Rayleigh distribution. More
experimental analysis should be performed to study the exact shape of the
Doppler spectrum in the regions of dense multipath. As a ﬁrst step, we
propose using a Laplacian distribution. Thus, the amplitude α
k,l
(t) may be
generated as in step iv) of the algorithm.
Having calculated the amplitude α
k,l
(t) for all impulse response rays, the
time variant transfer function is given as:
T
lim
(t, f)
=
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
f
c
f
1
¸
L
l=1
¸
K
l
k=1
β
2
k,l
L
¸
l=1
K
l
¸
k=1
α
k,l
(t)e
−j2πf(T
l
+τ
k,l
)
if f
min
≤f ≤f
max
0 otherwise
[5.26]
174 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
The impulse response h
lim
(t, τ) observed over a limited bandwidth is
obtained using an inverse Fourier transform.
The proposed model was used to simulate the motion of 4 people in the
vicinity of a radio link in a LOS situation. For selected realistic passing instants
with respect to the main path of each cluster, the delays T
l
and the passing
instants t
n
were calculated using a ray tracing tool, from which only the
most signiﬁcant rays were extracted. Figure 5.21 illustrates the simulation
conﬁguration. The ﬁve selected paths correspond to the main path and to
the reﬂections on the four walls. The dashed arrow indicates the motion of the
group of 4 people and circles present locations where the group crosses one of
the main echoes.
Rx
Tx
Figure 5.21. Simulation conﬁguration for the eﬀect of people
The time varying impulse response was simulated according to this
information, and the results are presented in Figure 5.22. The impulse
response is observed over the 4–5 GHz frequency band, as in an experiment.
The following parameter values were used for the temporal variations model:
A
s
= 5 dB, T
s
= 4 s, P
r
= −13 dB and ν
RMS
= 1 Hz.
As indicated by the circle locations on the graph, the group of people
interferes with each main path at a diﬀerent instant. For each shadowing
instant, we may observe a power attenuation of the corresponding path, for
a duration in the order of 3 s to 6 s. In addition, the presence of mobile people
generates fast fading, observable at all impulse response delays. It can be noted
that on occasions, this fast fading signiﬁcantly interferes with the main paths,
as for instance on the second cluster. This proposed model could be reﬁned by
analyzing additional experimental results. In particular, further research could
be conducted by sounding the UWB channel over a larger bandwidth.
Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 175
Figure 5.22. Simulation of a time variant impulse response. Circles indicate the group
passing instants for the ﬁve main paths of the impulse response
5.4. Conclusion
Statistical modeling of the UWB channel consists of reproducing the
main channel characteristics observed during the measurements using a
mathematical description. The experimental analyses described in this chapter
illustrated the characterization of the UWB propagation channel in an indoor
oﬃce environment. Path loss was analyzed in both frequency domain and
distance domain. The measured PDP were characterized through the delay
spread, as well as the arrival rate and amplitude decay of the rays and clusters.
The fast fading analysis shows that the signal amplitude received at a given
delay follows a Rayleigh distribution, except for the main paths, where the
situation is more deterministic.
Several models of the UWB propagation channel were presented in the
literature. Among the statistical models, the proposals presented in the
standardization groups IEEE 802.15.3a and IEEE 802.15.4a, based on a
Saleh and Valenzuela approach, are frequently used for the analysis of UWB
communication systems. The principles of statistical modeling were presented
using a practical approach based on experimental data. The described path
loss model can be used directly for dimensioning studies and to evaluate the
jamming generated by an UWB terminal. A detailed model has also been given
for the static impulse response. Simulations show that this model accurately
reproduces the channel dispersion. It can be used in system simulations, for
the design and development of UWB based radio transceivers.
176 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Two extensions of the impulse response were ﬁnally described to account for
the spatial and temporal variations of the UWB channel. The spatial variations
model emulates the eﬀects of antenna displacement, by including the arrival
direction of the delayed wavefronts. The temporal ﬂuctuations model integrates
the eﬀects linked to the motion of people, and can be used to simulate a UWB
radio link in realistic conditions.
Appendix A
Baseband Representation of the Radio Channel
A real signal x(t) with spectral components covering a bandwidth centered
on the frequency f
0
= 0 can be represented by its complex envelope γ
x
(t)
deﬁned by:
x(t) = '
¸
γ
x
(t)e
j2πf
0
t
¸
[A.1]
There are several ways to deﬁne a complex envelope γ(t) able to represent
the signal x(t) according to relation [A.1]. We will use here the complex envelope
deﬁned by the analytical form of the signal x(t) as follows [BAR 95]:
γ
x
(t) = x(t)e
−j2πf
0
t
[A.2]
where x(t) is the analytical representation of signal x(t).
A real signal possesses a complex spectral structure with a Hermitian
symmetry. All the information concerning this signal is known in the
positive part of the frequency spectrum. The analytical signal is the signal
representation using only its positive spectral frequency components. In order
to keep the same signal power, the power spectral density (PSD) of the
spectrum’s positive side is multiplied by two. The obtained analytical signal is
thus deﬁned in the frequency domain by:
X(f) = T
¸
x(t)
¸
= 2U(f)X(f) =
1 + sign(f)
X(f) [A.3]
where T¦¦ is the Fourier transform operation and U(f) represents the unit
step function (Heaviside step function).
178 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
By using the inverse Fourier transform, it leads to the following relation:
x(t) = x(t) +j
1
πt
⊗x(t) = x(t) +jH
¸
x(t)
¸
[A.4]
where ⊗ represents the convolution operator and H¦¦ represents the Hilbert
transform.
The signal s(t) is obtained after a convolution of e(t) and h(t):
s(t) = e(t) ⊗h(t) [A.5]
By keeping the same notations as previously, we have [BAR 95]:
S(f) = 2U(f)S(f) = 2U(f)E(f)H(f) =
1
2
E(f)H(f) [A.6]
and then:
γ
s
(t) = s(t)e
−j2πf
0
t
= T
−1
¸
S(f +f
0
)
¸
= T
−1
1
2
E(f +f
0
)H(f +f
0
)
=
1
2
γ
e
(t) ⊗γ
h
(t)
[A.7]
There is a second way to represent the equivalent baseband ﬁlter [GUI 96].
Indeed, relation [A.6] allows us to write:
S(f) = E(f)H(f) [A.8]
So, γ
s
(t) can also be expressed by:
γ
s
(t) = T
−1
¸
E
f +f
0
H
f +f
0
¸
= γ
e
(t) ⊗
h(t)e
−j2πf
0
t
[A.9]
So, the baseband ﬁltered h
eq
(t) which is equivalent to the real band ﬁlter
h(t) can be expressed in two ways:
h
eq1
(t) =
1
2
γ
h
(t)
h
eq2
(t) = h(t)e
−j2πf
0
t
[A.10]
Baseband Representation of the Radio Channel 179
In the frequency domain, these two baseband ﬁlters H
eq
(f) equivalent to
the real band ﬁlter H(f) are expressed by:
H
eq1
(f) = U
f +f
0
H
f +f
0
H
eq2
(f) = H
f +f
0
[A.11]
From a practical viewpoint, the ﬁlter H
eq1
(f) corresponds to a translation
of the positive side frequency components of the ﬁlter H(f) so that they are
centered around 0 Hz. The ﬁlter H
eq2
(f) corresponds to a simple translation of
all the ﬁlter component H(f). These ﬁlters are similar when they are applied
to signals expressed in baseband.
This page intentionally left blank
Appendix B
Statistical Distributions
B.1. Deﬁnition
This section deﬁnes the main distribution laws presented in the book. Unless
otherwise mentioned, most of these laws are generally used to characterize
the magnitude of the channel impulse response for a given delay. For each
distribution of the random variable X, we give the probability density function
(PDF) p
X
(x), the cumulative density function (CDF) F(x) = P(X ≤ x), the
ﬁrst and second order moments E[X] and E[X
2
], and the variance V ar[X]
when it can be simply expressed.
B.1.1. Rayleigh distribution
The Rayleigh distribution [PAR 00] is deﬁned from the parameter σ which
is related to the standard deviation of the distribution by a constant value.
p
X
(x) =
⎧
⎨
⎩
x
σ
2
e
−
x
2
2σ
2
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.1]
F(x) =
⎧
⎨
⎩
1 −e
−
x
2
2σ
2
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.2]
E[X] =
π
2
σ [B.3]
182 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
E
X
2
= 2σ
2
[B.4]
Var[X] =
4 −π
2
σ
2
[B.5]
B.1.2. Rice distribution
The Rice distribution [PAR 00, LAU 94] is deﬁned from two parameters, s
and σ.
p
X
(x) =
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
x
σ
2
e
−
x
2
+s
2
2σ
2
I
0
xs
σ
2
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.6]
where I
0
represents the modiﬁed Bessel function of type 1.
F(x) =
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
1 −Q
s
σ
,
x
σ
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.7]
where Q is the Marcum function given by [MAR 60]:
Q(x, r) =
∞
r
ye
−
x
2
+y
2
2
I
0
(xy)dy [B.8]
E[X] =
π
2
[σ[L1
2
−
s
2
2σ
2
[B.9]
where L1
2
is the Laguerre function, the solution of the diﬀerential equation:
x
d
2
y
dx
2
+ (1 −x)
dy
dx
+
1
2
y = 0 [B.10]
E
X
2
= s
2
+ 2σ
2
[B.11]
A typical parameter of this distribution is the parameter k expressed by:
k =
s
2
2σ
2
[B.12]
Statistical Distributions 183
Numerous estimators exist for the k parameter. The k parameter estimator
considered in the book is the one based on the second and fourth order moments,
and uses the following m parameter:
m =
x
2
2
x
4
−
x
2
2
[B.13]
where () corresponds to the empirical mean value. So, k is expressed by
[ABD 01]:
k ·
1 −
1
m
1 −
1 −
1
m
[B.14]
The Rice distribution tends to a Rayleigh distribution when s tends to 0.
B.1.3. Nakagami distribution
The Nakagami distribution [LAU 94] is deﬁned from two parameters, m and
Ω.
p
X
(x) =
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
2m
m
Γ(m)Ω
m
x
2m−1
e
−
mx
2
Ω
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.15]
where Γ represents the Gamma function deﬁned for x > 0 by:
Γ(x) =
∞
0
e
−t
t
x−1
dt [B.16]
F(x) =
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
γ
mx
2
Ω
, m
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.17]
where γ represents the incomplete Gamma function deﬁned for x > 0 by:
γ(a, x) =
1
Γ(x)
a
0
e
−t
t
x−1
dt [B.18]
E[X] =
Γ
m+
1
2
Γ(m)
Ω
m
[B.19]
E
X
2
= Ω [B.20]
184 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Numerous estimators exist for the parameter m. The one used in the book
is the following [ABD 00]:
m ·
x
2
2
x
4
−
x
2
2
[B.21]
The Nakagami distribution tends to a Rayleigh distribution when m tends
to 1.
B.1.4. Weibull distribution
The Weibull distribution [LAU 94] is deﬁned from the two parameters, a
and b.
p
X
(x) =
abx
b−1
e
−ax
b
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.22]
F(x) =
1 −e
−ax
b
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.23]
E[X] = a
−
1
b
Γ
1 +
1
b
[B.24]
E
X
2
= a
−
2
b
Γ
1 +
2
b
[B.25]
The Weibull distribution tends to a Rayleigh distribution when b tends to 2.
B.1.5. Normal distribution
The normal distribution is deﬁned from two parameters, the mean μ and
the standard deviation σ.
p
X
(x) =
1
√
2πσ
e
−
(x−μ)
2
2σ
2
[B.26]
F(x) =
1
2
1 + erf
x −μ
√
2σ
[B.27]
Statistical Distributions 185
where erf represents the error function deﬁned by:
erf(x) =
2
√
π
x
0
e
−t
2
dt [B.28]
E[X] = μ [B.29]
E
X
2
= μ
2
+σ
2
[B.30]
Var[X] = σ
2
[B.31]
B.1.6. Lognormal distribution
The lognormal distribution [WIE 03] is deﬁned from two parameters, μ and
σ. This distribution corresponds to the normal distribution of a signal complex
envelope expressed in dB.
p
X
(x) =
⎧
⎨
⎩
10
√
2πxσ ln(10)
e
−
(10 log(x)−μ)
2
2σ
2
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.32]
F(x) =
⎧
⎨
⎩
1
2
1 + erf
10 log(x) −μ
√
2σ
if x ≥ 0
0 otherwise
[B.33]
E[X] = 10 10
μ
10
+
1
2
(
σ
10
)
2
[B.34]
E
X
2
= 10 10
2(
μ
10
+(
σ
10
)
2
)
[B.35]
We can estimate the parameters μ and σ by calculating the ﬁrst and second
moments of the variable expressed in dB:
E
X
dB
= μ [B.36]
E
X
2
dB
= μ
2
+σ
2
[B.37]
Var
X
dB
= σ
2
[B.38]
B.1.7. Laplace distribution
The Laplace distribution [SPE 97] is often used to model the arrival angle
associated with the cluster rays. In the book, this distribution is also used to
describe the Doppler spectrum observed on the fast variations of the signals
186 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
generated by moving people. This distribution is deﬁned from two parameters,
μ and σ.
p
X
(x) =
1
√
2σ
e
−
x−μ
√
2
σ
[B.39]
F(x) =
1
2
1 + sgn(x −μ)
e
−
x−μ
√
2
σ
[B.40]
E[X] = μ [B.41]
E
X
2
= μ
2
+σ
2
[B.42]
Var[X] = σ
2
[B.43]
B.2. KolmogorovSmirnov goodnessofﬁt test
Considering an empirical CDF F
n
(x) based on n samples and the theoretical
CDF F
0
(x) of the random variable from which the random draw is held, we
can study the following variable:
D
n
= max
¸
F
n
(x) −F
0
(x)
¸
[B.44]
Figure B.1 illustrates the calculation of the variable D
n
, for which the
distribution has been studied by Kolmogorov [KOL 33]. For a decision threshold
α and the critical value d
α
, we note:
P(D
n
> d
α
) = α [B.45]
or:
P(F
n
(x) −d
α
≤ F
0
(x) ≤ F
n
(x) +d
α
, ∀x) = 1 −α [B.46]
The critical value d
α
has been tabulated for various values of α and n. We
can demonstrate for example that for n > 80:
d
0.05
· 1.3581 n
−
1
2
d
0.01
· 1.6276 n
−
1
2
[B.47]
For a sample size n = 100, for example, we can conclude that the probability
is:
– 95% that F
0
(x) is totally situated between F
100
(x) − 0.13581 and
F
100
(x) + 0.13581;
Statistical Distributions 187
D
n
P
(
X
x
)
x
F
n
(x)
F
0
(x)
Figure B.1. KolmogorovSmirnov test: theoretical and empirical CDF
– 99% that F
0
(x) is totally situated between F
100
(x) − 0.16276 and
F
100
(x) + 0.16276.
The KolmogorovSmirnov test consists of calculating the maximum
deviation between an empirical CDF and a theoretical CDF, for a given decision
threshold α:
– if this deviation is smaller than the critical value d
α
, we conclude that
the empirical CDF follows the same law as the theoretical CDF;
– if this deviation is higher than the critical value d
α
, we conclude that the
empirical CDF does not follow the same law as the theoretical CDF.
Formally, a statistical decision process like the KolmogorovSmirnov test can
lead to two types of errors. If the test erroneously concludes that the sample
set does not follow the theoretical distribution law, we are faced with an error
of type I. If the test erroneously concludes that the sample set follows the
theoretical distribution law, we are faced with an error of type II. In the case of
the KolmogorovSmirnov test, the type I probability of error is known (α), but
the type II probability of error cannot be directly calculated. In other words,
the probability of error is not known when we conclude that some samples
follow a given law. So, this test is to be used sparingly.
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Appendix C
Geometric Optics and Uniform
Theory of Diﬀraction
C.1. Geometric optics
C.1.1. Introduction
Geometric optics (GO) have been developed for the analysis of light wave
propagation which corresponds to high frequencies. In propagation problems,
the GO is valid only for frequencies higher than 100 MHz.
If we consider a monochromatic electromagnetic pulsation wave ω, the
electric ﬁeld
E(s, ω) and magnetic ﬁeld
H(s, ω) expressions at an observation
point P, the spatial position of which is deﬁned by a vector s, correspond to
the Maxwell equation expressed in an inhomogenous medium free from charges,
with a permittivity (s) and a permeability μ(s) [PET 93] (see equation [C.1]).
The Maxwell equations imply a time domain ﬁeld dependence with e
−jωt
.
∇
E(s, ω) +jωμ(s)
H(s, ω) =
0
∇
H(s, ω) −jω(s)
E(s, ω) =
0
∇
(s)
E(s, ω)
= 0
∇
(s)
E(s, ω)
= 0
[C.1]
For a homogenous dielectric medium, the permittivity and the permeability
are not dependent on the position ((s) = and μ(s) = μ).
190 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
The study of propagation problems in homogenous media is conducted by
using Helmholtz vectorial equations which are derived from Maxwell equations:
∇
2
U(s, ω) +k
2
U(s, ω) = 0 [C.2]
with
U(s, ω) the electric or magnetic ﬁeld and k = ω
√
μ =
2π
λ
=
2π
λ
0
√
r
μ
r
the
wavenumber of the propagation medium. λ and λ
0
are the wavelengths in the
propagation medium and in the free space respectively.
r
=
r
−j(
r
+60σλ)
and μ
r
= μ
r
− jμ
r
correspond to the relative permittivities and the
permeabilities of the medium. The conductivity of the medium is represented
by σ.
C.1.2. Field locality principle
In a homogenous medium, energy propagates on paths which are straight
and orthogonal to the wavefront. These wavefronts are deﬁned by the wave
surfaces which are plane, spherical, cylindrical or any other shape. A group of
rays is a beam or tube which starts and ends with two caustic segments (see
AB and CD in Figure C.1). The energy carried by a ray is persistent in the
time and space domains as well as in magnitude and phase.
A
B
C
D
P(0)
P(s)
ˆ s
ˆ
θ
ˆ
φ
ρ
2
ρ
1
s
Caustics
propagation
direction
Figure C.1. Ray tubes, caustics and local base
As there is always a scale for which a wave can be considered as locally plane,
the properties of transverse electromagnetic plane waves can thus be generalized
to all the electromagnetic waves [GAR 87]. This is the electromagnetic wave
Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 191
locality principle. The electric and magnetic waves are strictly transverse to the
propagation direction s. The electric ﬁeld vector is in the plane orthogonal to
the propagation direction. The trihedron (
E,
H, s) is orthonormal, direct and
follows relation [C.3].
E =
μ
(
H s) [C.3]
The study can thus be restricted to the case of the electric ﬁeld
E which
is expressed in a local basis B = (ˆ s,
ˆ
θ,
ˆ
φ). This local basis depends on the
propagation direction. For reasons of readability, a simpliﬁed notation is
adopted in the following text which allows us to mix up the vector
E with its
vectorial representation E.
C.1.3. Field expression in geometric optics
According to the work of Luneberg and Kline, the electric ﬁeld is expressed
in GO by [GLO 99]:
E(s) = A(s, ρ
1
, ρ
2
) E(0) e
−jkΨ(s)
[C.4]
E(s) =
⎡
⎣
0
E
θ
(s)
E
φ
(s)
⎤
⎦
B
= A
s, ρ
1
, ρ
2
⎡
⎣
0
E
θ
(0)
E
φ
(0)
⎤
⎦
B
e
−jkΨ(s)
[C.5]
A(s, ρ
1
, ρ
2
) corresponds to the ratio between the ﬁeld magnitudes E(s) and
E(0). It is also called the divergence factor:
A(s, ρ
1
, ρ
2
) =
ρ
1
ρ
2
(ρ
1
+s)(ρ
2
+s)
[C.6]
– s is the covered distance between P(0) and P(s).
– Ψ(s) is a phase function at the observation point P(s) and is equal to s.
– E(0) is the electric ﬁeld at the point P(0).
ρ
1
and ρ
2
are the two main curvature radii of the wavefront measured on the
central ray at the reference point P(0). This point corresponds to the source
position or the interaction point between the wave and a surface.
192 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
As the electric ﬁeld is transverse to the propagation direction ˆ s, the
component along ˆ s is zero. In the following, the ﬁeld will be expressed in its
basis B without its component along ˆ s (see equation [C.7]):
E(s) =
¸
E
θ
(s)
E
φ
(s)
B
= A
s, ρ
1
, ρ
2
¸
E
θ
(0)
E
φ
(0)
B
e
−jks
[C.7]
The curvature radii ρ
1
and ρ
2
vary along the ray trajectory. They have to
be recalculated whenever the ray is obstructed because the interactions modify
the ray trajectory. An interaction can be a reﬂection, a transmission (or double
refraction) or a diﬀraction.
C.1.4. Change of local basis
Considering an electric ﬁeld expressed in a given basis B
1
, if the wave
corresponding to this ﬁeld undergoes an interaction, the ﬁeld has to be
expressed in a new local basis. This new local basis corresponds to the input
basis B
2
of the interaction. To obtain the new expression of the ﬁeld, we need
to use the basis change matrix M
B
1
→B
2
(see equation [C.8]).
E(0) =
¸
E
α
2
(0)
E
β
2
(0)
B
2
= M
B
1
→B
2
¸
E
α
1
(0)
E
β
1
(0)
B
1
[C.8]
B
1
= (ˆ s
1
, ˆ α
1
,
ˆ
β
1
) and B
2
= (ˆ s
2
, ˆ α
2
,
ˆ
β
2
) are the direct orthonormal bases in
which the incident ﬁeld is expressed at the interaction input.
M
B
1
→B
2
is the transition matrix allowing us to express the incident ﬁeld in
the new basis. This matrix corresponds to a projection of the vectors ˆ α
1
and
ˆ
β
1
in the basis B
2
:
M
B
1
→B
2
=
¸
ˆ α
2
ˆ α
1
ˆ α
2
ˆ
β
1
ˆ
β
2
ˆ α
1
ˆ
β
2
ˆ
β
1
[C.9]
C.1.5. Incident ﬁeld
The incident ﬁeld is the ﬁeld radiated by a source S in the direction of
an observation point P placed at a distance s
i
. The expression of this ﬁeld is
deduced from equation (C.7) by applying the transition matrix M
B
i
→B
r
:
E
r
s
i
=
¸
E
i
s
i
E
i
⊥
s
i
B
r
= A
s, ρ
i
1
, ρ
i
2
M
B
i
→B
r
¸
E
i
(0)
E
i
⊥
(0)
B
i
e
−jks
i
[C.10]
Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 193
ρ
i
1
and ρ
i
2
are the main curvature radii of the incident wavefront.
B
i
= (ˆ s
i
, ˆ e
i
, ˆ e
i
⊥
) is a direct orthonormal local basis at the emission. It
corresponds to a basis described by the direction ˆ s
i
. If we consider a spherical
frame, ˆ e
i
and ˆ e
i
⊥
can be assimilated to vectors ˆ e
θ
and ˆ e
φ
which form with ˆ s
i
a
direct orthonormal basis.
B
r
= (−ˆ s
i
, ˆ e
r
, ˆ e
r
⊥
) is a direct orthonormal local basis at the receiver side.
It corresponds to the basis described by the direction −
ˆ
s
i
. If we consider a
spherical frame, ˆ e
r
and ˆ e
r
⊥
can be assimilated to the vectors ˆ e
θ
and −ˆ e
φ
which
form with −
ˆ
s
i
a direct orthonormal basis.
M
B
i
→B
r
is the transition matrix which allows us to express the incident
ﬁeld at the point P in the good basis. This matrix corresponds to a projection
of the vectors ˆ e
i
and ˆ e
i
⊥
in the basis B
r
.
M
B
i
→B
r
=
¸
ˆ e
r
ˆ e
i
ˆ e
r
ˆ e
i
⊥
ˆ e
r
⊥
ˆ e
i
ˆ e
r
⊥
ˆ e
i
⊥
¸
=
¸
1 0
0 −1
[C.11]
Most of the time, we consider that the incident wavefront is spherical. So,
the ﬁeld is expressed by:
E
r
(s
i
) =
1
s
i
M
B
i
→B
r
E
i
(0)e
−jks
i
[C.12]
C.1.6. Reﬂected ﬁeld
The reﬂected ﬁeld is the ﬁeld received at a point P after the reﬂection of
a ray at a point Q
r
placed at a distance s
i
from the source point S and at a
distance s
r
to the point P (see Figure C.2).
C.1.6.1. Expression of the reﬂected ﬁeld in GO
The expression of the reﬂected ﬁeld E
r
(s
r
) is derived from the fundamental
expression of the ﬁeld in GO (see equation [C.7]). The reﬂection law which
comes from the Fermat principle deﬁnes the reﬂection point Q
r
. The incident
ˆ s
i
and reﬂected propagation ˆ s
r
directions are ﬁxed by the interaction surface
by the normal vector ˆ n (see equation [C.13]) [MCN 90].
ˆ n
ˆ s
i
− ˆ s
r
=
ˆ
0 [C.13]
The incidence and reﬂection planes are the same and the incidence angle θ
i
and reﬂection angle θ
r
are equal (see Figure C.2). The incidence plane is deﬁned
194 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
tangent plane of a surface
θ
i
θ
r
ˆ n
Q
r
S
P
ˆ e
i
ˆ s
i
ˆ e
i
⊥
local basis B
i
ˆ e
r
ˆ s
r
ˆ e
r
⊥ local basis B
r
Figure C.2. Incident and reﬂection local bases
by the normal ˆ n and the incident ray given by the vector ˆ s
i
. The reﬂection plane
is deﬁned by the normal ˆ n and the reﬂected ray is given by the vector ˆ s
r
. The
use of the locality principle in the case of the reﬂected ﬁeld corresponds to
the introduction of a reﬂection dyad R which is expressed according to the
reﬂection coeﬃcients R
and R
⊥
by:
R =
¸
R
0
0 R
⊥
[C.14]
Thus, the reﬂected ﬁeld E
r
(0) at the point Q
r
and deﬁned in the basis
B
i
only depends on the dyad R and on the incident ﬁeld E
i
(s
i
) deﬁned in the
basis B at this same point. It is thus necessary to express the ﬁeld in the correct
incident local basis B
i
= (ˆ s
i
, ˆ e
i
, ˆ e
i
⊥
).
E
r
(0) = R M
B→B
i
E
i
(s
i
) [C.15]
In relation [C.15], B = (ˆ s
i
, ˆ α,
ˆ
β) corresponds to the orthonormal basis in
which the incident ﬁeld E
i
(s
i
) is deﬁned. ˆ α and
ˆ
β are an arbitrary couple
of orthonormal vectors, such that B is direct. The transition matrix M
B→B
i
allows us to describe the ﬁeld E
i
(s
i
) in the basis B
i
.
M
B→B
i
=
¸
ˆ e
i
ˆ α ˆ e
i
ˆ
β
ˆ e
i
⊥
ˆ α ˆ e
i
⊥
ˆ
β
¸
[C.16]
Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 195
The reﬂected ﬁeld E
r
(s
r
) at the observation point P is expressed in the
reﬂected local base B
r
= (ˆ s
r
, ˆ e
r
, ˆ e
r
⊥
) by the equation [C.17]. The main curvature
radii ρ
r
1
and ρ
r
2
of the reﬂected wave depend on those of the incident wave. In
the case of a planar surface, the following equalities are obtained: ρ
r
1
= ρ
i
1
and
ρ
r
2
= ρ
i
2
.
E
r
s
r
= A
s
r
, ρ
r
1
, ρ
r
2
RM
B→B
i
E
i
s
i
e
−jks
r
[C.17]
C.1.6.2. Incident and reﬂected ray bases
The local bases B
i
and B
r
are deﬁned according to the incident ray
propagation direction ˆ s
i
and the normal ˆ n. In fact, ˆ e
i
and ˆ e
r
are parallel to
the incidence and reﬂection planes, while ˆ e
i
⊥
= ˆ e
r
⊥
are orthogonal to the same
planes (see Figure C.2).
C.1.6.3. Reﬂection coeﬃcients
The dyad R depends on the reﬂection coeﬃcient components which are
parallel R
and perpendicular R
⊥
to the incidence plane (see equation [C.14]).
These coeﬃcients are for the phase and the magnitude changes introduced
by the reﬂection phenomenon on each component of the ﬁeld. For multilayer
interfaces with one or more layers, these coeﬃcients have to be adapted in
order to take the stratiﬁcation into account. Equation [C.18] corresponds to the
reﬂection coeﬃcient in the case of a surface with a thickness e and a permittivity
r
. The permeability is considered to be set at 1.
R
,⊥
=
1 −e
−2jδ
e
2jδ
1 −Γ
2
,⊥
e
−2jδ
e
2jδ
Γ
,⊥
[C.18]
Γ
,⊥
are the Fresnel coeﬃcients in the case of an inﬁnite plane surface with
a permittivity
r
:
Γ
=
r
cos θ
i
−
r
−sin
2
θ
i
r
cos θ
i
+
r
−sin
2
θ
i
[C.19]
Γ
⊥
=
cos θ
i
−
r
−sin
2
θ
i
cos θ
i
+
r
−sin
2
θ
i
[C.20]
In the case of a perfect conductor surface (σ →∞), the reﬂection coeﬃcients
are expressed with a phase diﬀerence multiple of π by:
Γ
= +1 Γ
⊥
= −1 [C.21]
196 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
δ = k
r
l and δ
k
0
d
2
are the phase terms associated with the delays
introduced by each reﬂected ﬁeld (see Figure C.3). k
r
= k
0
√
r
corresponds to
the wavenumber of the medium with permittivity
r
and l = e/ cos θ
t
is the
oneway distance in the medium. The incidence θ
i
and refraction θ
t
angles are
deﬁned by:
sin θ
t
=
1
√
r
sin θ
i
[C.22]
e
Transmitted
rays
Reﬂected
rays
Incident ray
0
r
0
θ
i
θ
t
θ
i
e
l
d
d
d = 2l sin θ
i
sin θ
t
0
r
0
Figure C.3. Reﬂection of a plane wave on a dielectric interface with thickness e
The expressions of R
,⊥
do not consider the possible roughness of the
encountered surfaces (see equation [C.18]). The roughness is introduced by
Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 197
multiplying the coeﬃcients Γ
,⊥
by the roughness factor ρ (see equation [C.23])
[BEC 87] [COC 05]. ´h is the height standard deviation in the rough interface.
ρ = e
−2(k
r
hcos θ
i
)
2
[C.23]
C.1.7. Refracted and transmitted ﬁeld
The refracted (or transmitted) ﬁeld is the received ﬁeld at the point P after
refraction (or multiple refractions) of a wave at the point Q
t
placed on an
interface at a distance s
i
of the source point S and at a distance s
t
of the point
P.
S
P
Q
t
ˆ n
ˆ s
t
ˆ e
t
ˆ s
i
ˆ e
i
ˆ e
i
θ
i
θ
t
local basis B
⊥
i
local basis B
t
ˆ e
t
⊥
Tangent plane
at the refraction
surface
Figure C.4. Transmission and incidence local bases
C.1.7.1. Expression of refracted and transmitted ﬁeld in OG
The expression of the transmitted ﬁeld E
t
(s
t
) at the observation point P,
placed at a distance s
t
of the transmission point, also follows from the GO ﬁeld
main expression (see equation [C.7]).
The refraction law, also called the SnellDescartes law, comes from the
Fermat principle. It establishes the relation between the incidence angle θ
i
and
the transmission angle θ
t
(see Figure C.4) at the interface and in the direction
air → medium (see equation [C.22]). The Fermat principle implies that the
incidence and transmission planes are the same and deﬁned by the incident
ˆ s
i
ray and transmitted ˆ s
t
ray directions, and the reﬂection surface normal
198 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
ˆ n. Identically to the reﬂection example, the transmission can be considered
as a local phenomenon, so the transmitted ﬁeld is expressed by introducing
a transmission dyad T. This dyad is obtained according to the transmission
coeﬃcients (see equation [C.24]).
T =
¸
T
0
0 T
⊥
[C.24]
The ﬁeld E
t
(0) after the transmission point Q
t
depends on the coeﬃcient
T and on the incident ﬁeld E
i
(s
i
) at this same point, taking care to deﬁne the
incident ﬁeld in the incident local basis B
i
= (ˆ s
i
, ˆ e
i
, ˆ e
i
⊥
) (see equation [C.25]).
E
t
(0) = TM
B→B
i
E
i
s
i
[C.25]
B = (ˆ s
i
, ˆ α,
ˆ
β) corresponds to the orthonormal basis in which the incident
ﬁeld E
i
(s
i
) is deﬁned. As in the reﬂected ﬁeld case, the transition matrix
M
B→B
i
allows the expression of the incoming ﬁeld E
i
(s
i
) in the incident local
basis B
i
.
The transmitted ﬁeld E
t
(s
t
) at the observation point P is expressed in the
transmission local basis B
t
= (
ˆ
s
t
, ˆ e
t
, ˆ e
t
⊥
) by:
E
t
s
t
= A
s
t
, ρ
t
1
, ρ
t
2
TM
B→B
i
E
i
s
i
e
−jks
t
[C.26]
In the simple refraction case, s
t
corresponds to the distance between P and
Q
t
. As the point P is inside the interface, the propagation constant considers
the propagation speed related to the dielectric properties at the interface. For
a multiple refraction (or transmission), s
t
corresponds to the distance between
P and Q
t
at which the propagation distance in the interface is removed. This
last distance is obtained for propagation in free space. Indeed, in the case of
multiple refraction, the phase delay associated with propagation in the interface
is directly introduced in T.
The divergence of a transmitted ray is given by the following relation:
A
s
t
, ρ
t
1
, ρ
t
2
=
ρ
t
1
ρ
t
2
(ρ
t
1
+s
t
)(ρ
t
2
+s
t
)
[C.27]
ρ
t
1
is the ﬁrst main curvature radius of the transmitted wave. Its expression
is diﬀerent from the case of simple refraction (see equation [C.28]) and the case
Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 199
of double refraction (see equation [C.29]).
ρ
t
1
= ρ
i
1
α
−1
[C.28]
ρ
t
1
= ρ
i
1
+αl [C.29]
ρ
t
2
is the second main curvature radius of the transmitted wave. Its
expression is also diﬀerent from the case of the simple refraction [C.30] and
the case of the second refraction [C.31] [PLO 03].
ρ
t
2
= ρ
i
2
α
−1
[C.30]
ρ
t
2
= ρ
i
2
+αγ
2
l [C.31]
l =
e
cos θ
t
α =
1
√
r
γ =
cos θ
i
cos θ
t
[C.32]
C.1.7.2. Incident and transmitted ray bases
The knowledge of the incident ray propagation direction ˆ s
i
and the normal ˆ n
allows us to deﬁne the local bases B
i
and B
t
. In fact, ˆ e
i
and ˆ e
t
are respectively
parallel to the incidence and transmission planes and ˆ e
i
⊥
= ˆ e
t
⊥
are perpendicular
to the same planes. ˆ e
i
and ˆ e
i
⊥
are deﬁned according to the normal ˆ n (see
Figure C.2). ˆ e
t
⊥
is obtained from equation [C.33]. Generally, after a double
refraction B
i
and B
t
are the same because
ˆ
s
i
=
ˆ
s
t
.
ˆ e
t
= ˆ e
t
⊥
ˆ
s
t
[C.33]
C.1.7.3. Transmission coeﬃcient
In the expression of the transmission dyad, the two components T
and
T
⊥
are respectively the transmission coeﬃcients parallel and orthogonal to
the incidence plane. They correspond to the phase and magnitude changes
introduced by the transmission phenomenon on each component of the ﬁeld. In
the case of a simple refraction and a plane surface, their expressions are given
by equations [C.34] and [C.35]. Γ
and Γ
⊥
correspond to the Fresnel reﬂection
coeﬃcients deﬁned at equations [C.19] and [C.20].
T
=
1 + Γ
√
r
=
2
√
r
cos θ
i
r
cos θ
i
+
r
−sin
2
θ
i
[C.34]
T
⊥
= 1 + Γ
⊥
=
2 cos θ
i
cos θ
i
+
r
−sin
2
θ
i
[C.35]
200 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
In the case of a double refraction (transmission), T
and T
⊥
are expressed by
equation [C.36] (see Figure C.3). In [SAG 03], the expression of the transmission
coeﬃcient for an interface with more than two materials is proposed.
T
,⊥
=
1 −Γ
2
,⊥
e
−2jδ
e
2jδ
1 −Γ
2
,⊥
e
−2jδ
e
2jδ
[C.36]
C.2. Uniform theory of diﬀraction
C.2.1. Introduction
Electromagnetic waves are continuous, in magnitude and phase, in the time
and space domain. However, the GO does not ensure the total continuity ﬁeld.
It predicts areas where the ﬁeld is zero (shadow zone). In 1953, Keller proposed
a generalization of the GO in order to consider diﬀracted rays. This led to the
birth of general diﬀraction theory (GTD) [KEL 62].
The GTD allows us to solve the problem of ﬁeld existence in the shadow
zone of the GO. However, it presents a singularity at the boundary between
a lighted zone and a shadow zone. So in 1962, the theory has been completed
by Kouyoumjian and Pathak in order to ensure the total ﬁeld continuity in all
space points [KOU 74]; henceforth we talk about UTD.
Thereafter, Burnside and Burgener have proposed a formalism of the
uniform theory of diﬀraction (UTD) in the case of the 3D diﬀraction on a
corner of small thickness [BUR 83]. Other authors have also studied the
simple diﬀraction, the double diﬀraction as well as the slope diﬀraction in
the frequency domain [LUE 89, DES 84, ROU 96, ROU 99] and in the time
domain [VER 90, ROU 95]. Then, only the expression of the diﬀracted ﬁeld in
the frequency domain is addressed, considering the case of the diﬀraction by
dielectric or metallic dihedron.
C.2.2. Diﬀracted ﬁeld
The expression of the diﬀracted ﬁeld given by equation [C.37] corresponds to
the diﬀraction by a dihedron. For this kind of diﬀraction, the discontinuity line
is mixed up with the one of the diﬀracted beam caustics and so the curvature
radius ρ
d
2
, also called minor ray, becomes zero.
E
d
s
d
= A
s
d
, ρ
d
1
, ρ
d
2
→0
DM
B→B
i
E
i
s
i
e
−jks
d
[C.37]
Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 201
A(s) is the divergence factor of the ray diﬀracted by the dihedron and is
expressed by:
A
s
d
, ρ
d
1
, ρ
d
2
→0
=
ρ
d
1
ρ
d
1
+s
d
s
d
[C.38]
D is the dyad introducing the diﬀraction coeﬃcients. This dyad can be
written diﬀerently according to the diﬀracted ray’s nature, which can be
twodimensional (2D) or threedimensional (3D).
The matrix M
B→B
i
makes it possible to describe the incident ﬁeld,
initially expressed in the basis B, in the incidence basis of the diﬀraction
B
i
= (ˆ s
d
, ˆ e
i
, ˆ e
i
⊥
). The diﬀracted ﬁeld E
d
(s
d
) is deﬁned in the diﬀraction basis
B
d
= (ˆ s
d
, ˆ e
d
, ˆ e
d
⊥
).
The diﬀraction law, coming from the generalized Fermat principle, connects
the Keller angle β
0
to the incident ray direction ˆ s
i
and the diﬀracted ray
direction s
d
as well as the tangent
ˆ
t of the dihedron wedge (see Figure C.5) at
the diﬀraction point Q
d
by:
ˆ s
i
ˆ
t = ˆ s
d
ˆ
t = cos β
0
[C.39]
The incidence and diﬀraction planes are thus deﬁned by the tangent of the
wedge
ˆ
t and by the incident and diﬀraction ray directions. Generally, these two
planes are not merged, as illustrated in Figure C.5.
The vectors of the bases B
i
and B
d
are obtained using the following
relations:
ˆ e
i
= −ˆ s
i
ˆ
t
sin β
0
ˆ e
i
⊥
= ˆ s
i
ˆ e
i
ˆ e
d
= ˆ s
d
ˆ
t
sin β
0
ˆ e
d
⊥
= ˆ s
d
ˆ e
d
[C.40]
C.2.3. UTD 2D coeﬃcient
In the case of a 3D ray, the dyad D is diagonal and directly expressed from
the two components of the diﬀraction coeﬃcients D
and D
⊥
:
D =
¸
D
0
0 D
⊥
[C.41]
The terms D
and D
⊥
are the diﬀraction coeﬃcients initially introduced by
Keller and then modiﬁed by Kouyoumjian, Burnside and Luebbers.
202 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(2 − n)π
D
i
ﬀ
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
p
l
a
n
e
Incidence plane
ˆ
t
S
P
Q
d
local basis B
i
ˆ s
i
ˆ e
i
ˆ e
i
⊥
local basis B
d
ˆ s
d
ˆ e
d
ˆ e
d
⊥
β
0
β
0
φ
i
φ
d
Figure C.5. Incidence and diﬀraction local bases
C.2.3.1. UTD coeﬃcient – dihedron conductor
Contrary to the GTD, the UTD introduced by Kouyoumjian and Pathak
[KOU 74] ensures the ﬁeld continuity in all the space, especially at the optic
boundaries ISB (incident shadow boundary) and RSB (reﬂection shadow
boundary). These authors have taken an interest in the case of a perfect
conductor dihedron and have deﬁned two new diﬀraction coeﬃcients which
introduce a correcting factor compared to the GTD coeﬃcients:
D
//,⊥
= D
1
+D
2
±(D
3
+D
4
) [C.42]
D
1
= −
e
−j
π
4
2n
√
2πk sin β
o
cot
π + (φ
d
−φ
i
)
2n
F
kLa
+
(φ
d
−φ
i
)
D
2
= −
e
−j
π
4
2n
√
2πk sin β
o
cot
π −(φ
d
−φ
i
)
2n
F
kLa
−
(φ
d
−φ
i
)
D
3
= −
e
−j
π
4
2n
√
2πk sin β
o
cot
π + (φ
d
+φ
i
)
2n
F
kLa
+
(φ
d
+φ
i
)
D
4
= −
e
−j
π
4
2n
√
2πk sin β
o
cot
π −(φ
d
+φ
i
)
2n
F
kLa
−
(φ
d
+φ
i
)
[C.43]
Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 203
β
0
is a semiangle at the diﬀraction cone head. The normal incidence
corresponds to β
o
=
π
2
(see Figure C.5).
φ
i
and φ
d
are respectively the incidence and diﬀraction angles. They are
speciﬁed from the wedge face 0 (see Figure C.5).
n is a parameter deﬁned so that the dihedron inner angle is given by (2−n)π.
± corresponds to the reﬂection coeﬃcient in the case of a conductor [C.21].
F(x) corresponds to the transition function which uses the Fresnel integral
[LEG 95]:
F(x) = 2j
√
xe
jx
∞
√
x
e
−jt
2
dt [C.44]
L is a distance parameter which corresponds to the incidence type on the
wedge. It brings into play the incident wave main curvature radii (ρ
d
1
and ρ
d
2
)
as well as the wedge of curvature radius (ρ
d
e
) (see equation [C.45]). In the case
of a spherical wave, L is given by equation [C.46].
L = sin
2
β
0
s
d
ρ
d
e
+s
d
ρ
d
e
ρ
d
1
ρ
d
1
+s
d
ρ
d
2
ρ
d
2
+s
d
[C.45]
L = sin
2
β
0
s
d
ρ
d
1
ρ
d
1
+s
d
[C.46]
a
±
is a function deﬁned by:
a
±
= 2 cos
2
2nπN
±
−(φ
d
±φ
i
)
2
[C.47]
with N
±
an integer corresponding (outside the optic boundaries) to relation
[C.48]:
2πnN
±
−(φ
d
±φ
i
) = ±π [C.48]
When the cotangent (cot) of one of the D
i
(i = 1, 2, 3, 4) terms becomes
singular for the optic boundary angles φ
i
and φ
d
, the corresponding term is
replaced by −
√
L
2
sign() [PLO 00].
204 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
C.2.3.2. UTD coeﬃcients – dielectric dihedron
Luebbers proposes a more general formulation for the diﬀraction coeﬃcients.
This formulation allows us to consider the dielectric nature of the wedge as well
as its roughness [LUE 89]. These coeﬃcients are heuristic solutions as they are
not obtained by solving Maxwell equations:
D
//,⊥
= G
n
//,⊥
D
1
+ρ
n
R
n
//,⊥
D
3
+G
0
//,⊥
D
2
+ρ
0
R
0
//,⊥
D
4
[C.49]
D
i
(i = 1, 2, 3, 4) are terms reported on equations [C.43].
R
0,n
//,⊥
corresponds to the Fresnel reﬂection coeﬃcients [C.19] and [C.20].
The incidence angles θ
0
i
=
π
2
−φ
i
and θ
n
i
=
π
2
−(nπ −φ
i
) depend on the faces
0 and n of the considered wedge.
ρ
0,n
corresponds to the roughness coeﬃcient of the considered face [C.23].
G
0,n
//,⊥
are the correcting coeﬃcients which allow us to consider the grazing
incidences on the faces 0 and n of a dihedron.
G
0
//,⊥
=
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
1
1 +R
0
//,⊥
for φ
i
= 0 and [1 +R
0
//,⊥
[ > 0
1
2
for φ
i
= nπ
1 otherwise
[C.50]
G
n
//,⊥
=
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
1
1 +R
n
//,⊥
for φ
i
= nπ and [1 +R
n
//,⊥
[ > 0
1
2
for φ
i
= 0
1 otherwise
[C.51]
C.2.4. UTD 3D coeﬃcient
Contrarily to the case of a 2D ray, the dyad D of a 3D ray is no longer
diagonal and is expressed only by two diﬀraction coeﬃcients, as in the case of
2D ray (see equation [C.49]). This 3D dyad has been introduced by Burnside
and Burgener [BUR 83] and reused by Rouvi`ere [ROU 99] in the case of a
dielectric halfplane with very small thickness.
To obtain the 3D dyad of [BUR 83], ﬁeld continuity has to be ensured at
each optic limit. So, the boundary conditions at the reﬂection in incidence
Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 205
boundaries have to consider relations [C.52] and [C.53]. In these relations, U
i
and U
r
correspond to the incident and reﬂected ﬁelds respectively.
RU
i
(Q
d
)D(φ
d
+φ
i
)
e
−jks
d
√
s
d
=
−1/2U
r
area I
1/2U
r
area II
[C.52]
(1 −T)U
i
Q
d
D
φ
d
−φ
i
e
−jks
d
√
s
d
=
−1/2(1 −T)U
i
area II
1/2(1 −T)U
i
area III
[C.53]
with the areas denoted I, II and III illustrated by Figure C.6.
diﬀracted wedge
Zone III
diﬀracted + transmitted
Zone II
incident + transmitted
Zone I
incident + reﬂected + diﬀracted
ISB
RSB
Figure C.6. Field area around a diﬀracting wedge
Using these boundary conditions, the following expression is obtained for
the dyad D:
D = (I −T
)D(φ
d
−φ
i
) +R
D(φ
d
+φ
i
) [C.54]
D(φ
d
−φ
i
) = D
1
+D
2
[C.55]
D(φ
d
−φ
i
) = D
1
+D
2
[C.56]
Each of the dyads (D, R
and T
) are expressed in their respective local
basis. It is thus necessary to calculate the base change matrices in order
to express all the ﬁelds in the local basis of the diﬀraction. α is the angle
between the incidentreﬂection plane as well as the incidencetransmission
plane and the incident plane. The diﬀraction plane is given by
π
2
− α. In 2D,
206 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
the incidencereﬂection and incidencetransmission planes are perpendicular to
the incidencediﬀraction plane (α = 0). In 3D, these planes have no particular
direction (see Figure C.7).
i
n
c
i
d
e
n
c
e
p
l
a
n
e

r
e
ﬂ
e
c
t
i
o
n
(2 − n)π
D
i
ﬀ
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
p
l
a
n
e
I
n
c
i
d
e
n
c
e
p
l
a
n
e
ˆ
t
S
P
Q
d
ˆ s
i
ˆ e
i
ˆ e
i
⊥
ˆ s
d
ˆ e
d
ˆ e
d
⊥
β
0
φ
i
φ
d
ˆ n
θ
i
θ
r
π
2
− α
Figure C.7. Reﬂection and diﬀraction incidence planes
The relations between the reﬂection and diﬀraction local bases are
illustrated at Figure C.8 allow us to establish the matrix of basis change
necessary to express the reﬂection R
(see equation [C.57]) and transmission
T
dyads in the diﬀraction local basis (see equation [C.57]). In these equations,
the exponent terms correspond to the plane nature (i for incident and d for
diﬀraction) as well as the interaction specifying the plane (r for reﬂection and
d for diﬀraction).
M
i
R→D
(α) = M(α) =
⎡
⎣
ˆ e
i,d
ˆ e
i,r
ˆ e
i,d
ˆ e
i,r
⊥
ˆ e
i,d
⊥
ˆ e
i,r
ˆ e
i,d
⊥
ˆ e
i,r
⊥
⎤
⎦
=
¸
cos α −sin α
sin α cos α
[C.57]
M
d
R→D
(α) = M(−α) =
⎡
⎣
ˆ e
d,d
ˆ e
d,r
ˆ e
d,d
ˆ e
d,r
⊥
ˆ e
d,d
⊥
ˆ e
d,r
ˆ e
d,d
⊥
ˆ e
d,r
⊥
⎤
⎦
=
¸
cos α sin α
−sin α cos α
[C.58]
Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 207
ˆ e
i,r
ˆ e
i,r
⊥
α
α
ˆ e
i,d
ˆ e
i,d
⊥
ˆ e
d,d
ˆ e
d,d
⊥
ˆ e
d,r
ˆ e
d,r
⊥
α
α
after diﬀraction before diﬀraction
Figure C.8. Incidence reﬂection and diﬀraction bases in 3D case
In the case of transmission, the same basis change matrices are used. They
are denoted M(−α) because we turn conversely. The dyadic matrices are thus
expressed by R
and T
by using equations [C.59] and [C.60].
R
= M
d
R→D
(α) R
M
i
R→D
(α)
−1
= M(−α) R M(−α)
=
¸
R
cos
2
α −R
⊥
sin
2
α (R
+R
⊥
) cos αsin α
−(R
+R
⊥
) cos αsin α R
⊥
cos
2
α −R
sin
2
α
[C.59]
T
= M
d
T→D
(α)T
M
i
T→D
(α)
−1
= M(α)TM(−α)
=
¸
T
cos
2
α +T
⊥
sin
2
α (T
−T
⊥
) cos αsin α
(T
−T
⊥
) cos αsin α T
⊥
cos
2
α +T
sin
2
α
[C.60]
(I −T
) =
¸
1 −T
cos
2
α −T
⊥
sin
2
α −(T
−T
⊥
) cos αsin α
−(T
−T
⊥
) cos αsin α 1 −T
⊥
cos
2
α −T
sin
2
α
[C.61]
Expressions [C.59] and [C.61] inserted in equation [C.54] underline the
nondiagonal structure of the dyad Dwhich is expressed by [BUR 83] [GLO 99]:
D =
¸
D
a
D
b
D
c
D
d
[C.62]
D
a
=
1−T
cos
2
α−T
⊥
sin
2
α
D
φ
i
−φ
d
−[R
cos
2
α −R
⊥
sin
2
α
D
φ
i
+φ
d
[C.63]
208 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
D
b
= cos αsin α[(T
⊥
−T
) D(φ
i
−φ
d
) + (R
+R
⊥
) D(φ
i
+φ
d
)] [C.64]
D
c
= cos αsin α[(T
⊥
−T
) D(φ
i
−φ
d
) −(R
+R
⊥
) D(φ
i
+φ
d
)] [C.65]
D
d
=[1−T
sin
2
α−T
⊥
cos
2
α]D(φ
i
−φ
d
)−[R
⊥
cos
2
α−R
sin
2
α]D(φ
i
+φ
d
)
[C.66]
In equations [C.63] [C.64] [C.65] and [C.66], the terms R
,⊥
and T
,⊥
are
the reﬂection and transmission coeﬃcients, the expressions of which are given
by [C.18] and [C.36].
Appendix D
Ray Construction Techniques
D.1. Ray launching
Ray launching is a forward approach which consists of sending rays in all the
directions from a transmission position of coordinates (Tx) with an incremental
angular step (Δα) which can be set to various values. Then, the receiver position
coordinates (Rx) are speciﬁed (see Figure D.1) [CHE 96, KIM 97, STA 98,
LIN 89].
The speed of ray determination with the ray launching approach is directly
related to the chosen Δα. When the Rx position is ﬁxed, the rays connecting
the transmitter Tx and the receiver Rx are obtained considering a receiver
sphere of diameter Δd which can be set to various values. So, the launched rays
connecting Tx to Rx will be considered if they intersect the receiver sphere (see
Figure D.1). The number of rays obtained increases with the sphere diameter
Δd (for a given Δα), but the precision of the calculated ﬁeld and the received
signal decreases.
D.2. Ray tracing
Ray tracing is a backward approach which consists of applying the image
principle from Tx and Rx position in order to obtain reﬂected rays (see
Figure D.2) [HUM 03, MCK 91, CHA 03].
The speciﬁcity of this approach is the increase of the number of the potential
images combinations with the complexity of the considered environment. This
can lead to important ray calculation time.
210 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Tx
δα
(a)
Tx
Rx
δd
δα
(b)
Figure D.1. Ray launching principle: (a) rays launched from the transmitter
and (b) rays obtained considering intersection of receiver sphere
Im
Tx
/s
1
Im
Im
Tx
/s
1
/s
2
s
1
s
2
Tx Rx
Figure D.2. Ray tracing principle
Ray Construction Techniques 211
D.3. Other techniques
In the literature, other techniques are also proposed and used for ray
determination. Some of these techniques are hybrid and combine ray launching
and ray tracing [TAN 95, TCH 03, AVE 04], while others require a visibility
tree to be built [AGE 97, AGE 00], or rely upon calculation time speed
improvement techniques borrowed from the image processing domain. These
last techniques use octree, raster or Voxel matrices for ray determination
[FOL 84, LEG 05].
This page intentionally left blank
Appendix E
Description of the TimeFrequency Transform
The determination of a time domain signal x(τ) from its frequency domain
expression X(f) is generally made using an inverse Fourier transform (see
equation [E.1]). As the frequency domain expression X(f) of the signal x(τ)
shows a Hermitian symmetry (see equation [E.2]), the obtained signal x(τ) is
real.
x(τ) =
+∞
−∞
X(f) e
j 2 π f τ
df [E.1]
X
∗
(f) = X(−f) ∀ f ∈ R [E.2]
From frequency domain measurements, the obtained channel transfer
function H(f) is deﬁned on a ﬁnite frequency band from f
min
to f
max
, for
N
f
frequency points. As H(f) is discrete, the determination of h(τ) is made
using an inverse Fourier transform (see equation [E.3]). δf =
f
max
−f
min
N
f
is the
frequency sampling step and f
k
corresponds to a frequency value given by
f
k
= f
min
+k δf.
h(τ) = δf
N
f
−1
¸
k=0
H(f
k
) e
j 2 π f
k
τ
[E.3]
The transfer function H(f) does not show a Hermitian symmetry because it
is only deﬁned between f
min
and f
max
. The signal obtained after discrete inverse
Fourier transform is complex and corresponds to h(τ)+j
ˆ
h(τ) (see Figure E.1).
214 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
−
0
.
0
8
−
0
.
0
6
−
0
.
0
4
−
0
.
0
2 0
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
4
0
.
0
6
0
.
0
8
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
r
e
a
l
p
a
r
t
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
−
0
.
0
8
−
0
.
0
6
−
0
.
0
4
−
0
.
0
2 0
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
4
0
.
0
6
0
.
0
8
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
i
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
p
a
r
t
F
i
g
u
r
e
E
.
1
.
I
n
v
e
r
s
e
F
o
u
r
i
e
r
t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
o
f
H
(
f
)
Description of the TimeFrequency Transform 215
To obtain a real signal h(τ), it is mandatory to use a transfer function H
2
(f)
presenting by construction a Hermitian symmetry. Moreover, to improve the
precision of the reconstructed h(τ), we can expand the spectral support of
H
2
(f) in comparison to H(f). This consists of making an operation of zero
padding. Indeed, the product δτ δf N
f
is equal to 1, so the increase of N
f
necessary leads to a reduction of δτ and consequently improves the time domain
precision of the signal h(τ) obtained after the discrete inverse Fourier transform.
The reconstruction of a real h(τ) from H(f) is made by applying
two successive operations on H(f) before the discrete inverse Fourier
transformation: zero padding and Hermitian symmetric forcing.
Operation of zero padding
The operation of zero padding consists of obtaining a new transfer function
H
1
(f) from H(f) (see Figure E.3). The new transfer function H
1
(f) contains
far more samples than H(f). H
1
(f) is constructed according to the following
relation with f
e
=
1
2 δτ
.
H
1
(f) =
H(f) f ∈
f
min
, f
max
0 f ∈
δf, f
min
−δf
∪
f
max
+δf, f
e
[E.4]
So, the new transfer function H
1
(f) is constructed as shown in equation
[E.5]) with N
1
= N
r
+N
f
+N
l
samples where N
l
=
f
min
δf
−1 and N
r
=
f
e
−f
max
δf
.
H
1
(f) =
zeros(1, N
l
) H(f) zeros(1, N
r
)
[E.5]
Figure E.2 shows the time domain signal obtained after discrete inverse
Fourier transformation is applied on H
1
(f). We can notice that the sampling
of the obtained time domain signal is improved. Nevertheless, it is still complex.
Operation of Hermitian symmetric forcing
The operation of forcing the Hermitian symmetry consists of creating a
transfer function H
2
(f) fromH
1
(f). This new transfer function H
2
(f) is deﬁned
from −f
e
to f
e
(see equation [E.6]) as illustrated in Figure E.3. Figure E.4
represents a real impulse response h(τ) obtained after a discrete inverse Fourier
transform applied on H
2
(f).
H
2
(f) = H
1
(f) for f > 0
H
2
(−f) = H
∗
2
(f) ∀f ∈
δf, f
e
[E.6]
216 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
−
0
.
0
8
−
0
.
0
6
−
0
.
0
4
−
0
.
0
2 0
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
4
0
.
0
6
0
.
0
8
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
i
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
p
a
r
t
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
−
0
.
0
8
−
0
.
0
6
−
0
.
0
4
−
0
.
0
2 0
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
4
0
.
0
6
0
.
0
8
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
r
e
a
l
p
a
r
t
F
i
g
u
r
e
E
.
2
.
Z
e
r
o
p
a
d
d
i
n
g
a
n
d
i
n
v
e
r
s
e
F
o
u
r
i
e
r
t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
o
n
H
1
(
f
)
Description of the TimeFrequency Transform 217
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
s
y
m
m
e
t
r
f
i
c
o
r
c
i
n
g
f
m
i
n
f
m
a
x
f
f
e
±
f
H
(
f
)
+
z
e
r
o
p
a
d
d
i
n
g
f
m
i
n
f
m
a
x
−
f
m
i
n
−
f
m
a
x
f
f
e
−
f
e
0
H
(
f
)
+
z
e
r
o
p
a
d
d
i
n
g
H
*
(
f
)
+
f
l
i
p
z
e
r
o
p
a
d
d
i
n
g
F
i
g
u
r
e
E
.
3
.
I
l
l
u
s
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
H
e
r
m
i
t
i
a
n
s
y
m
m
e
t
r
i
c
f
o
r
c
i
n
g
218 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
−
0
.
0
8
−
0
.
0
6
−
0
.
0
4
−
0
.
0
2 0
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
4
0
.
0
6
0
.
0
8
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
r
e
a
l
p
a
r
t
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
−
0
.
0
8
−
0
.
0
6
−
0
.
0
4
−
0
.
0
2 0
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
4
0
.
0
6
0
.
0
8
d
e
l
a
y
(
n
s
)
i
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
p
a
r
t
F
i
g
u
r
e
E
.
4
.
R
e
c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n
o
f
h
(
τ
)
a
f
t
e
r
d
i
s
c
r
e
t
e
i
n
v
e
r
s
e
F
o
u
r
i
e
r
t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
a
p
p
l
i
e
d
o
n
H
2
(
f
)
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Index
A
Antenna
diversity, 102
eﬀective area, 44, 134
isotropic, 111
polarization, 107
radiation eﬃciency, 107
return loss, 107
Arrival rate
cluster, 61, 145
ray, 146
rays, 61
Average fade duration, 64
B
BER, 24
Bluetooth, 26, 27, 29, 30
BPSK, 39, 40
C
CDMA, 38, 40
Channel
characteristic parameters, 58, 134,
137
deﬁnition, 43
deterministic, 52
impulse response, 181
linear random, 54
matrix, 108
propagation, 25
representation, 51, 177
sounding, 67
transfer function, 213
US, 56
variations, 47, 148, 150
WSS, 55
WSSUS, 57
Channel capacity, 24
Channel equalization, 49
Channel modeling
statistical, 133
Chirp sounder, 72
Coherence bandwidth, 49, 59
Correlation bandwidth, 49
Correlation sounder, 75
sliding correlation, 76
D
DAA, 33
Delay interval, 60
Delay window, 60
DelayDoppler spread function, 54
Deterministic model, 99
Diﬀraction, 47
Diﬀusion, 47
DoA, 104
DoD, 104
Doppler
eﬀect, 50
shift, 50, 69, 156
spectrum, 64, 173
spread, 64, 156, 173
DSUWB, 35, 39, 40, 42
238 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Duty cycle, 23
E
ESD (Energy spectral density), 110
Exponential decay constants, 61, 141
F
Fading
fast, 48, 63, 148, 153, 172
ﬂat, 48
slow, 48, 152, 172
Far ﬁeld, 45
FCC, 22, 25, 31, 33, 34, 40, 111
FDTD, 100
Fourier transform, 103, 178, 213
Fraunhofer distance, 45
Free space propagation, 44
Frequency correlation function, 59
Frequency domain function, 53
Fresnel law, 46
Friis formula, 45, 134
G
General theory diﬀraction, 200
Geometric optic, 189, 200
ﬁeld expression, 191
ﬁeld locality, 190
GO, 101
GPS, 31, 32
GSM, 30
H
Hermitian symmetry, 177, 213, 215
Hilbert transform, 178
Huygens’ principle, 47
I
Impulse radio, 35, 38–40
Impulse response, 51, 103, 137, 163,
166
time varying, 53
Intersymbol interference, 50, 59
Inversion sounding technique, 78
ISB, 202
K
KolmogorovSmirnov, 186
KolmogorovSmirnov test, 64
L
Laplace distribution, 170, 173, 185
Level crossing rate, 64
Lognormal distribution, 64, 150, 185
LOS, 105
M
MBOK, 39
msequence, 75
Maxwell equation, 189, 204
MBOFDM, 35, 40–42
Mean delay, 59
Measurement campaigns, 85
examples, 91
overview, 85
Model
statistical, 157
CassioliWinMolisch, 160
dynamic, 169
frequency domain, 161
IEEE 802.15.3a, 158
IEEE 802.15.4a, 159
principles, 162
MoM, 100
N
Nakagami distribution, 64, 150, 159,
161, 183
NLOS, 105
Normal distribution, 184, 185
O
OOK, 39
P
PAM, 38, 39
Path loss, 62, 134, 162
exponent
distance dependent, 48, 63, 136
frequency dependent, 63, 134
Power decay constants, 144
Power delay proﬁle, 57, 58, 137
Power spectral density, 25, 33, 37, 177
PPM, 35, 38, 39
Processing gain, 25
Index 239
Propagation
free space, 44, 134
model, 99
multipath, 45, 48
phenomena, 45
PSD (Power spectral density), 111
Pulse sounder, 73
Q
QPSK, 40
R
Radio channel, 26
RAKE reception, 49
Ray launching, 209, 211
Ray tracing, 209, 211
Rayleigh distribution, 64, 150, 155,
161, 173, 181, 183, 184
Rays launching, 101
Rays tracing, 101
Reﬂection, 46
Rice distribution, 64, 150, 155, 182,
183
RIR, 105
RMS delay spread, 59, 137
RSB, 202
RUN method, 58
S
Sparameters, 71
Saleh and Valenzuela model, 61
Scattering function, 57, 64, 156, 173
Selectivity
frequency, 48, 58
spatial, 48
Shadowing, 48
SHF, 30
SISO, 104
SnellDescartes law, 46
Sounding
analyzed bandwidth, 68
CIR dynamic, 69
CIR length, 69
maximum Doppler shift, 69
measurement techniques, 70
frequency domain, 71
multipleband time domain, 78
time domain, 73
time resolution, 68
Standing wave ratio, 92
T
Time hopping, 23
Transfer function, 125
time varying, 54
Transmission, 47
U
UHF, 30
UMTS, 23, 30, 40
Uncorrelated scattering, 56
Uniform theory of diﬀraction, 200
UNII, 30, 34, 39
UTD, 101
UWB
applications, 27, 29, 30
characteristics, 24
deﬁnition, 21, 22
history, 23
regulation, 30
V
Variations
spatial, 51, 150, 169
temporal, 51, 150, 172
Vector network analyzer, 71
W
Waveguide eﬀect, 47, 137
Weibull distribution, 64, 184
Wide sense stationary, 55
WiFi, 26, 27, 29, 30, 39
WLAN, 27
WPAN, 27
Z
Zero padding, 215
Zigbee, 26, 29
UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
A Practical Approach
Pascal Pagani Friedman Tchoffo Talom Patrice Pajusco Bernard Uguen
Series Editor PierreNoël Favennec
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UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
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UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels A Practical Approach Pascal Pagani Friedman Tchoffo Talom Patrice Pajusco Bernard Uguen Series Editor PierreNoël Favennec .
111 River Street Hoboken. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study.C6213 2008 621.. Pascal. Patrice Pajusco and Bernard Uguen to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright. based on an original photograph by Denis Stenderchuck.382dc22 2008030345 British Library CataloguinginPublication Data A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 9781848210844 Cover image created by Atelier Isatis. .iste.wiley. NJ 07030 USA www. Wiltshire.. p. 2007 www. Chippenham. Printed and bound in Great Britain by CPI Antony Rowe Ltd.(A practical approach) Includes bibliographical references and index. cm. Inc. Designs and Patents Act 1988. .First published in France in 2007 by Hermes Science/Lavoisier entitled: “Communications ultra large bande : Le canal de propagation radioélectrique” First published in Great Britain and the United States in 2008 by ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781848210844 1. Broadband communication systems. as permitted under the Copyright. stored or transmitted. II.com The rights of Pascal Pagani. English Ultrawideband radio propagation channels / Pascal Pagani .]. Friedman Tchoffo Talom. Pagani. 2008 © LAVOISIER. [et al. with the prior permission in writing of the publishers. Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Communications ultra large bande.4. Inc. in any form or by any means. Designs and Patents Act 1988. this publication may only be reproduced.co. I. or criticism or review. or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licenses issued by the CLA. Title. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: ISTE Ltd 2737 St George’s Road London SW19 4EU UK John Wiley & Sons.uk © ISTE Ltd. TK5103.
. . 1. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . Pulse amplitude modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . Regulation evolution . .6. . . . . . . Regulation in the USA . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . Considered applications . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . 1. . . .2. . . . . . 1. . . Deﬁnition . . . . . 1. . . . . . Regulation in Asia . . .5. . . 1. . . 2. UWB Technology and its Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Chapter 1. . Multiband OFDM . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Speciﬁcities of UWB . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . Chapter 2. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . Propagation channel variations . Free space propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1.1. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .1. 1. . . . Multipath propagation . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulse position modulation . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnition and historical evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Wave Propagation .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . UWB communication system and standardization 1. . . . . . . . . . Introduction .Contents Foreword .2. . . . . . . . 1. 1. Regulation in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .2. .1. .3. 1. . 2. 1. . . Impulse radio . . . . . . . . .6. .5. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . Deﬁnition of the propagation channel 2. . . . . 11 17 21 21 22 22 23 24 26 30 31 32 33 34 35 35 38 39 40 41 43 43 43 44 45 47 Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . Direct sequence UWB . Historical evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .2. . .1. 2. . . .
. . . . . . .4.3. . . . . . . . . .2. . 2. .3. The frequency domain function .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .3. . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . Frequency domain techniques . . .2. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . RMS delay spread . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 3. 3.1. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exponential decay constants .3. . . . . . . 2. . . . Characterization of deterministic channels . . . . . .3. . . . . . . Fast fading . 2. 2. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .3. . The delayDoppler spread function . Characterization of linear random channels . . . . . 2. . . . . .3. 3. . . .3. . .4. 3. . . .1. . . . . . . . Uncorrelated scattering channels . . .1. . . . . Introduction . . .1. . .4. . . .1. . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . .3. . Extension towards UWB . . .4. . .3. . . .2. The time varying impulse response .1. .3. . 3. . . . 3. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .6 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 2. Propagation loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .3. . . Conclusion . Time domain techniques . . .1. . . . Frequency selectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .3. . . . Vector network analyzer . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 3.2. Doppler eﬀect . . . . . 2. . . . .4. . . . . . . .4. . . Chapter 3. . . . . . . . . Spatial selectivity . . . 48 48 50 51 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 61 62 63 64 64 67 67 67 70 71 71 72 73 73 75 78 78 80 81 81 84 . .1.3. . . . . . . . . .4. . Coherence bandwidth . . . . . . Measurement techniques for UWB channel sounding . . .3. .5. . . . . .2. . . . Channel classiﬁcation . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . Mathematical formulation . . . .3. .2. 2. . .3. . . Principle of multipleband time domain sounding . .4. .1.3. . . . . 2. . . . . . . .3. . .3.2. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . Channel characteristic parameters . 2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering channels 2. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .5. . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . Inversion techniques . . . . . .2.4. . . . . . . . . The time varying transfer function . . . . .3. 3. . .2.4. . . . . . Pulsed techniques . . .3. 2. .1. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . Experimental validation .3. . . . . . . . . Spectral analysis . . . .3.4.4. . . 2. . . 3. . .3. . . . 3. . . . Speciﬁcity of UWB channel sounding . 2. . . . . . . . . . . 2.4. 2. . . .3. . . . .3. . 2. . . . . . . . .4. . . .3. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . Description of the SIMO channel sounder . . . . 2. .1. . . . Frequency selectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .1.2. . . .3.1. . . 2. . . Wide sense stationary channels . . . . . Propagation channel representation . . . Correlation measurements . . Chirp sounder . . . .3. . Cluster and ray arrival rates . . . . . Delay window and delay interval . . . .4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1. . . . . . . . .3. 2. . . . . 3.1. . Multipleband time domain sounder for dynamic channels 3. . . . . UWB Propagation Channel Sounding . . . 2. . .4. . .3.
. . .3. . 3. . . . . Propagation loss . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray based approach . . . Conclusion . . . . . Attiya model . .2. . . . . . Yao model . . Static measurement campaign over the 3. . . . Chapter 5. . . . . . . . . 4. . . Evaluation of impulse response reconstruction .2.2. . . . . .4. . . . Qiu model . .5. .Contents 7 3. . .5. . . . . .6 GHz band . . .4. . . . . . . . . FDTD based approach .3. .1. . . . . . 4.4. . . . . Simulation and measurement comparisons . . .3. . Conclusion . .1. . . . .2. . .7. . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 4. . . . . . . . .4. . . . Ray impulse response without delay . . . .1. . . .1. UWB measurement campaigns . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .1. . . . . .2. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . 4.5. . . . Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom model . . 4. . 3. . . Experimental characterization of channel parameters . . . . . .1. . . 4.5. . . . Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel . . . . . .3.8. . . . . . . . .4. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. . Illustration of channel sounding experiments . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . 4. .4. . . . . . 4. . . . 5. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 4. . . . . Dynamic measurement campaign over the 4–5 GHz band . . . . 4. 4. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .1. . . . . . . . .2. . . . Received signal with ideal antennas . . .1.1. . Static measurement campaign over the 2–6 GHz band 3.4. . . . . . 4. Emitted waveform and considered scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .4. . . . . . . Illustration of a deterministic model formalism . Described model results . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .4. .3. . Overview of UWB deterministic modeling . . . .1. . . . 4. . Overview of UWB measurement campaigns . . . . . .4. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. Ray channel matrix without delay . . . .5. . . .1. . . . . . . . .9. . . . Received signal synthesis . .1. . Evaluation of real antenna consideration . . .2. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency propagation loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of deterministic modeling . . . .3. . . . . Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 85 91 91 95 95 98 99 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 102 103 104 104 105 105 108 110 110 113 114 118 120 124 124 125 126 133 134 134 134 4. . Building material eﬀects on channel properties . . . . . 4. . . . . .4. . . . .4. . . . . MoM based approach . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .2. . . . 3. . . . . . . . . Speciﬁcity of deterministic modeling in UWB . . . . . Channel matrix of each emitted waveform in the LOS case . .4. . . 4. . . .5. 4. . 4. . .4. . 5. . . . Consideration of real antenna characteristics in deterministic modeling .1–10. . . . .
. 5. . . . . . Conclusion . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . Modeling the channel impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth . . . . Weibull distribution .4. . . . . . . 5. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IEEE 802. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2. . Modeling the eﬀect of people . . Study of smallscale channel variations . .2. . . . .2. . 5. Distance propagation loss .2. . . . .15. . 5. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .4. . . Appendices A. . . . . . . 5. . . Fast fading . . . . . . . .1. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . B. B. . . . . . . . Statistical channel modeling . . . . . . . . . . . Propagation loss model . . . .7. . . Power delay proﬁle decay .1. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . 5. B. . . . 5. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . .2.2.4. .3. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .3. . Normal distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray and cluster arrival rate . . .3a model . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 5. . . . . . . Other models .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. . . 5. . .1. Baseband Representation of the Radio Channel . . . . .3. . . . . . .1. . . 5. . . .1.1. . . . B. .2. . .2. . . . .1. .4. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 5. . .2. . . . . . Rayleigh distribution . . . .2.2. . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Lognormal distribution . . . . . . B. . . . . . .2. . . . . Advanced modeling in a dynamic conﬁguration . . . . . Impulse response characterization .2. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnition . Statistical Distributions . B. .1. . . . . .1.2. . . . . . . B. .1. . . . . . . . Delay spread . . .4. .2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . Slow fading . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1. C. . . . . . . . 5. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 136 137 137 141 145 148 151 151 152 153 156 157 158 158 159 160 162 162 163 166 166 169 169 172 175 177 181 181 181 182 183 184 184 185 185 186 189 189 189 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1. . . .4.2. Rice distribution . .1. . . . . . . Modeling the channel impulse response over a limited bandwidth . . . . .8 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. 5. . . 5. .1. . . . . . 5. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .1. Observation of temporal variations . 5. . . . 5. . Spectral analysis .2. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . Examples of statistical models . . . . . IEEE 802. . . . . .1. . . . Geometric optics . . . . . . . . . Laplace distribution . . . . . . Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction . KolmogorovSmirnov goodnessofﬁt test . . . . . .2. . . C. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . B.1. . . . Nakagami distribution . . 5. . . 5. . . . . . .2. . . . . .2. . . Empirical modeling principles . .15. . . . C. . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .1. . . . . .4. . . . . . . .1. . .3. Space variation modeling . . . . Simulation results . . . Eﬀect of moving people . . . . . . . .3.4a model . .1.2. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . Field expression in geometric optics C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. C. . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Construction Techniques . . . . . . .2. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . E.1. . . . . . . .1. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UTD 2D coeﬃcient . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . .2. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . Incident ﬁeld . .2. . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . Uniform theory of diﬀraction . . .4. . . . . . . . D. . . . Introduction . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 191 192 192 193 197 200 200 200 201 204 209 209 209 211 213 219 237 . . . . . Ray launching . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . C. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . .1. Refracted and transmitted ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . D. . . . .1. . . . . . . . UTD 3D coeﬃcient . . . Reﬂected ﬁeld . . .4. . . . . . . .Contents 9 C. . . . .3. . . . Description of the TimeFrequency Transform Bibliography . . . . . Diﬀracted ﬁeld . .1. . . . . . . . C.2. . . . . . . . . Field locality principle . . .6. . Change of local basis . . . C. . . . . . . . Ray tracing . . . . . . .3. . . . . . Other techniques . . . . . . .5. . . .
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Its very large spectral bandwidth optimally exploits the beneﬁts of spread spectrum techniques. Initially developed in the ﬁeld of radar localization. In particular. UWB technology undeniably oﬀers numerous advantages and unprecedented possibilities in the design of radio systems. the capacity of UWB pulses to travel through diﬀerent materials allows us to consider throughwall imaging applications. which may be used to eﬃciently process the multiple propagation paths or handle localization issues. Finally. the theoretical foundations of modern telecommunication techniques are owed to Claude Shannon’s 1948 publications. by increasing the transmission capacity and by improving the jamming immunity. the main players in the telecommunication world are facing an increasing demand for multimedia wireless applications. linked to a real need for very high throughput radio communication systems. UWB presents a high resolution in the time domain. but also reduces the potential jamming experienced by other spectrum users. As such. the complexity of . UWB technology is now seen as a promising candidate for future wireless transmission systems. In particular. the scientiﬁc community is particularly interested in ultrawideband (UWB) technology. Since then. spread spectrum techniques enabled unprecedented improvements in the quality and security of digital communications under harsh transmission conditions. which not only increases the discretion and security of wireless communications. it is considered with an increasing interest in both scientiﬁc and industrial communities. Simultaneously.Foreword Although the origins of distant signal transmission are ancient. Among the most recent innovations in this ﬁeld. It is also noteworthy that UWB systems present a low power spectral density. typically in the order of 500 MHz to several GHz. This technique consists of transmitting radio signals spreading over very large frequency bandwidths. the ﬁeld of telecommunications has not stopped evolving. Today.
These devices need to be designed in order to beneﬁt from the channel characteristics and to mitigate the channel impairments. a transmission mask for UWB signals has been deﬁned and the coexistence between UWB systems and other applications is under study. The short duration of UWB signals requires a high accuracy in the system synchronization procedure. The possibility of accurate localization enable the development of sensor networks known as radio frequency identiﬁcation (RFID). Also. In order to develop such systems. associating UWB with advanced techniques such as multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) antennas techniques or time reversal techniques. many challenges are still to be encountered. In Europe. while link level simulations may be used to assess the communication robustness. modeling the propagation loss allows us to estimate the radio system coverage.12 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels UWB transceivers may be considerably reduced with respect to traditional architectures. In particular. Indeed. but a number of other applications may be envisioned by exploiting the unique characteristics of UWB. These characteristics are unique to UWB technology and enable the design of communication systems oﬀering very high data rates. These systems are particulary well suited to ad hoc communication networks. electronic components need to be adapted in order to process such a wide frequency band. Numerous applications still need to be explored. In 2002. UWB seems to be an innovative and attractive solution for future radio communication systems.1–10. medicine and imaging. For instance. a complete knowledge of the radio channel properties is fundamental. the . the performance of a wireless transmission system is directly linked to the propagation conditions between the emitter and the receiver. the antenna characteristics largely vary with increasing frequency and require an accurate characterization. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) – an American regulation body – authorized the transmission of UWB signals in the 3. but may also be used in the ﬁelds of civil engineering. Owing to the width of its frequency band. Among these scientiﬁc challenges. important industrial consortiums such as UWB Forum and WiMedia Alliance are currently involved in the design of UWB based equipment. In the current context of high demand for wireless multimedia applications. Radar identiﬁcation techniques based on UWB signals may be exploited to design anticollision systems for vehicles. while maintaining a tractable complexity.6 GHz band. As an illustration. up to several hundred Mbps. encouraging the research eﬀorts in this ﬁeld in all continents. for industrial environment applications or for mass market geographical information services.
6 GHz band gives access to all the useful information for developing systems included in this frequency band.1–10. Chapter 1 presents UWB technology. It is thus necessary to closely study the propagation channel in order to evaluate the potential and the constraints attached to UWB communication systems. This book is divided into ﬁve distinct parts. The reader is then introduced to the area of mathematical representation and its characteristic parameters. UWB spectrum regulation issues and the proposed communications techniques are also discussed. the envisioned applications and its main characteristics are detailed. For instance. This approach may easily be adapted to diﬀerent contexts: for diﬀerent applications. This didactic presentation covers both indoor and outdoor environments and is applicable in both contexts of mobile radio and wireless networks. These research teams conducted joint studies on UWB techniques and on the impact of the transmission channel on UWB communication systems. in other environments or in diﬀerent frequency bands. with a discussion on the application domains and the . Its historical evolution. Chapter 3 presents an overview of the channel sounding techniques adapted to UWB technology. this document is an excellent introduction for engineers and communication systems designers as well as for researchers and lecturers willing to expand their knowledge to the ﬁeld of the UWB transmission channel. Chapter 2 describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves in general. It should also be noted that the accurate knowledge of the UWB channel in the 3. such as WiFi systems operating around 5 GHz. A distinction is made between frequency domain and time domain techniques. The originality of this textbook lies in its experimental approach.Foreword 13 UWB propagation channel is intrinsically diﬀerent from traditional wideband channels. This textbook results from an intense collaboration between France Telecom’s Research and Development Division and the IETR–UMR CNRS 6164 (Institut d’Electronique et de T´l´communications de Rennes/Institute ee of Electronics and Telecommunications in Rennes). Through its didactic presentation and the detailed illustration of the discussed topics. All large scale and small scale radioelectric phenomena at play are highlighted. such as the available bands around 17 GHz and 60 GHz. which allows the reader to follow step by step the theoretical and practical aspects of radio channel characterization and modeling. the interactions between the radio waves and their environment need to be described more accurately and the variations of the material properties with frequency need to be taken into account.
These two modeling approaches are detailed and illustrated in the last two chapters. Diﬀerent results available in the literature are compared and commented upon. After a description of diﬀerent statistical models. the UWB propagation channel is simulated using deterministic or statistical models. The characterization of the most representative radio channel parameters is ﬁrst presented. the interested reader will ﬁnd useful additional information regarding channel analysis and modeling in the appendices. The main UWB channel measurement campaigns available in the literature. The discussed technical material includes the ﬁelds of signal processing. where the authors describe a comprehensive deterministic simulator for the UWB channel. comparing the advantages and drawbacks of each proposal. This book examines all the characteristics of the UWB transmission channel and provides useful tools for designing eﬃcient UWB systems. the principles of statistical modeling and the diﬀerent related issues are presented following an experimental method. Chapter 4 focuses on deterministic UWB modeling. Nonspecialists will be introduced to UWB technology in general and more particularly to the propagation channel. which is the key element in a communication system. hence providing a rich experimental database on the UWB propagation channel characteristics. geometrical optics and diﬀraction theory. including those conducted by the authors. Specialists will ﬁnd valuable information and a practical approach in order to design simulators. The fundamental issues and the theoretical formalism of a UWB deterministic model are then detailed. such as time reversal or UWB transmission in a MIMO . This reference document is also an excellent basis for further research on advanced techniques. To illustrate this presentation. allowing for the simulation of the UWB channel in both static and dynamic environments. statistics.14 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels limitation of each solution. This approach is illustrated using a model designed by the authors. setup measurements. Finally. It should also be noted that the numerous bibliographical references constitute an abundant source of information. are listed and illustrated by a few examples. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the statistical modeling of the UWB transmission channel. A literature review of the proposed deterministic models is given. some examples are given. which may easily be exploited to learn more about the last advances in this ﬁeld. For the study of the propagation phenomena and the design of communication systems. study the channel characteristics and deﬁne models for UWB or in other contexts.
I am convinced that this textbook will prove essential reading in future research in the ﬁeld of UWB communications.Foreword 15 conﬁguration. Professor Gha¨ El Zein ıs Deputy Director at IETR .
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Acronyms ADC AGC BER BPSK CDF CDMA CEPT DAA DAC DCS DOA DOD DSO DSUWB ECC EIRP ESD ETSI FCC FDML FDTD GO GPS GSM GTD IDA IEEE IF IMST Analogtodigital converter Automatic gain control Bit error rate Binary phase shift keying Cumulative density function Code division multiple access Conference of European Postal and Telecommunications Detect and avoid Digitaltoanalog converter Digital communication system Direction of arrival Direction of departure Digital sampling oscilloscope Direct sequence ultrawideband Electronic Communication Committee Eﬀective isotropic radiated power Energy spectral density European Telecommunications Standards Institute Federal Communication Commission Frequency domain maximum likelihood Finite diﬀerence time domain Geometrical optics Global positioning system Global system for mobiles Geometrical theory of diﬀraction Infocom Development Authority of Singapore Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Intermediate frequency Institut f¨r Mobil.und Satellitenfunktechnik u .
18 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels IR ISB ISM ITU LDC LNA LO LOS MBOFDM MIC MIMO MoM NLOS OFDM OOK PAM PDA PDF PDP PLL PN PPM PSD QAM QPSK RF RFID RIR RSB SAGE SHF SIMO SISO SWR UHF UMTS UNII US UTD UWB VCO VNA WBAN Impulse response Incident shadow boundary Industrial. scientiﬁc and medical International telecommunication union Low duty cycle Low noise ampliﬁer Local oscillator Line of sight Multiband orthogonal frequency division mutliplexing Ministry of Internal Aﬀairs and Communications Multipleinput multipleoutput Method of moments Nonline of sight Orthogonal frequency division mutliplexing Onoﬀ keying Pulse amplitude modulation Personal digital assistant Probability density function Power delay proﬁle Phase locked loop Pseudonoise Pulse position modulation Power spectral density Quadrature amplitude modulation Quadrature phase shift keying Radio frequency Radio frequency identiﬁcation Ray impulse response Reﬂection shadow boundary Space alternating generalized expectation Super high frequencies Singleinput multipleoutput Singleinput singleoutput Standing wave ratio Ultra high frequencies Universal mobile telecommunications system Unlicensed national information infrastructure Uncorrelated scattering Uniform theory of diﬀraction Ultrawideband Voltage control oscillator Vector network analyzer Wireless body area network .
4 Wireless ﬁdelity Wireless local area network Wireless personal area network Widesense stationary Widesense stationary uncorrelated scattering IEEE task group on WLAN IEEE task group on high rate WPAN IEEE task group on low rate WPAN .15.15.11 802.3 802.Acronyms 19 WiFi WLAN WPAN WSS WSSUS 802.
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is related to the use of very high data rate radio transmissions techniques on relatively short ranges. the processing speed and storage size of the computers have increased considerably. The chapter ends by presenting the modulation techniques proposed for UWB and by a state of the art of standardization today. After a deﬁnition of UWB and of its historical evolution. The advent of new radiocommunication technologies allowed telephony to change from a telegraphic transmission support to a radio transmission support. then the considered applications and the regulation spectrum in the USA. This explains the general public’s passion for communicating objects. One of the current scientiﬁc challenges. In this context. appears to be an ideal candidate for future wireless communication systems.1. Asia and Europe are detailed. initially used in radar. .Chapter 1 UWB Technology and its Applications 1. its characteristics are ﬁrst outlined. studies in the telecommunication ﬁeld had made signiﬁcant progress. ultrawideband (UWB) technology. Over the last few years. where signiﬁcant research eﬀorts are engaged. which require the high speed transfer of a great amount of information. Introduction By the end of the 20th century. This chapter presents the UWB technology and its applications for wireless communication systems.
the American regulation authority. carrierfree radio.2. The relative bandwidth is deﬁned by: Bf. baseband radio. we can ﬁnd the terms impulse radio. In 2002. extended this deﬁnition to a broader category of signals.1 illustrates the comparison between conventional radio systems.MHz 1) Conventional narrowband modulation kHz Spread spectrum Ultrawideband 41. orthogonal function radio and large relative bandwidth radio [BAR 00]. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC). but also all the modulations presenting an instantaneous band higher than or equal to 500 MHz. wideband .1.10 dB higher than 20% or with a frequency band higher than 500 MHz [FCC 02]. Comparison of various radio system spectrums Figure 1. Typically. the denomination UWB not only includes impulse techniques.3 dB m. Thus. Initially. time domain radio. nonsinusoid radio. which generally modulate a narrowband signal on a carrier frequency.1] where fH and fL respectively represent the upper and lower cutoﬀ frequencies of the band deﬁned at −3 dB. Deﬁnition The generic term UWB is used to represent a radio technique which was studied under various names. Deﬁnition and historical evolution 1.MHz 1 Bandwidth (Hz) Figure 1.22 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 1.1.2. GHz MHz Power spectral density (dBm. the bandwidth of UWB signals is about 500 MHz to several GHz. by including signals with a relative bandwidth Bf.3 dB = 2 · fH − fL fH + fL [1. UWB signals were deﬁned by a relative bandwidth of 25% or more [TAY 95]. In the earliest writings on this ﬁeld.
the bandwidth of UMTS signals is 5 MHz. In 1990. However. In February 2002. . Taylor described the bases of the UWB technology applied to radar [TAY 95]. which show a weak power spectral density. research on this ﬁeld regularly progressed. SCH 97a]. allowing particularly for the transmission of signals in the 3. the use of UWB signals for radio communication was not really considered before the end of the 20th century. Since the middle of the 1960s. since no application of UWB technology to communication systems was considered at that point [FOW 90]. 1. as well as a possible transmission without carrier. with spreading spectrum for example.6 GHz band for wireless communications. From this date. which implies a strong resolution1 in the time domain. Bennett and Ross presented a complete study of the ﬁrst research carried out on UWB [BEN 78]. Indeed. the Department of Defense of the US government published the results of its evaluation of UWB technology.UWB Technology and its Applications 23 systems. It was in 1960 that impulse radars were developed by the American and Soviet armies. In 1998. Historical evolution The study of electromagnetism in the time domain began 40 years ago.2. the brevity of an impulse signal determines its spectrum width. a short duty cycle allowing for modulations such as time hopping and the management of multiusers. As a comparison. intensive academic and industrial research was undertaken with the aim of proposing a powerful communication systems using UWB technology. These results were mainly concentrated on radar systems. the FCC launched the ﬁrst study on UWB. The ﬁrst research was concentrated on radar applications because of the broadband nature of the signals. The resolution in distance of a system is conversely proportional to its bandwidth.1–10. The resolution of a system is its capacity to separate very close energy paths.2. by using the main characteristics of this technique: a time resolution around one nanosecond due to the huge frequency bandwidth. More recently. as mentioned in the historical bibliography published by Barrett [BAR 00]. In the 1970s. a ﬁrst regulatory report was published. impulse systems have good space resolution properties. 1. research focused on UWB signals for radio communication [SCH 93. Two decades later. with strong constraints on the power spectral density [FCC 02]. and ultrawideband systems. which can lead to a simpliﬁcation of the radio system architecture [FOE 01a].
it is possible to transmit data with a binary error rate (BER) lower than a ﬁxed arbitrarily low threshold. We can note that for a given signal power level S. typically about 500 MHz to several GHz. In the case of a constant signal to noise ratio. .2] where C is the channel capacity (bit/s). typically about one nanosecond. radio technologies using a broad spectral band are more able to propose convenient data rates. S is the signal power level (W) and N is the noise power level (W).24 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 1.1. the capacity increases linearly with the signal bandwidth. Information theory teaches us that with the use of an appropriate code. ad hoc. UWB signals have a high temporal resolution. We can note that for a given bandwidth the channel capacity increases in a logarithmic way with the signal to noise ratio. So. Thus.2 In the context of an increasing demand for communication systems with high data rates. etc. channel capacity C gives an indication of the theoretical maximum data rate reachable with a given channel. As shown in section 1. Speciﬁcities of UWB With the need for increasing the data rate of wireless systems. with a frequency band reaching several GHz. oﬃce. Bw is the signal bandwidth (Hz). A ﬁrst implication of this property is related to the localization: knowing the delay of a signal with 2. where N0 is the noise power spectral density. the UWB is well adapted to an increase of data rate than the systems showing a high constraint on the bandwidth [FOE 01a]. the UWB technology seems to be an ideal candidate for future radio communication systems in various types of networks. that is. the main characteristic of the UWB signal is the width of the occupied frequency band.2. It can be obtained using Shannon’s theorem [SHA 49]: C = Bw · log2 1 + S N [1.3. if the data rate is lower than the theoretical value of the transmission channel capacity. The main properties of UWB systems are described below: • High temporal resolution capability Because of their great bandwidth. which can be residential. the capacity increases nonlinearly S with the bandwidth and reaches the asymptotic value of Clim = N0 · log2 (e).
and are particularly adapted to the development of ad hoc networks. The processing gain of a system is a parameter which gives an indication of the resistance of this system against the jamming caused by the other systems. the interference UWB systems may have on other systems is reduced. narrowband systems suﬀer from fading related to the multipath which combine in a destructive way.MHz−1 .4 Thus.3 dBm. Another consequence of this characteristic concerns the propagation distance. . the occupied frequency band necessarily covers the frequencies already allocated to existing radio systems.3 This low power spectral density improves the safety of UWB radio communications.1 to 1 ns. the applications considered for UWB systems are short range and high data rate. which is thus limited to about ten meters. • Low power spectral density This characteristic is not intrinsic to UWB signals as they were deﬁned (see equation [1. 4. In the case of impulse signals. Indeed.UWB Technology and its Applications 25 a precision of about 0. So. thanks to the low level of the power spectral density authorized by the FCC. 3. it is possible to obtain information on the position of the transmitter with an accuracy of 3 to 30 cm. as it leads to the design of a receiver with a great number of diversity branches. we can consider that UWB radio signals are transmitted “under the noise level”. which corresponds to the power spectral density limit of authorized nonintentional radio transmissions. This recombination causes some complications on the system implementation. as UWB signals present a wide spread spectrum. • Less sensitivity to jamming UWB systems oﬀer a great processing gain. so the multipath presenting delays lower than one nanosecond can be resolved and added in a constructive way. the transmitted waveforms can have a great bandwidth. the interference caused by narrowband systems on UWB systems is a priori minimized by the bandwidth covered by the impulse signals. although the imposed limits remain above the thermal noise. • Robustness against fading related to multipath propagation In usual propagation channels. the FCC has limited the power spectral density of UWB signals to −41. On the contrary. but it is imposed by the radio spectrum regulation authorities. To allow a peaceful coexistence of UWB with existing narrowband radio technologies.1]). Thus. since it becomes more diﬃcult to detect the transmitted signals.
• Good obstacle penetration properties UWB signals oﬀer good capabilities of penetration in the walls and the obstacles.15. any voltage control oscillator (VCO) or any mixer.3. Indeed. Considered applications For a few years. Indeed. they are spread over a broad band and transmitted with a low power spectral density close to the noise ﬂoor level of traditional radiocommunication receivers. it is possible to design UWB transmitterreceivers without any synthesizer using a phase locked loop (PLL). Zigbee (IEEE 802. This possibility of transmission without carrier may simplify the architecture of the radio systems. in particular for the low frequencies part of the spectrum. This makes it possible to have a good precision in terms of localization and tracking [DEN 03b]. Moreover. A comparative study of the characteristics of some wireless technologies is presented in Table 1. the conventional radio systems are generally of heterodyne design: the signal which codes the transmitted data is generated in baseband and is then transposed to higher frequencies before being emitted. we can add to this tendency an important need for total connectivity.26 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels • Protected and secured communications UWB signals are signals that are by nature diﬃcult to detect. • Relative simplicity of the systems design In terms of implementation.15. b and g).4) and the recent standard 802. in the industrial environment as well as from the general public. These characteristics enable secured transmissions with a weak probability of detection and a weak probability of interception. The American company Time Domain. with a maximum bandwidths of about 10 MHz. This increasing need for wireless connectivity leads to the development of many standards for wireless and short range communication systems. We may note that the majority of these technologies for wireless local area networks (WLAN) and personal area networks (WPAN) uses free frequencies in ISM and UNII bands. Taking into consideration other wireless systems like . We can mention Bluetooth. the WiFi standards family (IEEE 802. has developed a broad activity around radar systems of vision through walls. The UWB technology allows the use of impulse generated in baseband and directly transmitted on the radio channel without modulation. 1. the world of telecommunications has faced an increasing demand for wireless numerical applications. Thus. this can lead to the design of systems with low manufacturing and marketing costs. the information having to be available for anybody.11 a. pioneer in the topic of UWB for communication.4. anywhere and at any time [POR 03b].1.
UWB Technology and its Applications
27
Bluetooth or WiFi, the UWB technology presents a very low level of emission. However, we can reach transmission data rates that are deﬁnitely higher than the two other technologies. Figure 1.2 shows the position of UWB in comparison with the leading WLAN and WPAN standards in terms of rate and maximum achievable ranges. We can note that contrarily to WiFi standards, UWB technology mainly addresses short range WPAN networks. However, its potential data rate exceeds the performances of all current WLAN and WPAN standards.
1000 Maximum bit rate (Mbps) UWB 100
802.15.3
WiFi 802.11a
WiFi 802.11g WiFi 802.11b
10
1
Bluetooth
0.1 10
Zigbee 20 30
802.15.4a (Low rate UWB) 40 50 100
Maximum indoor range (m)
Figure 1.2. WLAN and WPAN main standards: rate and maximum ranges
In order to provide a high data rate anywhere, the future networks will have to be designed considering an optimization of the space capacity, namely the global available data rate per unit of area. In narrow band, we generally regard the spectral capacity of the systems in (bps/Hz) as one of the main parameters for a transmission. The various elements of a communication system, like the modulation, the coding, the implementation, etc. make it possible to improve it. By increasing only the transmission power or the signal band, the capacity also increases. However, the spectral resource for these systems is limited and their power cannot be increased indeﬁnitely. It is limited by medical or commercial considerations, for example the pollution of the spectrum or the life duration of the batteries. For UWB systems, the transmission level or the transmitted power spectral density must be kept suﬃciently low because these systems operate in already
28
Technology 3.1–10.6 GHz 3.1–10.6 GHz ISM 2.4 GHz 5 GHz ISM 2.4 GHz ISM 2.4 GHz 0.1–1 W 0.1–2 W 0.2–1 W type 1: 20 dBm type 2: 0 dBm GMSK BPSK, 16QAM, QPSK, 64QAM CCK, BPSQ, QPSK, DSS BPSK, 16QAM, QPSK, 64QAM, OFDM −41.3 dBm/MHz PPM, OFDM, CDMA, . . . −41.3 dBm/MHz PPM, OFDM, CDMA, . . .
Data rate
Frequency band
EIRP
Modulation
Speciﬁcation IEEE 802.15.3a IEEE 802.15.4a IEEE 802.15.1 IEEE 802.11a IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11g
UWB
≥ 100 Mbps
≥ 500 kbps
Bluetooth
≤ 700 kbps
WiFi
≤ 54 Mbps
UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
≤ 11 Mbps
≤ 54 Mbps
Table 1.1. Comparison of some wireless communication technologies
UWB Technology and its Applications
29
occupied bands. These low levels are compensated by the use of a broad band. So, compared to the existing wireless systems (see Table 1.2), UWB technology has a low spectral capacity. Thus, it is more correct to speak about the spatial capacity [GHA 04b]. This parameter corresponds to the maximum data rate of a system divided by the surface covered by this system.
Rate (Mbps) UWB IEEE 802.11a Bluetooth IEEE 802.11b 100 54 1 11 Distance (m) 10 50 10 100 Spatial capacity
2
Spectral capacity 0.013 2.7 0.012 0.1317
(kbps/m ) (bps/Hz) 318.3 6.9 3.2 0.350
Table 1.2. Comparison of the spatial and spectral capacity of some wireless systems
Wireless and very high data rate radio technologies like UWB will make it possible to considerably increase the spatial capacity, by the development of dynamic ad hoc networks [POR 03b]. Finally, we can note that a standardization work is currently in progress in the IEEE 802.15.4a work group to use UWB spectrum within the framework of low data rate and short range radio links. The expected data rate is typically the same as that of the Zigbee standard, with a range of about a hundred meters. Thus, the potential applications of UWB radio technology are mainly related to two techniques: high data rate for short range systems (typically 200 Mbps up to 10 m), and low data rate for long range systems (typically 200 kbps at 100 m). These two ways of using the UWB radio spectrum allow us to consider a given number of typical applications for UWB systems [YAN 04, POR 03b]. Firstly, UWB technology will make it possible to increase the data rate of traditional personal wireless networks. So, it will be useful for WiFi networks which make wireless access to the Internet network possible, or for connections between various peripherals (printer, readers, etc.) in limited size environments of, for example, one or more rooms. Because of a potential of very high data rate in short range, applications requiring a higher data rate are also possible with a range from 1 to 4 meters, for example a high quality multimedia transfer between a DVD player and a screen. In the same manner, the UWB promoters also proposed a wireless alternative for the Ethernet standard.
30
UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
In addition, UWB applications are expected to be used for house automation, where a great number of devices able to communicate at a distance of several dozen meters are deployed in an oﬃce or residential environment. In this usage, the exploited characteristics of UWB systems are the low costs of the equipment and the possibility of obtaining localization information. Such potential house automation applications include detection of intrusion, or the electronic reception (owner detection and launching of services like the unlocking of doors). In outdoor scenarios, UWB technology will be used for pointtopoint communication applications. An example usage is the transfer of data between several personal devices. In addition, some studies are in progress concerning services of multimedia contents diﬀusion from electronic kiosks. An example of application typical of such electronic kiosks is the download of stockmarket information on a portable digital assistant (PDA) every time the user is waiting at his regular subway station. Finally, UWB applications are also envisioned in the industrial context. By exploiting the possibilities of long range localization combined with information transfer, sensor networks could be deployed in the productions lines or warehouses, in order to followup and automatically manage the operations. This kind of application is well suited for UWB low data rate and long range communication. The main challenge to be raised for this type of applications is the control of radio communication under diﬃcult propagation and interference conditions. 1.5. Regulation evolution The bandwidth of UWB signals requires a strict regulation of their transmission spectrum. Indeed, many systems, whether licensed or not, are presented in UHF and SHF bands, which are very favorable for radio systems deployment. To allow the use of UWB signals over several GHz, regulatory authorities imposed a strict limitation on the transmission power. Figure 1.3 shows some radio systems existing in UHF and SHF bands. We can note that there are reserved bands for several systems like the standards of cellular telephony GSM (900 MHz), DCS (1.8 GHz) and UMTS (2 GHz). The global positioning system (GPS) also occupies a reserved band around 1.5 GHz. Other frequency bands are already used for unlicensed communication systems. For example, the ISM band is used by systems such as Bluetooth, WiFi and DECT, and is also authorized for domestic devices such as microwave ovens. The UNII band is the frequency band where the WiFi 802.11a and HiperLAN standards operate. In order to limit the UWB signals eﬀects on the other radio systems, the regulatory agencies agree on the use of the 3.1–10.6 GHz band for UWB
medical systems and monitoring systems. We will see that in certain regions of the world (Europe.8 10.MHz1) UWB 5 Power spectral density (dBm. .MHz1) 0. Regulation in the USA In the USA. which led to the current regulatory text Report & Order of February 2002 [FCC 02]. only a part of the 3. HiperLAN Unintentional radiation limit (41. allowing it to emit a total power of 0. Radio systems in UHF and SHF bands 1. Three diﬀerent classes of equipment are considered: • Visualizing systems: ground penetrating radars.5 This part of the radio spectrum allows us to use a bandwidth as wide as 7. by respecting a power spectral density lower than the one applied to nonintentional radio transmissions. while avoiding telephony systems and GPS.5 GHz.6 GHz. POR 03a]. a ﬁrst proposal for a regulation was published (Notice of Proposed Rule Making). Asia). is compensated by the bandwidth. located under the level of unintentional emission ﬁxed by the FCC (−41.6 Frequency (GHz) Figure 1. The very low authorized power spectral density.UWB Technology and its Applications 31 signals [AIE 03b].1 1. 5.3. 802. microwave ovens 802. the regulatory agency FCC launched its ﬁrst works on UWB radio technology as early as 1998 [MOR 03.5.6 GHz band is considered.6 mW.1–10.11a. GSM GPS DCS UMTS ISM UNII Bluetooth.3 dBm.9 1.4 3.1.5 2.3 dBm.11b.1–10. throughwall visualizing systems. In May 2000. The FCC rules of the UWB spectrum regulation enable it to emit signals mainly in the frequency band 3.0 2.MHz−1 ). DECT.
96 1 2. a more restrictive position was adopted by the CEPT. the radars for cars in the 24–29 GHz band.99 3. Normally. for indoor use.4.5 Frequency (GHz) Figure 1.6 MIC (proposal) Singapore (UWB Friendly Zone) GPS band 0.8 6 1.61 10 8.7 3. UWB systems emission masks 1.MHz1) 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 7. The studies are carried out in close cooperation with group SE24 of the Conf´rence Europ´enne des Postes et T´l´communications (CEPT).2–1. Compared to the American regulation. the regulatory organization Electronic Communication Committee (ECC) proposed a spectral mask limiting the emission of UWB signals to the . these European authorities aim to reach a given accord for all the European Union States. but each national regulatory agency keeps the right to manage its radio spectrum independently.2. which e e ee more particularly analyzes the possible impact of the UWB systems on the existing ones [POR 03b].1 10. more particularly the GPS (1.32 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels • Onboard radar systems: for example. UWB EIRP emission level (dBm.25 10. the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has operated since 2001 on the attribution of the frequencies in Europe for UWB systems. • Communication and measurement systems. The spectrum was deﬁned to ensure a protection of the sensitive systems. In a decision presented in March 2006 [ECC 06]. Regulation in Europe In Europe.4 presents the emission mask of the communication systems.25 FCC (indoor) CEPT 1.5 GHz).5. and the bands dedicated to civil aviation. Each class of equipment has its own emission mask. Figure 1.
Regulation in Asia In Asia. the ECC currently considers the possibility of using mitigation techniques to ensure the compatibility of UWB systems with the other radio services in the 3. Moreover. To conclude.MHz−1 in the 3. from September 2002. the regulation of UWB is particularly well advanced in Japan and Singapore. 1.8 GHz band. With that.3 dBm. MIC. the IDA tries to give an signiﬁcant advance in Singapore to new telecommunication technologies. a preliminary proposal presented in August 2005 suggests a limitation of UWB emissions to the 7. Temporarily – until June 2010 – the ECC authorizes the emission in the 4. At the beginning of 2003. all UWB systems using satisfactory mitigation mechanisms could be authorized to emit with a power spectral density of −41. In order to encourage a fast emergence of UWB systems in Europe.MHz−1 . which makes it possible to deploy tests and demonstrators in Singapore with experiments using an emission power of about 10 dB above the FCC limit and a band spreading from 2 GHz to 10 GHz [POR 03b].25 GHz frequency bands with a power spectral density of −41. we can ﬁnd the detection and avoidance (DAA) systems which allow us to avoid bands already used by other systems and the use of low duty cycle (LDC). The problems of UWB regulation . it should be speciﬁed that the greatest constraint of regulation comes from management of the interference.8–6 GHz with a power spectral density of −70 dBm.MHz−1 . in order to prepare the regulation of UWB.5.8 GHz band.UWB Technology and its Applications 33 6–8.4.MHz−1 . the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) is developing a project with many industrial partners in order to design marketable UWB systems. the Singaporean regulatory agency named Infocom Development Authority (IDA) created a UWB research area. called UWB Friendly Zone. Among these mitigation mechanisms.25–10.3 dBm. remains more restricted than the American mask. are shown in Figure 1.3 dBm.1–4.8 GHz band with a power spectral density of −41.MHz−1 .1–4.3. the emission mask proposed by their ministry of internal aﬀairs and communications. In Japan.3 dBm. However.2–4. However. As illustrated in Figure 1. The emission is also authorized in the band 3.4. in order to remain scientiﬁcally and economically competitive. we should note that such a power limitation does not make it possible to carry out reliable communication systems for a distance of about one meter. Hence.5 GHz band with a power spectral density of −41. the Information and Technology Communication SubCouncil working group presented its ﬁrst investigations on UWB technology at the ministry for telecommunications.
For example. The management of the multiuser communications is also simpliﬁed. the righthand graph presents the time domain signal corresponding to the band represented in solid line. as many frequency combinations or temporal multiplexings are possible. the high band being used according to the development of new RF components. It makes it possible to use cheaper integrated circuit technologies. Figure 1.34 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels do not come from the eﬀect of only one UWB system. Finally. The ﬂexibility of the spectrum radio remains moderate. The monoband approach consists of using all the frequency band available. creating a sum of signals which can possibly interfere with other systems. we can avoid the subbands which are not authorized. It is characterized by very short impulses. For each approach. Regarding standardization. the multiband approach consists of using frequency bands of minimal width about 500 MHz. and the signals can be created from an arbitrary impulse modeled by an adequate ﬁlter. even when using several colocalized equipments. like the navigation or safety systems. the UWB scientiﬁc community currently works to test and deﬁne systems which remain inoﬀensive. Historically. the duration of the obtained impulse is inversely proportional to the bandwidth used. especially for the low band (typically 3–6 GHz). However. and requires us to use very powerful radio frequency (RF) components. the ﬁrst form of modulation suggested for UWB was the impulse radio [SCH 93].5 presents various solutions which can be considered. the American institute IEEE began the work of deﬁning a high data rate communication system . but from the aggregation of hundreds of devices using this technology. 1. as the UNII band around 5 GHz for example. So. UWB communication system and standardization The emission mask of UWB radio signals established by the FCC allows the use of various signals. This solution has a very great ﬂexibility for radio spectrum management. As we can observe. but this solution allows it to avoid an arbitrarily sensitive band. Another solution consists of dividing the allocated UWB spectrum into two parts: it is the dual bands approach. the used frequency band as well as the emission mask of the FCC are presented in the lefthand graph. therefore resistant to the eﬀects of superimposed multipaths.6. In each case. Many modulation techniques were developed from these various UWB signals. this approach allows little ﬂexibility in the use of the radio spectrum. if the emission mask is more restricted in a given country.
developed by the consortium WiMedia Alliance and based on MBOFDM. proposed by the consortium UWB Forum [FIS 04] and MultiBand Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MBOFDM). 1. its ﬁrst derivative (Gaussian monocycle). 1. It is thus a monoband approach.UWB Technology and its Applications 35 using the UWB spectrum in 2002. proposed by the consortium MultiBand OFDM Alliance/WiMedia Alliance [BAT 04b]. which corresponds in the frequency domain to an important continuous component. Today. this type of impulses occupies a very broad spectrum (about 1 to several GHz). The impulse signals generally adopted for UWB communications include the Gaussian impulse.1.6.3a group was disbanded.15.3] gives the typical expression of a transmitted impulse radio signal.1. corresponds to the emission of impulses of very short duration (around 100 ps to 1 ns). the IEEE 802. as represented in Figure 1. using a pulse position modulation (PPM) [SCH 97a]: s(t) = j w t − j · Tf − cj · Tc − Δ · d j Ns [1. In January 2006. normally starting from t = 0. The debate for a single solution was mainly articulated around two proposals: Direct Sequence UWB (DSUWB). Ns The term j · Tf allows a uniform spacing of the impulses. the j th impulse being transmitted at j · Tf + cj · Tc + Δ · d j . Typically. Pulse position modulation Relation [1. Thus. the transmitted signal corresponds to a sequence of impulses transmitted at diﬀerent times. The drawback of the Gaussian impulse lies in its nonzero mean value.6. the Gaussian impulse cannot be propagated without deformation. Impulse radio The impulse radio concept. within the 802.3] where w(t) represents the waveform of a transmitted monocycle.3a work group. Thus.1.6. and we generally prefer the Gaussian monocycle [BAT 03]. developed from radar studies. the signal deﬁned by: s(t) = j w t − j · Tf [1. The choice of the type of modulation for this system was the subject of a procedure of very strict selection.4] . only one industrial standard exists concerning UWB systems: the standard ECMA368 [ECM 05]. Indeed.15. as no consensus could be found for a single solution. and its second derivative.
5.5 2 40 Power spectral density (dBm.5 0 0.2 0.MHz 1 ) 50 60 70 80 Normalized signal 1 0.5 1 1 0. dualband approach (b) and multiband approach (c) .5 1 0 2 Time (ns) 4 Figure 1.5 0 0. UWB spectrum and signals: monoband approach (a).5 1 0 0.MHz 1 ) 50 60 70 80 Normalized signal 0 5 10 15 (b) 40 Power spectral density (dBm.4 0 5 10 15 (c) 0 0.MHz 1 ) 50 60 70 80 Normalized signal 0 5 10 Frequency (GHz) 15 1 0.36 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels (a ) 40 Power spectral density (dBm.3 0.1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.
on the occupied band. In addition.UWB Technology and its Applications 1 Gaussian pulse Normalized signal 0. the pseudorandom code allows the management of multiusers on the radio channel. with a pulse spacing equal to Tf seconds. and the spectrum appears much more smoothed [PEZ 03]. However. impulses cyclically transmitted by the users of the network are very sensitive to collision when the signals access the channel. Tf is generally called “frame duration” and is about 100 to 1000 times the impulse duration. Each user is provided with a pseudorandom code {cj } of length Ns which indicates in which chip of each frame the impulse must be transmitted.7(b).7(a). These two problems are solved by the use of a temporal pseudorandom hopping code. and therefore with a low power spectral density. UWB impulse waveforms corresponds to a sequence of impulses uniformly distributed. The frame of duration Tf is subdivided in a given number of time intervals (chip) of duration Tc . to a Gaussian white noise. The transmitted signal with the considered code is expressed by: s(t) = j w t − j · Tf − cj · Tc [1.8 1 Figure 1.4] is represented in Figure 1.4 0.6 Time (ns) 0.2 0.5] and its shape is given by Figure 1. the UWB signal can be compared.5 Gaussian monocycle Second derivative 37 0 0. If the pseudorandom sequence is suﬃciently long. In addition. The use of a pseudorandom code makes it possible to decrease the eﬀect of appearance of spikes due to the periodicity of the frame. we should note that the periodicity of this signal generates parasitic spikes in the radio spectrum.6. .5 1 0 0. This makes it possible to obtain signals with a low duty cycle. The impulse sequence of relation [1.
there is no temporal shift in the emission of the data. There is thus a redundancy of information. Sequences of radio impulses: (a) sequence of uniformly distributed impulses. the signals reception is done by correlation. If several users emit simultaneously by using orthogonal pseudorandom codes. Pulse amplitude modulation The pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is an alternative to the pulse position modulation. We can note that PPM modulations using a greater number of states are possible. the use of time codes allows the management of multiaccess [SCH 93]. which makes it possible to increase the processing gain.7.38 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Tf (a) t Tc (b) t (c) t Figure 1. This technique consists of varying the amplitude of the transmitted impulses to code the diﬀerent states. These two states are shown in Figure 1.6. and (c) spreading code at position 1 In relation [1. the PAM modulation is often reduced to two . the other users will appear as noise.3]. 1. where · indicates the integer Ns part. the term Δ represents a time interval of about Tc . the modulation used to transmit data is PPM.2. (b) spreading code at position 0. In practice. So. shows that the same symbol is used over the whole length of the code. Indeed. The basic idea is to multiply the received signal by a model signal. This scheme corresponds to the traditional code multiple division access (CDMA). the model signal corresponds to a given pseudorandom emitted code. while a duration shift of Δ is applied over the entire code duration when one is transmitted. only the signal corresponding to the selected code will be demodulated.7(b) and (c). when zero is transmitted. Theoretically.1. Thus. Concerning impulse radio. which makes it possible to demodulate the transmitted data. Under these conditions. and the dk terms are the 0 and 2 1 symbols to be transmitted. an unlimited number of diﬀerent values can be used for the signal amplitude. The index d j .
the DSUWB modulation uses a frame divided in chips.7 GHz. the signal is transmitted continuously and there is no low duty cycle as in the case of the impulse radio.3–0. The transmitted symbols are represented by ternary spreading codes of one frame length. named MBOK. This corresponds to an onoﬀ keying (OOK) modulation. Direct sequence UWB The direct sequence ultrawideband (DSUWB) modulation is a solution proposed by the industrial group UWB Forum [FIS 04]. Optionally. This modulation uses the frequency band allocated to UWB under two dual bands covering respectively 3. Finally. an impulse is emitted to code 1.6.85 GHz and 6. in order to simplify the architecture of the radio transmission systems. named PulsOn 210. So. and nothing is emitted to code 0. The length of the spreading code varies from 1–24 chips according to the considered data rate. and was marketed in an electronic chip.1–4. composed of a series of 1. Under these conditions. In a ﬁrst step. The impulse radio modulation technique was implemented by the American company Time Domain. presented in the following subsections. is deﬁned in order to ensure a more robust transmission. all the DSUWB systems will be able to provide these codes using a BPSK baseband modulation.5 ns and present several cycles (see Figure 1. However. an impulse can be transmitted in each chip of the frame. the transmitted impulses have a time duration of about 0. the standardization authorities have chosen other types of modulations. and it is only its phase which varies.5(b)). we may also consider hybrid modulations. only the low band is used. As with the PPM modulation. 0 or −1. Another alternative of the PAM modulation consists of transmitting two states: 1 and 0. 2PAM modulation may be regarded as a form of binary phase shift keying (BPSK). Indeed. 1 and 1.2–9. 1. In each deﬁned transmission timeslot. On these dual bands. the position of the impulse remains ﬁxed. We can for example create a modulation of 512 states by using a combination of 256PPM with a modulation 2PAM. because of the diﬃculty of implementation and the low spectral ﬂexibility of this type of system. a more eﬃcient modulation. The transmission data rate proposed for the DSUWB systems . According to the speciﬁcations proposed by the UWB forum. This conﬁguration make it possible to avoid the UNII band at 5 GHz used by WiFi systems.2. However. This BPSK modulation has a good robustness to the eﬀects of the channel and simpliﬁes the synchronization.UWB Technology and its Applications 39 states.
The hopping pattern . In each subband. Multiband OFDM Multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MBOFDM) is a solution based upon the UWB spectrum proposed in standardization and used by the industrial groups MBOA and WiMedia Alliance [BAT 04b]. this radio access technique is robust against the multipath eﬀects of the channel. However. implemented the DSUWB modulation in the component Freescale XS110. which imposes less constraints on RF components.8 shows these subbands which are divided into diﬀerent groups. to avoid the jamming of any frequency band. founder of the UWB Forum group. In terms of regulation. the company Freescale Semiconductor. according to a cycle of approximately 1 μs duration. but the transmitted spectrum is not very ﬂexible. clustered in subnetworks called piconets.1–4. In a group of subbands. the baseband modulation is either BPSK or QPSK. some industrial companies are developing this technical solution. This conﬁguration facilitates a very ﬂexible management of the radio spectrum. the separation into two dual bands makes it possible to protect the sensitive frequency bands. 1.3a working group.15. This management can possibly be performed according to the legislation of the country of use or in a dynamic way according to the potential jammers. Figure 1. The other groups should be quickly exploited in order to produce systems in conformity with the European and Asian regulation. because the considered frequency bands are narrower. For each carrier. where the FCC spectrum is subdivided into 14 subbands of 528 MHz. we can note that the isolation of users belonging to diﬀerent piconets is improved by the use of slightly diﬀerent chip frequencies into each piconet.320 Mbps. The management of the multiusers of the same group of subbands is performed using timefrequency code techniques. First of all. In terms of standardization. Indeed. an OFDM modulation is applied.6. In this prospect.9 GHz). no oﬃcial norm is currently based on the DSUWB modulation. As an example. the signal being distributed over 100 carriers with narrow bandwidth. The management of multiple users. The used modulation still being based on impulses. the communication of a given user regularly hops from one band to another. we may notice that following the disbanding of the IEEE 802. is performed by the use of orthogonal codes. the DSUWB systems seem easier to implement. It is a multiband approach. More details on this technology can be found in [WEL 03]. the DSUWB modulation is similar to the CDMA system used in UMTS. Compared to impulse radio. starting from the speciﬁcations proposed by the UWB Forum group.40 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels range from 28–1.3. the industrial companies focussed their development eﬀorts on group 1 (3. Finally. we can forbid a series of carriers or the totality of a subband.
1. and the technology no longer beneﬁts from the advantages related to a very wide frequency band. like the width of the spectrum . The main characteristics of this technology.3–480 Mbps.MHz1) 50 60 70 80 0 2 4 6 8 Frequency (GHz) 10 12 Figure 1. The restriction on the used frequency band to the ﬁrst group of subbands allows it to use existing systems and RF components. 2 Gr. In technical terms. which is unique to each user. available since December 2005.UWB Technology and its Applications 41 from one band to another corresponds to the considered timefrequency code. The data rates oﬀered by this technology extend from 53. 3 Gr. UWB technology has been studied for the last 15 years in the ﬁeld of wireless communications. BAT 04b] give all the necessary details for the implementation of this system. However. ECMA – 368. 5 ← →← →← →← →←→ 40 Power spectral density (dBm. as the OFDM modulation shows a high degree of maturity. Subbands for the MBOFDM solution The advantages of the MBOFDM radio access technique are mainly related to its low complexity of implementation. it will be necessary to develop systems operating under the European and Asian frequency regulations. it is currently the only UWB communication technique developed as an international standard. in order to achieve an international deployment of the MBOFDM solution. The integrated circuit UBLink proposed by the company Wisair is an example of commercially available MBOFDM design. such as the robustness to the radio channel eﬀects or the possibilities of localization. Moreover. Conclusion Initially used for radar localization applications. it should be noted that signals are no longer impulsional. Group 1 Gr.7.8. 4 Gr. References [BAT 04a.
As developed in this chapter. home automation applications. . made it possible for the scientiﬁc and industrial communities to propose a certain number of interesting applications: high data rate WLAN networks. we address antennas by including them in the channel. In Europe. a mask of emission for UWB signals was established in 2006. but the coexistence of UWB systems with other applications is still under study. As for any radio access technique. in particular DSUWB and MBOFDM. Thus. etc. an accurate knowledge of the propagation channel as well as the antennas is predominant for the development of UWB communication systems. OSS 03]. UWB regulation has been eﬀective in the USA since 2002. the realization of an antenna presenting good characteristics in terms of adaptation and radiation on such a broad band is still a challenging task [SCH 03c. SCH 03b. Indeed. and describes the principal parameters for UWB radio channel characterization. In this book. A thorough study of the antennas in the speciﬁc case of UWB could be the subject of a speciﬁc book.42 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels and its strong temporal resolution. various types of UWB modulations were proposed in standardization. the following section presents the radio waves propagation phenomena inside buildings.
which could hence be regarded as an ultrawideband signal [AIE 03a]. In order to facilitate the industrial use of radio transmission. This chapter details the deﬁnition of the propagation channel and its mathematical representation. Introduction The existence of electromagnetic waves was theoretically predicted by J. The German physicist Hertz tried to demonstrate that electromagnetic waves travel at a ﬁnite speed. The propagation channel corresponds to the system converting the signal e(t) into the signal s(t) and thus accounts for the interactions between the electromagnetic waves and their environment. The oscillating circuit designed by Hertz consisted of two discharging metallic spheres. At this point. and in 1886 he performed the very ﬁrst radio propagation experiments. The characteristic parameters of the radiomobile channel are then presented. Maxwell as early as 1855 [MAX 55]. This research ﬁrst focused on signals conﬁned in narrow frequency bands and then extended to wideband signals.Chapter 2 Radio Wave Propagation 2.C. the signal used by Hertz consisted of a short duration pulse. Interestingly. a large amount of research has been conducted to characterize the electromagnetic wave propagation mechanisms. 2.2. a distinction should be made between the propagation channel and the transmission . which produced an observable spark on an open wire loop [SCH 86].1. Deﬁnition of the propagation channel By deﬁnition. a radio transmission system transforms an emitted electrical signal e(t) into a received electrical signal s(t) by means of electromagnetic waves.
2. The propagation channel represents the transformation of the electromagnetic waves throughout their propagation. . Figure 2. SCH 03b. but the distinction comes fully into play when considering multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) channels [COS 04].1. The full study of antennas in the speciﬁc UWB context would require a dedicated book. while the transmission channel also includes antenna radiation patterns (cf.1. Denoting by GE the emission antenna gain and PE the emitted signal power. in an environment where no obstruction is present.e. and λ represents the wavelength at the working frequency. i. Free space propagation Let us ﬁrst consider an ideal case where the transmission system is placed in free space.1] The power PR collected at the output of a receiving antenna with gain GR relates to the power density W as follows: PR = W AR = W λ2 GR 4π [2. Propagation channel and transmission channel 2.44 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels channel. OSS 03]. the development of a UWB antenna presenting adequate characteristics in terms of adaptation and radiation over such a wide frequency band is still a challenging issue [SCH 03c.2] where AR represents the eﬀective area of the receiving antenna. the power density observed at a distance d is given by [PAR 00]: W = PE GE 4πd2 [2. some authors assimilate these two concepts.1). Transmission channel Emitted signal e(t) Propagation channel Received signal s(t) Figure 2. In the literature. Indeed.
Moreover. 1. At the output port of the receiving antenna. the observed signal corresponds to a combination of diﬀerent waves. Multipath propagation mechanisms may lead to a signiﬁcant distortion of the received signal. though. that for systems operating at diﬀerent frequencies.2. is not always available. In this case. a direct path. It should be noted. signal transmission follows not only the direct path. each of them presenting a diﬀerent attenuation and a diﬀerent phase rotation. A receiver is situated in the far ﬁeld if the distance d is larger than the Fraunhofer distance dF . 2 . the transmitted wave is aﬀected by the system environment through diﬀerent mechanisms. the frequency f and the propagation speed c. the antenna length is for instance deﬁned as D = λ .1] and [2.2.2] yield the Friis formula.Radio Wave Propagation 45 Equations [2. On the other hand. which is particularly frequent in indoor conﬁgurations. known as the line of sight (LOS) path. which are presented in the following section. In realistic propagation conditions.4] dF = λ Free space propagation is a theoretical or reference situation. each wave reaches the receiver with a distinct delay. giving the signal attenuation in free space: c PR = GT GR PT 4πf d 2 [2. and hence the Fraunhofer distance 2 follows dF = λ . These paths undergo various eﬀects depending on the type of interaction between the wave and the surrounding objects. so called nonline of sight (NLOS) paths are necessary to enable eﬃcient radio communication. It should be noted that this relation holds for a distance d large enough for the receiving antenna to be considered in the far ﬁeld region with respect to the transmitting antenna [AFF 00]. Multipath propagation In a realistic environment.3] where we used the relation c = f λ existing between the wavelength λ.2 illustrates the concept of multipath propagation. the antenna dimension D is generally adapted to the wavelength. For a wire antenna. 2. but also a number of distinct propagation paths. linked to the length of the propagation path. Figure 2. as well as the main propagation phenomena. which is related to the largest dimension of the transmitting antenna D and to the wavelength λ as follows:1 2D2 [2.
the reﬂection is said to be specular.e. When the surface separating the two materials presents nonnegligible random rough spots. Most of the energy is then directed along the reﬂected ray.2. the reﬂection is called diﬀuse reﬂection. a surface where possible rough spots are small with respect to the wavelength). In this case. . but part of the energy is diﬀused in neighbor directions.46 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Diffuse reflection Diffuse scattering Transmission Receiver Diffraction Specular reflection Transmitter Waveguide effect Figure 2. When two diﬀerent materials are separated by a plane surface (i. the direction and the amplitude of the reﬂected ray are governed by the SnellDescartes and Fresnel laws. Main propagation mechanisms • Reﬂection: reﬂection takes place on obstacles of large dimensions with respect to wavelength.
Radio Wave Propagation 47 • Transmission: when the medium where a reﬂection takes place is not perfectly radioopaque. the resulting power attenuation is proportional to the square of the distance d between the antennas (cf. for instance in the presence of tree foliage. This phenomenon is generally observed in outdoor environments. This mechanism accounts for the electromagnetic ﬁeld continuum on either side of the optical line of sight. signiﬁcant variations of the channel characteristics are observable at diﬀerent scales. the obstacles within the environment as well as the combination of multiple propagation paths lead to an additional attenuation of the . the observed phenomenon corresponds to the superimposition of a large number of random diﬀractions. 2. Finally. diﬀusion may occur on a group of small objects. This phenomenon also occurs in urban environments. In this case. since the refractive index of the material varies with the frequency. the electromagnetic wave is directed in all directions with a variable attenuation. • Diﬀraction: diﬀraction takes place on the edges of large sized obstacles with respect to the wavelength. for instance between two buildings lining a narrow street. However. In general. with an angle corresponding to the incident angle. In practice. • Diﬀusion: when an electromagnetic wave travels towards a group of obstacles of small dimensions with respect to the wavelength. For a given material. • Waveguide eﬀect: the waveguide eﬀect occurs in indoor environments. which considers every point of a wavefront as a secondary spherical source.1). part of the incident wave travels through the material following a socalled transmission mechanism.3. section 2. the attenuation and the direction of the transmitted signal are related to the wavelength. for layered materials such as plasterboard. When isotropic antennas are used in free space. between two corridor walls for instance.2. actual observations present large scale power variations linked to the propagation environment. Successive reﬂections on two parallel obstacles lead to a global wave motion along the guiding direction. the behavior of the incident wave is handled in a statistical way and the resulting phenomenon is called diﬀusion. diﬀracted waves are distributed along a geometrical cone.2. multiple reﬂection may occur within the material. Most of the building materials used in indoor environments signiﬁcantly attenuate the transmitted wave. In indoor environments. Hence. Propagation channel variations Owing to the diﬀerent interactions between the radio waves and their propagation medium. The calculation of a diﬀracted ﬁeld uses Huygens’ principle.
As explained in the previous section. If the reﬂection occurs in the vicinity of the LOS path.48 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels transmitted waves. the signals are adding constructively and some power gain is observed. the various frequencies may be aﬀected in a diﬀerent way. the received signal power decreasing proportionally to d−Nd . This concept is illustrated in Figure 2. the possible power fades are constant over the whole considered frequency band.3. and varies between 2 and 5 in NLOS conﬁgurations. When the frequency band is narrow.1. which is called a fast fading signal. the spatial selectivity phenomenon depends on the phase diﬀerence between multiple paths. Multiple versions of a single signal presenting diﬀerent attenuations and diﬀerent phase delays may eventually combine at the receiver. 2. the direct path and a reﬂected path. However. In LOS conﬁgurations. the received signal may be considered as a random process. When this phenomenon occurs with a large amount of paths. This phenomenon is known as ﬂat fading. This is due to occasional obstructions known as shadowing or slow fading. In the ﬁrst case. For signals occupying wider frequency bands. It is characterized by the path loss exponent Nd . The parameter Nd is equal to 2 in free space. spatial selectivity also depends on signal frequency. spreading over a given frequency bandwidth. 2. the signals are adding destructively and the total received power is strongly attenuated. waveguide eﬀects may lead to a value of Nd lower than 2.3. Small scale ﬂuctuations are directly linked to multipath propagation mechanisms.2. this attenuation is a function of the distance d between the transmitter and the receiver. the two versions of the signal may arrive in phase or antiphase. which produces signiﬁcant fast ﬂuctuations in the order of 10 to 20 dB. In general. and thus the received signal is somehow .2. Finally. we may consider that these two paths will cause a similar attenuation. Hence. Spatial selectivity Let us consider a signal composed of a single carrier frequency propagating along two paths. Frequency selectivity Let us now consider a more realistic signal. Thus. When the mobile device is displaced. we may note diﬀerences in the order from 1 to several dB between the received power and the mean trend following a d−Nd law. all frequencies forming the transmitted signal undergo similar phase variations.2. In the second case. the phase rotation linked to each path leads to a series of signal peaks and signal fades. depending on the wavelength of the transmitted signal and on the length diﬀerence between the two paths.3.
In this case. For signals presenting a very wide frequency band. In this case. frequency selectivity corresponds to a delay between the various versions of the signal propagating along diﬀerent paths.2 in order to collect as much energy as possible from the multiple propagation paths [CRA 98. FOE 01b. . Constructive and destructive addition of two propagation paths distorted with respect to the transmitted signal. It is then possible to apply advanced reception techniques. which results in signiﬁcant fades.3. GAU 03]. This delay is in the order of a few nanoseconds in indoor environments. which consists of a variation in the power received with increasing frequency. we may observe frequency selective fading. The bandwidth over which the frequency components are aﬀected in a similar way is called the coherence bandwidth or correlation bandwidth. In the delay domain. Depending on the signal bandwidth. by using several reception branches in parallel [HAY 01]. signal fading is less pronounced. and particularly for UWB signals. the time domain resolution is very high. which limits the possible interference between diﬀerent delayed versions of the transmitted signal.Radio Wave Propagation 49 V t1 direct path t V t2 reflected path (case 1) t V t2 + t reflected path (case 2) t case 1 V global signal t case 2 Figure 2. these echoes may superimpose on each other. such as channel equalization or RAKE reception. A RAKE receiver combines the signals from diﬀerent multipaths. and in the order of a few microseconds in outdoor environments. 2.
It is thus questionable how the propagation channel is aﬀected when the transmitting antenna.3 2.2. As a simple example. For a simple case where the handset moves at a constant speed. the PDF of the Doppler shift is proportional to the Jakes Doppler spectrum [JAK 93]: pν (ν) = π 1 1− νmax ν 2 [2.3. The Doppler eﬀect corresponds to an observed shift in the frequency of an electromagnetic signal due to the variation of its propagation path. let us consider a mobile receiver moving at a speed v and receiving a radio signal as a plane wave arriving with an angle α with respect to the mobile direction. Intersymbol interference consists of the corruption of a transmitted symbol by the previous symbols due to the time domain spreading generated by the propagation channel.5] ν = f cos(α) c where f is the signal frequency and c is the wave propagation speed. the observed Doppler shift is [PAR 00]: v [2.7] This theoretical PDF of the Doppler shift may be linked to the Doppler spectrum of a measured signal.50 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Finally. it should be noted that in the case of wideband signals. The statistical case where the ray distribution is represented by the probability density function (PDF) of their angle of arrival pα (α) was developed in [CLA 68]. frequency selectivity leads to a time domain spreading of the transmitted signal. the PDF of the Doppler shift pν (ν) is given by: pν (ν) = 1− 1 ν νmax 2 · pα − arccos ν νmax +pα arccos ν νmax [2. . for a uniform distribution of the arrival angles. the receiving antenna or even the environment are moving.3. Doppler eﬀect The spatial selectivity phenomenon demonstrates that the properties of the radio propagation channel may vary signiﬁcantly when the receiving antenna is positioned at diﬀerent locations.8] 3. It is one of the main sources for the degradation of the transmission quality. In particular. Characterizing this spreading is essential to calibrate communication systems and mitigate intersymbol interference. In this case.6] where νmax is the maximum Doppler shift given by: v νmax = f c [2.
Propagation channel representation 2. both spatial and temporal channel variations lead to an observed Doppler eﬀect. The complex envelope γx (t) is also named the equivalent baseband term of x(t). Hence. only the existing paths are considered.1.9] In most radio systems. The received signal may thus be written as: ∞ s(t) = −∞ e(t − τ )h(τ )dτ [2. . In the indoor environment.Radio Wave Propagation 51 In what follows. Temporal variations are linked to a change in the close environment of a ﬁxed radio link [HAS 94a]. disappear or undergo successive transformations. the transmitted signal spreads over a frequency band which is not centered around zero. which may be positive or negative. propagation paths between the transmitter and the receiver may appear. Spatial channel variations are due to the displacement of at least one of the antennas in an otherwise static environment. Mathematical formulation Owing to the multipath propagation phenomena. 2. a distinction will be made between the concepts of temporal and spatial variations. each of them presenting a diﬀerent delay and a diﬀerent attenuation.3. temporal variations are mainly due to moving people. A given signal x(t) may thus be represented by its complex envelope γx (t) deﬁned as: x(t) = γx (t)ej2πf0 t [2. corresponding to the output of this ﬁlter when the excitation is a Dirac function. The propagation channel thus behaves like a linear ﬁlter. In both cases of spatial and temporal variations.3. the propagation channel may be represented by its impulse response (IR) h(τ ). and the channel variations consist of an evolution of the path length. both types of variation are generally observed. depending on the situation. the received signal s(t) is composed of a number of superimposed replicas of the transmitted signal e(t). Hence. In the case of a stationary channel.10] where {·} represents the real part of a complex number and f0 represents a given frequency in the considered band. In the radiomobile context. but one or the other may be considered as predominant.
5 illustrates the relations between these functions.52 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels It can be shown that there are two ways of deﬁning the baseband ﬁlter heq (τ ) equivalent to the passband ﬁlter h(τ ) (cf.2. and hence the radio channel may vary with time. .11] heq2 (τ ) = h(τ )e The three representations in Figure 2. In practice.4 are thus equivalent to observing the channel eﬀect on the transmitted signal. unless otherwise stated. This leads to a set of four transfer functions that may be used to describe the radio channel [BEL 63]. τ ) is thus dependent on both time and delay. Appendix A): heq1 (τ ) = 1 γh (τ ) 2 −j2πf0 τ [2. The inputs and outputs of a linear ﬁlter may be described in the time domain or in the frequency domain. Figure 2.3.4. we will use. e(t) E h(τ ) s(t) E γe (t) E heq1 (τ ) = 1 2 γh (τ ) γs (t) E γe (t) E heq2 (τ ) = h(τ )e −j2πf0 τ γs (t) E Figure 2. Equivalent representations of a static radiomobile channel 2. the environment or the antenna position may be modiﬁed. Characterization of deterministic channels The representation of the radio channel in the form of an IR h(τ ) is valid for static channels only. the channel impulse response in its complex envelope form γh (τ ). In the remainder of this book. The IR h(t. which will be denoted h(τ ) for the sake of simplicity.
12] thus provides a physical representation of the channel as a continuum of scatterers that are ﬁxed – since their delay is constant – and scintillating – which corresponds to the channel’s temporal evolution.2. It is the dual function of the function h(t.Radio Wave Propagation 53 timedelay F F delayDoppler © −1 h(t. τ ) in the frequencyDoppler shift space. t) F −1 F © S(τ. ν) frequencyDoppler Figure 2. It thus . The frequency domain function The function H(f. τ )dτ [2. ν) d d s d d d d F −1 Fd d d d d d H(f. τ ) s d d d d F −1 Fd d d d d d frequencytime d d T (f. Characteristic functions for a deterministic channel. Equation [2. It relates the received signal s(t) to the transmitted signal e(t) according to the following ﬁltering operation: ∞ s(t) = −∞ e(t − τ )h(t. Arrows represent a Fourier transform (F ) or an inverse Fourier transform (F −1 ) 2.12] The magnitude of this impulse response may be observed to distinguish between diﬀerent signal echoes according to their propagation delay.2.5.2. ν) is also called the output Dopplerspread function and reﬂects the Doppler shift phenomenon caused by the channel.3. 2.3.1. The time varying impulse response The function h(t. τ ) is called the timevariant impulse response.
Characterization of linear random channels In practical situations. t): ∞ s(t) = −∞ E(f )T (f. ν) relates the output signal s(t) to the input signal e(t) through the following relation: ∞ ∞ −∞ s(t) = −∞ e(t − τ )S(τ.15] represents the output signal s(t) as a sum of superimposed replicas the input signal e(t).4. ν) through a simple Fourier transform. t)ej2πf t df [2.14] The function T (f. For this reason it is referred to as the delayDoppler spread function. which cannot be measured individually. ν) through a simple Fourier transform. 2.3.2. τ ) and H(f. t) is related to the functions h(t. If the bandwidth of the considered channel is narrow enough. The time varying transfer function Another approach to characterizing the radio channel consists of describing the relation between the time domain output signal s(t) to the input signal spectrum E(f ). ν) is related to the functions h(t.13] Using this representation. the propagation channel ﬂuctuations are due to a number of superimposed phenomena. the timevariant transfer function may be directly measured using a network analyzer.54 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels relates the received signal spectrum S(f ) to the transmitted signal spectrum E(f ) as follows: ∞ S(f ) = −∞ E(f − ν)H(f − ν. 2. ν)dν [2. The function S(τ. The corresponding function allows us to simultaneously observe the channel dispersion in both the time domain and the frequency domain.2. each replica being delayed and Dopplershifted. τ ) and H(f.3.15] Equation [2. The function S(τ. using the time varying transfer function T (f. the output signal spectrum S(f ) is considered as the sum of superimposed input signal spectrum replicas E(f ).3. 2. .3. The delayDoppler spread function A ﬁnal approach consists of representing the radio channel in the delayDoppler shift space.3. each replica being Doppler shifted and ﬁltered. ν)ej2πνt dνdτ [2.
2. m. and its autocorrelation Rh (t. In practice. μ) = E S(τ. and we consider the autocorrelation functions of the channel system functions only. t. τ. The second order moments of the input and output signals are then given by: ∞ ∞ −∞ [2.4. t)T ∗ (m. u. η) RH (f. τ. These functions are deﬁned as follows: Rh (t. η) will depend on the . Channel classiﬁcation The representation of the random radio channel may be simpliﬁed by considering diﬀerent assumptions about the channel characteristics. u.4.3. η.3. τ.5). μ) where E[·] represents the mathematical expectation and (·)∗ represents the complex conjugation operation. τ )h∗ (u. m. Figure 2. u) = −∞ ∞ −∞ e(t − τ )e∗ (u − η)Rh (t. 2.17] Re (t.1. u. η)dη The ﬁrst and second order moments are suﬃcient to completely describe the output signal s(t) in the case of a Gaussian signal. the statistical description of the channel is limited to the second order.16] Rs (t. μ) = E H(f. u) = E T (f. u) RS (τ. The propagation channel is thus characterized in a statistical way. the expectation of the channel impulse response needs to be invariant with time. ν. In other words. μ) RT (f. u − η)h(u.Radio Wave Propagation 55 The radio channel variations may thus be regarded as a random process and it is no longer valid to describe them deterministically. These four autocorrelation functions are linked through double Fourier transforms in a similar scheme to the one linking the channel system functions (cf. η) = E h(t. Wide sense stationary channels A channel is considered as wide sense stationary (WSS) if its temporal (or spatial) variation meets the statistical conditions of second order stationarity. u) = Res (t. ν. ν)H ∗ (m. η)dτ dη [2. ν)S ∗ (η.
t. we may write the autocorrelation of the frequency domain function as: RH (f. t. u) [2. u) = RT (Ω. η.3. Similarly. t + ξ. m. and using ξ = t − u. This last relation indicates that the spectral content of the signal is uncorrelated for diﬀerent Doppler shifts. ν.20] . indoor or urban environment). t + ξ) = RT (f. we consider that the contributions from elemental scatterers corresponding to diﬀerent delays are uncorrelated.18] Considering the double Fourier transform relationship between Rh (t. m. u. m. f + Ω. μ) = δ(ν − μ)PH (f. η) and RS (τ. μ).2.g. This condition is equivalent to an assumption of second order stationarity in the frequency domain. these conditions mean that the channel ﬂuctuation statistics are constant over a short time interval ξ.19] = δ(ν − μ)PS (τ. f + Ω. ν. Under these conditions. the autocorrelation functions of the timevariant impulse response and the timevariant transfer function may be written as: Rh (t. Uncorrelated scattering channels Under the uncorrelated scattering (US) assumption. As in the WSS case. η)ej2π(uμ−tν) dtdu ∞ −∞ = δ(ν − μ) Rh (ξ. η) RT (f. η)e−j2π(ξν) dξ [2. η. ν. μ) = RH (Ω. this means that echoes generating diﬀerent Doppler shifts are uncorrelated. μ) RT (f. η) = Rh (ξ. ν. η. η. m. η) by applying the WienerKinchine theorem.4.21] [2. we may simplify the autocorrelation functions of the frequency domain function and the timevariant transfer function as follows (and noting by Ω the frequency diﬀerence m − f ): RH (f.56 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels variables t and u through the diﬀerence ξ = t − u only. ν. ξ) [2. ν) 2. τ. τ. this yields: ∞ ∞ −∞ RS (τ. Physically. μ) = −∞ Rh (t. t. τ. In practice. ν) may be identiﬁed as a power spectral density obtained from Rh (ξ. which is a reasonable assumption for traditional channels (e. ν) where the term PS (τ. τ. τ. τ. u.
4. μ) = δ(η − τ )δ(ν − μ)PS (τ . f + Ω. Wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering channels A wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) channel follows both the WSS and US assumptions. For ergodic signals. μ) 2. It physically represents the Doppler spectrum of radio wave paths as a function of their propagation delay.Radio Wave Propagation 57 The timevariant impulse response and the delayDoppler spread function may be rewritten in the form of power spectral densities: Rh (t. τ. η. ν) Figure 2. μ) = δ(ν − μ)PH (Ω. τ. t. Two of the obtained functions are of particular interest. t + ξ. the term Ph (0. the autocorrelation functions of the four channel system functions may be simpliﬁed as follows: Rh (t. η) = δ(η − τ )Ph (ξ. f + Ω. μ) = δ(η − τ )PS (τ . This function is called the power delay proﬁle (PDP). u. τ ) corresponds to the temporal average of the impulse response power. In this case. τ ) = lim 1 T →∞ T T 2 [2. The function PS (τ .6 illustrates the simple Fourier transform relationships linking the four autocorrelation functions for a WSSUS channel. ν. ν) is called a scattering function.23] −T 2 h(t + ξ.22] [2. τ ) may be written as: Ph (ξ. τ )h∗ (t. τ ) RH (f. τ ) = E h(t + ξ.24] Hence. ν. t + ξ) = RT (Ω. ν. In practice. For measured channels. τ ) RS (τ. τ )h∗ (t. η. u. It corresponds to the simplest class of channels.3. ν) RT (f.3. the function Ph (ξ. τ )dt [2. which presents an uncorrelated spread in both the delay domain and the Doppler shift domain. it is sometimes necessary to . ν. ξ) RS (τ. η) = δ(η − τ )Ph (t. it is generally assumed that observed channels fall under the WSSUS assumption.
particularly observable on the channel’s impulse response. 2. their computation requires the WSSUS assumption. ξ) F −1 F © PH (Ω. In general.6. a set of measured impulse responses need to be analyzed.4. In particular. Hence. A thorough discussion about the validation of the WSSUS assumption for experimental measurements has been published in [BUL 02]. This section presents a number of parameters describing diﬀerent aspects of the radio channel. it is for instance possible to approximate the statistical expectation using a temporal (or spatial) average over a set of successive measurements. deﬁned by equation . we generally assume that the channel system functions are ergodic. ν) d d s d d d d F −1 Fd d d d d d Ph (ξ.4. As it is not practically feasible to collect a set of statistical channel realizations. Autocorrelation functions of a WSSUS random channel conﬁrm this postulation.58 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels timedelay F −1 F delayDoppler © PS (τ. Frequency selectivity Frequency selectivity is characterized by the presence of multiple paths. the RUN method is based on assessments of the process variance over successive subintervals [BEN 66]. τ ) s d d d d F −1 Fd d d d d d frequencytime d d RT (Ω. ν) Dopplerfrequency Figure 2. Channel characteristic parameters In order to evaluate the characteristics of a propagation channel. The power repartition as a function of the delay is given by the PDP. 2.1.
0) is referred to as the frequency correlation function and is obtained from the PDP Ph (0.1.25] 2. successively measured over a path length in the order of 20–40 wavelengths [LEE 85]. Thresholds generally given in the literature are 90% and 50% [BAR 95]. ξ): Bc. sometimes simply referred to as delay spread.Radio Wave Propagation 59 [2. τ m=1 2 [2.27] 2. τ ) = 1 M M h tm .n% = min Ω : n RT (Ω. τ )dτ −∞ ∞ P (0. Coherence bandwidth The RMS delay spread is a signiﬁcant parameter for the analysis of the intersymbol interference. The coherence bandwidth is thus the frequency lag above which the frequency autocorrelation function crosses a given threshold. τ )dτ −∞ h [2. The following equation presents the PDP calculation: Ph (0.1. 0) = RT (0. It is calculated as follows: ∞ −∞ τRMS = τ − τm Ph (0. This calculation is valid under the stationarity assumption. the PDP is calculated from a set of M impulse responses. In order to quantify this frequency dependence.4. It is also closely linked to the correlation between the diﬀerent frequencies of the signal spectrum. 0) 100 [2. τ )dτ ∞ −∞ 2 Ph (0. .1.4. RMS delay spread The root mean squared (RMS) delay spread τRMS .26] where τm is the mean delay given by: τm = ∞ τ Ph (0. τ ) by a simple Fourier transform. τ )dτ [2. the n% coherence bandwidth is deﬁned from the autocorrelation of the channel transfer function RT (Ω.24]. represents the standard deviation of the PDP.28] The function RT (Ω. In order to mitigate the local eﬀects of fast channel fading.2.
The q% delay window is the duration of the central part of the PDP containing q% of the total energy. τ )dτ = τ1 q 100 τ3 Ph (0.7. The p dB delay interval refers to a threshold positioned at p dB below the maximum of the PDP.4.30] and the energy which is outside the window is split into two equal parts. The delays τ0 and τ3 are the delays at which the PDP ﬁrst rises and ﬁnally falls through the signal noise level. Power delay proﬁle deﬁning the delay window 2. the delay window is given by: Wq% = τ2 − τ1 The delays τ1 and τ2 are deﬁned by: τ2 q% [2. . τ )dτ τ0 [2.7.29] Ph (0. Delay window and delay interval Two other parameters are also used to give a more precise idea of the PDP spread [COS 89].1.3.60 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Relative magnitude (dB) q% of the total energy Noise level Delay (ns) 0 1 2 3 Figure 2. It simply corresponds to the interval from the ﬁrst delay at which the PDP exceeds this threshold to the last delay at which it falls below this threshold. Referring to the delays represented in Figure 2.
Cluster and ray arrival rates Without more accurate knowledge about the environment. are thus deﬁned so that the magnitude of the rays obeys the following rule: 2 2 βk.33] These constants may be retrieved from measurements by applying a linear least squares ﬁtting procedure on the PDP represented in dB.5.l (t) [2. Deﬁning the PDP from a set of measurements according to equation [2. and assuming that the delay of each ray is approximately constant during the measurements.l δ τ − Tl − τk. This exponential decay may be observed at both the cluster level and the ray level within a single cluster. Exponential decay constants A number of analyses of the UWB radio propagation channel agree on a representation of the impulse response in the form of a discrete sum of individual contributions.8. The inter.l = β1.l (t) and τk.l (t) respectively represent the magnitude.l (t).l (t) δ τ − Tl (t) − τk. By .l γ [2.4.4. and Tl (t) is the arrival time of the lth cluster. Each contribution. respectively denoted Γ and γ.31] where L(t) is the number of clusters. the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism yields the following formula: L Kl 2 βk. the phase and the arrival time associated with the kth ray within the lth cluster. the magnitude of the PDP rays generally follows a decay which is close to an exponential function. and that the number of these events is dependent on the observation duration only.l l=1 k=1 Ph (0. known as ray. In order to account for the possible presence of ray clusters. θk.1. τ ) = l=1 k=1 βk.32] As shown in Figure 2. 2. all these parameters vary with time.1. Parameters βk. This representation is widely used for wideband channels [HAS 93].1 e− Tl −T1 Γ e− τk.25].4.and intracluster exponential decay constants. Kl (t) is the number of rays in the lth cluster. this discrete impulse response is represented using the formalism proposed by Saleh and Valenzuela [SAL 87]: L(t) Kl (t) h(t. it is generally assumed that ray arrivals correspond to independent events. corresponds to a propagation path and is characterized by its distinct delay and amplitude. τ ) = [2.Radio Wave Propagation 61 2. Theoretically.l (t)ejθk.
it is thus proposed that the arrival probability for a new cluster or a new ray follows an exponential law.4. The slow variations of the propagation channel are mainly due to propagation loss and shadowing eﬀect. Parameters Λ and λ are respectively 1 1 called cluster and ray arrival rates.62 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels k1 Power (mW) Cluster e. d) = 20 log 4πf d c − GT (f ) − GR (f ) [2. Propagation loss When expressed in dB. For a practical channel. equation [2. and the numbers Λ and λ represent the mean duration between two successive clusters or rays. In the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism.8./ T1 T2 T3 Delay (ns) Figure 2./ k3 e. Power delay proﬁle following the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism deﬁnition.3] corresponding to the Friis formula for free space propagation is written: P L(f. 2. with respective parameters Λ and λ. These parameters are assessed by studying the intercluster and interray duration distributions. d) represents the ratio between the transmitted power and the received power.34] where P L(f.2. the ray – or cluster – arrivals may reasonably be regarded as a Poisson process./ e. in order to ./ k2 e.
and it is characterized by its standard deviation σS . additional variations of the parameter Nf may be observed. Parameter Nf accounts for the frequency dependence of the propagation phenomena. It may be assessed for a narrowband signal or for a given delay in the case of a wideband signal.4. In order to calculate the parameter Nf from measurements. Parameter Nd accounts for the interactions between the radio wave and the environment. We may use the central frequency in the considered band for f0 . d) = P L f0 . Fast fading The fast fading of the propagation channel corresponds to the magnitude ﬂuctuations in the received signal. As the parameters Nf and Nd are calculated by linear regression. . d0 + 10Nf log f f0 + 10Nd log d d0 + S(f. and also includes the variations of the eﬀective area for an ideal isotropic antenna. In practice. the parameter P L(f.Radio Wave Propagation 63 characterize the double frequency and distance dependence of the path loss. By considering the propagation channel without antennas in a LOS situation. Mathematically. this parameter should be close to its theoretical value Nf = 2. and can signiﬁcantly diﬀer from the theoretical value Nd = 2. d) is approximated by the following formula: P L(f. the term S(f. in this case. equivalent to the PDP Ph (0. we study a set of samples h(tm . τ ) for a given τ . d) [2. 4. the parameter S(f. this variable is generally considered as Gaussian. such as the transmission phenomenon or the waveguide eﬀect. we introduce the power transfer function PT (f ). it is characterized by the statistical law of the random variable h(t.3. and the distance d0 is generally 1 m. τ ) in the frequency domain.4 Nf and Nd are called frequency and distance dependent path loss exponents. d) corresponds to the slow variations of the propagation channel. This takes the average received power as a function of frequency for a number of locally measured transfer functions: PT (f ) = 1 M M T f. which is linked to the measurement antenna gain. τ ) corresponding to M measurements taken at close locations (or in a timevariant environment). d) presents a zero average. Finally. When expressed in dB.36] 2.35] where f0 and d0 correspond to an arbitrary frequency and an arbitrary distance. Some authors consider antennas as a part of the propagation channel. tm m=1 2 [2.
Weibull.4. The average fade duration is an estimate of the time during which the signal magnitude stays below a given threshold [PAR 00]. Some useful tools also exist to characterize the temporal behavior of a signal.37] As in the PDP case.2. ν)dν [2.39] As explained earlier (section 2.4. The level crossing rate consists of determining the frequency at which the signal magnitude decreases below a given threshold. In order to select a speciﬁc theoretical distribution.3. Rice. This is of particular interest for MIMO applications [COS 04]. and lognormal laws (cf. we use the mean Doppler spectrum deﬁned as: ∞ PH (0. ν)dν −∞ H [2. In order to characterize the channel variations independently of the delay. The distributions generally used to assess fast fading include Rayleigh.64 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels while verifying that the channel stationarity condition holds. These spectra may be observed on the scattering function PS (τ.2). Spectral analysis Another way to characterize temporal variations in the channel consists of studying the Doppler spectrum for the main impulse response paths. Appendix B. such as the KolmogorovSmirnov test (cf. we may deﬁne the Doppler spread as: νRM S = ∞ −∞ ν − νm PH (0. Nakagami. ν). the Doppler spectrum is closely linked to the arrival direction of the multiple propagation paths. Appendix B). ν)dν −∞ ∞ P (0. ν) = −∞ PS (τ. Conclusion In order to design and optimize wireless communication systems.5. Parameters such as the angular spectrum may be used to characterize the signal’s departure and arrival directions.3). ν)dν ∞ −∞ 2 PH (0. 2. an accurate knowledge of the radio propagation channel is required. The performance of a . ν)dτ [2. a goodnessofﬁt test is employed. 2.38] where νm is the mean Doppler shift deﬁned by: νm = ∞ νPH (0.
A mathematical framework was presented in order to describe both deterministic and random channels. . the particular case of WSSUS channels has been thoroughly discussed. In this chapter. Multipath propagation may be regarded as a ﬁlter causing a distortion and a temporal variation to the transmitted signal. the propagation channel characteristics have been presented in terms of power attenuation and multipath propagation. A number of parameters are available to characterize the propagation phenomena. For this. the channel impulse response’s general shape and its variations in terms of fast fading. We generally model the propagation loss with respect to frequency and distance. The spatial and frequency selectivity concepts as well as the Doppler eﬀect were introduced.Radio Wave Propagation 65 wireless transmission system is indeed dictated by the propagation conditions between the transmitter and the receiver. These devices need to be designed in order to beneﬁt from the channel characteristics and to mitigate its negative eﬀects. The physical concepts and mathematical tools presented in this chapter will serve as a basis to describe the simulation and modeling techniques detailed in Chapters 4 and 5.
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Speciﬁcity of UWB channel sounding The purpose of channel sounding is to measure the impulse response h(t. We then present the setting up of a sounding campaign through a few examples. In order to observe the UWB channel ﬂuctuations in more detail.1. 3. singleinput multipleoutput (SIMO) sounder. The end of the chapter illustrates the diﬀerent channel sounding techniques by presenting a few measurement campaigns. exploiting the performances of a wideband. τ ) linking the received signal s(t) to the transmitted signal e(t) through . it is necessary to employ a real time measurement technique. the most signiﬁcant UWB channel measurement campaigns are listed. Introduction Experimental characterization of the radio channel requires the analysis of a large number of propagation measurements. For this purpose. Selecting one method or the other depends on the measurement environment. In order to set up a measurement campaign. on the observed frequency band. we present an advanced sounding technique. the equipment and the measurement conditions are described.Chapter 3 UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 3. a large number of sounding techniques are available [GUI 99].2. The diﬀerent sounding methods for wideband channels are then exposed. First. Sounding UWB channels raises some particular issues. and on the acquisition speed constraints. which are developed in this chapter. by distinguishing between frequency domain and time domain techniques. For each experiment.
68 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels a ﬁltering operation (see equation [2. In practice. Such measurements characterize both the frequency selectivity and the time variability of the channel. • Time resolution: the time resolution characterizes the sounder’s capability to distinguish between two paths with very close delays. In the case of UWB signals. the bandwidth of several GHz may represent a challenge for channel measurements. Time resolution of a wideband sounder The main characteristics of a wideband sounder are the following: • Analyzed bandwidth: the analyzed bandwidth corresponds to the frequency band over which the impulse response is estimated. The impulse response estimated by the sounder corresponds to a convolution . a number of techniques using speciﬁc exciting signals e(t) may be used. that would allow for the extraction of the impulse response from arbitrary signals e(t) and s(t).1. However. Propagation channel measurements over bandwidths in the order of 100 MHz is well supported by the currently available sounders [GUI 99]. It generally corresponds to the bandwidth of the transmitted probe signal. Relative magnitude (dB) Sounder impulse response Relative magnitude (dB) Channel impulse response over an infinite bandwidth Delay (ns) Relative magnitude (dB) Delay (ns) Convolution Measured impulse response Unresolved path Delay (ns) Figure 3.9]). where the impulse response is obtained by processing the signals e(t) and s(t). there is no inverse convolution operation available. The transmitted signal needs to fulﬁll some properties depending on the method used for calculating the impulse response.
) may thus not be used for this purpose [SCH 03a]. However.1). • Maximum Doppler shift: when the propagation channel varies with time. it should be noted that during the measurement of a single impulse response. Such a window is selected as a compromise between the level of the side lobes and the width of the main lobe. the channel should be considered as static. In particular. For this purpose. Thus. In the case of the UWB propagation channel. Over an analyzed bandwidth of several GHz. horns. because of the wide measured frequency band.4. the antennas characteristics need to be stable across the measured frequency band. a weighting window may be applied [HAR 78].) and dispersive wideband antennas (spiral and logperiodical antennas. we can measure its frequency dispersion by studying its Doppler spectrum (see section 2. It is then possible to measure a maximum absolute (meas) 1 Doppler shift νmax = 2ΔT (meas) . the behavior of the sounding equipment may vary strongly. etc. As an approximation. In order to avoid the shadowing of some paths by the side lobes of the sounder impulse response. It encompasses the measurement acquisition duration t(meas) and some time for data processing and storage. due to the wide analyzed bandwidth. A high dynamic allows the sounder to detect strongly attenuated paths. In practice.4). it may also be deﬁned as the inverse of the analyzed bandwidth. The latter may be obtained by directly cableconnecting the transmitter and the receiver. The measurement repetition duration ΔT (meas) is deﬁned as the duration separating two successive channel measurements. The length of the channel’s impulse response corresponds to the maximum delay that can be measured. The time resolution is generally deﬁned as half the width of the sounder impulse response peak. Narrowband antennas (dipoles. biconical. the sounder needs to be able to quickly measure successive impulse responses. etc. developing UWB sounders with a low measurement duration is a challenging task. a sounder capable of measuring the time varying channel needs to present a very low acquisition duration t(meas) . Some constraints are common in UWB channels. monoconical or planar UWB antennas are . • Dynamic and length of the channel impulse response: the impulse response dynamic corresponds to the power ratio between the maximum impulse response and the noise level. and this needs to be accounted for in the measurement process.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 69 between the channel impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth and the sounder’s impulse response over the analyzed band (see Figure 3. Consequently. the time resolution is generally high.
Measurement techniques for UWB channel sounding This section presents the main UWB radio channel measurement methods: frequency domain methods and time domain methods. may also vary in frequency. For each method. This ﬁlter should be taken into account during the calibration phase in order not to aﬀect the measured signal. UWB measurement antennas Finally. Monoconical antenna Bowtie planar antenna Ideal biconical antenna Biconical antenna Figure 3. The properties of some other pieces of equipment. Some examples of these antennas are given in Figure 3. We ﬁnally present an innovative hybrid method for the real time measurement of UWB channels. such as cables or ampliﬁers. .3. and it is important to characterize each item accurately before the measurement. we need to make sure that the analyzed radio spectrum is free of any jamming from external systems.70 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels used. the basic principles are presented. This can be done using a highpass ﬁlter. In any case.2.2. it is necessary to properly characterize the antennas used for the measurement [SIB 04]. Outofband emissions. 3. should also be ﬁltered. such as the GSM and WiFi signals. a UWB receiver is sensitive to any radio emission at frequencies near or within the analyzed frequency band. Before the measurement starts. and the advantages and drawbacks of this method are detailed.
In practice.1. In general. a sine signal is used to sweep the analyzed band.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 71 3. Hence. Vector network analyzer The tool best suited to characterizing the channel using a frequency sweeping method is the vector network analyzer (VNA). Frequency domain techniques The frequency domain method is the most commonly used UWB channel sounding technique. and by measuring the attenuation and the relative phase of the received signal [GUI 99]. In addition. 1. For the purpose of channel sounding. The received signal is downconverted towards an intermediate frequency (IF). This device is generally used to characterize high frequency quadripoles through the measurement of Sparameters.1] and the length of the channel impulse response is: (meas) τmax = N −1 N Δf (meas) [3.3.1. The impulse response is obtained using an inverse Fourier transform along the frequency axis. where it is passband ﬁltered around a ﬁxed frequency and analyzed. The channel transfer function is derived from parameter S21 (f ). port 1 is connected to the transmitting antenna and port 2 is connected to the receiving antenna. This is done by transmitting a narrowband signal at a ﬁxed frequency. t). This time resolution is calculated without applying any frequency domain windowing. . but also increases the overall measurement duration. It consists of sampling the channel transfer function T (f. the analyzed band is divided into N samples separated by a frequency step Δf (meas) . Figure 3.2] 3. Using narrowband ﬁlters at the receiver leads to a very good measurement dynamic.1.3 gives a schematic view of this device. on account of its ease of implementation. The obtained time resolution1 is: Rt (meas) = 1 N Δf (meas) [3. the measurement of the transfer function phase requires a very good synchronization between the local oscillators (LO) at the transmitter and at the receiver.3. this device is capable of sweeping a very wide frequency band.
3.72 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Propagation channel Reference signal LO LO S21 measurement at IF Analysis and storage Figure 3. CAS 04a. CHA 04. it has been frequently used for the purpose of UWB channel sounding [GUN 00. the measurement duration is proportional to the number of measured frequency tones. However. we should thus ensure that the environment remains static for the measurement duration. JAM 04. KUN 02a. the measurement duration is in the order of 10 seconds. Indeed. this technique cannot be used for time varying channels. SCH 04. BAL 04a. In addition. due to power attenuation in the feeding cables. KAR 04b. . HOV 02.2. Such a signal is generated using digital frequency synthesis components [COS 04]. When conducting VNAbased measurements. GHA 03b. Hence. but a frequency chirp. HAN 05]. Chirp sounder A chirp sounder is a frequency domain method providing a solution to the issue of acquisition duration.3. As a result. the distance from transmitter to receiver is limited to approximately 20 m.1. CHE 02. KEI 02. Propagation measurement using a frequency domain sounder This technique oﬀers advantages in terms of bandwidth and dynamic.3. OPS 01. ALV 03. GHA 02a. DAB 03. the sounding signal is no longer a pure sine wave. CHO 04b. BUE 03. For an analyzed bandwidth of several GHz.
Tc Frequency Magnitude Tc Magnitude Bc Bc > 98% energy Frequency Time Time Figure 3. In the ﬁrst case. the received signal s(t) is directly proportional to the channel impulse response h(t. This way. τ ). Pulsed techniques The pulsed technique is mathematically the most straightforward time domain measurement method. chirp sounders have not yet been used for UWB channel sounding. However. the output of the lowpass ﬁlter provides the channel transfer function.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 73 This frequency chirp may be characterized by the sequence duration Tc and the covered frequency range Bc .1. The channel impulse response may be calculated either by matched ﬁltering or using a heterodyne receiver and a lowpass ﬁlter. which drastically reduces the measurement duration. Chirp signal 3. For a Bc Tc product larger than 100. For this reason. The signal acquisition may thus be performed at a reduced sampling frequency. represented on a compact frequency band. and in particular those that have been used for UWB channel sounding. This section presents the most common time domain methods. over 98% of the energy is conﬁned in the analyzed bandwidth Bc .2. The channel impulse response is directly obtained at the output of the matched ﬁlter. the impulse response of the matched ﬁlter corresponds to a time reversed version of the emitted chirp signal [ART 95].3.4.3. In the case of a heterodyne reception. Its bandwidth depends on the parameters Bc and Tc [COS 04].2. if the transmitted signal e(t) corresponds to a Dirac pulse. as illustrated in Figure 3. In . such a Dirac pulse would present an inﬁnite ﬂat spectrum and is not physically implementable. However. generating a chirp signal with a bandwidth larger than a few hundred MHz is still a challenging task.4. Time domain techniques The common characteristic of all time domain techniques is the use of a wideband excitation signal at the emitter. Indeed. the receiver processes the whole frequency band simultaneously. 3.
This technique should thus be selected for the measurement of space or time channel variations. Secondly. UWB sounders based on this principle do not require an upconverter stage. BUE 03]. a correlation receiver has been developed by the company Time Domain [YAN 02]. LI 03]. A digital sampling oscilloscope (DSO) is generally used. though. Other types of receivers are also implemented: for instance.1–10. pulse generators capable of emitting directly in the FCC frequency band (3. It should be noted. a very fast acquisition of the signal is necessary. only parts of the FCC band may be measured using a direct pulse generator technique.74 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels practice. the channel impulse response being recorded in real time. The resulting low average power leads to a poor signal to noise ratio. and this method is not suited to large distances in NLOS conﬁgurations. but with a sounded frequency band generally below the FCC band [WIN 97a. Indeed. it is possible to add an upconverter stage.6 GHz) are now available. we use pulse generators enabling the emission of short signals with a duration Δt in the order of 100 picoseconds. GUN 00.3] . Generally. This solution is presented as a dashed line in Figure 3.1–10. OPS 01. Firstly.5. At the receiver.6 GHz band [PEN 02. Finally. composed of an LO and a mixer at both the transmitter and the receiver. with an upper frequency limited to 5 GHz. which simpliﬁes the experimental setup. In order to sound the upper part of the FCC spectrum. this technique requires a perfect synchronization between the emitter and the receiver. WIN 97b. However. This technique is particularly interesting for the measurement of UWB channels. Two measurement programs have been established using this technique within the 3. which may be solved by connecting the terminals using a cable. τ ) ⊗ ΠΔt (t) and represents a close approximation of the channel impulse response. CHE 02. Hence. Denoting by ΠΔt (t) the emitted pulse.s1 . the received signal is given by: s(t) = h(t. with sampling rates up to 20 Gsamples. generating short duration pulses requires the ampliﬁers to deliver a high power directly followed by idle periods. the power dynamic at the ampliﬁer stage does not allow for an accurate control of the pulse shape. The attractive simplicity of this solution led a number of scientists to use this method for UWB channel sounding. YAN 02. that the signals synthesized by the current pulse generators are limited to a maximum bandwidth of 1–2 GHz. [3. this method also presents a number of drawbacks. The main advantage of the pulsed sounding technique is its low acquisition duration. TER 03.
2. we use maximum length PN sequences. In this case. In practice. Correlation measurements A possible way to increase the signal to noise ratio at the receiver is to use the autocorrelation properties of pseudonoise (PN) sequences.3. the identiﬁcation problem is similar to the one occurring in the pulsed technique.5. also called msequences. An msequence may .4] If the input signal is close to a white noise. τ ) ⊗ Ree (t) [3. Let Ree (t) and Res (t) respectively denote the input signal autocorrelation and the correlation function of the input signal e(t) with the output signal s(t). According to the convolution and correlation function properties.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 75 Propagation channel Reference signal LO LO 0° 90° I Pulse generator Synchronization DSO Q Analysis and storage Figure 3.2. Propagation measurement using a pulsed technique 3. This corresponds to a good approximation of a colored noise with zero mean and limited bandwidth. its autocorrelation function is close to a Dirac pulse. these functions are also linked by a convolution equation: Res (t) = h(t.
Their implementation is however complex. using an integrator. which results in a sequence of length 2m − 1. The University of Ilmenau. Another technique consists of sampling the received signal and computing the convolution function using digital ﬁlters. an integrated circuit shift register has been speciﬁcally developed.6–6 GHz band [DUR 04]. The maximum analyzed bandwidth is then limited by the speed of the analogtodigital converters. presented a MIMO UWB sounder working in the 0. the frequency band may be widened by increasing the clock frequency. several acquisition techniques may be used.6. Sliding correlation technique The sliding correlation sounder is a similar technique that proceeds the convolution operation in the analog domain while increasing the measurement dynamic. the analyzed bandwidth is limited by the passband of the ﬁlter. wideband correlation sounders transmit signals in the order of 100 MHz. At the transmitter. However. The receiver was simply composed of a DSO.g. and the quality of the measured impulse response largely depends on the performance of the sounder components. This leads to a time domain sliding of the PN sequences with respect to each other. Its autocorrelation function presents a theoretical dynamic of 20 log(2m − 1) dB. and a possible functioning in real time. Italy. The convolution is performed using a replica of the original PN sequence with a clock frequency fc2 slightly diﬀerent from the initial clock frequency fc1 . This principle enables the measurement of the impulse response in real time. In the frequency domain. In particular. a rubidium oscillator) or a direct cable connection between the two terminals. It has been used by the University of Rome “Tor Vergata”. Germany. but the sounder implementation becomes more complex.76 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels be generated using a shift register with m bits and an adder. At the receiver. one point of the correlation . and the measurement dynamic is low. For this purpose. This may be achieved using a stable reference (e. For UWB channel sounding. an accurate synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver is necessary. Typically. once the received signal has been downconverted in baseband. Time domain correlation sounders present the advantages of a high impulse response dynamic. The ﬁrst consists of using an analog ﬁlter matching the transmitted PN sequence. a correlation sounder is thus composed of a PN sequence generator and an upconverter stage towards the working frequency. to sound the 3. the −3 dB analyzed bandwidth is equal to the clock frequency fc used at the PN sequence generator.8–5 GHz frequency band [SAC 02]. This solution is presented in Figure 3. Hence.
The illustrated acquisition technique consists of digitizing the received signal prior to convolution processing function between the transmitted signal and the received signal is calculated at each instant.g. a lower sampling rate may be used for the analogtodigital conversion. which precludes any Doppler analysis of fast time varying channels. The main drawback of this technique is the duration of the impulse response calculation.6.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding Propagation channel 77 Reference signal 0° OL OL 90° I Arbitrary sequence generator (e. Propagation measurement using a PN sequence. This technique has been used by the University of Kyoto Sangyo (Japan) to develop a UWB sounder operating in the 5. c1 The obtained impulse response is expanded by a ratio k = fc2f−fc1 in the time domain and compressed by a ratio k in the frequency domain. . This compression enables the use of narrower ﬁlters at the receiver. shift register) Synchronization Fast acquisition Q Analysis and storage Correlation or inversion Figure 3. In addition.5 GHz frequency band [TAK 01].5–8. which improves the dynamic.
3. frequency domain techniques lead to a long measurement duration. The used PN sequence is optimized in order to spread over a wide band with a relatively constant envelope. The main diﬀerence lies in the impulse response estimation. This principle was initially exploited by the University of Kassel (Germany). Inversion techniques Inversion techniques are based on the transmission of an arbitrary sequence and are thus similar to correlation sounding techniques (see Figure 3.3. In particular. such a ﬁlter accounts for the imperfections of the measurement device. and α is a nonzero constant linked to the signal to noise ratio [BAR 95]. Filtering is generally applied in the digital domain after the acquisition of the analog signal. For the sake of comparison.6). As a main advantage. with a frequency spectrum given by: GWiener (f ) = E ∗ (f )I ∗ (f ) E(f )I(f )2 + α [3. the inversion technique improves the impulse response calculation by accounting for the imperfections of the sounder components.3. In particular.2. Table 3.78 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 3. They developed a sounder capable of measuring a channel of 600 MHz divided into 10 partial bands of 60 MHz. 3. This section presents a hybrid solution consisting of using a wideband time domain sounder and successively measuring several adjacent partial bands. with a measurement . The used ﬁlter minimizes the squared error between the impulse response and the estimated response. the analyzed bandwidth is in the order of a few hundred MHz. time domain techniques are fast enough to enable the measurement of time varying channels. On the one hand. which is performed using an estimation ﬁlter. but their implementation within the FCC band is challenging. Multipleband time domain sounder for dynamic channels Classical frequency or time domain sounding techniques are not intrinsically well adapted to the measurement of time varying UWB channels.5] where E(f ) represents the transmitted signal spectrum. I(f ) represents the sounder response spectrum. On the other hand.3.1 presents the main advantages and drawbacks of the presented frequency domain and time domain techniques. The limitations of this technique are directly linked to the performances of the digitaltoanalog and analogtodigital converters. The inversion technique is notably used in the sounder developed at France Telecom Research and Development [CON 03]. It uses a Wiener ﬁlter.
Use for UWB tation sounding Frequency VNA very high Chirp possible possible signiﬁcant possible for low Doppler spreads Pulsed low Correlation signiﬁcant Time Sliding correlation possible a high possible for low Doppler spreads complex marginal no experiment Inversion signiﬁcant 500 MHz–1 GHz (limited complex by DAC and acquisition) For practically implemented solutions.1. UWB Propagation Channel Sounding Table 3. Comparison of the diﬀerent sounding techniques 79 .Technique impossible 10 GHz and above (limited by the measurement duration) 100–300 MHz (limited by complex signal generation) 1–2 GHz (limited by pulse generator) 1–5 GHz (limited by clock frequency and acquisition) 1–3 GHz (limited by clock frequency) easy complex easy frequent (static channel) no experiment frequent out of FCC band marginal Dynamic Doppler analysis Maximum bandwidth a Implemen.
we present the diﬀerent issues linked to the development of such a sounder. Principle of multipleband time domain sounding The technique of multipleband time domain sounding exploits the performance of a time domain sounder. This maximum Doppler shift increases 2v to λ = 140 Hz if we consider mobile scatterers. the maximum speed of mobile terminals is about 2 m. The diﬀerent challenges are the following: • Analyzed band: the number of measured partial bands determines the width of the global analyzed band. Thus. i. the v maximum Doppler shift is λ = 70 Hz. A further description of this sounder is available in [CON 03]. • Measurement dynamic: when working as a multipleband sounder. and we illustrate how it can be implemented on the basis of a wideband SIMO sounder [PAJ 03]. This time includes the necessary switching from one band to another. By appropriately driving this LO signal. the dynamic performance of the original wideband sounder needs to be preserved. the global analyzed band needs to be ﬁltered and cleared from any interfering signal.3. At both the transmitter the receiver. in order to obtain a reliable result. this sounder allows for the measurement of 250 MHz frequency bands. For a better understanding. Considering an extreme case. In the following. such as the sounder developed by France Telecom Research & Development. magnitude and absolute delay.s−1 .80 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels repetition duration of 300 μs [KAT 00]. A SIMO sounder may thus be easily adapted to perform multipleband time domain sounding. a mobile terminal and a maximum frequency of 10. .3. 3. for each of the adjacent bands. These diﬀerent issues are similar to those occurring when characterizing the wideband channel with multiple antennas at the receiver. to characterize time varying channels. the equipment has to sample the channel every 3. • Measurement repetition duration: in an indoor conﬁguration. an LO signal is responsible for the upconversion of the transmitted sequence towards the analyzed band. in a SIMO conﬁguration. In its standard version. taking into account the paths with one reﬂection as signiﬁcant paths.6 GHz. a simple process needs to be set up for an accurate calibration of the sounder in terms of phase. it is possible to sound several adjacent bands. which needs to be synchronized with the transmitted sequence.5 ms. At the upconverter stage.e. such as the LO signal and its harmonics. • Calibration: when measuring adjacent bands.1. the next section reviews the general structure of the SIMO sounder available at France Telecom.
The received signal is then sampled using an analogtodigital converter (ADC) at a sampling rate of 1 Gsample.2. a multiple sensor mode enables the simultaneous measurement of the radio channel over 10 receiving antennas.3. the AGC duration limits the measurement repetition duration. The ﬁrst PN sequence is used for the measurement. Taking into account the constraints . the measurement dynamic is larger than 40 dB. All LO are synchronized using a reference rubidium at 10 MHz. the minimum repetition duration is about 1. Automatic gain control (AGC) is then applied using variable attenuators to compensate for the power variations in the received signal. A ﬁrst downconverter stage driven by an external frequency synthesizer displaces the signal around an IF at 1. Thus. We may note that the transmitter and the receiver use the same IF at 1.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 81 3.5 GHz. the LO frequency is the same for the external synthesizers at the transmitter and the receiver. Traditional oscillators present a locking time in the order of 10–50 ms. AGC is regularly performed. a fast switch selects the following antenna every other sequence. The sounding method is the Wiener inversion technique. and the oscillator phase noise.3.3.5 GHz. the sensitivity of this sounder is about −85 dBm.3. applied on a PN sequence exhibiting a ﬂat spectrum over the analyzed bandwidth. For frequency bands below 17 GHz. The impulse response dynamic depends on the length of the PN sequence. Extension towards UWB In order to perform measurements over adjacent frequency bands.s−1 . To repeat the measurement as quickly as possible. This transition duration is mainly due to the positioning duration of the internal phase locked loop.3. while the antennas switch during the next PN sequence. Description of the SIMO channel sounder The sounder developed at France Telecom Research & Development is a time domain sounder allowing for radio channel measurement over diﬀerent frequency bands between 2 GHz and 60 GHz. A second downconverter stage displaces the signal around a second IF at 250 MHz. 3. Directly driving a single external synthesizer thus leads to a total measurement duration in the order of 40–200 ms for an analyzed band of 1 GHz. In a traditional conﬁguration with 10 antennas. For a received signal of about −60 dBm over a band of 250 MHz around 5 GHz and a sequence of 8192 samples. before the measurement of the signal received by the diﬀerent sensors. The signal is then ampliﬁed using a wideband (3–18 GHz) low noise ampliﬁer (LNA). It is then passband ﬁltered around the RF carrier frequency. and cannot be reduced. In terms of performance.2 ms. Thus. the signal to noise ratio at the sounder input. Figure 3. it is necessary to modify the LO frequency at the transmitter and at the receiver.7 presents a simpliﬁed block diagram of the receiver.
1). In this conﬁguration.5 GHz. in order to switch between the carrier frequencies of each partial band to be measured.3. and a single antenna is available. UWB measurements are theoretically possible up to a bandwidth of 2. For the calibration of each partial band in terms of phase. As each synthesizer is locked at a ﬁxed frequency. this sounder fulﬁlls most of the required criteria for real time UWB channel measurement. As can be seen. the input connector is now directly connected with the LNA. The extension of the SIMO sounder towards a real time UWB sounder exploits the duality between multipleinput measurements and multipleband measurements. no delay is experienced for the locking of the LO frequency. A practical implementation of this concept is presented in Figure 3. magnitude . On account of its development concept.8. The sounder is thus in a singleinput singleoutput (SISO) measurement conﬁguration.82 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Fast switch 10 1 RF LNA AGC A External synthesizer 250 D MHz 1. this solution cannot be used. These signals are generated by external synthesizers and tuned so that the receiver actually sweeps the selected partial bands.3. the multipleinput architecture is directly used for the measurement over multiple bands. The fast switching module is used to sequentially feed the mixer of the ﬁrst downconverter stage with one of the 10 LO signals (f1 to f10 ) in turn.5 GHz LO Figure 3. The main idea is to reuse the fast antenna switching module. the sounder is capable of sweeping up to 10 partial bands of 250 MHz each. Indeed.7. Receiver block diagram linked to real time measurements (see section 3. Hence.
which considerably reduces the global cost of the equipment. the sounded frequency band needs to be ﬁltered by one single passband ﬁlter. However. this connection is realizable using a cable of acceptable length. The same type of ﬁltering was performed at the emitter. in most indoor conﬁgurations. the procedure used in the SIMO conﬁguration is still valid. the same LO signal may be used to feed both the receiver downconverter and the transmitter upconverter stages.8.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 83 External synthesizers Fast switch 10 1 f1 LNA AGC A 250 D MHz 1.5 GHz f10 Towards the emitter upconverter LO Figure 3.2 ms. To solve this problem. regarding the fast switching of partial bands. In addition. which allows for the measurement of channel variations with a maximum Doppler shift of 416 Hz. the overall switching time through all partial bands may be as low as 1. In the UWB conﬁguration. UWB measurements using the sweeping method necessitates a periodical modiﬁcation of the emitted signal central frequency. In the original version of the SIMO sounder. this solution allows us to use only one set of external synthesizer. In its current version. the frequency switch performed at the receiver and at the transmitter need to be perfectly synchronized. For this reason. Block diagram of the modiﬁed receiver with UWB extension and delay. the ﬁlter preceding the ﬁrst downconverter stage was only a few hundred MHz wide to reject undesirable signals and reduce the noise level. however. Advantageously. Unlike the SIMO channel sounding case. in order to avoid unnecessary ﬁlter switching. . the UWB sounder is equipped with ﬁlters of 1 GHz bandwidth. The main drawback of this solution is that the transmitter and the receiver need to be cable connected.
9 presents the results obtained during a real time radio channel measurement in a dynamic environment. In this conﬁguration. 0 (a) 2 4 Distancedelay (m) 6 8 10 12 30 14 35 16 18 0 2 4 6 Time (s) 8 10 12 45 (e) 40 (c) 20 (d) 25 (b) 5 10 15 Relative attenuation (dB) Figure 3. This conﬁguration corresponds to the practical situation where a user with a mobile terminal walks in the proximity of a ﬁxed access point. the minimum measurement repetition duration is about 1 ms and the actual measurement duration is 20. During this experiment.84 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 3. With its 256 MB memory. To sweep the 5–6 GHz frequency band. Time varying impulse response in a dynamic environment The impulse response represented in Figure 3.9. For ease of . Figure 3.3.5 μs.3. the transmitting antenna was ﬁxed and the receiving antenna was held by a moving person. Experimental validation The modiﬁcations presented above have been applied to the sounder developed by France Telecom for its extension to real time UWB measurements. 5 external synthesizers have been connected to the fast switching module.5 s record of the signal obtained at the receiving antenna moving during the experiment. Using 5 partial bands. the impulse response dynamic was measured at 40 dB. Acquisitions were performed every 10 ms.4. the acquisition card is able to sound the time varying UWB channel for a duration of 80 s in standard conditions (bandwidth of 1 GHz and observable Doppler spread of 150 Hz).9 corresponds to a 12.
Diﬀerent indoor environments. regarding the analyzed band. BUE 03. We may also note some original experiments.4. HAN 05. the type of environment. Hence. such as the oﬃce or residential environments. Table 3. but most UWB experiments started from the year 2000 onwards. Most measurement programs used the VNA frequency domain method. . Among the ﬁrst UWB studies. urban) were sounded.4. and some outdoor environments (forest. most of the SIMOcapable sounders could be extended towards UWB channel sounding. Finally. one with increasing length (c) and two with decreasing lengths (d. 3. it is necessary to recall the conditions of each campaign. PAG 06b]. only seven measurement campaigns cover the entire FCC band [KUN 02a. In this part of the curve. UWB measurement campaigns 3. In order to compare the analysis results from these experiments. e). but also diﬀer in the measured frequency band. three other main paths are observable. Overview of UWB measurement campaigns A number of UWB radio channel measurement campaigns were cited in this chapter. In the second part of the trajectory (between t = 7 s and t = 11 s).2 summarizes the inventoried UWB measurement campaigns and provides some useful information for each of them. This explains the shadowing experienced by the shortest path (b). we can observe a main path with increasing power (a). Within the FCC band. on a metal ship or in an industrial environment. Other experimental setups are based on a time domain method. These diverse campaigns used diﬀerent sounding techniques. In the ﬁrst part of the trajectory (between t = 0 s and t = 7 s). the antennas used and the measurement setup. CAS 03. using pulses or PN sequences. the UltRaLab laboratory from the University of South California undertook two measurement programs in 1997. CAS 04c. PAG 06a]. ALV 03. the path delay on the yaxis has been converted to path length in meters. partially obstructing the line of sight. reducing its relative distance from 6 m to 2 m. KAR 04b. three experiments only permitted real time UWB measurements [PEN 02. The prototype presented here allows for the measurement of UWB channels over a band of 1 GHz with a dynamic of 40 dB.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 85 interpretation. the person is moving towards the emitter antenna. This feasibility study shows that it is possible to develop the UWB channel sounder by applying minor modiﬁcations to a wideband SIMO sounder. the person is moving away from the transmitter antenna.1. These two last paths might correspond to echoes transmitted via a reﬂection on a wall opposite the transmitter location. By exploiting the duality between multiple inputs and multiple bands.
8 GHz. with 3.1 MHz step Intel Labs 2002 [CHE 02] Pulse generator and DSO. Pulse generator and correlation receiver Wideband antennas Monoconical omnidirectional antennas Stanford University 2001 [OPS 01] Pulse generator and DSO. with 2 MHz step Oﬃce.375– Residential 5.625 GHz. oﬃce LOS/ 49 locations NLOS on a 90 cm × 90 cm grid UltRaLab SS 2000 [GUN 00] Curtis Pulse generator and DSO.2002 [GHA 02a. VNA LOS/ — NLOS LOS/ — NLOS UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels AT&T Labs . laboratory Metal ship LOS/ — NLOS Width >1 GHz Sounding method Antennas Analyzed band Environment Link Spatial conﬁguration UltRaLab 1997 [WIN 97a. VNA.) locations . MIT GHA 03c] VNA 4.75 MHz step oﬃce NLOS perpendicular and discone positioners antennas (length 25 cm) (Pulsicom with 20 Technol. WIN 97b] Pulse generator and DSO Forest. with Residential.86 Measurement Date Reference campaign Patch diamond dipoles Patch diamond dipoles 700–1.8 GHz. VNA Biconical 2–8 GHz. LOS/ Two antennas (MEC) 3. with 1 MHz step 1–1.
Measurement Date Reference campaign Omnidirectional 3–5 GHz.5 MHz step oﬃce NLOS on a 90 cm × antennas 90 cm grid (CMA118/A) Omnidirectional 2–8 GHz. with Residential.25 MHz step LOS/ — NLOS Ultrawaves .com 2002 [KUN 02a] VNA LOS/ 4500 locations NLOS on a 149 cm × 29 cm grid UWB Propagation Channel Sounding AT&T WINLAB 2003 [GHA 03b] VNA Omnidirectional 2–8 GHz.75 MHz step antennas (CMA118/A) Biconical antennas (ETH Z¨rich) u 1–11 GHz. Oﬃce with 6.2002 [HOV 02] Oulu University VNA Whyless. LOS/ — antennas 3.75 MHz step oﬃce NLOS Sounding method Antennas Analyzed band Environment Link Spatial conﬁguration Time Domain Corporation (DSO) Omnidirectional Width Oﬃce antennas >1. LOS/ 100 locations monoconical 2. KEI 03] VNA Omnidirectional 2–3 GHz. with Residential. LOS/ 25 locations monoconical 3.75 MHz step shopping NLOS on a 20 cm × antennas center 20 cm grid 87 . with Residential. with Oﬃce monoconical 3.5 GHz around 2 GHz NLOS — 2002 [PEN 02] Pulse generator and DSO Time Domain Corporation (correlator) 2002 [YAN 02] Pulse generator and correlation receiver [WIT 99] UCAN CEA LETI 2002 [KEI 02.
laboratory LOS — UCAN Cantabria University 2003 [ALV 03] VNA Omnidirectional 1–13 GHz. laboratory. of Tech. Oﬃce.5 MHz laboratory antennas step (EM6865) LOS/ 9 locations on NLOS a 6 cm × 6 cm grid . with Oﬃce 2 MHz step 0–3 GHz Corridor LOS — Sounding method Antennas Analyzed band Environment Link Spatial conﬁguration CNAM Thales 2003 [TER 03] Pulse generator and DSO France Telecom R&D 2003 [PAG 03] VNA LOS/ 60 locations NLOS on a rotating arm (27 cm radius) LOS/ xpositioner NLOS (length 120 cm) with 61 locations LOS/ 49 locations NLOS on a 90 cm × 90 cm grid Hong Kong University 2003 [LI 03] Pulse generator and DSO UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels NETEX 2003 [BUE 03.2–1.88 Measurement Date Reference campaign Wideband antennas Patch omnidirectional antennas Omnidirectional 1. Virginia Tech BAY 04] Pulse generator and DSO. monoconical with 2. 2003 [DAB 03] VNA Oﬃce.8 GHz dipole Oﬃce. meeting room Oﬃce 4–6 GHz. VNA Omnidirectional 100–12 GHz biconical antennas and TEM horns Omnidirectional 2–6 GHz monoconical antennas and logperiodical antennas New Jersey Instit.
73 positions on a nonuniform grid LOS/ 64 locations NLOS on a 26 cm × 26 cm grid LOS/ 45 locations NLOS on a 28 cm × 56 cm grid LOS/ 9 or 49 NLOS locations on a 10 cm × 10 cm or 30 cm × 30 cm grid LOS/ Two NLOS xpositioners (transmitter/ receiver) with 7 locations along 30 cm Sounding method Antennas Analyzed band Environment Link Spatial conﬁguration Ultrawaves . conical antennas 1.1–10. with 5 MHz step Oﬃce.875 MHz oﬃce step UWB Propagation Channel Sounding Lund University 2004 [KAR 04b] VNA Omnidirectional 3. 2–12 GHz. 1. laboratory LOS/ 625 locations NLOS on a 48 cm × 48 cm grid.6–6 GHz. PN sequence and correlation receiver ChiaoTung University 2004 [CHA 04] VNA ETH Z¨rich u 2004 [SCH 04] VNA Instit. Rome Tor CAS 04c] Vergata University PN sequence and DSO. with Urban. with Oﬃce 2. VNA.6 GHz. for Infocomm Research 2004 [BAL 04a] VNA Omnidirectional 3–6 GHz. prototype antennas (ENSTA) Not communicated Planar omnidirectional antennas (Skycross) 2–8 GHz. with Corridor.875 MHz lobby step 3–5 GHz. Industrial monoconical with 6 MHz antennas step 89 .Measurement Date Reference campaign Omnidirectional monoconical antennas (EM6865).2003 [CAS 03.5 MHz step 3.
of Tech. with Oﬃce monoconical 2 MHz step corridor antennas France Telecom R&D 2005 [PAG 06a] Multipleband time domain sounder Table 3.1 GHz. with 4.6 GHz. Oﬃce monoconical with 6. UWB propagation channel measurement campaigns . 2004 [TSU 04. HAN 05] VNA Monopoles and biconical antennas 3.25 MHz antennas step (CMA118/A) Planar dipoles 3–10 GHz.90 Measurement Date Reference campaign Omnidirectional 0.2.with 7.375 MHz step Residential Sounding method Antennas Analyzed band Environment Link Spatial conﬁguration Oulu University 2004 [JAM 04] VNA LOS/ xpositioner quasi. LOS/ Up to 10 × 10 with 10 MHz oﬃce NLOS × 7 locations step at transmitter and receiver LOS/ 90 locations NLOS on a rotating arm (20 cm radius) LOS — France Telecom R&D 2005 [PAG 06b] VNA Omnidirectional 3.1–10.1–11. Oﬃce monoconical with 2 MHz antennas step Omnidirectional 4–5 GHz. Residential.5–10 GHz.9 mm NLOS step LOS/ 25 locations NLOS on a 60 cm × 60 cm grid Samsung 2004 [CHO 04b] VNA UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Tokyo Instit.
resolution Rt . A third campaign is then described.25 ns.6 GHz band [PAG 06b].UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 91 3.1 GHz with a frequency step Δf (meas) of 2 MHz.1–10.1–10.6 GHz band is presented in Figure 3.1–11.2. 3. The full acquisition process consists of measuring 4005 frequency tones in a duration of about 15 seconds.10. Using a Hanning window. In the following. The ﬁrst campaign covers the 3.6 GHz band The measurement system used for the static measurement campaign over the 3. Illustration of channel sounding experiments The previous study of the diﬀerent UWB channel sounding techniques shows that the frequency domain technique using a VNA is the only available method that enables a full characterization over the whole FCC band.4.4. Equipment setup for the static UWB sounding over the 3. Static measurement campaign over the 3. two measurement campaigns using this method are presented.1–10. This compromise corresponds to an impulse response (meas) of 0.1. and the second one covers the 2–6 GHz band.10.11(a)) in the frequency band 3. side lobes may be reduced to −32 dB. presenting real time measurements in the 4–5 GHz band.6 GHz band Measurements were taken using a VNA (see Figure 3.2. Propagation channel Rotating arm Webcam USB GPIB Port 1 Port 2 Rotating arm driver RS 232 VNA HP8510C Driving and storage Figure 3.1–10.
a rotating arm with radius 20 cm was used to measure the radio channel at 90 diﬀerent locations (see Figure 3. especially in the elevation plane.11(b)).92 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels (a) (b) Figure 3.12 illustrates the antenna characterization process. as the frequency increases several octaves.6 GHz. . This conﬁguration corresponds to a circular path of 45λ and to a distance between two successive sensors below λ 2 at the maximum frequency of 10. Their radiation pattern is omnidirectional in the azimuth plane and a standing wave ratio (SWR) lower than 2 in the 1–18 GHz frequency band. Measurements were performed using two CMA118/A antennas from the company Antenna Research Associates. It should be noted that the radiation pattern of these antennas strongly varies. Measurement equipment: (a) HP8510C sounder and (b) rotating arm In order to estimate the local PDP and assess the signal spatial ﬂuctuations. Their complex gain has thus been characterized in 3D in the 1–10 GHz band with a 1 GHz step.11. Figure 3. These antennas are monoconical antennas with a metallic ground plane.
13 presents these two conﬁgurations. Figure 3. they are characterized separately and their transfer function is subtracted from the measurements at the digital postprocessing stage. Two typical radio access conﬁgurations have been studied. The receiver was considered as the access point and was ﬁrst placed in a meeting room at a height of 2.12. The sounder calibration consists of a measurement sample taken while the receiver and the transmitter are directly cable connected. . Over the whole measurement campaign. LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations were assessed.45 m.40 m and was considered as the mobile terminal. CMA 118/A antennas (from the ARA company) during their characterization This sounding equipment was complemented with up to three wideband power ampliﬁers. which corresponds to a set of over 10.19 m. the ampliﬁers are not included in this measurement. In order to achieve an accurate time reference. The analysis of these measurements is presented in Chapter 5. As active components. Measurements were taken in an indoor oﬃce environment. The transmitterreceiver distance varied between 1 m and 20 m. and internal walls consist of thinner plaster and plastic boards. External walls are made of brick and concrete. the transmitter was situated at a height of 1. Measurement antennas. the rotating arm was placed at more than 120 diﬀerent locations. all cables involved in the measurement process need to be taken into account at the calibration stage. In both cases. Instead.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 93 Figure 3. and then in a corridor at a height of 2.000 UWB impulse responses available for statistical characterization. In both cases.
1–10.13.6 GHz band.94 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 4m Corridor configuration Meeting room configuration Figure 3. Black squares represent ﬁxed locations (receiver) and white circles correspond to the rotating arm locations (transmitter) . Measurement locations during the UWB sounding campaign over the 3.
15(b) and 3.5 MHz. the number of measurements is respectively 89 and 230. bricks and insulation material made of glass wool. the link budget without the ampliﬁers was high enough to support transmitterreceiver distances up to 12 m. Internal walls of both houses are made of brick and plasterboards. we present a real time measurement campaign performed over a bandwidth of 1 GHz [PAG 06a]. In these two environments. However. The CMA 118/A antennas have also been used for this measurement.15(c) represent the second house with both LOS and NLOS measurement locations. The transmitter and the receiver are placed at the same height of 1. The external walls of the ﬁrst house consist of concrete blocks. Indeed. in order to study the eﬀect that mobile people have on the UWB channel. . Measurements were performed using the VNA HP8753 D over the frequency band 2–6 GHz with a frequency step Δf mes of 2. The measurement did not require the use of power ampliﬁers at the transmitter or at the receiver.2.2.4. measurements have been performed at the ground level only. The external walls of the older house do not incorporate any insulating material.14.UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 95 3. Static measurement campaign over the 2–6 GHz band The schematic description of the equipment used for the static measurement campaign over the 2–6 GHz band is presented in Figure 3. Figures 3. 3.2. CMA – 118/A MATLAB/SCILAB Post processing Analysis Tx (Port 1) Vector Network Analyzer HP 8753 D PC Labview GPIB Rx (Port 2) Cable 20 m Rx Ant CMA – 118/A Cable 20 m Tx Ant Propagation channel Figure 3. The acquisition process for a full measurement consists of the measurement of 1601 frequency tones in a duration of 4 seconds. Dynamic measurement campaign over the 4–5 GHz band Finally.40 m. Figure 3. Equipment setup for the static UWB sounding over the 2–6 GHz band The environments sounded during these measurements are residential houses: the ﬁrst house is a modern building and the second one is an older building.3.4. Both dwellings are twoﬂoor houses.15(a) represents the ﬁrst house with LOS measurement locations.14.
Squares represent ﬁxed locations (Tx: transceiver) and circles represent mobile locations (receiver): (a) modern house.96 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels (a) (b) (c) Figure 3. Measurement locations during the UWB sounding campaign over the 2–6 GHz band. (b) old house in LOS. and (c) NLOS .15.
UWB Propagation Channel Sounding 97 A few channel sounders only are currently capable of measuring the UWB channel in real time. CMA118/A antennas were used. The channel impulse response was measured every 10 ms. The analyzed band extends from 4 GHz to 5 GHz. measurements were taken over the ﬁxed radio link as groups of people walked towards the end of the hallway and back. Rx antenna Rx B Tx B F F People motion Tx antenna Figure 3.4. The number of people within each group varied from 1 to 12. The receiving antennas was ﬁxed on a wall at a height of 2. Environment of the real time experiment. This experimental study has been performed using the UWB sounder presented in section 3. with a resolution of 2 MHz. as depicted in Figure 3. as presented in section 3. B: backward movement.3. The measurement campaign consisted of a collection of 27 records of the time varying UWB radio channel. This experiment corresponds to a practical situation where the user of a WLAN is standing in a crowd of people.3.2. people occasionally obstructed the LOS path and other main paths of the channel impulse response.16.1.000 impulse responses each. Tx: transmitter. which corresponds to a maximum delay of 500 ns. In order to assess the time variations of the UWB channel.35 m. Chapter 5 presents a statistical analysis of this experimental data. .16.10 m. During this displacement. All measurements were taken near a bend of the building’s main hallway. containing about 3. F: forward movement. The transmitting antenna was placed in the middle of the corridor at a distance of 11 m from the receiving antenna and at a height of 1. At the transmitter and the receiver. Rx: receiver The experiment took place in a typical indoor oﬃce environment. which enables the measurement of Doppler shifts up to 50 MHz. in a subway corridor for instance.
Several seconds are indeed required to measure the 3. an innovative sounding technique based on the extension of a wideband SIMO sounder has been presented.98 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 3. as well as some outdoor environments. Time domain methods include pulsed techniques. A literature survey made it possible to inventory about 20 UWB measurement campaigns since 1997. the experimental setup of a typical sounding campaign has been illustrated through three examples: two measurement campaigns using a VNA over the 3–10. Due to the wide analyzed bandwidth.6 GHz and 2–6 GHz frequency bands respectively. its main limitation lies in its long measurement duration. For the acquisition of real time UWB channel measurements. This adaptation corresponds to minor modiﬁcations of the original equipment and allows for real time measurements over a 1 GHz band. the vector network analyzer method seems to be the most appropriate technique for static UWB channel sounding. and a series of real time measurements performed over the 4–5 GHz band using a multipleband time domain sounder. Conclusion In this chapter. Most of these campaigns used a VNAbased frequency domain method.6 GHz band. . Frequency domain methods use either a vector network analyzer or a chirp sounder. However.1–10. Finally.5. The reported campaigns cover the indoor residential and oﬃce environment. correlation measurements and inversion techniques. the diﬀerent channel sounding techniques adapted to UWB measurements have been presented.
2. Overview of deterministic modeling Propagation models considered to be deterministic are obtained from simulations made in simpliﬁed propagation environments. theoretical formalisms are detailed and compared to measurement results in order to illustrate the deterministic modeling in the UWB context. This chapter describes the UWB deterministic modeling.Chapter 4 Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 4. where they are widely used to determine radio system deployment. They are based on . the diﬀerent deterministic models proposed in the literature for UWB signal propagation are presented. Concerning the total calculation ﬁeld.1. Finally. little simulation software of this type is proposed for UWB in comparison to narrowband systems. it is mandatory to consider not only the power loss amplitude but also the phase information in order to easily reconstruct in the time domain the received signal corresponding to the modeled UWB link. Currently. the speciﬁcities of UWB applications are described. The use of classical deterministic modeling software for UWB needs a particular adjustment in order to cover the entire frequency band of impulse signals. Then. Introduction Deterministic models are often used as site speciﬁc models allowing us to realistically predict signal propagation in a given environment using simulation software. After the presentation of classical techniques used for deterministic modeling. 4.
FDTD based approach The FDTD based approach allows us to obtain a complete cartography of the ﬁeld on all points of a given map. . It is typically used for electromagnetic ﬁeld coverage in a given environment [LAU 95.2. KON 99]. this requires us to make complex mathematical operations and to use powerful numerical calculations. The FDTD used for modeling consists of solving Maxwell equations using regular spatial discretization in time. MoM based approach Similarly to the FDTD approach.1. Their use requires a good knowledge on the propagation environment and allows us to obtain precise as well as accurate predictions of signal propagation in the channel corresponding to the considered environment. the wave propagation characteristics can be calculated by solving Maxwell equations. SCH 97b. 4. the MoM based approach is a numerical method which requires a large numerical memory for ﬁeld calculation and radio coverage in a given environment [DEB 96.100 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels electromagnetic wave propagation theory. The MoM is based on the use of an integral form of Maxwell equations. The accuracy of the solutions obtained with this approach depends on the size of the considered cells. The studied environment is limited by absorbing walls limiting the reﬂection phenomena on the boundaries [IBA 00]. The solving method ﬁxes some restrictions in term of the considered cells sizes and time grid in order to ensure computation stability. These approaches demand huge memory spaces to obtain the solutions in all points of the considered environment and to update all iterative ﬁeld calculations for the diﬀerent instants. The integral system is transformed by an impedance matrix discretization which represents the interactions between elementary cells of the environment. 4. All derivations are simpliﬁed by algebraic systems of equation.2. For a theoretical point of view. methods of moments (MoM) or ray techniques.2. This approach is often used for small environments with respect to the wavelength or complementary to other approaches [YIN 00]. The studied volume is discretized in various elementary cells. The most frequently used approaches are based on frequency diﬀerence in time domain (FDTD) techniques. YAN 99]. the size of which is related to wavelength of typically λ/10 or λ/15. However.
Nevertheless. The use of UTD complements the GO as it introduces the diﬀracted rays and ensures the continuity of the ﬁeld on regions where the GO predicts a nonexistence of a ﬁeld. MCK 91. Such approaches are not valid for low frequencies (typically lower than 100 MHz). Ray based approach Based on geometric optic (GO) combined with uniform theory of diﬀraction (UTD) (see Appendix C). the propagated ﬁeld can thus be calculated from the transmission to reception side. Before the determination of the propagated ﬁeld. So. These rays deﬁne the propagation directions and can reﬂect or refract on all the surfaces they encounter. modeling allows the establishment of radio coverage maps on any considered environment at a given central frequency corresponding to the transmitted narrowband . An improvement of the propagation prediction with the ray based approach can be made by combining it with exact approaches such as those using FDTD or MoM. VIL 99. Consequently. when the size of objects interacting with rays become small or have the same order as the wavelength. 4. It can also be considered complementary to other approaches like the ray based approaches in order to obtain hybrid models. CHE 96.3. the MoM based approach is mainly used to validate results obtained with other approaches like the ray based approach [YAN 98]. The GO considers that the energy is radiated along inﬁnite tubes called rays. TAN 95. This step of ray ﬁnding can use various techniques. we need to ﬁnd the rays from which the GO and the UTD will be applied. 4. Speciﬁcity of deterministic modeling in UWB When studying narrowband transmission techniques using deterministic software. the ray based approach is well suited for the study of radio wave propagation.3. much is made of the power loss of the transmitted signal. TAM 95. SAN 96. RIZ 97. it is mostly used for deterministic propagation modeling [IKE 91.2.Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 101 This approach is used when the structure size is roughly a few wavelengths. The ray based approach needs less numerical resources than the FDTD and MoM approaches for wave propagation prediction. There are two main techniques of ray determination: ray launching is considered to be a forward technique and ray tracing is considered to be a backward technique [SAR 03] (see Appendix D). ZHA 00]. When the rays are obtained.
with a main focus on their respective speciﬁcities.2. This implies that we have to consider in the synthesized link both antennas and material properties of the considered environment on the whole covered frequency band. So. the four principal deterministic models which appear in the literature are described. we consider that the bandwidth is narrow enough to only focus the propagation study on the central frequency. Qiu model Some authors consider the study proposed by Qiu [QIU 02] on the diﬀraction undergone by an UWB signal as a UWB deterministic model. the performed simulation will necessarily address all the phenomena appearing on the entire bandwidth. the use of site speciﬁc tool for deterministic modeling allows us on the one hand to study the waves propagation in various types of environments and in speciﬁc conﬁgurations. Yao model The particularity of the model proposed by Yao is that it takes into account the GO and UTD coeﬃcients in the time domain in order to account .4. the frequency components of the transmitted signal cover a vast bandwidth which can reach 7. Indeed.5 GHz.) appearing on the received signal during the transmission. Overview of UWB deterministic modeling In this section. etc.102 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels signal.1. In UWB.4. Another particularity of the UWB deterministic modeling is the need to consider the phase information related to the propagation as well as combining the eﬀects of antennas and material properties. So. dispersion. we cannot simply focus on the propagation around the central frequency. 4. 4. In the study made by Qiu.4. Thus. 4. and on the other hand to physically understand the eﬀects observed on measurements. Deterministic modeling can thus be used in speciﬁc environmental conﬁguration in order to better understand the eﬀects of physical phenomena observed on results of channel propagation measurement campaigns. This phase information is important as it allows the identiﬁcation of potential deformations (such as attenuation. he mainly focuses on the distortions and dispersions introduced in a link and on system performances by single and multiple diﬀractions.
Attiya model The deterministic model proposed by Attiya [ATT 04] considers the GO and the UTD interactions coeﬃcients expressed in the frequency domain (see Appendix C). Each of these contributions is obtained by convolution of the impulse response between antennas with the relation corresponding to eﬀect of a channel without antenna. YAO 03b]. The received signal is obtained in the time domain thanks to the use of an inverse Fourier transform. In fact. In his model. it appears that this method shows two limits. Another diﬀerence between Yao and Attiya’s deterministic model lies in the consideration of antennas. 4. BAR 91. something Yao neglected entirely. YAO 97]. These time domain coeﬃcients allow us to directly express the impulse response of each interaction [VER 90. Nevertheless. So. a numerical operation consisting of a convolution needs great memory resources. the determination of the received signals after antennas are made by adding all the contributions of each ray.3. its use can become very restrictive in term of calculation time. he focuses on the case of horn antennas for which he proposes a time domain characterization technique [ATT 03]. The contribution of each ray at the receiver side is a successive convolution of the impulse responses of each interaction of the considered ray with the transmitted signal. the relation corresponding to the eﬀect of ray interactions is obtained after inverse Fourier transformation. although they do not go and reach transmitting and receiving antennas respectively from the same direction.Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 103 for the eﬀects of the propagation channel interactions [YAO 03a. This approach can appear appropriate for the UWB channel propagation modeling as the reconstructed signal is a sum of each ray contribution. although this model gives acceptable results. The second limit is the application of the same impulse response for all rays. . The ﬁrst limit is the consideration of the impulse response of antennas in order to insert their behavior in the model. The same impulse response obtained from measurement in an anechoic chamber between a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna is directly applied in the time domain on each ray. So. Attiya’s proposed model takes into account the antennas by inserting analytical formulations of antenna radiation in the expression of the reconstructed signal. So. a deterministic modeling tool using this approach will need signiﬁcant numerical resources. ROU 95.4. This allows us to directly use all the classical formulations corresponding to the frequency behavior of the propagation phenomena. For each ray.
UGU 05]. So. the construction of each ray contribution is made separately. This approach allows us to reduce the number of frequency points to consider and avoids unneeded frequency domain truncation of the complex exponential corresponding to the phase shift introduced by the propagation.104 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 4. which allows us to naturally access to the direction of departure (DoD) and direction of arrival (DoA) information. UGU 05]. As explained previously. the introduced improvement concerns a better description of the consideration of each channel element in the model. . In comparison to the ﬁrst proposition. We consider the application of an impulse signal p(τ ) on the transmitting antenna feeding port. Eventually. It is better to apply the transformation separately on each ray and then to sum each ray contribution directly in the time domain. unlike the Attiya model. The signal after the receiving antenna is obtained by summing all the vectorial and complex component of the ﬁeld coming from the rays arriving on the receiving antenna. Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom model The other deterministic model proposed in the literature is that of Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom [TCH 04. a more complete description was made [TCH 04. After the frequency sweep on the band of interest. such as the indoor multilayered materials and antennas. However.4. The ﬁrst contribution of this model mainly presents the synthesis of a received signal which adopts a formalism considering the channel ray by ray [UGU 02]. it is not helpful to sum all the ray contributions before the transformation from the frequency domain to the time domain (see Appendix E). this signal can be considered as the convolution of the signal p(τ ) with the SISO impulse response of the propagation channel. UGU 05].4. the signal is expressed in the time domain using an inverse discrete Fourier transformation. the antennas are better taken into account in the model proposed by Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom. deﬁned in the frequency domain. some important elements of the transmission channel were not considered. This model allows us to synthesize a received signal for an indoor UWB link. Moreover. Illustration of a deterministic model formalism In this section. This model is quite similar to the one proposed by Attiya [ATT 04].5. each ray is aﬀected by the antenna functions corresponding to the actual DoD and DoA of the ray. So. we illustrate the UWB deterministic modeling by presenting the theoretical formalism of the model proposed by Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom [TCH 04. 4. In this ﬁrst contribution.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel
105
The presentation of the theoretical formalism of the deterministic model is made by the detailed synthesis of the received signal. This detail mainly focuses on the ray by ray treatment of the propagation and antenna information as well as the proper consideration of antennas in the modeling.
4.5.1. Received signal synthesis The received signal r(τ ) is constructed as the sum of the appropriately shifted contribution rk (τ ) of the Nray rays obtained from the ray tracing step (see Figure 4.1) by:
Nray
r(τ ) =
k=1
rk τ − τk
[4.1]
The parameter τk is the delay corresponding to the free space propagation of the k th ray. The nondelayed signal rk (τ ) (see relation [4.2]) corresponds to the convolution of the transmitted signal p(τ ) applied at the transmitting antenna port with the nondelayed ray impulse response (RIR) hk (τ ). rk (τ ) = hk (τ ) ∗ p(τ ) [4.2]
In relation [4.1], Nray is one of the important parameters for the reconstruction of the received signal. It determines the realism of the obtained synthesized signal r(τ ). Deterministic models using rays are strongly dependent on the number of signiﬁcant rays contributing to the total ﬁeld. So, it is important to use rapid and appropriate techniques allowing us to obtain the main contributors in LOS or NLOS situations. Most of the time, this last situation requires us to consider a great number of rays in order to improve the realism of the synthesized signal.
4.5.2. Ray impulse response without delay The nondelayed ray impulse response (RIR) is noted hk (τ ) and deﬁned in the time domain by: ˆk hk (τ ) = f r − τ, sr ck (τ ) f t τ, st ˆk [4.3]
106
r(τ)
τ
=
τ r1 (τ) ˜ r2 (τ) ˜ rk (τ) ˜ T FFT τ τ2 τk τ
r1 (τ − τ1 ) ˜
τ1
UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
r2 (τ − τ2 ) ˜
rk (τ − τk ) ˜
Figure 4.1. Building of received signal r(τ ) by the sum of shifted rk (τ )
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel
107
f r (τ, sr ) is a line vector corresponding to the impulse response of the ˆk received antenna in the arrival direction sr of the k th ray. ˆk ˆk f t (τ, st ) is a column vector corresponding to the impulse response of the transmitted antenna in the departure direction st of the k th ray. ˆk ck (τ ) is a 2×2 matrix corresponding to the consideration of attenuations and distortions introduced by the reﬂection, transmission or diﬀraction interactions appearing on the k th ray when propagating through the channel. This term does not consider the delay introduced by propagation τk . This delay is directly used when adding all the rk (τ ) at the appropriated time position (see Figure 4.1). ˆk st and sr are the directions of departure (t) and arrival (r) of the k th ray. ˆk t r They are respectively the couples of polar coordinates (θk , φt ) and (θk , φr ) in k k the entire spherical base. Nevertheless, as reﬂection, transmission and diﬀraction phenomena have a simple analytical expression in the frequency domain, rk (τ ) is obtained from an inverse Fourier transform applied on its frequency expression Rk (f ): ˆk ˆk Rk (f ) = Fr ∗ f, sr Ck (f ) Ft f, st P (f ) [4.4]
P (f ) corresponds to the Fourier transform of the transmitted signal. Ft,r are the complex vectors corresponding respectively to the transmitting and receiving antenna frequency behavior. They allow us to consider the directivity Dt,r , the return loss Γt,r , the radiation eﬃciency η t,r and the antenna polarization state Ut,r [LO 88]: ˆk Ft f, st = ˆk Fr f, sr = −j ˆk ˆk Gt f, st Ut f, st 1 λ 4π ˆk ˆk Gr f, sr Ur f, sr 2
2
[4.5] [4.6] [4.7] [4.8] [4.9]
ˆk Gt f, st = η t (f ) 1 − Γt (f ) 1
ˆk Dt f, st
ˆk ˆk Gr f, sr = η r (f ) Dr f, sr 2
t,r ˆ t,r ˆ Ut,r f, st,r = Uθ θt,r + Uφ φt,r ˆk
108
UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
The terms Ut,r are unitary vectors deﬁned in the basis corresponding to the ˆk directions of departure st and arrival sr for a given ray. These terms follow the ˆk relation: U∗ U = 1 [4.10]
λ The term −j 4π in the expression of Fr corresponds to the integration operation made at the receiver side.
Ck is the 2×2 matrix corresponding to the frequency ﬁlter presented by the propagation channel on the k th ray. This matrix is deﬁned from the GO/UTD ﬁeld and is expressed in a vectorial form: ⎤ ⎡ θ,θ θ,φ C C Ek ⎦ [4.11] Ck (f ) = inc = ⎣ φ,θ φ,φ Ek C C with Ek the ﬁeld at the receiving antenna and Einc the ﬁeld coming from the k transmitting antenna in the direction st by: ˆk Einc = Ft f, st P (f ) ˆk k Ek = Ek e+j2πf τk 4.5.3. Ray channel matrix without delay The ray channel matrix without delay is expressed in a vectorial way by Ck . It depends on the expression of the GO and the UTD ﬁeld by the use of the ﬁeld Ek (see relation [4.14]). The superscript tilde corresponds to the extraction of the delay related to the propagation in Ek expression. Ek = Ck Einc e−j2πf τk k [4.14] [4.12] [4.13]
Typically, there can appear on a k th ray approximately Nk interactions of reﬂection, transmission or diﬀraction nature. So, Ek is expressed by the relation: Ek = 1 Ak Gk e−j2πf τk Einc k s0 k [4.15]
corresponds to the spherical nature of the wave coming from the transmitting antenna.
1 s0 k
Gk = MBk out. k t in. transmission and diﬀraction interaction considered by: ⎤ ⎡ . T or D matrix k according to the interaction nature (see Appendix C).1 . So. the polarization or ⊥ and the reﬂection.i k G1 MBk →Bk k t in.1 of the ﬁrst ray interaction.i−1 →Bin. transmission and diﬀraction incidence angles. The term Gi of k each interactions is related to the frequency. it is necessary to insert.Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 109 τk is the delay related to the propagation of the k th ray.19] MBk →Bk is a matrix used to change the description of a ﬁeld from a basis t Bk related to a given departure direction of a k th ray to the incoming basis Bin.1 [4. the matrix Gi corresponds to the R.Nk →Br k Nk i=2 Gi MBk k out. k ⊥.18] Gi = ⎣ ⊥. The expression of each divergence Ai is k related to the considered interaction’s nature: Nk Ak = i=1 Ai k [4. the matrix used to change the basis related to the possible existence of an angle between the incidence plane of an interaction and the reﬂection. transmissions or diﬀractions appearing on the k th ray.⊥ G ⎦ G [4. transmission or diﬀraction plane of the previous interaction. It is the sum of delays associated with the distances between the interactions appearing on the considered ray.16] Ak corresponds to the product of all the divergence factors of each interaction appearing on the ray. .17] Gk is the interaction matrix representing the consecutive reﬂections. in the global expression of Gk [4.⊥ G G In other terms. These terms correspond to 2 × 2 matrices and are deﬁned according to the incidence basis of reﬂection.19]. Nk τk = i=0 i τk [4.
20] ˆ with Ep the energy of the impulse signal p(τ ) and p(τ ) a Gaussian impulse normalized in energy. ˆ In the frequency domain. Emitted waveform and considered scenario We consider the impulse waveform transmission p(τ ). p(τ ) can be expressed using relation [4.5.i−1 of the (i−1)th interaction in the incoming k basis Bin.β is the band of p(τ ) given at −α dB.4. β is a scaling factor allowing ˆ us to adjust the time domain support of p(τ ) and fc is the central frequency of ˆ p(τ ). in. initially in an outgoing basis Bout.Nk of k th of the k MBk out.21] [4.24] √ 2 β π −[π β (f +fc )]2 √ e − e−[π β (f −fc )] 2 So.110 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Bout.22] where Bα.21]: ˆ √ τ 2 2 2 √ sin 2πfc τ e−( β ) p(τ ) = ˆ β π √ 2 ln 10 α Bα. P (f )2 is the energy spectral density (ESD) of the impulse signal.23] [4. k out. the applied impulse signal is given by: P (f ) = ˆ P (f ) = ˆ Ep P (f ) [4.β = ≈ 0.216 α πβ 20 β [4.i of the ith interaction.i−1 4. Described model results 4.1. The impulse energy Ep is then obtained by integrating either the square of the .i →Br k →Bk MBk is a matrix allowing for a k th ray to express the ﬁeld. which is obtained using the relation: p(τ ) = Ep p(τ ) ˆ [4.4.5.Nk is a matrix used to change the ﬁeld from the outgoing basis the last interaction to the incoming basis Br of the arrival direction k ray.
13 σ 2 γ 1 MHz max [4. The frequency dependence of the materials is introduced by the permittivity expression in the interactions coeﬃcients (see Appendix C). the impulse energy can be determined with respect to the emission 1 MHz limits speciﬁed by regulation using Pmax .26] proposed by [UGU 04] can be used: Ep = 1MHz Tr Pmax 2 γ 1MHz σ max [4. In this case. We can note that the signal time spreading conversely increases with the band as well as the maximum level. 1 MHz the capability of the the considered modulation given by σ. relation [4.2 shows two impulses obtained for a central frequency fc = 4 GHz and an ideal1 transmitting antenna. The rays reported in the ﬁgure are obtained using a 3D ray determination technique which combines ray launching and ray tracing [TCH 05a].1.27] Figure 4.3. 1. the authorized maximum PSD is Pmax = −41. according to the following ParsevalPlancherel relation [PRO 83]: Ep = R p2 (τ ) dτ = R P (f ) df 2 [4.3 are reported in Table 4. The previously described model is applied for an indoor link of a LOS conﬁguration in the environment represented in Figure 4. we can note that the ﬂoor and the ceiling are in reinforced concrete because the environment is the ground ﬂoor of a house with two levels. In this table.Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 111 signal p(τ ) or P (f )2 . Ep is directly expressed by: Ep = Tr 10−4. the pulse repetition period Tr . . These properties are obtained from material characterizations [TCH 05a].26] So. The material properties of the environment shown in Figure 4. An ideal antenna is an omnidirectional isotropic antenna with a unitary gain in all directions. According to the FCC speciﬁcations concerning the transmitted UWB 1 MHz signal. and γmax transmitting antenna to emit an ampliﬁed signal in the channel over a 1 MHz band.25] To specify Ep .3 dBm/MHz.
2. Impulses applied on an ideal transmitting antenna with fc = 4 GHz: B10 dB.112 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels (a) (b) Figure 4.5 GHz (a) and B10 dB.β = 2 GHz (b) .β = 0.
7 Table 4.4. Channel matrix of each emitted waveform in the LOS case Considering the two waveforms (see Figure 4.Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 113 Figure 4.7 reinforced concrete 7.05 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 1.2.1 0 0 brick glass wood 2.φ (τ ) cφ.5 represent the four components of the channel matrix c(τ ): c(τ ) = cθ.4 and 4.02 0 0 reinforced concrete 7.2) for p(τ ) and the LOS conﬁguration (see Figure 4. 3D rays obtained for an indoor link in LOS conﬁguration Elements Wall Windows Doors Ceiling Floor Materials r r Material properties μr 1 1 1 1 1 μr 0 0 0 0 0 σ (S/m) Δδ (m) e (cm) 0. Figures 4.φ (τ ) [4.θ (τ ) cφ.28] These illustrations are an artiﬁce of representation which allows us to report on the same time axis all the contributions of the rays associated with each component of the matrix c.5 3 10 — 3.5. Each component of c(τ ) is obtained by adding the electric ﬁeld contribution of each of the Nray for the considered component. Properties and structure of various elements of the considered environment 4.84 −0. .8 3.1.3.3).θ (τ ) cθ.
The shape of the ﬁnal obtained signal will strongly depend on the components of c(τ ) modiﬁed by the chosen couple of antennas.5. 4. . One of the interests of the deterministic model detailed in section 4. Moreover. So. This is because the signal r(τ ) is reconstructed thanks to the rays obtained after ray tracing which directly gives the information corresponding to the direction of the rays. it is easy to extract the contribution associated with each ray. the reconstructed signals (see Figures 4. This does not allow us to isolate the contribution of each ray but underlines the progressive rise of shadowing as the transmitted signal bandwidth decreases. it will no longer be easily identiﬁed to one of the matrix c(τ ) components.2(b).6(a) and 4. the antennas considered at the transmitting and receiving sides will project these c(τ ) matrix components according to their characteristics [TCH 05b]. the transmitting and receiving antennas show a good accordance in term of polarization.θ ). the received signal r(τ ) will probably be a less simple projection of diﬀerent matrix c components. We can note in these ﬁgures that the ﬁeld level is weak on the cross components (cθ. In the case of a real antenna. The other interest is that no sum is beforehand applied on the contributions of each ray.3. the obtained signal corresponds to a compact grouping of the ray contributions arriving at a time lap with approximately the same width as the transmitted signal. Received signal with ideal antennas In this part.β = 500 MHz and for each component of c(τ ). in order to obtain the received signal.4. So.5(a)) and cφ.114 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels This representation allows us to underline the time domain behavior of the Nray ray ﬁelds arriving at the receiver without considering any transmitting or receiving antenna.6(b) show the reconstructed signal r(τ ) obtained respectively for a couple of antennas polarized along θ and φ. we focus on the reconstructed waveform obtained in the case where the antennas at transmission (Tx) and reception (Rx) sides are ideal omnidirectional. So.θ (see Figure 4.φ and cφ. So. In the considered conﬁgurations.φ (see Figure 4. each contribution of all rays can no longer be clearly isolated. from the components of channel matrix c (see Figure 4.6(b)) are respectively a projection of the channel matrix c(τ ) components cθ.5) and for the LOS case as well as the transmitted pulse p(τ ) of Figure 4.6(a) and 4. Figures 4. For a band B10 dB.5(d)). when the frequency band of the impulse p(τ ) decreases.5 is the ease of identifying DOA and DOD information. with unitary gain.
Channel matrix component c(τ ) for the scenario of Figure 4.2(a): cθ.3 with the impulse p(τ ) of Figure 4. cφ.4. cθ.θ (τ ) (c) and cφ.φ (τ ) (b).(a) (b) Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel (c) (d) Figure 4.θ (τ ) (a).φ (τ ) (d) 115 .
116
UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 4.5. Channel matrix component c(τ ) for the scenario of Figure 4.3 with the impulse p(τ ) of Figure 4.2(b): cθ,θ (τ ) (a), cθ,φ (τ ) (b), cφ,θ (τ ) (c) and cφ,φ (τ ) (d)
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel
117
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.6. Received signal r(τ ) for the LOS scenario of Figure 4.3, the pulse p(τ ) of Figure 4.2(b) and the ideal omnidirectional antennas at Tx and Rx sides: TxRx antennas polarized along θ (a) and TxRx polarized antennas along φ (b)
118
UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Figure 4.7 illustrates the extraction of DOA information corresponding to the signal reported in Figure 4.6(a). We can note that the obtained rays are well described in 3D. The direct path is clearly identiﬁed. It arrives at the receiving antenna side in the direction corresponding to the angles θ ≈ 95◦ and φ ≈ 245◦ . Here, the θ direction is not 90◦ because the transmitter and receiver antennas are not placed at the same height.
4.6. Consideration of real antenna characteristics in deterministic modeling Previously when ideal antennas were considered, we could easily identify the matrix c(τ ) component corresponding to the signal received after the Rx antenna. Here, real couple of antenna radiation characteristics are considered. In Figure 3.12, the used antennas which are called the CMA (Conical Monopole Antenna) are represented. The characteristic of these antennas are obtained from measurements performed on 4 π steradian in the Stargate 32 nearﬁeld antenna measurement engine of Satimo (see Figure 4.8) [TCH 05b]. The considered modeling conﬁguration is the case illustrated in Figure 4.3. The received signal is illustrated in Figure 4.9(a). We can note that the omnidirectional characteristic of the CMA allows us to obtain a signal diﬀerent from those obtained previously with ideal antennas. So, the obtained signal is no longer easily identiﬁed to one component of the channel matrix c(τ ) (see Figure 4.5). Figure 4.9(b) illustrates the amplitude and phase contribution applied by the antennas on each ray. The rays corresponding to the main contribution on the received signal are represented by a dark line. The contribution of a ray is thus proportional to the gray intensity used for its drawing. The darkest rays are those for which the combined directivity of transmitting and receiving antennas are important. If a rotation is applied along θ in order to ﬁt both antenna directions of maximum radiation in elevation, the received signal will have a higher level than in the previous case (see Figure 4.10) and the other directions will contribute less to the obtained signal.2 We can note that the consideration of real antennas characteristics in the deterministic model is crucial and contributes to the validation and realism of the received signal synthesized with the modeling.
2. By comparing the two ﬁgures, it seems that the second RI is less dense. In fact, it is the ﬁrst and main ray which has more energy in this case.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 119
Figure 4.7. Illustration of r(τ ) DOA (see Figure 4.3) and the TxRx ideal antennas polarized along θ
. Satimo Stargate 32 nearﬁeld antenna measurement engine 4. This signal is the same as that reported in Figure 4.1). Considering the properties reported in Table 4. So. The new adopted properties correspond to a reduction of the previous wall thickness values (see Table 4. the eﬀect of building material properties on the received signal synthesized by deterministic modeling is underlined.7. Building material eﬀects on channel properties The previously described studies were made for materials whose properties are reported in Table 4.8. the reinforced concrete used for constructing ﬂoors and ceilings at various stages of house building are made with metallic rods which can contribute to the increase in conductivity.3). the conductivity increase σ of the reinforced concrete introduces a high level contribution on the received signal for the rays which interact with the ceiling or the ﬂoor.2(b) and the use of a couple of CMA antennas. In fact.2. to a change of window structure and especially to an increase of ﬂoor and ceiling conductivity.1. the received signal reported in Figure 4. So.11).120 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Figure 4. the waveform transmission in Figure 4.11(a) is obtained for a LOS link (see Figure 4.9(a). The signal received with these new material properties shows important diﬀerences in comparison to the previous signals (see Figure 4. There are rays arriving after the direct path which show a higher level. These rays are those which connected the transmitter and receiver and reﬂected on the ﬂoor or the ceiling.
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel
121
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.9. Received signal and ray contributions corresponding to the CMA antennas: received signal after the receiving antenna (a) and 3D rays with their corresponding contribution (b)
122
UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.10. Received signal and ray contributions corresponding to the CMA antennas (rotation of 35◦ in θ for both Tx and Rx antennas): received signal after receiving antenna (a) and 3D rays with their corresponding contributions (b)
Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel
123
(a)
(b)
Figure 4.11. Received signal obtained with CMA antennas for two conﬁgurations of building material properties: case of materials in Table 4.1 and case of materials in Table 4.2
124
UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels
Elements Walls Windows
Materials
r r
Material properties μr 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 μr 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 σ (S/m) Δδ (m) e (cm) 0.05 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0.5 0.5 0.5 3 10 — 3.8 3.1 1 3.1 0 0 0 0
brick glass air glass
Doors Ceiling Floor
wood
2.84 −0.02 0 0
reinforced concrete 7.7 reinforced concrete 7.7
Table 4.2. Properties and structure of various building environment considered for the study of material inﬂuence
In addition to the antennas, the change of material properties strongly aﬀects the received signal shape. In order to increase the realism of the waveforms obtained with a deterministic modeling tool, the characterization of building materials is needed to insert into the modeling the good material properties for the environment considered in link modeling [KRA 93, SAT 95, HUA 96, COU 98, MUQ 03a].
4.8. Simulation and measurement comparisons In this section, comparisons are made between the results of the realized measurements (see section 3.4.2.2) and the performed simulations using the deterministic model described in section 4.5. These comparisons allow us to evaluate the impact of the antenna characteristics in the described model and the received signal building for various LOS links. These comparisons consider a transmitted signal covering a band of 2–6 GHz. As the measurements were made in the frequency domain, no impulse signal is applied. Nevertheless, the transmitted signal corresponds to a sinc function in the time domain.
4.8.1. Evaluation of real antenna consideration To evaluate the consideration of antenna radiation characteristics in the deterministic model described in section 4.5, direct link measurements were made in an anechoic chamber. This conﬁguration allows us to be free from multipath and to obtain a direct link with only one ray [TCH 06]. For
Moreover. 4. antennas will aﬀect the shape of the received impulse responses. This conﬁguration is reproduced in simulation for the same departure and arrival directions as in the measurement. 4. the comparison between measurement and simulation validates the adopted vectorial insertion of antenna characteristics in the described deterministic model. so that both antenna directions of maximum gain face each other. We can also notice in this case a good matching between measurements and simulation results. the measured and simulated impulse responses as well as transfer functions are superimposed. Figure 4. 6. In each of the shown ﬁgures. This can be explained by the frequency dependencies of antenna characteristics which aﬀect the channel transfer function.Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 125 this evaluation.2. We can observe a good matching between measurements and simulation results. two antenna couples are used: directive horn antennas and omnidirectional CMA antennas.2. the antennas are placed at the same height and directed.13 illustrates the impulse responses and transfers functions obtained with measurement and simulation in the case of the couple of CMA antennas.4. Figures 4.14 and 4. the focus here is on LOS links for which the measurement conﬁgurations are described in section 3. according to their characteristics.15 represent the results obtained considering the four following positions corresponding to 1. The simulation uses antenna characteristics data obtained from wideband measurement made in the Stargate 32 engine [TCH 05b].4. Evaluation of impulse response reconstruction To evaluate the impulse response reconstruction. . The comparison of these two conﬁgurations testify to the relevance of antenna characteristics in deterministic link modeling.2.38 m.12 illustrates the impulse response and transfers functions obtained with measurement and simulation in the case of the couple of horn antennas.2.2. Figure 4. The measurement and simulation results are respectively represented in gray and black. These illustrations concern four typical LOS situations extracted from 126 measurements points made in the environment described in section 3.8.14 m. in the case of horn antennas.78 m and 8. the obtained transfer functions are not constant.94 m distances. Indeed. Although there is only one ray. In the anechoic chamber.
In simulation.14(a). Moreover. this model naturally enables the access to DoD and DoA information as the electromagnetic calculations are performed ray by ray. 4. . We may keep in mind that in such situations of very good concordance between simulation and measurement results. The contributions of all the rays are then summed to obtain the overall received signal. This can be explained by the simpliﬁed description of the environment used in the modeling. The channel is here known on various dimensions and with less cost than using a sounder with a single sensor. Conclusion For a long time. Moreover. The same high frequency decrease is observed in measurement and simulation. From all the deterministic models presented. Moreover. those which use frequency domain formalisms clearly seem better suited for the study of UWB wave propagation. a normal wall made with concrete was considered. This can be explained by the rays considered for the modeling. we can note a great accordance between measured and simulated impulse responses (see Figure 4.9. With the use of UWB technology. Nevertheless. These diﬀerences can be explained by the fact that for the presented results the transmitter was placed near a stone made ﬁreplace. These models allow signal prediction and the rapid study of various environments with low costs in terms of channel transmission eﬀects on the UWB link. the simulated impulse responses are less consistent in term of rays compared to the measurement impulse responses. the simulation represents the beneﬁt of giving additional information like departure and arrival angles. Although the transfer functions seem diﬀerent. This simple description of the environment leads us to discard furniture and the inappropriate material properties for the considered environment walls. some diﬀerences are presented on the transfer function reported in Figure 4. which are insuﬃcient to provide access to the degree of measurement detail. some diﬀerences can also be observed in phase information. the deployment of narrowband technologies has used the deterministic modeling of the radio propagation channel to establish coverage maps. some deterministic models have been proposed for signal prediction in new context.15). More especially. the detailed Uguen and Tchoﬀo Talom model allows us to easily insert the antenna radiation information in the model.14).126 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels The measured and simulated transfer functions show a great similarity in terms of level and ﬂuctuations in form (see Figure 4.
The reconstructed signal is strongly dependent on the number and relevance of the rays used in modeling. . it is important to take into account antenna characteristics and to use appropriate material properties for the considered environment.Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 127 When deterministic modeling is used in UWB. This ﬁrstly depends on the techniques used for ray determination and secondly on the details with which the environment is described.
128 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels (V) delay (ns) (a) Magnitude (level) Freq (GHz) Phase (radian) Freq (GHz) (b) Figure 4. Measurement (gray) and simulation (black) received signals for the couple of horn antennas: (a) impulse response and (b) transfer function: magnitude and phase .12.
Measurement (gray) and simulation (black) received signals for the couple of CMA antennas: (a) impulse response and (b) transfer function: magnitude and phase .13.Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel 129 (V) delay (ns) (a) Magnitude (level) Freq (GHz) Phase (radian) Freq (GHz) (b) Figure 4.
Measured (gray) and simulated (black) transfer functions for 4 distances between Tx and Rx: (a) d = 1.14.94 m . (b) d = 4.78 m and (d) d = 8.14 m.38 m. (c) d = 6.130 Magnitude Magnitude (leve l) Freq (GHz) Phase (leve l) Freq (GHz) Phase (radian) Freq (GHz) (radian) Freq (GHz) (a) Magnitude (b) Magnitude (leve l) (leve l) UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Freq (GHz) Phase Freq (GHz) Phase (radian) Freq (GHz) (radian) Freq (GHz) (c) (d) Figure 4.
38 m.78 m and (d) d = 8. (b) d = 4.14 m.15. Measured (gray) and simulated (black) normalized impulse responses for 4 distances between Tx and Rx: (a) d = 1.(V) delay (ns) delay (ns) (a) (V) (b) (V) delay (ns) (V) delay (ns) Deterministic Modeling of the UWB Channel (c) (d) Figure 4.94 m 131 . (c) d = 6.
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the obtained impulse responses can be very realistic. experimental results are compared to the main anaylses published in the literature. Statistical models represent an interesting alternative for the simulation of UWB communication systems. These models enable the random generation of diﬀerent impulse responses. The principles of UWB propagation channel characterization is ﬁrst illustrated from a series of measurements performed in an indoor oﬃce environment. .Chapter 5 Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel Deterministic modeling makes a relatively accurate reproduction of the UWB channel properties possible for a given conﬁguration in a known environment. For each step of the characterization process. Assuming that the elementary propagation phenomena are well modeled. In particular. The main constraints linked to this type of model lie in their long calculation time and the necessity of describing the considered environment in detail. This chapter presents the statistical modeling of the UWB channel through a practical approach. Its practical conception is based on a set of experimental characteristics. They consist of reproducing a possible behavior of the propagation channel in a given type of environment. Following a description of the diﬀerent statistical models of the UWB channel. They are based on a large number of measurements. from which each parameter of the model is deﬁned using a statistical law. a full channel model is detailed. advanced techniques are presented for the modeling of spatial and temporal variations of the UWB channel.
1. or to the UWB channel [CHE 02.0 to 3.1 Table 5. the path loss P L(f.36]). This formula implies that for a given distance d. Experimental characterization of channel parameters In this section. as recalled in equation [2. as some of the authors even reported an increase in the received power with increasing frequency [KOV 03].6 to 2. the channel power transfer function (see equation [2. This may be explained by the high dependence between the parameter Nf and the measurement antenna. In the literature. the characterization process of the UWB propagation channel is illustrated from a measurement campaign covering the whole FCC frequency band.134 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 5.1 presents diﬀerent estimates of the frequency dependent path loss exponent Nf . In an ideal free space conﬁguration. HOF 03]. We may observe a relative diversity in the obtained values. BAL 04b.2. For each measurement location. for Infocomm Research [BAL 04b] 1. HAN 04. This study also compares the experimental results from diﬀerent analyses of the UWB channel.4.7 Samsung [CHO 05] Nf 1. It should be noted that this frequency dependence is linked to the eﬀective area of an isotropic antenna and is not strictly speaking a characteristic of the propagation channel. Propagation loss 5.com Aalborg University [KUN 02a] [KOV 03] Instit.34]. The description of this measurement campaign is given in section 3.1. The published values have been adapted to the deﬁnition of the parameter Nf used in this book In order to estimate the frequency dependent path loss.8 −0.1. we studied the channel attenuation at diﬀerent frequencies regularly spaced between 4 GHz and 10 GHz.1. KUN 02a. the attenuation of the received power as the frequency increases has been observed in diﬀerent studies dedicated to antennas [KOV 03. CHO 05.3 to 5. PAG 05]. 5. Measurement campaign Whyless.0 to 3.1. expressed in dB. the propagation loss is given by the Friis formula. Estimation of the frequency dependent path loss exponent for diﬀerent analyses of the UWB channel.1. As an example. Frequency propagation loss One of the channel properties characteristic to UWB signals is the power decay observed with increasing frequency.1.5 2. d) was . should follow a frequency variation in the form of −20 log(f ). Table 5. ALV 03.1.
We may observe that the dispersion of the measured plots around the linear approximation is reduced to a standard deviation of σS = 0. were subtracted from each power transfer function at the selected frequencies. It should be noted that the antenna gains GT (f ) and GR (f ). The frequency dependent path loss exponent is Nf = 2. but also via numerous multipaths arriving from other directions.1. this method makes a sensible compensation of the antenna eﬀect possible. prior to path loss calculation. Average normalized path loss vs.28. In order to remove the distance dependency. 10 8 (f) (dB) norm 6 4 2 0 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 Frequency (GHz) 8 9 10 11 PL Figure 5. with no further knowledge of the departure and arrival direction of these secondary paths.6 dB. as the total power is not only received via the direct path. The resulting normalized path loss P Lnorm (f ) can be compared to a model in the form: P Lnorm (f ) = P Lnorm f0 + 10Nf log f f0 + S(f ) [5.1. However.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 135 extracted from the power transfer function at the selected frequencies.1] where S(f ) represents a residual term with zero mean expressing the diﬀerence in dB between the measurement and the model. the antenna gain was selected by taking the direction of the direct transmitterreceiver path into account. measured in an anechoic chamber. This approach may seem simplistic a priori. With respect to the error level inherent to the measurement . For each antenna. each power transfer function was initially normalized by arbitrarily setting the attenuation of the total received power over the whole measurement bandwidth to 0 dB. frequency The normalized path loss averaged over all measurement locations is represented as a function of frequency in Figure 5.
2 presents the obtained results. d0 + 20 log f f0 + 10Nd log d d0 + S(f. d) [5.2] where f0 represents the central frequency of 6. Distance propagation loss In the previous section. we recommend using the theoretical frequency loss of 20 log(f ) in the modeling of UWB propagation channels. According to the previous analysis on the frequency path loss.2. Path loss exponents were obtained by linear ﬁt in each LOS and NLOS situation. Path loss vs.2. as suggested in [BUE 03]. 40 50 Attenutation (dB) 60 70 80 90 100 110 0.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 Distance (m) 20 30 40 LOS NLOS Figure 5. The measurement plots mainly follow a linear decay in logscale. this value may be considered close to the theory (Nf = 2). were interpolated in frequency. d) = P L f0 . Each point represents the median attenuation in the FCC band For each measurement location. distance. measured every GHz. in order to minimize this eﬀect. the accounted path loss is the median attenuation in the FCC band. 5. the collected data were corrected by accounting for the gain of both antennas. we observed that the used antennas may have a nonnegligible impact on the radio parameters.6 0. after shifting each measurement to the reference frequency f0 . Hence. In the following analyses. measured in the direction of the transmitterreceiver path.1.1. Figure 5. all measurements were ﬁtted to a general formula as follows: P L(f. which corresponds to an .85 GHz and d0 is an arbitrary distance of 1 m.136 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels and calculation methods. The antenna radiation patterns.
2). For comparison purposes. In order to minimize the eﬀect of noise.7 dB and 59. In the LOS case. In both LOS and NLOS situations. 2. The general shape of the PDP is globally smoother in the NLOS case. In general. a path loss exponent Nd = 1.4 dB. to ease the interpretation of the main paths. Impulse response characterization Figure 5. these parameters undergo a negligible variation when they are observed on partial frequency bands within the 3. 5. a threshold placed 20 dB below the maximum value of the PDP was used. frequently observed in indoor conﬁgurations (see section 2. walls or pieces of furniture in the vicinity of the radio link generate signiﬁcant reﬂected or diﬀracted echoes. The delay on the xaxis has been converted in path length in meters.6 GHz band. as the obstruction between the transmitter and the receiver may result from a single plasterboard or several concrete walls. An attenuation of 10 dB to 20 dB has thus been observed between the power of the main path of each cluster and the power of the secondary paths.1 In the NLOS case.22. corresponding to a main echo followed by an exponential decay of diﬀuse power.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 137 exponential decay of the received power with respect to the distance. the value of Nd may be lower than in the theoretical case of free space (Nd = 2). In the LOS situation.7 dB.7 dB. and a standard deviation σS = 5. 1. In the LOS case. . which explains the presence of peaks in the PDP.62 was recorded. over the whole 3.2. the UWB path loss parameters proposed by the standardization organization ITU [ITU 04] are also reported.2 shows that these values are in line with other analyses of the UWB channel published in the literature.1. More details regarding the inﬂuence of frequency on the path loss coeﬃcients are given in [PAJ 07].2. d0 ) were respectively evaluated at 53.2 The values of the parameter P L(f0 . the measurement plots are somewhat more dispersed.6 GHz band.3 presents typical PDP measured in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations. Delay spread The RMS delay spread τRM S was calculated for each measured PDP. This is due to the waveguide eﬀect. This signiﬁcant value of the standard deviation in the NLOS case may be explained by the diversity of NLOS conﬁgurations. with a distance dependent path loss exponent Nd = 3. 5. Table 5. as well as one of the 90 impulse responses.1.1–10.1–10.1. we may observe one or several clusters.2. with a standard deviation σS = 1.
3 AT&T .1 4.4 1.07 3.24 43.Oulu University [HOV 03] UCAN .2.77 to 1.4 to 4.4 3.55 to 1.63 P L(f0 .MIT [GHA 02a] Time Domain Corporation [YAN 02] Intel Labs [CHE 02] Whyless.55 1.com [KUN 02a] UCAN .60 2.3 to 6.2 σS (dB) LOS NLOS 5.9 1.96 3.9 2.69 1.04 to 3.4 3.09 1.3 1.1 2.48 3.University of Rome “Tor Vergata” [CAS 04a] Instit.6 2.2 to 1.INSA [PAG 06b] ITU Recommendation [ITU 04] 1.1 0.18 48.5 to 41.7 to 4 53.68 47.3 to 45.60 1.7 1.8 to 3.18 to 0.8 1.6 to 1.3 to 2.80 3.4 to 52 45 1.WINLAB [GHA 03b] 2.72 1.7 to 47.5 5.3 2.18 to 2.6 1.CEA LETI [KEI 03] Ultrawaves .8 1.7 LOS Nd NLOS 2.43 to 46.95 to 2.12 Hong Kong University [LI 03] Ultrawaves .2 to 4.Virginia Tech [BUE 03] 1. of Tech.8 to 4.22 3.6 49 to 51 46.5 to 7 1.3 to 3.72 1.1 3.6 1.1 2.2 2.69 50.7 2.1 47. d0 ) (dB) LOS NLOS 47 51 1.4 3.62 1. Estimate of the distance dependent path loss for diﬀerent analyses of the UWB channel .18 to 1.2 0.58 to 2.3 to 2.6 2.7 59.92 3.7 3.6 to 1.98 1.8 to 2.Virginia Tech [MUQ 03b] NETEX .8 to 5.Cantabria University [ALV 03] New Jersey Instit. [DAB 03] NETEX .7 3.2 1.58 1.01 to 2.4 Table 5.9 50.7 to 7.93 to 1.5 2.138 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Measurement campaign UltRaLab [CAS 01] AT&T Labs . for Infocomm Research [BAL 04b] ETH Z¨rich [SCH 04] u Samsung [CHO 05] France Telecom .42 3.85 1.50 4.41 to 1.2 36.5 2.66 1.4 3.7 1.48 2.
with a standard deviation στ = 2.7 ns. (a) LOS and (b) NLOS conﬁgurations Over the whole set of measurements performed in LOS conﬁguration. Typical PDP and impulse response. The large scope of values in the published results may also be explained by the diﬀerent thresholds used when calculating τRMS [CAS 04a]. with a standard deviation στ = 5. although this parameter may vary from one experiment to the other. .3 presents the results published in other analyses of the UWB radio channel. the mean delay spread is τRMS = 4. Values obtained for τRMS are in accordance with some of the previous experiments.9 ns.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 139 (a) 0 Relative power (dB) 10 20 30 40 50 IR PDP 0 20 40 60 Distancedelay (m) 80 (b) 0 Relative power (dB) 10 20 30 40 50 IR PDP 0 20 40 60 Distancedelay (m) 80 Figure 5. In the NLOS conﬁguration.0 ns.1 ns. Table 5. This is due to the high sensitivity of this parameter to the measurement environment and to the used experimental setup. the mean delay spread is τRMS = 9.3.
45 to 3.53 to 1. of Infocomm Research [BAL 04b] ETH Z¨rich [SCH 04] u Samsung [CHO 05] France Telecom .3 8.47 2.04 5.2 2.9 to 12.7 7.140 Measurement LOS 10.9 28 to 31 15.37 1.2 5.CEA LETI [KEI 03] Time Domain Corporation (DSO) [PEN 02] Time Domain Corporation (correlator) [YAN 02] AT&T Labs .62 12.1 34 to 40 18.53 to 4.03 5 14.48 to 14 4.08 26.6 21.49 19.22 3. Estimate of the delay spread for diﬀerent analyses of the UWB channel .11 to 74.63 to 3.3 7.58 to 1.3 9.87 to 7.50 1.55 3.MIT [GHA 02a] New Jersey Instit.38 to 5.61 9.59 5.WINLAB [GHA 03a] UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Hong Kong University [LI 03] Lund University [KAR 04b] Instit.7 1.78 to 14.31 to 8.63 1.3.22 to 8. of Tech.7 to 23.9 to 22.08 to 53.9 to 2.1 1.15 2.34 0.27 5.72 4.Virginia Tech [BUE 03] AT&T .71 to 17.51 to 38.87 2.9 1.8 8.5 NLOS LOS NLOS τRMS (ns) στ (ns) campaign UCAN .30 to 18. [DAB 03] NETEX .4 1.4 to 9.6 31.8 2.INSA [PAG 06b] Table 5.
respectively denoted Γ and γ (see section 2. the mean values of τRM S calculated for seven partial bands of 528 MHz each are represented in Figure 5.4. To evaluate these parameters. Mean delay spread for diﬀerent partial bands. a linear ﬁt is performed at the delays included between the maximum and the minimum values of the PDP (expressed in dB).2.1. This enables the extraction of the intracluster exponential decay constant γ.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 141 In order to observe the evolution of these parameters with frequency. This was also observed by the University of Oulu from measurements performed in the 1–11 GHz band [JAM 04]. For each band. corresponding to the main propagation echoes.1. The decay of the received power with increasing delay is generally characterized with the inter. This technique was also used in [KAR 04a]. 15 RMS delay spread (ns) 10 5 LOS 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Central frequency (GHz) NLOS 10 11 Figure 5. the time intervals corresponding to the clusters of each measured PDP are identiﬁed by visual inspection.2.3 shows that the received power is grouped in diﬀerent clusters. Power delay proﬁle decay Exponential decay constants The typical PDP presented in Figure 5. As can be seen.4). The values of τRMS and στ obtained in each partial band are relatively close to the values calculated from the global UWB frequency band. In each of the identiﬁed interval.4. The intercluster decay . the delay spread is not aﬀected by the frequency.and intracluster exponential decay constants. the value of στ is represented by the length of the vertical line.4 as a function of the central frequency of each band. The length of the vertical line represents the corresponding standard deviation 5.
The intercluster decay is generally stronger than the intracluster decay. Results published in [KAR 04b] are a particular case where this tendency is inversed. as the experiment took place in a factory.5.4 on average). The diversity of the sounded environments may thus explain the variety of the obtained results. only the parts of the PDP presenting a power larger than 5 dB above the noise level were considered.7 ns and γ = 7. the PDP encompass between 1 and 4 clusters (2.5 ns and γ = 12. This may arise from the measurement environment.and intracluster exponential decay constants Among all PDP measured in a LOS situation.5 ns. CHO 04a]. In NLOS conﬁguration. . Figure 5. The value of the parameters Γ and γ is generally between 7 ns and 30 ns.142 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels constant Γ is obtained using a linear ﬁt on the maximum of each cluster. 0 Relative power (dB) 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 30 60 90 Delay (ns) 120 Intercluster decay Intracluster decay Figure 5. In [CRA 02]. while γ is determined by the objects in the vicinity of the receiving antenna.4 compares these experimental values with results published from similar experiments. ALV 03. Table 5.0 ns. Extraction of the inter. between 3 and 8 clusters (5. In some analyses [CAS 02. ALV 03]. The mean exponential decay constants have been evaluated as Γ = 15. the whole PDP was considered as a single cluster. For this experiment.6 on average) were identiﬁed. In all cases. The mean exponential decay constants have been assessed as Γ = 16. and where the values of Γ and γ are quite low. even if some higher values have occasionally been reported [CRA 02. a dependency of the parameter γ with the delay has been observed.5 illustrates this parameter extraction. the authors suggest that the constant Γ is linked to the building architecture. which explains the lack of results regarding Γ.
0 NLOS LOS NLOS Γ (ns) γ (ns) campaign Whyless.63 22.com [KUN 02a] UltRaLab [CAS 02] UltRaLab [CRA 02] UCAN .8 15.6 13 2.1 27.83 to 13.58 14.6 25.Measurement LOS 13.4 16.Cantabria University [ALV 03] NETEX .0 27.58 27.3 to 33.4 to 38.94 36.8 12.1 5 to 15 125 to 167 8 8.5 7 to 58 5.3 to 30.INSA [PAG 06b] Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel Table 5.9 to 51.5 16 1. MCK 03] Intel Labs [FOE 03b] Ultrawaves .7 4.5 24.4.5 21 2 9 to 20 6 to 8 84. of Infocomm Research [BAL 04b] France Telecom .CEA LETI [KEI 03] UCAN .1 to 24.Virginia Tech [BUE 03.6 16.6 10.1 7. Estimate of the PDP exponential decay constants for diﬀerent analyses of the UWB channel.1 7.97 4.9 14. The published values have been adapted to the deﬁnition of the parameters Γ and γ used in this book 143 .6 to 30.8 14.University of Rome “Tor Vergata” [CAS 04b] Lund University [KAR 04b] Samsung [CHO 04a] Instit.5 to 21 100 7.
we may identify two main sources of attenuation. where Nd represents the distance dependent path loss exponent. the amplitude βk. The whole PDP as well as each constitutive cluster should hence ﬁt into a triangular shape. We may recall that in this case. On the other hand. the analysis of the results from the measurement campaign shows that exponential decay is not completely satisfactory to model the slope of the PDP.4.4 dB to 1. Hence. delayed echoes undergo more propagation phenomena. It can be compared to the results reported in Figure 5. Regarding intercluster decay. Figure 5.7 dB in the .l + Tl Tl −ω [5.3] where Tl represents the delay associated with the lth cluster and τk. This physical interpretation leads us to model the multipath attenuation following a similar approach to that used for distance path loss.l is the delay of the k th ray within the lth cluster.144 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Power decay constants The assumption of an exponential decay for the cluster and ray amplitudes was ﬁrst introduced by Saleh and Valenzuela from their observation of the indoor wideband radio channel [SAL 87]. the standard deviation σε of the error in dB between the model and the measurement has been calculated. in order to validate the proposed approach. we suggest an adaptation of the Saleh and Valenzuela model. such as reﬂection or diﬀraction. By considering successive echoes of the main path. using a power function instead of an exponential function leads to a decrease in the average standard deviation σε from 4. Indeed. which can be of a diﬀerent nature. Regarding the diﬀerent rays of the impulse response.4. However.1. In each case. As for the case of exponential decay. following this assumption.5.33]) is replaced by the following formula: 2 2 βkl = β11 Tl T1 −Ω τk. the length of a propagation path is proportional to its delay.6 illustrates the extraction of the parameters Ω and ω. the values of the parameters Ω and ω have been assessed by linear ﬁt on the PDP clusters. the PDP expressed in logscale should present a linear decrease with increasing delay.l of the k th ray in the lth cluster (see equation [2. where the cluster and ray amplitudes decrease according to a power function.8 dB to 2. This general shape is not representative of the experimental observations (see Figure 5. On the one hand the propagation of the wavefront over a longer path induces a stronger power loss.9 dB in the LOS case. In the classical formalism presented in section 2. the observed attenuation at a transmitterreceiver distance d is proportional to d−Nd .5). and from 2. The parameters Ω and ω are respectively called intercluster and intracluster power decay constants.
which is closer to our experimental measurements.and intracluster power decay constants NLOS case. we observed a signiﬁcant power attenuation G between the main path of each cluster and the following rays. Finally. we observed the average values Ω = 4. In the LOS conﬁguration.8 dB in the LOS case.1 ns in .6 dB in the NLOS case.4 and ω = 11.2.1 in the LOS case.6. the average attenuation G was measured at 12 dB. Over the whole set of PDP presenting more than one cluster. over the whole set of measured PDP presenting more than one cluster. in the LOS conﬁguration. The statistical distribution of the intercluster durations ΔT is then studied.3. Extraction of the inter. and from 1. L − 1] [5. the average intercluster duration was ΔT = 27. Regarding the intracluster decay. noted Tl . 5.1.9 and ω = 10. Ray and cluster arrival rate Study of the clusters In order to estimate the arrival time statistics for a new cluster.9 dB to 1. the average modeling error σε decreases from 1. as may be seen in the example of Figure 5. This corresponds to the delay of the maximum value of the PDP in each time interval representing a cluster.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 0 Relative power (dB) 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 30 60 90 Delay (ns) 120 145 Intercluster decay Intracluster decay Figure 5.2 in the NLOS case. This phenomenon was already observed for UWB channels in [CAS 02] and [KUN 03].6. ΔT is calculated as follows: ΔT = Tl+1 − Tl .7 dB to 1. and Ω = 3. we consider the arrival time of the lth cluster. This validates the proposed model. Over the whole set of experimental measurements. l ∈ [1.4] where L represents the number of clusters in the PDP.4 ns in the LOS case and ΔT = 40.
Percentilepercentile diagrams for the intercluster duration. (a) 120 Theoretical ΔT (ns) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Experimental ΔT (ns) LOS Theoretical ΔT (ns) 180 150 120 90 60 30 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 Experimental ΔT (ns) 180 (b) NLOS Figure 5. the alignment of the plots on the diagram diagonal shows that the exponential distribution is a reasonable approximation to modeling intercluster duration. Experimental percentiles vs. also allowing the analysis . Diﬀerent methods are available to extract the delay and amplitude information of the main paths constituting an impulse response. The graphs in Figure 5. The Tokyo Institute of Technology used an algorithm based on the highresolution method called space alternating generalized expectation (SAGE). each echo is received in the form of an impulse with nonzero duration. This method was modiﬁed by the University of South California for the study of the arrival direction [CRA 02]. Because of the limited frequency band of the measurement.9 MHz in the NLOS case.1 ns = 24.5MHz in the LOS case.4 ns = 36. was adopted by diﬀerent researchers for the characterization of the UWB radio channel [YAN 02. 1 and Λ = 40.5 MHz in the LOS case (a) and Λ = 24. theoretical percentiles corresponding to an exponential distribution with parameter Λ = 36. representing the experimental distribution percentiles of ΔT on the xaxis. PEN 02]. The ¨ CLEAN method. initially used in radio astronomy [HOG 74]. each one presenting a diﬀerent attenuation and a diﬀerent phase rotation.7 are percentilepercentile diagrams. In both cases.7.146 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels the NLOS case.9 MHz in the NLOS case (b) Study of the rays Individual echoes due to the diﬀerent multiple paths are not directly observable on the measured PDP. The impulse response is a continuous waveform composed of the sum of all individual contributions. The best ﬁt leads to a value Λ = 27. and the theoretical percentiles of an exponential distribution with parameter Λ on 1 the yaxis.
we study the distribution of the interray durations. As an assumption. the average interray duration was respectively evaluated at Δτ = 0.168 ns and Δτ = 0. deﬁned as follows: Δτ = τk+1 − τk .95 GHz in the LOS case and 1 λ = 0. Second. This optimization presents two main advantages. K − 1] [5.161 ns = 6. and βk and τk are the real amplitude and delay linked to the k th ray. It should be noted that these two studies were based on measurements performed with a large number of colocated sensors. Figure 5. This requires a minimization of the squared error between the measured frequency spectrum and the synthetic spectrum. In this case. Over the whole set of measurements performed in both LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 147 of the arrival direction [HAN 03]. from the representation of the impulse response in its real form h (τ ).161 ns.168 ns = 5. At each iteration of the process.19 GHz in the NLOS case. over the whole set of selected impulse responses. corresponding to the sounding waveform. the FDML method proposes to optimize the whole set of detected rays. some diﬀerences may . the channel is thus described in the form: K h (τ ) = k=1 βk δ τ − τk [5. LEE 02]. As with the clusters case. The search of ray locations is performed in an iterative way. built from the identiﬁed rays.6] where K represents the number of rays in the impulse response. which does not always lead to a correlation peak. Contrarily to the CLEAN algorithm. In order to illustrate the process of ray identiﬁcation we present here the frequency domain maximum likelihood (FDML) algorithm [DEN 03a. The parameter βk may take negative values. it enables the detection of superimposed rays. which avoids the resolution limitations linked to the sampling rate in the time domain.5] where K represents the number of rays. the processing is performed in the frequency domain.8 presents a percentilepercentile diagram used to compare the experimental distribution of Δτ to an exponential 1 distribution with parameter λ = 0. First. The results of the FDML algorithm allow us to study the arrival time of the k th ray. More details on adapting the FDML algorithm to accelerate the calculation time are available in [PAG 05]. a new ray is detected by ﬁnding the correlation peak between the measured impulse response and a template signal. k ∈ [1. in order to account for the phase inversion linked to some interactions. such as the reﬂections.
8 0 0 0. In this case.95 GHz in the LOS case and (b) λ = 6.2 0. theoretical percentiles corresponding to an exponential distribution with (a) parameter λ = 5.6 0. Regarding the cluster arrival rate. which enabled the measurement of the channel impulse response at 90 locations . It should be recalled that a cluster within the PDP corresponds to a main path.8 Figure 5.4 0. Percentilepercentile diagrams for the interray duration. the observed values are generally in the order of 10 to several hundreds of MHz. the ray arrival rate would be equal to the width Bw of the analyzed band. The average duration between two clusters is thus in the order of 10 ns to 100 ns.148 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels be noted between the theoretical and experimental data. Study of smallscale channel variations The last characteristic of the UWB radio channel studied from the experimental campaign (see section 5.6 Experimental ΔT (ns) 0. shown in Table 5.19 GHz in the NLOS case The experimental values obtained for the cluster arrival rate Λ and the ray arrival rate λ are compared with the results available in the literature.6 Experimental ΔT (ns) 0.3.4 0.8.1.4 0. arising from transmissions or reﬂections on walls. researchers from the German institute IMST advise to arbitrarily setting the interray duration at the temporal resolution value obtained [KUN 02a]. The parameter Λ is thus dependent on the structure of the building where the measurement took place. a rotating arm was used.2 0 0 0.8 LOS Theoretical ΔT (ns) 0. (a) 0.8 NLOS (b) 0. For this reason.2 0. During the campaign.6 Theoretical ΔT (ns) 0. Experimental percentiles vs.2 0. The ray arrival rate λ presents variable values depending on the experiment. Indeed. but the exponential approximation still provides an acceptable ﬁt to the measurements. 5.4 0. values obtained depend highly on the ray identiﬁcation technique that was used in the analysis.5. on the ceiling or on the building ground.1) is related to the fast fading of the impulse response.
78 1500 to 5500 714 2857 Bw NLOS LOS NLOS Λ (MHz) λ (MHz) campaign Whyless.INSA [PAG 06b] Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel Table 5.9 2000 100 1429 10 to 800 45 to 180 434. of Infocomm Research [BAL 04b] France Telecom .9 89.4 24.4 to 13.98 10 to 25 200 16.1 1160 to 1960 280 5946 1390 to 1790 270 to 360 6194 59 90. Estimate of the average cluster and ray arrival rates for diﬀerent analyses of the UWB channel.Virginia Tech [BUE 03.com [KUN 02a] UltRaLab [CRA 02] UCANCEA LETI [KEI 03] NETEX . MCK 03] Intel Labs [FOE 03b] Ultrawaves .5 47 to 64 2. The published values have been adapted to the deﬁnition of the parameters Λ and λ used in this book 149 .7 26 70.5.6 36.Measurement LOS 100 to 1000 21.9 85 to 115 18.University of Rome “Tor Vergata” [CAS 04b] Lund University [KAR 04b] Samsung [CHO 04a] Instit.
depending on the duration over which the received power is integrated in the time domain [KUN 03].5 ns on the time scale (see Appendix B. the best ﬁtted Nakagami distribution presents a parameter m close to 1 for the vast majority of the delays within the PDP. An example of values for the parameter m is given for a speciﬁc measurement in Figure 5. MCK 03] or a Rice distribution [HOV 02]. More details on these observations are . we may observe that the cases where the parameter m takes higher values correspond to the main paths of the PDP. This shift of the main paths in the time domain is due to the high resolution of UWB signals and needs to be taken into account when modeling the channel spatial variations. Researchers from ETH Z¨rich [SCH 04] and from the Lund University [KAR 04b] also u noted a modiﬁcation of this distribution for the main path. Other studies show that the fast fading is well represented by a Nakagami distribution [CAS 02. As can be noted. Results show that in the case of the UWB channel. In this case. the delay linked to the main paths of the impulse response signiﬁcantly varies while the antenna is moved. SCH 04.1. The Nakagami m parameter was thus estimated for each measured PDP. In this case. This was observed for most of the measured PDP. The Rayleigh distribution has frequently been observed in the study of UWB radio channel fast fading statistics [CRA 02. In practice. FOE 03b.9. Finally. The study consisted of analyzing the statistical distribution of the amplitude of the received signal at each delay. CAS 04b. However. For each measurement. In the literature. the parameter m may vary with the delay. the value of the parameter m may increase to m = 4 or m = 5.150 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels situated around a circle of 20 cm in radius. Temporal variations are due to environmental modiﬁcations and may be observed in ﬁxed radio links. it has been demonstrated that a theoretical impulse response presenting a Rayleigh fast fading may be observed as following a Nakagami distribution. KUN 02a. In addition. A study of the channel variations when the transmitting antenna is moved on a 1 m2 grid was presented in [PAG 04]. the amplitude distribution of the impulse response for a given delay may be correctly described using a Rayleigh distribution. BUE 03. previous studies showed that this distribution was well represented using a Nakagami function [CAS 02].3). KAR 04b]. The characterization of amplitude distribution in the UWB impulse response is a controversial issue in the literature. the space ﬂuctuation statistics were studied by comparing the 90 impulse responses collected locally. Spatial variations arise when at least one of the antennas is moved in an otherwise static environment. Thus. we may distinguish between two sources of channel ﬂuctuations [HAS 94a]. it should be noted that some analyses recommend that we use a lognormal distribution [KEI 03. and up to m = 8 in the extreme cases. at delays separated by 0. BAL 04b]. LI 03.
Eﬀect of moving people The study of the eﬀect of moving people on the UWB channel is based on the analysis of a measurement campaign performed in an indoor oﬃce environment. a group of 1 to 12 people was walking in a corridor in the vicinity of a ﬁxed radio link.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 151 Relative power (dB) 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 Delay (ns) 120 PDP 140 4 Nakagami m 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Delay (ns) 120 140 Figure 5. whose length corresponds to the transmitterreceiver distance (11 m). PDP measured in an NLOS situation and parameter value m for each delay available in [PAG 05]. a UWB sounder enabling real time measurements over the 4–5 GHz frequency band was used. 5. . In indoor environments.4.2.10.3.4. A complete description of this campaign is given in section 3. During the measurement process. Nakagami m parameter analysis. 5. After the direct path (a). the temporal variations of the propagation channel are mainly due to moving people.1.1.9. This phenomenon is studied more particularly in the following section. In this graph. the delay has been converted to path length in meters to ease the interpretation of multipaths. Observation of temporal variations A typical impulse response collected during the experiment is given in Figure 5. we may distinguish two echoes (b) and (c) corresponding to reﬂections on the corridor walls. For this campaign.1.4.
we observed the slow fading generated by human beings in the vicinity of the radio link. up to about 15 s for a group of 12 people. Typical impulse response A ﬁrst observation of the eﬀect that moving people have on the UWB channel is given in Figure 5.152 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 70 Power attenuation (dB) 80 90 100 110 0 10 (a) (b) (c) 20 30 40 Distancedelay (m) 50 60 Figure 5. Figure 5. In this case. For this purpose. At other values of the excess path.12 presents the aggregate eﬀect of several people passing through the main signal path.11. we can observe strong signal ﬂuctuations. the maximum attenuation of the mean power is about 15 dB. The inﬂuence that moving people have on the CIR appears clearly on this graph. the shadowing eﬀect lasting for about 4 s. Successive measurements are represented from left to right. In general. Fast fading ﬂuctuations were eliminated by averaging the received power using a sliding window. we studied the slow temporal evolution of the mean power received in the LOS path in the presence of people. with respect to the stationary part of the diagram. the progression of one person through the LOS path yields a maximum attenuation of about 8 dB. Slow fading As a ﬁrst step in the analysis.4. The time varying impulse response is represented in the case of 12 people walking back and forth through the radio link. The main paths (a) and (b) are regularly obstructed by moving people.1.10. while the vertical axis represents the excess delay converted in path length (m). during both forward (t = 15 s to t = 27 s) and backward (t = 63 s to t = 74 s) displacements along the corridor. The obstruction duration increases with the number of people. We clearly see that the shadowing pattern obtained for groups of people is composed of superimposed . 5.2.
for example.13.1. Fast fading In addition to the largescale fading generated by moving people. The signal received at a delay corresponding to the main paths of the impulse response may be thought of as a vector summation of several multipath components. Figure 5. as. Time varying impulse response in the case of 12 moving people individual contributions. 5. The random component represents the summation of all waves scattered by moving people. as would be the case in a typical situation exhibiting Rician fading.4. The dominant component accounts for the signal normally received in a static environment. As depicted in Figure 5. → (a) ← Backward mov. In order to accurately analyze the fast fading observed during experimentation. → 0 5 Relative attenuation (dB) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 (b) 20 25 30 (c) 35 40 20 40 Time (s) 60 80 Figure 5.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 153 0 5 10 Distancedelay (m) 15 ← Forward mov. However. the particular eﬀect that each person has on the received signal is not always observable. in the case involving 4 people. smallscale fading is observed while people are walking in the vicinity of the radio link.14 represents both magnitude and phase ﬂuctuations of the random component extracted from the signal received via the main path.3.11. when obstructed by . we may distinguish between two components of the received signal. the random component was isolated by ﬁltering.
Eﬀect of 1.12. Typical largescale fading patterns for the LOS component.154 1 people 5 0 5 10 15 20 Received power Slow fading 30 28 32 36 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Time (s) 28 32 4 8 12 16 20 24 Time (s) 25 4 people 12 people 5 5 0 0 5 5 10 10 15 15 Relative power (dB) 20 20 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 25 25 30 30 0 4 8 12 16 Time (s) 0 36 Figure 5. 4 and 12 people .
However.12 (graph on the right). compared to the nonstationary largescale fading pattern.1. the parameter K varies from about 12 dB down to less than −20 dB. the amplitude distribution of the random component is well suited to a Rayleigh distribution. the resulting signal hence follows a Rician distribution (see Appendix B. the parameter K varies over time accordingly.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 155 Q Random component I Dominant component time Figure 5. with distinct periods of linear progress. The Rician K parameter is deﬁned as the power ratio between the dominant component and the random ﬂuctuations. Vector decomposition of the received signal 12 moving people.2). This situation corresponds to the measurement depicted in Figure 5. Depending on the attenuation level of the dominant signal. We may notice that the magnitude of the smallscale fading presents a high degree of regularity. composed of a Rayleigh random component and a dominant component of greater amplitude. independently of the number of moving people. Using a KolmogorovSmirnov testing procedure (see Appendix B.13. As the dominant component presents a slowly timevariant amplitude. In addition.14 presents a rather unstable behavior while people are interfering with the main path of the impulse response.2). depending on the obstruction of the main path. . the phase of the random component depicted in Figure 5. In this case. The signal received via the main paths of the impulse response. We may notice in this example that the mean signal power of the random component is about 12 dB below the unobstructed signal level. the total received signal follows a Rayleigh distribution. These results were observed on other measurement records. This observation could be made for most of the available measurements. with maximum values of the parameter K varying between 8 dB and 13 dB.
and the collected records were distinguished according to the direction of the movement. deﬁned in equation [2.4.156 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 0 Relative power (dB) 10 20 30 40 50 ↑ 14 16 ↓ Phase (rad) 2 0 2 14 16 18 20 Time (s) 22 24 18 20 Time (s) ↑ 22 24 ↓ Figure 5. Spectral analysis This section presents a spectral analysis the analysis of the temporal signal variations received via the main paths of the impulse response. for the delay τ corresponding to the LOS path. Similar 0 Hzcentered. . 5. with no marked inﬂuence from the number of moving people. due to the rapidly decreasing power. The general shape of the scattering function is triangular. Fast fading of the random component. BUL 87]. The spectrum width was calculated in terms of Doppler spread νRM S .14.4. 12 people we may note rapid and signiﬁcant phase shifts at instants corresponding to fading nulls (indicated by arrows on the ﬁgure). with an average Doppler shift centered around 0 Hz. Measurements involving 1 to 12 moving people are taken into account.1.15 represents the average scattering function PS (τ. Figure 5. LOS path.6 and 3.38].3 Hz. ν) of the random component. triangular shapes of the Doppler spectrum are reported from continuous wave measurements of the channel temporal variations performed at frequencies around 1 GHz [HAS 94b. The calculated Doppler spread varied between 0.
1 are then exploited to illustrate in more detail the design of a statistical model based on experimental data.15.1. This section presents a few statistical models for the UWB propagation channel available in the literature. Statistical channel modeling In section 5. . which emphasize either the lengthening or the shortening of propagation paths. More details on the interpretation of these results can be found in [PAG 06a]. 5. The frequency dependent and distance dependent attenuation linked to the radio signal propagation was evaluated. the PDP magnitude decay and the rays arrival rate are a few examples. The RMS delay spread. depending on the direction of the human motion.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 157 0 5 10 15 20 25 15 Forward Backward Relative power (dB) 10 5 0 5 Doppler shift (Hz) 10 15 Figure 5. as well as a number of parameters regarding the impulse response. Statistical models use these experimental parameters to realistically reproduce the channel eﬀects. Average scattering function of the random component.2. LOS path. forward and backward motions Some asymmetry can be observed in Figure 5. the characterization of the radio channel parameters was presented from a series of experimental measurements. The analyses presented in section 5.15 between measurements performed during forward and backward movements. This can be explained by the location of the antennas.
3a model).15. Parameters are provided to characterize the clusters and ray arrival rates (Λ and λ).1.3a model The IEEE 802. all referring to distinct experimental measurements.15. as well as the inter. CRA 02. the IEEE 802. the ﬁrst one for short range. 5.1. GHA 02b. However.3a model [FOE 03a. the IEEE 802. • the channel model CM 4 corresponds to an NLOS situation with a large delay spread τRMS = 25 ns. FOE 03b. Four sets of parameters are provided to model the four following channel types: • the channel model CM 1 corresponds to a distance of 0–4 m in a LOS situation.15. IEEE 802. HOV 03. It can be applied in indoor environments and short range conditions. PEN 02. SIW 02].2.15 work group made several calls for contributions. performed in indoor residential or oﬃce environments [GHA 02a. which is equivalent to a free space propagation. indoor applications (IEEE 802. In order to reﬂect the phenomenon of ray clustering that was observed in several measurement campaigns. the ﬂuctuations of ray amplitude modeled using a lognormal law (see Appendix B. and a random inversion coeﬃcient is introduced to simulate the phase inversion observed in the impulse response due to reﬂections.2. . the model is based on the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism (see equation [2. MOL 03] was developed from around 10 contributions. The NLOS case was not addressed. This comprehensive model is a reference for the study of UWB systems.and intracluster exponential decay constants (Γ and γ). • the channel model CM 2 corresponds to a distance of 0–4 m in an NLOS situation. Two statistical models were deﬁned. Finally. • the channel model CM 3 corresponds to a distance of 4–10 m in an NLOS situation.6).1. high rate. and the second one for applications with longer range in both indoor and outdoor environments (IEEE 802.3a model proposes a theoretical approach using a path loss exponent Nd = 2 for the LOS situation.15. These models are brieﬂy presented in the following sections. CAS 02.4a model).31]). KUN 02b.158 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 5.15. Regarding channel attenuation.1. Examples of statistical models In order to provide a unique channel model for the evaluation of diﬀerent UWB systems proposals during standardization meetings.
2. Nd .1–1 GHz. The main diﬀerence between the IEEE 802. and the model provides the parameter values equivalent to Nf .4a model In order to be representative of a larger number of potential applications.15. the parameter value m is a delay function.15.l of each ray is no longer limited to the values 0 or π. the IEEE 802. this model reproduces the complex envelope of the baseband impulse response.3). outdoor.15. this path loss model can be expressed in the form given in equation [2. • The exponential decay of each cluster increases with the delay.) and onbody (for WBAN applications). It can also be noted that the measurements used for the model calibration [PEN 02.15.3a model is that the former accounts for a realistic path loss. 5. As for the CassioliWinMolisch model. • Ray arrival follows a dual law composed of two Poisson processes.31]). etc.35].Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 159 modeling of the path loss is not practically addressed. the model proposes two ray arrival rates λ1 and λ2 . IEEE 802.2.4a model and the IEEE 802. In addition. P L(f0 . as well as a mixing parameter. The intracluster exponential decay constant is thus of the following form: γl = kγ Tl + γ0 [5. Thus. CHE 02] are limited to at most 6 GHz bandwidth (2 GHz for the models CM 1 and CM 2).15.1.1. The general structure of this statistical model is similar to the IEEE 802. the small scale variations of the ray amplitude are modeled using a Nakagami distribution (see Appendix B.4a working group proposed a model with a wider scope in terms of both frequency and environments [MOL 04]. Some diﬀerences are however noteworthy regarding the shape of the impulse response: • The phase θk. The proposed model is independent of the transmitter and receiver antennas. The targeted applications are low rate communications (from 1 kbps to a few Mbps).7] where Tl represents the time of arrival of the lth cluster and kγ accounts for the increase of the coeﬃcient γl with increasing delay. d0 ) and σS . After some changes in the proposed variables.3a model (see equation [2. . Two UWB frequency bands are considered: 2–10 GHz and 0. but is uniformly distributed between 0 and 2π. in both the distance and frequency domains. Accordingly. in the following environments: indoor (residential and oﬃce). We present here the model corresponding to the ﬁrst frequency band. industrial (factory.
Other models The CassioliWinMolisch model The CassioliWinMolisch model [CAS 02] is the result of a joint research work performed by the University of Rome “Tor Vergata” (Italy). industrial [KAR 04b] and outdoor [BAL 04a.3a model. The provided parameter sets are based on experimental measurements for each environment: residential [CHO 04b]. • the CM 5 and CM 6 models correspond to the outdoor environment (respectively in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations).160 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Nine channel types were identiﬁed within the IEEE 802.4a work group. Vienna University (Austria) and the UltRaLab laboratory from the University of South California (USA). though. Despite some limitations. • the CM 9 model corresponds to the outdoor environment in an NLOS conﬁguration. The power of each ray follows an exponential decay. 49 measurements were taken over an area of about 1 m2 . A survey of the results from the literature complements these measurement campaigns. oﬃce [BAL 04a.1. It should be noted.15. . and at each location. in the speciﬁc case of a farm area or an area covered with snow. This model is based on a series of measurements performed by the UltRaLab laboratory in an indoor oﬃce environment.2. • the CM 3 and CM 4 models correspond to the indoor oﬃce environment (respectively in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations). • the CM 7 and CM 8 models correspond to the indoor industrial environment (respectively in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations). that the measurements performed in the oﬃce and outdoor environments covered frequency bands limited to 3 or 6 GHz. with a delay bins deﬁned with a step Δτ of 2 ns.15. This corresponds to a 1 ray arrival rate λ = Δτ . 5. The CassioliWinMolisch model is based on a discrete scale on the delay axis. and it is assumed that a ray exists at each delay kΔτ . it is thus frequently cited in the studies on UWB. but is also somewhat more complex. KEI 04]. This model is more detailed than the IEEE 802. This model is one of the ﬁrst statistical models describing the UWB propagation channel.3. SCH 04]. over a frequency band of about 1 GHz [WIN 97b]. 686 impulse responses were used: 14 antenna locations were selected. The overall impulse response power received between the delays kΔτ and (k + 1)Δτ is integrated. Each channel type is deﬁned by a given set of parameters as follows: • the CM 1 and CM 2 models correspond to the indoor residential environment (respectively in LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations).
Following the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism (see section 2. where the ray amplitude follows a Rayleigh distribution. The PDP exponential decay is characterized by the coeﬃcient γ (see equation [2. As for the time domain approach. t) in a statistical way.4 log ⎨ d0 [5. and in the reduced frequency band. where the model provides a description of the channel impulse response. However. τ ) = k=1 2 βk δ τ − d − (k − 1)Δτ c [5. The Nakagami m parameter decreases with the delay to approach the value of 1 for the last rays in the PDP. each parameter . Frequency domain approach Most of the research eﬀorts regarding statistical modeling for the UWB propagation channel concentrate on a time domain approach. This model provides an accurate and reproducible description of the observed measurements. The main concept of this model is to reproduce the channel transfer function T (f. other approaches are possible.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 161 but a single cluster is observed. The model proposed by the researchers from the AT&T Research Laboratory and MIT [GHA 04a] is an interesting example of a frequency domain approach. This model is designed from an extensive measurement campaign performed in 23 residential houses.4. but the model also introduces an additional coeﬃcient r in order to account for a signiﬁcant attenuation between the 1st ray and the 2nd ray. Its main limitations lie in the low number of measurements on which the statistical study is based.1). The propagation loss is characterized as a function of distance according to a dualslope law: ⎧ d ⎪ ⎪ + S(d) d ≤ 11 m ⎪P L d0 + 20.33]). the PDP model can be expressed in the form: K Ph (0.8] where d indicates the distance between the transmitter and the receiver.3).1.9] P L(d) = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪P L d0 − 56 + 74 log d + S(d) d > 11 m ⎩ d0 The fast fading due to the antenna displacement is characterized by a ray amplitude distribution following a Nakagami distribution (see Appendix B.
such as the Prony method used by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (USA) [LIC 03]. 5. simulation results are compared to the experimental measurements.10] where ni represents the input white Gaussian noise. t + a2 T fi−2 . The model can be represented using ﬁve variables: the parameters a1 and a2 .1. However. there is no direct knowledge of the traditional channel characterization parameters. the comparison between the two model types is not straightforward. The value of such a model lies in its low complexity: only a few parameters are required for its description. Empirical modeling principles This section aims at illustrating UWB channel statistical modeling based on experimental data.11] where d0 = 1 m represents a reference distance. d) = P L f0 . The following sections present a propagation loss model and an impulse response model.1 [PAG 06d]. A statistical model based on the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism is designed from the characteristic parameters observed in section 5. The parameters of this model are deﬁned by experimental characterization (see section 5.2.1. Finally. t) and T (f2 . it was shown that when the antenna eﬀect is correctly compensated. Other approaches were proposed regarding UWB channel modeling in the frequency domain. which can be mathematically represented by: T fi . The model can be expressed in the form of a ﬁlter with inﬁnite impulse response. the channel attenuation in the frequency domain is close to the theoretical loss of 20 dB per decade.1. . the input conditions T (f1 .2.6. such as the shape of the PDP or the delay spread.85 GHz corresponds to the center frequency of the FCC analyzed band and S is a Gaussian random variable with zero mean.1) and are given in Table 5.1. The path loss model can thus be expressed in dB in the following form: P L(f. The model is complemented with a power attenuation law.2. For this reason. t = ni [5.1. t).2. and the standard deviation of the Gaussian noise σn .162 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels can be described using a statistical law. f0 = 6. t + a1 T fi−1 . 5. The value of the frequency domain approach lies in its opening up the possibility of describing the transfer function components in a regressive way. In section 5. d0 + 20 log f f0 + 10Nd log d d0 + S(d) [5. Each of these parameters is then described in a statistical way as a function of the distance. Propagation loss model The ﬁrst step in the design of the UWB channel model is the deﬁnition of attenuation due to signal propagation.
4 Table 5. a ray is described by its delay τ . the ray and cluster arrival rates.62 1.1).2.7 NLOS 3.l . Path loss model parameters. The experimental observations given in section 5.l and τk.l δ τ − Tl − τk.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 163 LOS Nd σS (dB) P L(f0 .12] where L represents the number of clusters.l represent the amplitude. Kl is the number of rays within the lth cluster and Tl corresponds to the arrival time of the lth cluster. Among these characteristics. the impulse response is modeled using the Saleh and Valenzuela formalism (see section 2. and the number of clusters in the impulse response can be generated by drawing a random variable L according to the following law [MOL 04]: pL (L) = ¯ ¯ (L)L exp(−L) L! [5.4.1. Values of P L(f0 . the arrival of a new cluster can be modeled by a Poisson process.2. At a given instant.7 59. We then process these parameters in the frequency domain in order to include the eﬀect of the limited observation bandwidth. Hence. For a baseband representation.l [5.85 GHz and d0 = 1 m 5. In order to account for the clustering of multiple paths. θk. Modeling the channel impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth The principle of the UWB impulse response model consists of generating all constituent rays while maintaining the characteristics observed from the experimental measurements. d0 ) are given for f0 = 6. it is possible to describe the impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth.l ejθk. we mainly aim at reproducing the clustering of multipath echoes.2. The parameters βk. d0 ) (dB) 1. its amplitude β and its phase θ. and the decreasing magnitude of the received power with increasing delay. By generating these parameters.13] .2.3 show that the interclusters duration follows an exponential distribution. phase and arrival time associated with the k th ray within the lth cluster. the UWB channel impulse response is thus described by the following formula: L Kl h(τ ) = l=1 k=1 βk.22 5.6.7 53.
l−1 A power function is used to calculate the ray amplitude (see section 5. the time of arrival of the ﬁrst cluster is given by T1 = d . where c is the speed of c light. This approach diﬀers from the one followed by Saleh and Valenzuela [SAL 87].1 T1 where Ω represents the intercluster power decay constant.4 in the NLOS case.95 GHz. we recommend using the parameters λ = 5. case and L Having selected a transmitterreceiver distance d for the simulation.17] where ω represents the intracluster power decay constant and G accounts for the observed attenuation between the ﬁrst path of each cluster and the following multipaths.1 and G = 12 dB in the LOS case.2.2). For each cluster.l + Tl Tl −ω [5. The time of arrival Tl of the L − 1 remaining clusters is then calculated by generating intercluster durations following an exponential law [SAL 87]: p Tl  Tl−1 = Λ exp − Λ Tl − Tl−1 where Λ is the cluster arrival rate. the recommended values are Λ = 24. The arrival time of each ray is calculated using interray durations following an exponential law [SAL 87]: [5. The recommended values in the NLOS case are λ = 6. . The rays are iteratively generated for each cluster.l = β1. The amplitude of the ﬁrst ray within each cluster is thus given by: −Ω Tl 2 2 [5. In accordance to the results of the static UWB channel study. In the NLOS case.2.164 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels ¯ where L represents the average number of clusters.5 MHz and Ω = 4.l = 10− 10 β1.1.14] τk. ﬁxed at −50 dB. During measurement ¯ analysis. it is recommended to use the values Λ = 36.19 GHz and ω = 10.l  τk.6 in the LOS ¯ = 2. According to the characterization study presented in section 5.4 in the LOS case.15] β1.9 MHz and Ω = 3.1 and to the observation of the measured PDP.l−1 = λ exp − λ τk. ω = 11.l G [5.1.9.l − τk.2. but presents a closer ﬁt to the experimental measurements. The intercluster power decay is accurately modeled by a power function (see section 5. we observed an average number of clusters of L = 5. the ray generation stops when the ray amplitude reaches a given threshold D.2): 2 2 βk.16] p τk.
Ω = 4.6 50 24. with the parameters d = 6 m.4 11. where we may observe 5 clusters. each ray being represented by a Dirac function. Impulse response simulated over an inﬁnite bandwidth. This approach was also adopted in the IEEE 802.16.16 presents the rays obtained in a LOS situation for a transmitterreceiver distance of 6 m.95 4.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 165 Finally.15. Λ = 36. LOS fmin (GHz) fmax (GHz) D (dB) Λ (MHz) ¯ L λ (GHz) Ω ω G (dB) 36.19 3. It may be noted that this representation corresponds to an inﬁnite observation bandwidth.6 5.95 GHz. 2π[.l of each ray is generated using a uniform law over the interval [0.7. Figure 5.9 2. λ = 5.4 6. Parameters of the UWB impulse response model .4a model [MOL 04].9 10. ω = 11.1 12 NLOS 3.1 and G = 12 dB Table 5. the phase θk.5 5. LOS situation.5 MHz.1≤ fmin < fmax fmin < fmax ≤ 10.7 summarizes all experimental parameters used in our statistical model of the UWB channel.4.2 0 Table 5. 0 Relative power (dB) 10 20 30 40 50 0 20 40 60 Delay (ns) 80 100 Figure 5.
The impulse response observed over a limited bandwidth hlim (τ ) is simply obtained from the transfer function Tlim (f ) using an inverse Fourier transform.4.l l=1 k=1 k=1 l=1 ⎪ ⎩ 0 otherwise [5. In addition. the term fc accounts for the power decrease in −20 log(f ) described previously.1–10.1. One of the 90 constituting impulse responses is also represented.17(a) represents an impulse response example observed over the 3. impulse response is observed on a limited bandwidth. We may note that the low delay between two consecutive rays (see Figure 5. Each PDP was calculated from a set of 90 impulse responses. This algorithm is fully described in section 5.l normalizes the power received at the frequency fc according to the proposed path loss model.4. and by fc = 1 (fmin + fmax ) 2 the center frequency. The channel transfer function limited to the observation bandwidth hence appears (for positive frequencies): ⎧ L Kl ⎪fc 1 ⎨ βk.2.6 GHz frequency band.2.l −2πf (Tl +τk.17(b) presents the same impulse response observed over 3. Figure 5.d) L l=1 Kl k=1 2 βk.1). ALV 03]. taking the ray arrival angle into account.2.l ej(θk.18 presents two typical PDP obtained by simulation.3. Modeling the channel impulse response over a limited bandwidth In practice.1–4.1–10. 5.2.1 GHz frequency band: we may note that the multipath resolution is less accurate when the observation bandwidth decreases.18] where the coeﬃcient P L(fc .2. f This transfer function normalization procedure was also proposed in [FOE 03a. for the LOS and NLOS situations. simulating the motion of the antenna around a circle of radius 20 cm. Figure 5.2. Figure 5. it is possible to use a Hanning window for instance at this stage [HAR 78]. .2.16) naturally induces constructive or destructive interferences.6 GHz band. We note by fmin and fmax the minimum and maximum frequencies in the observation band. situated within the 3. The generation of the fast fading characteristics for the 90 locally simulated impulse responses was performed using an advanced algorithm.3. A set of 119 PDP was generated using the same transmitterreceiver distances as in our measurement campaign (see section 3.166 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 5. Note that on the xaxis.l )) if fmin ≤ f ≤ fmax L Kl 2 Tlim (f ) = f βk. Simulation results A series of simulations was conducted using the static UWB radio channel model presented in section 5. In order to limit the side lobes level.
The delay spread of the simulated PDP is particularly close to the measurement.1–4. The average values obtained for these parameters in measurement and simulation are compared for the LOS and NLOS situations in Table 5.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 167 (a) 60 70 Relative power (dB) 80 90 100 110 120 130 0 20 40 60 Delay (ns) 80 100 (b) 60 70 Relative power (dB) 80 90 100 110 120 130 0 20 40 60 Delay (ns) 80 100 Figure 5.6 GHz band (a) and the 3. simulations are similar to the measured PDP (see Figure 5.8. but stay in the same range as the measured characteristics. Two parameters representative of the channel temporal dispersion were calculated for the entire set of generated PDP: the delay spread τRM S and the 75% delay window W75% . observed over the 3.17. The proposed model therefore allows us to reproduce not only the impulse response structure. The values obtained for the delay window are somewhat diﬀerent from the experimental data.1–10. Identical set of rays. . in both LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations. but also channel dispersion.1 GHz band (b) the delay was converted in path length. We may note that the proposed model correctly reproduces the dispersion parameters experimentally measured over the UWB radio channel.3). As a general observation. Impulse response simulated over a limited bandwidth.
PDP and impulse responses obtained by simulation. simulation .1 7.7 21. (a) LOS and (b) NLOS conﬁgurations LOS Parameter τRMS (ns) W75% (ns) Measurement 4.8. Comparison of the dispersion parameters: measurement vs.7 NLOS Measurement Simulation 9.0 9.7 9.168 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels (a) 0 Relative power (dB) 10 20 30 40 50 IR PDP 0 20 40 Distancedelay (m) 60 80 (b) 0 Relative power (dB) 10 20 30 40 50 IR PDP 0 20 40 Distancedelay (m) 60 80 Figure 5.9 23.18.6 Simulation 4.2 Table 5.
The path elongation Δl of the incident ray is given by: Δl = − x − x0 cos(ϕ) − y − y0 sin(ϕ) where ϕ represents the incident ray azimuth. y0 ).3.1.12].19] . In the remainder of this section. the lengths of most propagation paths undergo signiﬁcant variation. Advanced modeling in a dynamic conﬁguration Section 5. y0 ).2. y0 . In this case. Space variation modeling Spatial variations are due to the displacement of at least one of the transmitting or receiving antennas. This section describes two adaptations to the statical model for an advanced modeling of the spatial and temporal ﬂuctuations of the UWB radio channel [PAG 06c]. The ﬁrst step of this spatial ﬂuctuation model consists of generating an impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth h(x0 .3. x.19 illustrates the obtained conﬁguration for a given ray. the antenna displacement or the motion of people may generate signiﬁcant variations in the channel impulse response. A 3D model including ray elevation is forwardly derivable. [5.2. The IMST model is one example where a simpliﬁed ray tracing algorithm is used to calculate a ﬁxed delay variation for each cluster [KUN 03]. y) plane only. in the case of a static channel. For the sake of clarity.2. we will assume a displacement of the receiving antenna and consider the arrival angle of each path. In instances of practical use for future UWB systems. This impulse response observed over an inﬁnite bandwidth may be expressed as in equation [5. In order to calculate the impulse response observed over an inﬁnite bandwidth at a location (x. Figure 5.2 describes how to simulate an impulse response from statistical parameters obtained through experimental measurements. Only a few studies on the statistical modeling of the UWB channel spatial variations are available. A limited number of statistical studies are available in the literature regarding the departure and arrival angles for UWB channels [CRA 02. 5. y) close to the location (x0 . as described in section 5. This assumption holds when the receiving antenna is placed in the far ﬁeld with respect to the surrounding walls and furniture where the transmission.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 169 5. corresponding to a location (x0 . We here propose to model these spatial ﬂuctuations by taking the angle formed between the antenna motion and each propagation path into account. reﬂection or diﬀraction phenomena occur. τ ). by taking the ray azimuth ϕ into account. the presented model allows an antenna displacement in the (O. we consider that each ray corresponds to a plane wave.
170 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels y r (x0. ϕk. we may consider that Φl is uniformly distributed in the [0.l represents the distribution of the ray azimuth within a cluster. [VEN 05] proposes a 2cluster model. y0) x Figure 5. 2π[ interval. from wideband indoor measurements [SPE 97]. To determine the azimuth of each ray in the impulse response. we can use the model derived by Spencer et al. In this model. Path elongation related to an antenna displacement HAN 05.l .l of each ray. From the impulse response generated at the location (x0 . we recommend using this value for the parameter σϕ . the arrival azimuth of the k th ray within the lth cluster is decomposed in Φl + ϕk.3 As a ﬁrst approximation. VEN 05].l σϕ  [5. where Φl is the mean arrival azimuth in the lth cluster.20] In [HAN 05]. Without further knowledge about the environment.l 1 − =√ e 2σϕ √ 2ϕk. .19. where the azimuth distribution follows a Laplace law in the ﬁrst cluster (σϕ = 5◦ ) and a uniform law in the second cluster. y0 ) and knowing the arrival azimuth Φl + ϕk. For instance. and follows a Laplace distribution with zero mean and standard deviation σϕ : pϕk. This value could be reﬁned as more experimental data becomes available.l ϕk. the standard deviation of the arrival azimuth σϕ is lower than or equal to 6. we can calculate the transfer function 3.7◦ . For the indoor LOS and NLOS conﬁgurations on a single ﬂoor.
22] if fmin ≤ f ≤ fmax otherwise [5. y.6 GHz band.l )) L Kl 2 = f βk. Displacement of the receiving antenna along the Ox axis over a distance of 2 m .20 presents a simulation of the space varying impulse response observed over the 3. 0 (a) 0 5 10 Distancedelay (m) 10 (b) 15 (c) 25 20 (d) 25 (e) 0 50 100 Location x (cm) 150 200 40 45 30 35 15 20 Relative power (dB) 5 Figure 5. y0 ): Tlim (x.l = − 1 c x − x0 cos Φl + ϕk.l +Δτk. τ ) observed over a limited bandwidth is simply obtained using an inverse Fourier transform. f ) ⎧ L Kl ⎪fc 1 ⎨ βk. depending on their arrival direction. Simulation of a space variant impulse response.20. y. We may clearly distinguish the evolution of the main echoes (ae).l l=1 k=1 l=1 k=1 ⎪ ⎩ 0 with: Δτk. amplitude and phase of each ray correspond to the parameters already used in the previous examples.1–10.l [5. y) close to location (x0 .21] The impulse response hlim (x. The spatial variations of the impulse response were calculated for a displacement of the receiving antenna along the Ox axis over a distance of 2 m with 1 cm step.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 171 over a limited bandwidth at a location (x.l ej(θk. For instance.l −2πf (Tl +τk.l + y − y0 sin Φl + ϕk. The delay. the length of the ﬁrst path shortens from approximately 6 m to 4 m. Figure 5.
A more detailed description of this algorithm may be found in [PAG 05].l (t0 ) = βk. the algorithm steps are as follows: i) Select Np instants {tn }n=1. When observing a radio channel over a relatively low bandwidth. the modeling methodology may be used in other conﬁgurations as more experimental characteristics of the timevariant UWB channel will become available. based on the experimental analysis given in section 5. Modeling the eﬀect of people This section describes a method to model the eﬀect of people.2.2 can be used to obtain a description of the impulse response over an inﬁnite bandwidth. The method described in section 5. The initial impulse response can thus be expressed according to equation [5. These passing instants may be randomly chosen...Np corresponding to the instants where each of the Np people are crossing the main path of the cluster.l eθk.172 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels 5.l (t) is generated according to the algorithm below. For all rays within the main path of each cluster. As a result.2.4.Np corresponding to the individual eﬀects of Np moving people.l denotes the initial complex magnitude of the k th ray within the lth cluster. However. but also several rays situated within the observation resolution R. and (b) the clusters of dense multipath where Rayleigh fading occurs [PAG 06a]. τ ) corresponding to a static environment at a given instant t0 . the presented model is valid for simulating UWB channels with bandwidths up to 1 GHz only. The extension of the model to temporal variations is based on an initial impulse response h(t0 .. or calculated according to the environmental geometry.. we will diﬀerentiate between (a) the main path of each cluster. using the following Gaussianshaped attenuation function: sn (t) = −As exp −2 t − tn 2 Ts 2 [5. where αk. As observed in our experimental characterization.12]. This resolution R is equal to 2 ns for a bandwidth of 1 GHz when using a Hanning window [HAR 78]. Assuming that a group of Np people is interfering with the UWB radio link. in our case lower than 1 GHz. ii) Generate Np slow shadowing patterns {sn (t)}n=1. This model is based on the results of a real time UWB measurement campaign performed over the 4–5 GHz band (see section 3. the timevariant amplitude αk.1.4. The main idea is to reproduce the time variance observed on each ray of a given impulse response. the observed main path encompasses not only the ﬁrst ray in each cluster.23] . where each person generates a shadowing pattern in addition to fast amplitude ﬂuctuations.3).3.2.
l (t) following a Rayleigh amplitude distribution and having a Laplacian scattering function. and in the range of 3 s to 5 s for Ts .l (t) [5. As observed from the experimental data.l (t)e−j2πf (Tl +τk.l (t) variations by using a Rayleigh distribution. For the remaining rays.l (t) for all impulse response rays. corresponding to regions of dense multipath.l (t) for rays within the main path of the lth cluster as: αk. we propose to model the amplitude αk.26] l=1 k=1 . the amplitude αk. and tn represents the shadowing instant. v) Finally.l (t0 ).l (t) should be 8 dB to 13 dB below the power level of the dominant component αk.25] Regarding step iv).l ) if fmin ≤ f ≤ fmax otherwise [5. Thus. several methods for the generation of a random signal presenting a Rayleigh distribution and an arbitrary Doppler spectrum are thoroughly discussed in [PAE 02]. f ) ⎧ ⎪ fc ⎨ = f ⎪ ⎩ 0 1 L l=1 Kl k=1 2 βk.l t0 dl (t) + rk. Ts represents the shadowing duration in seconds. More experimental analysis should be performed to study the exact shape of the Doppler spectrum in the regions of dense multipath. calculate the timevariant amplitude αk.l (t) may be generated as in step iv) of the algorithm. According to our experimental characterization. the parameter values may be selected in the range of 5 dB to 10 dB for As . The algorithm presented above allows us to generate the eﬀect that moving people have on the main path of each cluster.24] iv) Generate additional fast fading ﬂuctuations rk.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 173 where As represents the maximal shadowing attenuation in dB. The mean power Pr of the random component rk. Having calculated the amplitude αk. the time variant transfer function is given as: Tlim (t.l (t) = αk.l L Kl αk. we propose using a Laplacian distribution. iii) Calculate the amplitude variations of the dominant component dl (t) in the linear scale as follows: Np dl (t) = n=1 10 sn (t−tn ) 20 [5. the Doppler spread νRMS should be in the range of 1–3 Hz. As a ﬁrst step.
The following parameter values were used for the temporal variations model: As = 5 dB. observable at all impulse response delays. In addition. It can be noted that on occasions. the delays Tl and the passing instants tn were calculated using a ray tracing tool. Pr = −13 dB and νRMS = 1 Hz. the group of people interferes with each main path at a diﬀerent instant. from which only the most signiﬁcant rays were extracted. Rx Tx Figure 5. the presence of mobile people generates fast fading. τ ) observed over a limited bandwidth is obtained using an inverse Fourier transform. The ﬁve selected paths correspond to the main path and to the reﬂections on the four walls. As indicated by the circle locations on the graph. The proposed model was used to simulate the motion of 4 people in the vicinity of a radio link in a LOS situation. further research could be conducted by sounding the UWB channel over a larger bandwidth. For selected realistic passing instants with respect to the main path of each cluster. as for instance on the second cluster. This proposed model could be reﬁned by analyzing additional experimental results. For each shadowing instant. this fast fading signiﬁcantly interferes with the main paths. . The dashed arrow indicates the motion of the group of 4 people and circles present locations where the group crosses one of the main echoes. In particular.174 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels The impulse response hlim (t. we may observe a power attenuation of the corresponding path. and the results are presented in Figure 5. for a duration in the order of 3 s to 6 s.21 illustrates the simulation conﬁguration. The impulse response is observed over the 4–5 GHz frequency band. Simulation conﬁguration for the eﬀect of people The time varying impulse response was simulated according to this information. Figure 5. Ts = 4 s.22. as in an experiment.21.
where the situation is more deterministic. The principles of statistical modeling were presented using a practical approach based on experimental data. Path loss was analyzed in both frequency domain and distance domain. The fast fading analysis shows that the signal amplitude received at a given delay follows a Rayleigh distribution. as well as the arrival rate and amplitude decay of the rays and clusters.15.15. . Among the statistical models. except for the main paths. the proposals presented in the standardization groups IEEE 802.4.22. It can be used in system simulations.3a and IEEE 802. Several models of the UWB propagation channel were presented in the literature. Conclusion Statistical modeling of the UWB channel consists of reproducing the main channel characteristics observed during the measurements using a mathematical description. Circles indicate the group passing instants for the ﬁve main paths of the impulse response 5. Simulations show that this model accurately reproduces the channel dispersion. The experimental analyses described in this chapter illustrated the characterization of the UWB propagation channel in an indoor oﬃce environment. Simulation of a time variant impulse response. based on a Saleh and Valenzuela approach. The measured PDP were characterized through the delay spread. The described path loss model can be used directly for dimensioning studies and to evaluate the jamming generated by an UWB terminal.4a.Statistical Modeling of the UWB Channel 175 Figure 5. are frequently used for the analysis of UWB communication systems. A detailed model has also been given for the static impulse response. for the design and development of UWB based radio transceivers.
The temporal ﬂuctuations model integrates the eﬀects linked to the motion of people. and can be used to simulate a UWB radio link in realistic conditions.176 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Two extensions of the impulse response were ﬁnally described to account for the spatial and temporal variations of the UWB channel. by including the arrival direction of the delayed wavefronts. . The spatial variations model emulates the eﬀects of antenna displacement.
3] [A. the power spectral density (PSD) of the spectrum’s positive side is multiplied by two.Appendix A Baseband Representation of the Radio Channel A real signal x(t) with spectral components covering a bandwidth centered on the frequency f0 = 0 can be represented by its complex envelope γx (t) deﬁned by: x(t) = γx (t)ej2πf0 t [A.2] where F{·} is the Fourier transform operation and U (f ) represents the unit step function (Heaviside step function). In order to keep the same signal power.1] There are several ways to deﬁne a complex envelope γ(t) able to represent the signal x(t) according to relation [A. The obtained analytical signal is thus deﬁned in the frequency domain by: X(f ) = F x(t) = 2U (f )X(f ) = 1 + sign(f ) X(f ) [A.1]. . We will use here the complex envelope deﬁned by the analytical form of the signal x(t) as follows [BAR 95]: γx (t) = x(t)e−j2πf0 t where x(t) is the analytical representation of signal x(t). All the information concerning this signal is known in the positive part of the frequency spectrum. A real signal possesses a complex spectral structure with a Hermitian symmetry. The analytical signal is the signal representation using only its positive spectral frequency components.
relation [A. γs (t) can also be expressed by: γs (t) = F −1 E f + f0 H f + f0 = γe (t) ⊗ h(t)e−j2πf0 t [A. we have [BAR 95]: S(f ) = 2U (f )S(f ) = 2U (f )E(f )H(f ) = and then: γs (t) = s(t)e−j2πf0 t = F −1 S(f + f0 ) = F −1 = 1 E(f + f0 )H(f + f0 ) 2 [A.5] 1 γe (t) ⊗ γh (t) 2 There is a second way to represent the equivalent baseband ﬁlter [GUI 96]. it leads to the following relation: x(t) = x(t) + j 1 ⊗ x(t) = x(t) + jH x(t) πt [A.4] where ⊗ represents the convolution operator and H{·} represents the Hilbert transform.6] allows us to write: S(f ) = E(f )H(f ) So. the baseband ﬁltered heq (t) which is equivalent to the real band ﬁlter h(t) can be expressed in two ways: heq1 (t) = 1 γh (t) 2 [A.178 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels By using the inverse Fourier transform. The signal s(t) is obtained after a convolution of e(t) and h(t): s(t) = e(t) ⊗ h(t) By keeping the same notations as previously. Indeed.6] [A.7] 1 E(f )H(f ) 2 [A.10] heq2 (t) = h(t)e−j2πf0 t .9] [A.8] So.
These ﬁlters are similar when they are applied to signals expressed in baseband. The ﬁlter Heq2 (f ) corresponds to a simple translation of all the ﬁlter component H(f ). these two baseband ﬁlters Heq (f ) equivalent to the real band ﬁlter H(f ) are expressed by: Heq1 (f ) = U f + f0 H f + f0 Heq2 (f ) = H f + f0 [A. .Baseband Representation of the Radio Channel 179 In the frequency domain.11] From a practical viewpoint. the ﬁlter Heq1 (f ) corresponds to a translation of the positive side frequency components of the ﬁlter H(f ) so that they are centered around 0 Hz.
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most of these laws are generally used to characterize the magnitude of the channel impulse response for a given delay.1.Appendix B Statistical Distributions B. Rayleigh distribution The Rayleigh distribution [PAR 00] is deﬁned from the parameter σ which is related to the standard deviation of the distribution by a constant value. Deﬁnition This section deﬁnes the main distribution laws presented in the book. B. and the variance V ar[X] when it can be simply expressed. Unless otherwise mentioned. the cumulative density function (CDF) F (x) = P (X ≤ x). the ﬁrst and second order moments E[X] and E[X 2 ].2] .1.1. we give the probability density function (PDF) pX (x).1] F (x) = [B.3] [B. ⎧x x2 ⎨ e− 2σ2 2 pX (x) = σ ⎩ 0 ⎧ x2 ⎨1 − e− 2σ2 ⎩ 0 E[X] = if x ≥ 0 otherwise if x ≥ 0 otherwise π σ 2 [B. For each distribution of the random variable X.
Rice distribution The Rice distribution [PAR 00.9] E[X] = π σL 1 2 2 − where L 1 is the Laguerre function.7] where Q is the Marcum function given by [MAR 60]: ∞ Q(x. ⎧ ⎪ x − x2 +s2 ⎨ e 2σ2 I0 xs σ2 pX (x) = σ 2 ⎪ ⎩0 if x ≥ 0 otherwise [B. the solution of the diﬀerential equation: 2 x 1 dy d2 y + y=0 + (1 − x) dx2 dx 2 E X 2 = s2 + 2σ 2 [B.8] [B.10] [B. ⎧ ⎪ ⎨1 − Q s .5] B. r) = r ye− x2 +y 2 2 I0 (xy)dy s2 2σ 2 [B. s and σ.2.6] where I0 represents the modiﬁed Bessel function of type 1.1.182 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels E X 2 = 2σ 2 Var[X] = 4−π σ2 2 [B.11] A typical parameter of this distribution is the parameter k expressed by: k= s2 2σ 2 [B. x σ σ F (x) = ⎪ ⎩0 if x ≥ 0 otherwise [B. LAU 94] is deﬁned from two parameters.4] [B.12] .
15] where Γ represents the Gamma function deﬁned for x > 0 by: ∞ Γ(x) = ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ F (x) = 0 e−t tx−1 dt if x ≥ 0 otherwise [B. Nakagami distribution The Nakagami distribution [LAU 94] is deﬁned from two parameters. x) = 1 Γ(x) a 0 e−t tx−1 dt Ω m [B. The k parameter estimator considered in the book is the one based on the second and fourth order moments.19] [B.3. So.18] [B. m and Ω.14] The Rice distribution tends to a Rayleigh distribution when s tends to 0.Statistical Distributions 183 Numerous estimators exist for the k parameter. B.1.16] γ ⎪ ⎩0 mx2 . and uses the following m parameter: m= x2 2 2 x4 − x2 [B.m Ω [B. ⎧ m mx2 ⎪ 2m ⎨ x2m−1 e− Ω m pX (x) = Γ(m)Ω ⎪ ⎩0 if x ≥ 0 otherwise [B.13] where (·) corresponds to the empirical mean value.20] E[X] = Γ m+ 1 2 Γ(m) E X2 = Ω . k is expressed by [ABD 01]: 1− 1− 1 m 1 m k 1− [B.17] where γ represents the incomplete Gamma function deﬁned for x > 0 by: γ(a.
1.25] E[X] = a− b Γ 1 + 2 E X 2 = a− b Γ 1 + The Weibull distribution tends to a Rayleigh distribution when b tends to 2.24] [B.26] [B. pX (x) = √ F (x) = (x−μ)2 1 e− 2σ2 2πσ [B. pX (x) = abxb−1 e−ax 0 1 − e−ax 0 1 b b if x ≥ 0 otherwise if x ≥ 0 otherwise 1 b 2 b [B.27] 1 1 + erf 2 x−μ √ 2σ .21] The Nakagami distribution tends to a Rayleigh distribution when m tends to 1.22] F (x) = [B. Weibull distribution The Weibull distribution [LAU 94] is deﬁned from the two parameters. B. B.23] [B. Normal distribution The normal distribution is deﬁned from two parameters.184 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Numerous estimators exist for the parameter m. the mean μ and the standard deviation σ. a and b.4. The one used in the book is the following [ABD 00]: m x2 2 2 x4 − x2 [B.5.1.
Lognormal distribution The lognormal distribution [WIE 03] is deﬁned from two parameters.6. In the book.7.38] Var XdB = σ 2 B.1.37] [B.30] [B.29] [B.1. this distribution is also used to describe the Doppler spectrum observed on the fast variations of the signals .35] E[X] = 10 · 10 10 + 2 ( 10 ) E X 2 = 10 · 10 μ σ 2( 10 +( 10 )2 ) We can estimate the parameters μ and σ by calculating the ﬁrst and second moments of the variable expressed in dB: E XdB = μ 2 E XdB = μ2 + σ 2 [B.33] [B. This distribution corresponds to the normal distribution of a signal complex envelope expressed in dB.34] [B.Statistical Distributions 185 where erf represents the error function deﬁned by: 2 erf(x) = √ π x 0 e−t dt 2 [B.36] [B.31] E[X] = μ E X 2 = μ2 + σ 2 Var[X] = σ 2 B.32] ⎩0 otherwise ⎧ ⎨ 1 1 + erf F (x) = 2 ⎩ 0 10 log(x) − μ √ 2σ μ 1 σ 2 if x ≥ 0 otherwise [B. Laplace distribution The Laplace distribution [SPE 97] is often used to model the arrival angle associated with the cluster rays. μ and σ.28] [B. ⎧ (10 log(x)−μ)2 ⎨ √ 10 2σ 2 e− if x ≥ 0 2πxσ ln(10) pX (x) = [B.
we note: P (Dn > dα ) = α or: P (Fn (x) − dα ≤ F0 (x) ≤ Fn (x) + dα . For a decision threshold α and the critical value dα . √ x−μ 2 1 pX (x) = √ e− σ 2σ √ x−μ 2 1 F (x) = 1 + sgn(x − μ) e− σ 2 [B.05 d0. .186 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels generated by moving people.41] [B. we can conclude that the probability is: – 95% that F0 (x) is totally situated between F100 (x) − 0.13581 and F100 (x) + 0.44] Figure B. for which the distribution has been studied by Kolmogorov [KOL 33].3581 · n− 2 1. for example.46] [B. μ and σ.42] [B. This distribution is deﬁned from two parameters.13581.2. we can study the following variable: Dn = max Fn (x) − F0 (x) [B.1 illustrates the calculation of the variable Dn .39] [B.40] [B. ∀x) = 1 − α [B. We can demonstrate for example that for n > 80: d0.47] For a sample size n = 100.01 1.45] The critical value dα has been tabulated for various values of α and n.43] E[X] = μ E X 2 = μ2 + σ 2 Var[X] = σ 2 B. KolmogorovSmirnov goodnessofﬁt test Considering an empirical CDF Fn (x) based on n samples and the theoretical CDF F0 (x) of the random variable from which the random draw is held.6276 · n− 2 1 1 [B.
So. the type I probability of error is known (α).16276. – if this deviation is higher than the critical value dα . the probability of error is not known when we conclude that some samples follow a given law. In other words. we are faced with an error of type I.1. this test is to be used sparingly.Statistical Distributions 187 Fn(x) Dn P(X x) F0(x) x Figure B. The KolmogorovSmirnov test consists of calculating the maximum deviation between an empirical CDF and a theoretical CDF. In the case of the KolmogorovSmirnov test. . we conclude that the empirical CDF follows the same law as the theoretical CDF. we conclude that the empirical CDF does not follow the same law as the theoretical CDF. If the test erroneously concludes that the sample set follows the theoretical distribution law.16276 and F100 (x) + 0. Formally. KolmogorovSmirnov test: theoretical and empirical CDF – 99% that F0 (x) is totally situated between F100 (x) − 0. we are faced with an error of type II. If the test erroneously concludes that the sample set does not follow the theoretical distribution law. but the type II probability of error cannot be directly calculated. for a given decision threshold α: – if this deviation is smaller than the critical value dα . a statistical decision process like the KolmogorovSmirnov test can lead to two types of errors.
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1. In propagation problems. the electric ﬁeld E(s. ω) − jω (s)E(s.1. ω) and magnetic ﬁeld H(s. the GO is valid only for frequencies higher than 100 MHz. Geometric optics C. ω) = 0 ∇· ∇· (s)E(s. ω) = 0 ∇ × H(s. the permittivity and the permeability are not dependent on the position ( (s) = and μ(s) = μ).1. with a permittivity (s) and a permeability μ(s) [PET 93] (see equation [C.Appendix C Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction C. ω) = 0 [C. the spatial position of which is deﬁned by a vector s. ∇ × E(s.1] For a homogenous dielectric medium. . ω) = 0 (s)E(s. ω) expressions at an observation point P. The Maxwell equations imply a time domain ﬁeld dependence with e−jωt . Introduction Geometric optics (GO) have been developed for the analysis of light wave propagation which corresponds to high frequencies. ω) + jωμ(s)H(s. correspond to the Maxwell equation expressed in an inhomogenous medium free from charges. If we consider a monochromatic electromagnetic pulsation wave ω.1]).
These wavefronts are deﬁned by the wave surfaces which are plane.1. the properties of transverse electromagnetic plane waves can thus be generalized to all the electromagnetic waves [GAR 87].1. r = r − j( r + 60σλ) and μr = μr − jμr correspond to the relative permittivities and the permeabilities of the medium. λ and λ0 are the wavelengths in the propagation medium and in the free space respectively. Caustics A ˆ φ C P(0) ρ1 P(s) ˆ θ s ˆ propagation direction D B ρ2 s Figure C. Ray tubes. The conductivity of the medium is represented by σ. spherical. This is the electromagnetic wave . A group of rays is a beam or tube which starts and ends with two caustic segments (see AB and CD in Figure C.190 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels The study of propagation problems in homogenous media is conducted by using Helmholtz vectorial equations which are derived from Maxwell equations: ∇2 U (s.2] √ √ with U (s. energy propagates on paths which are straight and orthogonal to the wavefront.2. ω) = 0 [C. caustics and local base As there is always a scale for which a wave can be considered as locally plane.1). C. Field locality principle In a homogenous medium. cylindrical or any other shape. ω) + k 2 U (s. ω) the electric or magnetic ﬁeld and k = ω μ = 2π = 2π r μr the λ λ0 wavenumber of the propagation medium. The energy carried by a ray is persistent in the time and space domains as well as in magnitude and phase.
3] The study can thus be restricted to the case of the electric ﬁeld E which is expressed in a local basis B = (ˆ. – Ψ(s) is a phase function at the observation point P (s) and is equal to s. direct and follows relation [C. ρ1 . H. s) is orthonormal. The electric ﬁeld vector is in the plane orthogonal to the propagation direction.5] A(s. E= μ (H × s) [C. θ. It is also called the divergence factor: A(s.1.3. ρ1 and ρ2 are the two main curvature radii of the wavefront measured on the central ray at the reference point P (0). The electric and magnetic waves are strictly transverse to the propagation direction s.3]. a simpliﬁed notation is adopted in the following text which allows us to mix up the vector E with its vectorial representation E. The trihedron (E. φ). This local basis depends on the s ˆ ˆ propagation direction.6] – s is the covered distance between P (0) and P (s).Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 191 locality principle. the electric ﬁeld is expressed in GO by [GLO 99]: E(s) = A(s. ρ1 . ρ1 . ρ2 ⎣ Eθ (0) ⎦ e−jkΨ(s) Eφ (s) B Eφ (0) B [C. This point corresponds to the source position or the interaction point between the wave and a surface. ρ1 . For reasons of readability.4] [C. ρ2 ) corresponds to the ratio between the ﬁeld magnitudes E(s) and E(0). . C. – E(0) is the electric ﬁeld at the point P (0). ρ2 ) = ρ1 ρ2 (ρ1 + s)(ρ2 + s) [C. Field expression in geometric optics According to the work of Luneberg and Kline. ρ2 ) E(0) e−jkΨ(s) ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ 0 0 E(s) = ⎣ Eθ (s) ⎦ = A s.
In the following.7]): ˆ E(s) = Eθ (s) Eφ (s) = A s. ρ1 . β1 ) and B2 = (ˆ2 . C. This new local basis corresponds to the input basis B2 of the interaction. α1 . An interaction can be a reﬂection.8] B1 B2 s ˆ ˆ s ˆ ˆ B1 = (ˆ1 . Change of local basis Considering an electric ﬁeld expressed in a given basis B1 .1.1. α2 . This matrix corresponds to a projection of the vectors α1 and ˆ ˆ β1 in the basis B2 : α ·α ˆ ˆ MB1 →B2 = ˆ2 1 ˆ β2 · α1 C.8]). ρ2 Eθ (0) Eφ (0) e−jks B [C. if the wave corresponding to this ﬁeld undergoes an interaction.192 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels As the electric ﬁeld is transverse to the propagation direction s. β2 ) are the direct orthonormal bases in which the incident ﬁeld is expressed at the interaction input. They have to be recalculated whenever the ray is obstructed because the interactions modify the ray trajectory. we need to use the basis change matrix MB1 →B2 (see equation [C. the ﬁeld will be expressed in its ˆ basis B without its component along s (see equation [C.5.7) by applying the transition matrix MB →B : Er si = E i si i E⊥ si = A s.10] .9] →Br Br E i (0) i E⊥ (0) e−jks Bi i [C. To obtain the new expression of the ﬁeld. E(0) = Eα2 (0) Eβ2 (0) = MB1 →B2 Eα1 (0) Eβ1 (0) [C. The expression of this ﬁeld is i r deduced from equation (C.7] B The curvature radii ρ1 and ρ2 vary along the ray trajectory. ρi MB 1 2 i α2 · β1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ β2 · β1 [C. Incident ﬁeld The incident ﬁeld is the ﬁeld radiated by a source S in the direction of an observation point P placed at a distance si . MB1 →B2 is the transition matrix allowing us to express the incident ﬁeld in the new basis. ρi . the ﬁeld has to be expressed in a new local basis.4. a transmission (or double refraction) or a diﬀraction. the ˆ component along s is zero.
1.1.2).6.11] Most of the time. 1 2 s ˆ ˆ⊥ Bi = (ˆi . It corresponds to a basis described by the direction si .6.2). So. er . er ) is a direct orthonormal local basis at the receiver side. ˆ It corresponds to the basis described by the direction −si . The incidence plane is deﬁned . s ˆ ˆ⊥ Br = (−ˆi .13]) [MCN 90].7]). The incident ˆ si and reﬂected propagation sr directions are ﬁxed by the interaction surface ˆ by the normal vector n (see equation [C. ˆ 0 ˆ n × si − sr = ˆ ˆ ˆ [C.1. Reﬂected ﬁeld The reﬂected ﬁeld is the ﬁeld received at a point P after the reﬂection of a ray at a point Qr placed at a distance si from the source point S and at a distance sr to the point P (see Figure C. The reﬂection law which comes from the Fermat principle deﬁnes the reﬂection point Qr .12] The incidence and reﬂection planes are the same and the incidence angle θi and reﬂection angle θr are equal (see Figure C. ˆ MB i i r →Br = er · ei ˆ ˆ er · ei ˆ⊥ ˆ er · ei ˆ ˆ⊥ 1 = 0 er · ei ˆ⊥ ˆ⊥ 0 −1 [C. ei ) is a direct orthonormal local basis at the emission. ei . we consider that the incident wavefront is spherical. e and e⊥ can be assimilated to the vectors eθ and −ˆφ which ˆ ˆi a direct orthonormal basis. If we consider a r r ˆ ˆ e spherical frame. form with −s MB →B is the transition matrix which allows us to express the incident ﬁeld at the point P in the good basis. the ﬁeld is expressed by: Er (si ) = C.Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 193 ρi and ρi are the main curvature radii of the incident wavefront. C. This matrix corresponds to a projection ˆ⊥ of the vectors ei and ei in the basis Br . ei and ei can be assimilated to vectors eθ and eφ which form with si a ˆ direct orthonormal basis.13] i 1 Bi →Br i M E (0)e−jks si [C. Expression of the reﬂected ﬁeld in GO The expression of the reﬂected ﬁeld Er (sr ) is derived from the fundamental expression of the ﬁeld in GO (see equation [C. If we consider a spherical ˆ ˆ⊥ ˆ ˆ ˆ frame.
2. It is thus necessary to express the ﬁeld in the correct s ˆ ˆ⊥ incident local basis Bi = (ˆi .14] Thus. Incident and reﬂection local bases by the normal n and the incident ray given by the vector si . The reﬂection plane ˆ ˆ is deﬁned by the normal n and the reﬂected ray is given by the vector sr . i Er (0) = R MB→B i Ei (si ) [C. ei ). The ˆ ˆ use of the locality principle in the case of the reﬂected ﬁeld corresponds to the introduction of a reﬂection dyad R which is expressed according to the reﬂection coeﬃcients R and R⊥ by: R= R 0 0 R⊥ [C.16] . ei . The transition matrix MB→B allows us to describe the ﬁeld Ei (si ) in the basis B i . such that B is direct. the reﬂected ﬁeld Er (0) at the point Qr and deﬁned in the basis B only depends on the dyad R and on the incident ﬁeld Ei (si ) deﬁned in the basis B at this same point. β) corresponds to the orthonormal basis in s ˆ ˆ i i ˆ which the incident ﬁeld E (s ) is deﬁned. α and β are an arbitrary couple ˆ i of orthonormal vectors.194 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels P S er ˆ ei ˆ ei⊥ ˆ local basis Bi n ˆ θi θr Qr sr ˆ er ˆ⊥ local basis Br si ˆ tangent plane of a surface Figure C. B = (ˆi . α.15] In relation [C.15]. MB→B = i ei · α ˆ ˆ ei · α ˆ⊥ ˆ ei · β ˆ ˆ ei · β ˆ⊥ ˆ [C.
R . ei and er are parallel to ˆ i r ˆ the incidence and reﬂection planes. the following equalities are obtained: ρr = ρi and 1 1 ρr = ρi .21] . 2 2 Er sr = A sr .⊥ [C.19] Γ⊥ = [C. ρr .6. The permeability is considered to be set at 1.18] corresponds to the reﬂection coeﬃcient in the case of a surface with a thickness e and a permittivity r .2).18] Γ . These coeﬃcients are for the phase and the magnitude changes introduced by the reﬂection phenomenon on each component of the ﬁeld.⊥ are the Fresnel coeﬃcients in the case of an inﬁnite plane surface with a permittivity r : Γ = r r cos θi − cos θi + cos θi − cos θi + r r r r − sin2 θi − sin2 θi − sin2 θi − sin2 θi [C. ρr RMB→B Ei si e−jks 1 2 C. C. these coeﬃcients have to be adapted in order to take the stratiﬁcation into account. Equation [C.⊥ i r [C.Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 195 The reﬂected ﬁeld Er (sr ) at the observation point P is expressed in the s ˆ ˆ⊥ reﬂected local base B r = (ˆr . For multilayer interfaces with one or more layers. Reﬂection coeﬃcients The dyad R depends on the reﬂection coeﬃcient components which are parallel R and perpendicular R⊥ to the incidence plane (see equation [C.2. Incident and reﬂected ray bases The local bases Bi and Br are deﬁned according to the incident ray ˆ ˆ ˆ propagation direction si and the normal n.17]. while e⊥ = e⊥ are orthogonal to the same ˆ planes (see Figure C.⊥ e−2jδ e2jδ .1. the reﬂection coeﬃcients are expressed with a phase diﬀerence multiple of π by: Γ = +1 Γ⊥ = −1 [C. er . The main curvature radii ρr and ρr of the reﬂected wave depend on those of the incident wave. In 1 2 the case of a planar surface.14]).20] In the case of a perfect conductor surface (σ → ∞).1.6.3.17] = 1 − e−2jδ e2jδ Γ 1 − Γ2. er ) by the equation [C. In fact.
3).⊥ do not consider the possible roughness of the encountered surfaces (see equation [C.22] 0 r 0 Transmitted rays Reﬂected rays θi θt θi e Incident ray 0 r 0 d l e d d = 2l sin θi sin θt Figure C. The incidence θi and refraction θt angles are deﬁned by: 1 sin θt = √ sin θi r [C. Reﬂection of a plane wave on a dielectric interface with thickness e The expressions of R .3. kr = k0 r corresponds to the wavenumber of the medium with permittivity r and l = e/ cos θt is the oneway distance in the medium.18]). The roughness is introduced by .196 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels δ = kr l and δ k0 d are the phase terms associated with the delays 2 √ introduced by each reﬂected ﬁeld (see Figure C.
ρ = e−2(kr h cos θi )2 [C. The Fermat principle implies that the incidence and transmission planes are the same and deﬁned by the incident ˆ si ray and transmitted st ray directions. It establishes the relation between the incidence angle θi and the transmission angle θt (see Figure C.7.23] C.22]).4) at the interface and in the direction air → medium (see equation [C.7. also called the SnellDescartes law.⊥ by the roughness factor ρ (see equation [C.23]) [BEC 87] [COC 05].4.1.7]).1. Expression of refracted and transmitted ﬁeld in OG The expression of the transmitted ﬁeld Et (st ) at the observation point P. placed at a distance st of the transmission point. S ei ˆ e⊥ ˆi local basis B i si ˆ θi θt et ˆ n ˆ Qt e⊥ ˆt st ˆ t P local basis B Tangent plane at the refraction surface Figure C. h is the height standard deviation in the rough interface. and the reﬂection surface normal ˆ . Refracted and transmitted ﬁeld The refracted (or transmitted) ﬁeld is the received ﬁeld at the point P after refraction (or multiple refractions) of a wave at the point Qt placed on an interface at a distance si of the source point S and at a distance st of the point P. Transmission and incidence local bases C. The refraction law. also follows from the GO ﬁeld main expression (see equation [C.1. comes from the Fermat principle.Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 197 multiplying the coeﬃcients Γ .
As in the reﬂected ﬁeld case. et . taking care to deﬁne the s ˆ ˆ⊥ incident ﬁeld in the incident local basis Bi = (ˆi .24]). Its expression 1 is diﬀerent from the case of simple refraction (see equation [C. ei . in the case of multiple refraction. st corresponds to the distance between P and Qt at which the propagation distance in the interface is removed.198 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels n. st corresponds to the distance between P and Qt . et ) by: ⊥ Et st = A st .28]) and the case . The divergence of a transmitted ray is given by the following relation: A st . Indeed.24] The ﬁeld Et (0) after the transmission point Qt depends on the coeﬃcient T and on the incident ﬁeld Ei (si ) at this same point. This dyad is obtained according to the transmission coeﬃcients (see equation [C. ρt . ρt . This last distance is obtained for propagation in free space. ρt = 1 2 ρt ρt 1 2 + st )(ρt + st ) 2 [C. As the point P is inside the interface. Et (0) = TMB→B Ei si i [C. α. The transmitted ﬁeld Et (st ) at the observation point P is expressed in the ˆ ˆ ˆ transmission local basis Bt = (st .26] In the simple refraction case. For a multiple refraction (or transmission). β) corresponds to the orthonormal basis in which the incident s ˆ ˆ i i ﬁeld E (s ) is deﬁned. the transition matrix i MB→B allows the expression of the incoming ﬁeld Ei (si ) in the incident local basis B i . Identically to the reﬂection example. ei ) (see equation [C. the phase delay associated with propagation in the interface is directly introduced in T. so the transmitted ﬁeld is expressed by introducing a transmission dyad T.25] B = (ˆi . ρt TMB→B Ei si e−jks 1 2 i t [C. T= T 0 0 T⊥ [C.25]).27] (ρt 1 ρt is the ﬁrst main curvature radius of the transmitted wave. the propagation constant considers the propagation speed related to the dielectric properties at the interface. the transmission can be considered ˆ as a local phenomenon.
7. They correspond to the phase and magnitude changes introduced by the transmission phenomenon on each component of the ﬁeld.3. ρt = ρi α−1 1 1 ρt 1 = ρi 1 + αl [C.2.35]. In fact.31] cos θi cos θt [C.2). ρt = ρi α−1 2 2 ρt 2 l= e cos θt = ρi 2 + αγ l γ= r 2 [C.29]).1.Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 199 of double refraction (see equation [C. after a double ˆ⊥ ˆ ˆ refraction Bi and Bt are the same because si = st . their expressions are given by equations [C. √ 1+Γ 2 r cos θi = [C.34] and [C. Its 2 expression is also diﬀerent from the case of the simple refraction [C. Incident and transmitted ray bases ˆ The knowledge of the incident ray propagation direction si and the normal n ˆ ˆ ˆ allows us to deﬁne the local bases Bi and Bt .35] . ei and ei are deﬁned according to the normal n (see ˆ Figure C.20]. In the case of a simple refraction and a plane surface.33].28] [C. Generally. Transmission coeﬃcient In the expression of the transmission dyad.19] and [C.34] T = √ 2 r r cos θi + r − sin θi T⊥ = 1 + Γ⊥ = 2 cos θi cos θi + r [C. the two components T and T⊥ are respectively the transmission coeﬃcients parallel and orthogonal to the incidence plane.31] [PLO 03]. ei and et are respectively parallel to the incidence and transmission planes and ei = et are perpendicular ˆ⊥ ˆ⊥ ˆ⊥ ˆ to the same planes. et is obtained from equation [C.33] − sin2 θi [C.32] 1 α= √ C.29] ρt is the second main curvature radius of the transmitted wave.1.30] [C.7. Γ and Γ⊥ correspond to the Fresnel reﬂection coeﬃcients deﬁned at equations [C. ˆ⊥ ˆ et = et × st ˆ C.30] and the case of the second refraction [C.
ROU 99] and in the time domain [VER 90. T = 1 − Γ2. considering the case of the diﬀraction by dielectric or metallic dihedron.2.37] . Thereafter. DES 84.36] (see Figure C. 2 Ed sd = A sd . it presents a singularity at the boundary between a lighted zone and a shadow zone.⊥ e−2jδ e2jδ 1 − Γ2. the GO does not ensure the total continuity ﬁeld.2. In [SAG 03]. C.2. the discontinuity line is mixed up with the one of the diﬀracted beam caustics and so the curvature radius ρd .2. In 1953. Keller proposed a generalization of the GO in order to consider diﬀracted rays.⊥ C. This led to the birth of general diﬀraction theory (GTD) [KEL 62]. ROU 96. henceforth we talk about UTD. The GTD allows us to solve the problem of ﬁeld existence in the shadow zone of the GO. also called minor ray. in the time and space domain. in magnitude and phase. However.⊥ e−2jδ e2jδ [C. Other authors have also studied the simple diﬀraction. becomes zero.1. Then. ρd . the double diﬀraction as well as the slope diﬀraction in the frequency domain [LUE 89. Burnside and Burgener have proposed a formalism of the uniform theory of diﬀraction (UTD) in the case of the 3D diﬀraction on a corner of small thickness [BUR 83]. For this kind of diﬀraction.200 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels In the case of a double refraction (transmission). ROU 95].3). only the expression of the diﬀracted ﬁeld in the frequency domain is addressed. ρd → 0 DMB→B Ei si e−jks 1 2 i d [C. T and T⊥ are expressed by equation [C. the expression of the transmission coeﬃcient for an interface with more than two materials is proposed. However.37] corresponds to the diﬀraction by a dihedron. Uniform theory of diﬀraction C. So in 1962. Diﬀracted ﬁeld The expression of the diﬀracted ﬁeld given by equation [C. It predicts areas where the ﬁeld is zero (shadow zone). the theory has been completed by Kouyoumjian and Pathak in order to ensure the total ﬁeld continuity in all space points [KOU 74].36] . Introduction Electromagnetic waves are continuous.
ρd . which can be twodimensional (2D) or threedimensional (3D). Burnside and Luebbers.2. initially expressed in the basis B.40] ˆ t d d d d d e =s × ˆ ˆ e⊥ = s × e ˆ ˆ ˆ sin β0 C. UTD 2D coeﬃcient In the case of a 3D ray. these two planes are not merged.Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 201 A(s) is the divergence factor of the ray diﬀracted by the dihedron and is expressed by: A sd . . ed ).5. ed . The vectors of the bases Bi and Bd are obtained using the following relations: ˆ t s ei = si × ei ˆ⊥ ˆ ˆ ei = −ˆi × ˆ sin β0 [C. The diﬀracted ﬁeld Ed (sd ) is deﬁned in the diﬀraction basis Bd = (ˆd . s ˆ ˆ⊥ The diﬀraction law.39] i The incidence and diﬀraction planes are thus deﬁned by the tangent of the ˆ wedge t and by the incident and diﬀraction ray directions. ei .38] D is the dyad introducing the diﬀraction coeﬃcients. coming from the generalized Fermat principle. Generally. in the incidence basis of the diﬀraction s ˆ ˆ⊥ Bi = (ˆd . connects ˆ the Keller angle β0 to the incident ray direction si and the diﬀracted ray ˆ direction sd as well as the tangent t of the dihedron wedge (see Figure C.3.41] The terms D and D⊥ are the diﬀraction coeﬃcients initially introduced by Keller and then modiﬁed by Kouyoumjian. the dyad D is diagonal and directly expressed from the two components of the diﬀraction coeﬃcients D and D⊥ : D= D 0 0 D⊥ [C. This dyad can be written diﬀerently according to the diﬀracted ray’s nature. The matrix MB→B makes it possible to describe the incident ﬁeld. ei ).5) at the diﬀraction point Qd by: si · t = sd · t = cos β0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ [C. as illustrated in Figure C. ρd → 0 = 1 2 ρd 1 ρd + sd sd 1 [C.
⊥ = D1 + D2 ± (D3 + D4 ) D1 = − D2 = − e−j √ cot 2n 2πk sin βo π 4 [C.2.3. Incidence and diﬀraction local bases C. UTD coeﬃcient – dihedron conductor Contrary to the GTD.1.42] π + (φd − φi ) F kLa+ (φd − φi ) 2n π − (φd − φi ) F kLa− (φd − φi ) 2n π + (φd + φi ) F kLa+ (φd + φi ) 2n π − (φd + φi ) F kLa− (φd + φi ) 2n e−j 4 √ cot 2n 2πk sin βo π π e−j 4 cot D3 = − √ 2n 2πk sin βo e−j 4 cot D4 = − √ 2n 2πk sin βo π [C. especially at the optic boundaries ISB (incident shadow boundary) and RSB (reﬂection shadow boundary).202 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels ˆ t Incidence plane local basis Bi e ˆ S i n tio ac ﬀr Di ed ˆ β0 si ˆ ei⊥ ˆ β0 ne pla P sd ˆ ed ˆ⊥ local basis Bd Qd φd φi (2 − n)π Figure C. the UTD introduced by Kouyoumjian and Pathak [KOU 74] ensures the ﬁeld continuity in all the space. These authors have taken an interest in the case of a perfect conductor dihedron and have deﬁned two new diﬀraction coeﬃcients which introduce a correcting factor compared to the GTD coeﬃcients: D//.43] .5.
the corresponding term is √ replaced by − 2L sign( ) [PLO 00]. n is a parameter deﬁned so that the dihedron inner angle is given by (2−n)π. 2 φi and φd are respectively the incidence and diﬀraction angles. .48] When the cotangent (cot) of one of the Di (i = 1. L = sin2 β0 sd ρd + sd ρd ρd e 1 2 d + sd ρd + sd d ρe ρ1 2 ρd 1 sd ρd 1 + sd [C.5). ± corresponds to the reﬂection coeﬃcient in the case of a conductor [C.48]: 2πnN ± − (φd ± φi ) = ±π [C. L is given by equation [C. F (x) corresponds to the transition function which uses the Fresnel integral [LEG 95]: √ F (x) = 2j xejx ∞ √ x e−jt dt 2 [C.45]).21].45] [C. It brings into play the incident wave main curvature radii (ρd and ρd ) 1 2 as well as the wedge of curvature radius (ρd ) (see equation [C.47] with N ± an integer corresponding (outside the optic boundaries) to relation [C. 4) terms becomes singular for the optic boundary angles φi and φd .46] L = sin2 β0 a± is a function deﬁned by: a± = 2 cos2 2nπN ± − (φd ± φi ) 2 [C.5). In the case e of a spherical wave.Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 203 β0 is a semiangle at the diﬀraction cone head. They are speciﬁed from the wedge face 0 (see Figure C. 3. 2.46]. The normal incidence corresponds to βo = π (see Figure C.44] L is a distance parameter which corresponds to the incidence type on the wedge.
204 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels C.43].⊥ incidences on the faces 0 and n of a dihedron. 0.n are the correcting coeﬃcients which allow us to consider the grazing //.51] //.2.⊥  > 0 ⎪ ⎪ 1 + Rn ⎨ //. UTD 3D coeﬃcient Contrarily to the case of a 2D ray. These coeﬃcients are heuristic solutions as they are not obtained by solving Maxwell equations: n 0 0 D//.49] Di (i = 1. 4) are terms reported on equations [C.n R//.⊥ = for φi = 0 ⎪ ⎪2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1 otherwise C.20].⊥ = Gn //.4. 0 n The incidence angles θi = π − φi and θi = π − (nπ − φi ) depend on the faces 2 2 0 and n of the considered wedge.⊥ D3 + G//.3.2. ⎧ 1 ⎪ 0 ⎪ for φi = 0 and 1 + R//. This 3D dyad has been introduced by Burnside and Burgener [BUR 83] and reused by Rouvi`re [ROU 99] in the case of a e dielectric halfplane with very small thickness. as in the case of 2D ray (see equation [C. ρ0. So.⊥ D2 + ρ0 R//. 3. G0.19] and [C. To obtain the 3D dyad of [BUR 83].49]). the dyad D of a 3D ray is no longer diagonal and is expressed only by two diﬀraction coeﬃcients.n corresponds to the roughness coeﬃcient of the considered face [C.⊥  > 0 ⎪ 1 + R0 ⎪ ⎨ //.⊥ 1 Gn [C.50] //.23].⊥ = ⎪ for φi = nπ ⎪2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1 otherwise ⎧ 1 ⎪ n ⎪ for φi = nπ and 1 + R//.⊥ 1 G0 [C.⊥ corresponds to the Fresnel reﬂection coeﬃcients [C.⊥ D1 + ρn R//.2.⊥ D4 [C. the boundary conditions at the reﬂection in incidence . This formulation allows us to consider the dielectric nature of the wedge as well as its roughness [LUE 89]. 2. ﬁeld continuity has to be ensured at each optic limit. UTD coeﬃcients – dielectric dihedron Luebbers proposes a more general formulation for the diﬀraction coeﬃcients.
56] Each of the dyads (D. Field area around a diﬀracting wedge Using these boundary conditions. The diﬀraction plane is given by π − α.54] [C. the following expression is obtained for the dyad D: D = (I − T )D(φd − φi ) + R D(φd + φi ) D(φd − φi ) = D1 + D2 D(φd − φi ) = D1 + D2 [C. II and III illustrated by Figure C.6.55] [C.Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 205 boundaries have to consider relations [C.6. In these relations.53]. 2 . Ui and Ur correspond to the incident and reﬂected ﬁelds respectively. In 2D. e−jks = RUi (Qd )D(φd + φi ) √ sd (1 − T)Ui Qd D φd − φi e−jks √ = sd d d −1/2Ur 1/2Ur area I area II area II area III [C. α is the angle between the incidentreﬂection plane as well as the incidencetransmission plane and the incident plane. R and T ) are expressed in their respective local basis.52] −1/2(1 − T)Ui 1/2(1 − T)Ui [C.53] with the areas denoted I. It is thus necessary to calculate the base change matrices in order to express all the ﬁelds in the local basis of the diﬀraction. RSB Zone I incident + reﬂected + diﬀracted Zone II incident + transmitted ISB Zone III diﬀracted + transmitted diﬀracted wedge Figure C.52] and [C.
57]).d · ei.r ˆ ˆ⊥ ei. In these equations.57] ne pla ce en cid In π 2 ne pla −α si ˆ ei⊥ ˆ θi φd φi (2 − n)π Figure C. In 3D. ce den inci ˆ t n ctio reﬂe ne pla P sd ˆ θr Qd β0 ed ˆ⊥ n tio ac ﬀr Di ed ˆ n ˆ e ˆ S i The relations between the reﬂection and diﬀraction local bases are illustrated at Figure C. Reﬂection and diﬀraction incidence planes ed.206 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels the incidencereﬂection and incidencetransmission planes are perpendicular to the incidencediﬀraction plane (α = 0).r ˆ ˆ⊥ ed.d · ei. these planes have no particular direction (see Figure C.d · ed.8 allow us to establish the matrix of basis change necessary to express the reﬂection R (see equation [C.d ˆ⊥ · ed.58] − sin α cos α [C.d · ed.r ˆ ˆ ei. ⎡ ⎣ Mi R→D (α) = M(α) = ei.d ˆ⊥ · ei. the exponent terms correspond to the plane nature (i for incident and d for diﬀraction) as well as the interaction specifying the plane (r for reﬂection and d for diﬀraction).r ˆ⊥ ⎤ ⎦ = cos α sin α ⎤ ⎦= cos α − sin α sin α cos α [C.r ˆ⊥ .57]) and transmission T dyads in the diﬀraction local basis (see equation [C.r ˆ⊥ ˆ ˆ ed.r ˆ ei.r ˆ⊥ ˆ ⎡ ⎣ Md R→D (α) = M(−α) = ed.7.d · ei.7).d · ed.
r ˆ ed. i R = Md R→D (α) R MR→D (α) −1 = M(−α) R M(−α) = R cos α − R⊥ sin α −(R + R⊥ ) cos α sin α 2 2 [C.60] (T − T⊥ ) cos α sin α T⊥ cos2 α + T sin2 α −(T − T⊥ ) cos α sin α 1 − T⊥ cos2 α − T sin2 α [C.d ˆ⊥ α ed.54] underline the nondiagonal structure of the dyad D which is expressed by [BUR 83] [GLO 99]: D= Da Dc Db Dd [C.Geometric Optics and Uniform Theory of Diﬀraction 207 ei.r ˆ⊥ α ei.59] (R + R⊥ ) cos α sin α R⊥ cos2 α − R sin2 α −1 T = Md →D (α)T Mi →D (α) T T = M(α)TM(−α) = (I − T ) = T cos α + T⊥ sin α (T − T⊥ ) cos α sin α 2 2 [C.d ˆ⊥ ei. the same basis change matrices are used. They are denoted M(−α) because we turn conversely.59] and [C.r ˆ before diﬀraction after diﬀraction Figure C.r ˆ⊥ α ed.8.59] and [C.d ˆ ed.61] 1 − T cos2 α − T⊥ sin2 α −(T − T⊥ ) cos α sin α Expressions [C.d ˆ α ei. Incidence reﬂection and diﬀraction bases in 3D case In the case of transmission.60].62] Da = 1−T cos2 α−T⊥ sin2 α D φi − φd −[R cos2 α − R⊥ sin2 α D φi + φd [C.61] inserted in equation [C. The dyadic matrices are thus expressed by R and T by using equations [C.63] .
the terms R .18] and [C.208 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Db = cos α sin α [(T⊥ − T ) D(φi − φd ) + (R + R⊥ ) D(φi + φd )] Dc = cos α sin α [(T⊥ − T ) D(φi − φd ) − (R + R⊥ ) D(φi + φd )] [C.66].65] Dd = [1−T sin2 α−T⊥ cos2 α]D(φi − φd )−[R⊥ cos2 α−R sin2 α]D(φi + φd ) [C.63] [C.64] [C.⊥ are the reﬂection and transmission coeﬃcients.36].65] and [C.⊥ and T .66] In equations [C.64] [C. the expressions of which are given by [C. .
.
but the precision of the calculated ﬁeld and the received signal decreases. The speed of ray determination with the ray launching approach is directly related to the chosen Δα.2) [HUM 03. the receiver position coordinates (Rx) are speciﬁed (see Figure D. Ray launching Ray launching is a forward approach which consists of sending rays in all the directions from a transmission position of coordinates (Tx) with an incremental angular step (Δα) which can be set to various values. CHA 03]. LIN 89].2. The speciﬁcity of this approach is the increase of the number of the potential images combinations with the complexity of the considered environment. This can lead to important ray calculation time.Appendix D Ray Construction Techniques D. . Ray tracing Ray tracing is a backward approach which consists of applying the image principle from Tx and Rx position in order to obtain reﬂected rays (see Figure D. KIM 97.1. D. When the Rx position is ﬁxed.1) [CHE 96.1). the launched rays connecting Tx to Rx will be considered if they intersect the receiver sphere (see Figure D. the rays connecting the transmitter Tx and the receiver Rx are obtained considering a receiver sphere of diameter Δd which can be set to various values. The number of rays obtained increases with the sphere diameter Δd (for a given Δα). Then. MCK 91. So. STA 98.
Ray tracing principle .210 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels δα Tx (a) δα δd Tx Rx (b) Figure D.1.2. Ray launching principle: (a) rays launched from the transmitter and (b) rays obtained considering intersection of receiver sphere Im Im Tx /s1 /s2 Im Tx /s1 s1 Tx Rx s2 Figure D.
Some of these techniques are hybrid and combine ray launching and ray tracing [TAN 95. while others require a visibility tree to be built [AGE 97. other techniques are also proposed and used for ray determination. These last techniques use octree. raster or Voxel matrices for ray determination [FOL 84. AGE 00]. TCH 03. LEG 05]. . or rely upon calculation time speed improvement techniques borrowed from the image processing domain.3. AVE 04]. Other techniques In the literature.Ray Construction Techniques 211 D.
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the obtained signal x(τ ) is real. δf = fmax −fmin is the Nf frequency sampling step and fk corresponds to a frequency value given by fk = fmin + k δf .Appendix E Description of the TimeFrequency Transform The determination of a time domain signal x(τ ) from its frequency domain expression X(f ) is generally made using an inverse Fourier transform (see equation [E. +∞ x(τ ) = −∞ X(f ) ej 2 π f τ df ∀f ∈ R [E.3]). The signal obtained after discrete inverse ˆ Fourier transform is complex and corresponds to h(τ ) + j h(τ ) (see Figure E.2]).3] The transfer function H(f ) does not show a Hermitian symmetry because it is only deﬁned between fmin and fmax . for Nf frequency points.1] [E. the determination of h(τ ) is made using an inverse Fourier transform (see equation [E.2] X ∗ (f ) = X(−f ) From frequency domain measurements.1). the obtained channel transfer function H(f ) is deﬁned on a ﬁnite frequency band from fmin to fmax . As the frequency domain expression X(f ) of the signal x(τ ) shows a Hermitian symmetry (see equation [E.1]). . As H(f ) is discrete. Nf −1 h(τ ) = δf k=0 H(fk ) ej 2 π fk τ [E.
06 −0.04 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels −0.04 0.06 0.08 40 50 0 10 20 30 delay (ns) 40 imaginary part 0.214 real part 0.02 0 −0.02 −0.08 0. Inverse Fourier transform of H(f ) .1.06 0.02 0 −0.04 −0.02 −0.06 −0.08 0 10 20 30 delay (ns) 50 Figure E.08 0.04 0.
to improve the precision of the reconstructed h(τ ). Nl ) H(f ) zeros(1. Operation of zero padding The operation of zero padding consists of obtaining a new transfer function H1 (f ) from H(f ) (see Figure E. Nevertheless. Moreover.3).Description of the TimeFrequency Transform 215 To obtain a real signal h(τ ). The new transfer function H1 (f ) contains far more samples than H(f ). fe [E.5]) with N1 = Nr + Nf + Nl samples where Nl = fδf − 1 and Nr = fe −fmax . we can expand the spectral support of H2 (f ) in comparison to H(f ). Figure E.4 represents a real impulse response h(τ ) obtained after a discrete inverse Fourier transform applied on H2 (f ). This consists of making an operation of zero padding. δf H1 (f ) = zeros(1. H1 (f ) is constructed according to the following relation with fe = 2 1 . We can notice that the sampling of the obtained time domain signal is improved. the new transfer function H1 (f ) is constructed as shown in equation min [E. it is mandatory to use a transfer function H2 (f ) presenting by construction a Hermitian symmetry. it is still complex. δτ H1 (f ) = H(f ) f ∈ fmin . This new transfer function H2 (f ) is deﬁned from −fe to fe (see equation [E.4] So. H2 (f ) = H1 (f ) ∗ H2 (−f ) = H2 (f ) for f > 0 ∀f ∈ δf. so the increase of Nf necessary leads to a reduction of δτ and consequently improves the time domain precision of the signal h(τ ) obtained after the discrete inverse Fourier transform.2 shows the time domain signal obtained after discrete inverse Fourier transformation is applied on H1 (f ).5] Figure E. fmax 0 f ∈ δf. Indeed. The reconstruction of a real h(τ ) from H(f ) is made by applying two successive operations on H(f ) before the discrete inverse Fourier transformation: zero padding and Hermitian symmetric forcing. Nr ) [E.3.6] . fe [E. Operation of Hermitian symmetric forcing The operation of forcing the Hermitian symmetry consists of creating a transfer function H2 (f ) from H1 (f ). the product δτ δf Nf is equal to 1.6]) as illustrated in Figure E. fmin − δf ∪ fmax + δf.
02 0 −0.216 real part 0.06 0.08 40 50 0 10 20 30 delay (ns) 40 imaginary part 0.06 0.2.08 0.06 −0.04 0.02 −0.02 0 −0.04 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels −0.02 −0.04 0.08 0.04 −0. Zero padding and inverse Fourier transform on H1 (f ) .06 −0.08 0 10 20 30 delay (ns) 50 Figure E.
3. Illustration of the Hermitian symmetric forcing 217 .H (f ) + zero padding ±f f min f max fe f Operation of symmetric f orcing Description of the TimeFrequency Transform H *(f) + f lip zero padding H (f ) + zero padding −fe −f max −f min 0 f min f max fe f Figure E.
06 0.08 0.04 0.08 40 50 0 10 20 30 delay (ns) 40 imaginary part 0.02 0 −0.04 0.08 0 10 20 30 delay (ns) 50 Figure E.04 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels −0.02 −0.04 −0.02 0 −0.4.06 −0.06 0.02 −0. Reconstruction of h(τ ) after discrete inverse Fourier transform applied on H2 (f ) .06 −0.218 real part 0.08 0.
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58. 72 Coherence bandwidth. 107 radiation eﬃciency. 43 deterministic. 25 representation. 150 WSS. 59 Correlation bandwidth. 47. 145 ray. 111 polarization. 75 sliding correlation. 148. 33 Delay interval. 24 Bluetooth. 69. 51. 57 Channel capacity. 181 linear random. 133 Chirp sounder. 24 Channel equalization. 107 return loss. 42 . 104 DoD. 54 matrix. 104 Doppler eﬀect. 35. 54 Deterministic model. 173 DSUWB. 99 Diﬀraction. 61 Average fade duration. 213 US. 64. 60 DelayDoppler spread function. 156. 156 spectrum. 177 sounding. 102 eﬀective area. 107 Arrival rate cluster. 29. 76 D DAA. 49. 27. 50. 64 B BER. 52 impulse response. 50 shift. 38. 137 deﬁnition. 60 Delay window. 108 propagation. 49 Channel modeling statistical. 61. 39. 40 C CDMA. 134 isotropic. 146 rays. 173 spread. 30 BPSK. 64. 67 transfer function. 44. 134. 47 Diﬀusion. 49 Correlation sounder.Index A Antenna diversity. 39. 40. 56 variations. 47 DoA. 40 Channel characteristic parameters. 26. 55 WSSUS.
111 FDTD. 48. 48. 39 Path loss. 178 Huygens’ principle. 202 K KolmogorovSmirnov. 153. 134 Power decay constants. 185 LOS. 172 ﬂat. 51. 213. 47 I Impulse radio. 33. 215 Hilbert transform.15. 160 dynamic. 39 P PAM.4a. 105 M MBOK. 37. 75 Maxwell equation. 191 ﬁeld locality. 152. 166 time varying.3a. 134 G General theory diﬀraction. 161 IEEE 802. 23 E ESD (Energy spectral density). 185 O OOK. 35. 38. 150. 189. 100 Fourier transform. 34. 40–42 Mean delay. 44 Frequency correlation function. 63. 137. 200 Geometric optic. 62. 85 Model statistical. 33.238 UltraWideband Radio Propagation Channels Duty cycle. 50. 157 CassioliWinMolisch. 22. 59 Measurement campaigns. 172 Far ﬁeld. 161. 200 ﬁeld expression. 48 slow. 177. 64 L Laplace distribution. 38. 48. 78 ISB. 148. 45 Free space propagation. 61. 141 F Fading fast. 103. 25. 39 Processing gain. 59 Inversion sounding technique. 32 GSM. 46 Friis formula. 144 Power delay proﬁle. 150. 63. 162 exponent distance dependent. 64 Lognormal distribution. 53 Fresnel law. 30 H Hermitian symmetry. 110 Exponential decay constants. 35. 163. 64.15. 31. 184. 35. 177 PPM. 159 principles. 178. 159. 53 Intersymbol interference. 101 GPS. 31. 137 Power spectral density. 158 IEEE 802. 59 Frequency domain function. 190 GO. 136 frequency dependent. 169 frequency domain. 64. 57. 170. 134. 25 . 204 MBOFDM. 189. 183 NLOS. 100 N Nakagami distribution. 185 Level crossing rate. 45 FCC. 173. 105 Normal distribution. 39 msequence. 38–40 Impulse response. 40. 63. 85 examples. 186 KolmogorovSmirnov test. 103. 45. 25. 58. 213 Fraunhofer distance. 162 MoM. 91 overview.
137 RSB. 111 Pulse sounder. 209. 30 V Variations spatial. 181. 23 Transfer function. 26 RAKE reception. 150. 104 SnellDescartes law. 134 model. 68 Standing wave ratio. 150. 39 WLAN. 101 UWB applications. 29. 99 multipath. 70 frequency domain. 64. 125 time varying. 49 Ray launching. 57. 27. 69 CIR length. 48. 183 RIR. 29 . 71 multipleband time domain. 64. 30 SISO. 24 deﬁnition. 155. 68 CIR dynamic. 71 W Waveguide eﬀect. 161. 30. 51. 48 Shadowing. 71 Saleh and Valenzuela model. 92 T Time hopping. 182. 27 WPAN. 58 S Sparameters. 30. 48 SHF. 22 history. 105 RMS delay spread.Index Propagation free space. 184 Wide sense stationary. 45 PSD (Power spectral density). 150. 73 time resolution. 202 RUN method. 30. 184 Rays launching. 30 characteristics. 39 UTD. 64. 211 Ray tracing. 156. 47 U UHF. 46 Sounding analyzed bandwidth. 173. 172 Vector network analyzer. 27 Z Zero padding. 69 maximum Doppler shift. 183. 29. 150. 54 Transmission. 51. 215 Zigbee. 169 temporal. 44. 209. 137 Weibull distribution. 26. 155. 78 time domain. 45. 69 239 measurement techniques. 61 Scattering function. 21. 173 Selectivity frequency. 40 Uncorrelated scattering. 48 phenomena. 40 R Radio channel. 200 UNII. 55 WiFi. 101 Reﬂection. 211 Rayleigh distribution. 47. 26. 59. 27. 56 Uniform theory of diﬀraction. 34. 23 regulation. 30 UMTS. 64. 73 Q QPSK. 58 spatial. 46 Rice distribution. 23. 101 Rays tracing.