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You are on page 1of 96

Instructional

MANUAL

CONTENTS

Chapter Page

1 Introduction 1

3 Draft Survey 30

4 Cargo Deadweight 50

6 Grain Loading 73

Appendix 94

- 1 -

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE

1.1 This Handbook is intended to assist Deck Officers with their loading calculations.

Practical solutions are emphasised, and the most common questions about ship

1.2 More detailed knowledge may be obtained from published tomes on the subject

DESCRIPTION

1.3 Chapter One, Introduction - describes the purpose of the Handbook. There is a

1.4 Chapter Two, Ship Draft, Trim and Stability Notes -defines and discusses points

and practices which have a practical effect on safe and economic ship loading.

1.5 Chapter Three, Draft Survey - describes in detail, complete with worked

1.6 Chapter Four, Cargo Deadweight - summarises the main considerations when

1.7 Chapter Five, Trim and stability - summarises the main considerations when

performing trim and stability calculations. Each step in the procedures is then

-2-

1.8 Chapter Six, Grain Loading - summarises the IMCO and SOLAS requirements for

loading grain. Each step in the procedure is then described in detail, complete with

worked examples.

1.9 Chapter Seven, Rolling Period Test for Timber Carriers -describes the procedure

for measuring the rolling period of a ship. This is most frequently required when

there is timber deck cargo, but is applicable for any vessel or cargo. The

calculations to convert rolling period into GM are then described in detail, complete

material covered in this Handbook. All questions are worked out in detail.

1.11 The following abbreviations are commonly used through- out the text:

AP After Perpendiculars

DISP Displacement

DWT Deadweight

FP Forward Perpendiculars

GM Metacentric height

P Port

-3-

QM Quarter Mean

S Starboard

FORMULAS

2

2

2

Trim = Aft - Fwd

2

2

2

correction

-4-

LBP

LBP

LBP

LBP

MTC difference ( Metric ) :

(a) QM + 50cm = MTC (Found from Ship’s Data)

- (b) MTC

= MTC difference

FUEL OIL_________________ MT

DIESEL OIL ____________ MT

LUBE OIL ____________MT

FRESH WATER ____________MT

DRINK WATER ____________MT

BOILER WATER ___________MT

BALLAST WATER _________MT

-5-

SLUDGE __________________MT

STORES,etc _______________MT

CONSTANT _______________MT

TOTAL weight deductions

- TOTAL weight deductions (2nd condition)

= NETT displacement (2nd condition)

= CARGO LOADED

Total Capacity

Hogging = MID MEAN - FWD & AFT MEAN [ Peregib ] , See Pg.23

Sagging = MID MEAN - FWD & AFT MEAN [ Progib ] , See Pg.23

LCG(FP) = LBP + MG

2

Displacement

-6-

MTC

Final Longitudinal Moments = DISP x LCG(FP)

Weight

2

TPC

Distance = 2 x MTC

TPC

2

Total Weights (P) Total Weights (S)

Total Change in Weights

GM = TKM - New KG

G1M = GM - GG1

Rolling Period : ( Imperial ) ( Metric )

sq.rt of G M sq. rt of GM

12 x DISP x n²

-7-

Where:

L = Length of tank

B = Breadth of tank

( IMPERIAL ) ( METRIC )

GM = 0,1936 x B² GM = 0,6532 x B²

T² T²

Where :

B = Breadth of Ship

GG1 = w x dKG

DISP

Where:

DISP = W +/ - w

W = Original Displacement

GM = W x D x cot.0°

DISP

Where:

W = Weight

- 8 -

HHM = ___VHM___

SF( cargo)

G0 G1 = VHM

DISP x SF

35.315

NECESSARY MATERIALS

1.13 Work Forms are recommended to ease the work of calculations. Several forms are

included as part of the examples in this Handbook. These may be used as is, or

These items are all supplied by the shipbuilder to the ship and should be studied

with care.

1.15 Certified hydrometer and water sampler (water thief). These are used to measure

the specific gravity (Sg) of the water in which the ship is floating. A special

hydrometer for measuring the Sg of fuel and lubricating oils should also be

available.

-9-

1.16 A sounding tape for measuring tank contents, and a standard tape for measuring

1.17 A good calculator will speed up calculations. Any of the better scientific calculators

- 10 -

- 11 -

- 12 -

Figure 2

Page 13 is skipped

- 14 -

CHAPTER TWO

SHIP DRAFT, TRIM AND STABILITY NOTES

CONSTANT

2.3 The constant also increases with age. Corrosion and the

for each five years of vessel life".

Most vessels are now much larger, so the estimate will have to

- 15 -

when the vessel is light can be helpful.

accurate data.

constant calculations.

- 16 -

measure Fwd. Aft, and Amidships Sg’s, and use the average

required.

is floating.

- 17 -

gravity.

Most seafarers are well aware of the effect known as “squat” which

causes ships to increase their draft when travelling at speed in shallow

water. What they may not be aware of is that a ship moored or

anchored in shallow water experiences the same effect when there is a

tidal stream or current running. The cause of both effects is similar.

Consider a ship moored in a river (Figure 4). When a current is

running the shin constricts the flow. The water must then increase its

speed In order that the same quantity passes through the restricted

space as does through the unrestricted space. In any given period of

time. The water flowing at a higher speed under the bottom of the

vessel causes a reduction In pressure on the bottom (this occurs by

virtue of the Bernoulli effect) arid the ship sinks deeper in the water.

- 18 -

Calculations, Seawaves, Vol.Feb.1984, pp.15, 17.

The Bernoulli effect can be demonstrated by trying to blow a piece of card off

the end of a cotton reel (Figure 5). It is impossible to blow the card off. The high

air velocity on the inner face of the card causes a local drop in pressure relative

to the outer face of the card; thus keeping it firmly pressed on the end of the reel.

Bernoulli’s equation, which governs this effect, is P + p V²/2 + pgh = constant,

where

P + p V²/2 + pgh = constant, where

P - is pressure,

p - the water density,

v - Is the velocity, and

h - the depth of water.

Clearly as v increases, at a given water depth, P must decrease for the equation

to remain constant.

therefore, on the water velocity. It will also depend on the depth

of water beneath the keel and the ship’s length. The sinkage in

some cases will be considerable. For example, a 1,600 tonne

coaster moored In a river where the current Is running at 4 knots

will experience a sinkage of at least 5 cm where there is about

0.35 in of water under the keel. It is therefore desirable to wait

until the depth of water under the keel is as large, as possible

before measuring draughts if there is any current.

Clearly In a tidal stream It would be better to measure the

draughts at slack Hater thus avoiding this sinkage effect If’ at

all possible. With data currently available it would not be

- 19 -

in all cases.

An approximate theoretical estimate can be made but the

procedure involved is relatively complicated (see Dand &

Ferguson. The Squat of Full Form Ships In Shallow Water,

TRINA Vol.115. 1973.

Displacement (DISP).

SHIP STRUCTURE

bulkheads.

stem.

- 20 -

length.

fuller aft.

- 21 -

( Page 22 is skipped.)

- 23 -

Figure 7

- 24 -

LONDITUDIONAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY

METRIC MEASURE

- 25 -

- 26 -

practical calculations.

TRIM

the stern”.

the head”

2.23.3 When LCG and LCE are the same, the ship is on an

“even keel”.

seaway.

- 27 -

- 28 -

2.27 There are times when a ship is put on even keel because

BALLAST TANKS

2.28 All ships, except tankers, are built with double bottoms

Also check the tank top seams and the manhole covers.

- 29 -

- 30 -

CHAPTER THREE

DRAFT SURVEY

SURVEY PROCEDURE

3.2 The Forward (Fwd), Aft (Aft), and Midships (Mid) drafts

are read at both Port (P) and Starboard (S) marks. The P

3.3 The Aft draft is subtracted from the Fwd draft, and the

2

2

2

- 31 -

3.5 If the marks are not on the perpendiculars, the vessel usually

128.0

128.0

The Sign of A.P. / F.P. Corrections depending on Signs of two factors: Trim and

Location of Distance between FWD / AFT perpendiclar to FWD / AFT Draft mark.

Actually it appear atomatically when you insert in fomula all parametrs with their

own algebraical sign . Trim by STEN ( + ) ; Tim by HEAD ( - ).

Location of FWD /AFT perpendiculars FORWARD of FWD / AFT Draft mark ( - ) ;

Location of FWD / AFT Perpendiculas AFT of FWD / AFT Draft mark ( + ) .

Strictly say nesessary check all Signs in Ship’s Stability Manual to avoid any mistakes.

(7.10) - represents the distance from the AFT Draft mark to the

AFT Perpendicular.

(-1.21) - represents the distance from the FWD Draft mark to the

FWD Perpendicular.

marks

- 32 -

— 33 —

3.7 The above corrections are applied to the forward and after

drafts read.

+ Fwd Corr. -0.0165 + Aft Corr +0.0971

Corrected Fwd Draft 2.6235 Corrected Aft Draft 4.3971

Fwd 2.361

Corrected Trim 2.658

draft values

3.10 First calculate the Fwd/Aft Mean Draft. Add Fwd to Aft,

2

3.11 Next, calculate the Mean of Mean Add the Fwd/Aft Mean

result by two:

2

- 34 -

2

S 2.377 S 5.017 S 3.72

4.754 10.034 7.31

2 2 2

= 5.017 - 2.377

DRAFT CORRECTION

Corrections for the Fwd and Aft Drafts (Fwd corr. and Aft

values are different for each ship, and are found in the

EXAMPLE:

(distance between Fwd and Aft Marks)

(distance between Fwd and Aft Marks)

Formulas.

-35-

Corrected Draft:

Fwd Corr = -0.016 Aft Corr = + 0.091

Fwd Draft Corrected = 2.361 Aft Draft Corrected = 5.108

= Corrected Trim (CT)

Fwd Draft Corrected = - 2.361

Corrected Trim (CT) 2.747

Note: This value used in the Trim correction Formulas to adjust the

displacement.

EXAMPLE:

2

Fwd and Aft + Mid Mean = 3.69

+3.655

7.345

2

2

QM = 3.663 M

Calculations.

8

AFT Perp.

FWD Perp.

+ -1.21m

Note: The Sign of A.P./F.P. Correstions depending on Signs of two factors: Trim and Distance between F/A perpendiclar to F/A Draft mark.

Actually it appear atomatically when you insert in fomla all parametrs with their own algebraical signs.

Trim by STEN ( + ) ; Tim by HEAD ( - ). Location of F/A perpendiculars FORWARD of F/A Draft mark ( - ) ; Location of F/A

Perpendiculas AFT of F/A Draft mark ( + ) . Strictly say nesessary check all Signs in Ship’s Stability Manual to avoid any mistakes.

- 37 -

3.14 Interpolation

Calculate the Displacement Correction ( DISP. Corr.)

QM.

metres.

Tables.

EXAMPLE:

- 38 -

- 40 -

= 7587.00 + 6.181 = 7593.181 MT (corrected)

TRIM CORRECTION

LBP

LBP

-41-

and the trim condition. (It's mean sign of LCF and TRIM )

LCF is Forward (Fwd) (+) ADD Trim Correction

LCF is Aft (Aft) (-) SUBTRACT Trim

Correction

LCF is Fwd (—) SUBTRACT Trim Correction

LCF is Aft (+) ADD Trim Correction

LBP

found.

Hydrostatic book.

- 43 -

EXAMPLE:

LBP

137.00

= 159.91(-)

LBP

MTC diff.:

MTC diff= ( a) — ( b)

a) QM = 3.675

+ 0.50

4.175 MTC = 169.4

b) QM = 3.675

— 0.50

3.175 MTC =160.7

(a) = 169.4

(b) = - 160.7

MTC diff = 8.7

137

b)- 159.91

=c) 7427.09 (-)

- 44 -

d) + 23.81

= e) 7450.90 (+) = Displ. Corr.for

Trim

TPI = Tons Per Inch (12 converts all to inches)

LBP

LBP

3.22 A Specific Gravity (Sg) of 1.025 is generally assumed

must be calculated.

1.025 or less.

more.

1.025

EXAMPLE:

1.025

- 45 -

Density Corr. (Sg.) — 32.71

DISP. Corr. for Density 7418.19

VESSEL’S CONSTANT

of an unladen vessel.

is being sounded.

- 46 -

3.29 WEIGHTS

CONSTANT 200.42 MT

= TOTAL WEIGHT 3145.32 MT

FINAL SURVEY

Lightship Weight.

- 47 -

-50-

CHAPTER FOUR

CARGO DEADWEIGHT

GENERAL

location and season. More can be loaded in Tropical

between the ship and the Port Authorities, or with the ship

ballast, etc., necessary for the intended voyage,must

bunkering port is required.

Available.

-51-

EXAMPLE:

Displacement = - 21654.000 MT

17313.000 MT

Constant = — 196.000 MT

17117.000 MT

Ballast = — 2651.000 MT

14466.000 MT

Fresh Water = - 308.000 MT

14158.000 MT

CONSUMABLE CONSUMPTION

reduced. If the planned intake, plus the fresh water and

greater than the consumables on board at Final Survey, the

Available.

-52-

EXAMPLE:

Fresh Water = 150 MT

Fuel Water = + 660 MT

Total Consumables = 810 MT a)

Fresh Water Consumption 8.0/day x 16.5 = 132 MT

Fuel Oil Consumption 24.0/day x 16.5 = + 396 MT

Planned Intake - Fresh Water = 200 MT

- Fuel Oil = +400 MT

- Total = 600 MT

Balance of Fuel and Water = +282 MT

Total after Replenishment = 882 MT

Consumables at Port of Lading = -810 MT

Difference of = 72 MT

Available.

SEASONAL ZONES

EXAMPLE:

Difference = 682.00 MT

-53-

lading to the Winter Zone may be added to the Winter Zone

allowable displacement when calculating allowable Cargo

Deadweight.

bunkering port in the Winter Zone, the total planned weight

of consumables on board at that port will govern the

allowable Cargo Deadweight.

Capacity Plan. Bale Capacity is used if the booked cargo is

not grain or other bulk commodities.

EXAMPLE:

CF/LT.

1 M³ / MT = 35.3145 Ft³ /LT

Bale Capacity = 19183.82 M³

SF

= 19183.82

1.81

= 1598.795 MT

are available. “ STOWAGE - THE PROPERTIES AND STOWAGE OF

CARGOES ” by Captain R. E. Thomas, is a particularly

complete reference.

-54-

CARGO DISTRIBUTION

weight is evenly spread throughout the ship.

the ship than in the middle, the deck will deflect

up. This is called “ Hogging ”.

than at the ends of the ship, the deck will deflect

down. This is called “ Sagging ”.

the keel in compression. In a sagging condition, the deck

is placed in compression, and the keel in tension.

4.12 The keel is stronger than the deck because of the greater

weight of metal used in construction. The deck is further

weakened by necessary openings, such as cargo hatches.

These openings are reinforced, but, since they are the

weakest points in the ship’s structure, careful inspection

is required.

Measure deflection.

Fwd and Aft Mean = Fwd Mean + Aft Mean

2

4.13.2 If Mid Mean is greater than Fwd and Aft Mean, the

ship is Sagging.

4.13.3 If the Mid Mean equals Fwd Mean equals Aft Mean,

the ship is on an even keel.

NOTE: Ship’s decks are stronger in tension than in com-

therefore, a small amount of Hogging is preferred to

Sagging.

-55-

4.14 Most modern ships have their machinery and superstructure

Aft. This produces a large trim By the Stern. And a

Hogging moment, in the light condition.

Hogging.

4.14.2 Next load the Forward hold to decrease the trim.

4.15.2 Distribute the remaining load for desired trim.

cargo, such as grain or concentrates. General cargoes

are often more difficult because of factors such as

port rotation and cargo segregation.

EXAMPLE:

Hold Number 1 = 3680.35 (M3)

Hold Number 2 = 5293.91 (M³)

Hold Number 3 = 5291.50 (M³)

Hold Number 4 = 4918.06 (M³)

Total Capacity

19183.82

19183.82

19183.82

19183.82

-56-

Hold No. 2 = 16000x .2760 = 4416.00 MT

Hold No. 3 = 16000x .2758 = 4412.80 MT

Hold NO. 4 = 16000x .2564 = 4102.40 MT

TOTAL = 16000.00 MT

NOTE: If the ship has Twin Deck Holds, solve for each cargo

space as demonstrated.

produce a concentration of weight in the middle. This

will cause Sagging. This can be minimised by shifting

some weight forward.

100 Metric Tonnes, will give a good approximation.

EXAMPLE:

Hold No. 3 = 4412.80 — 112.80 = 4300.00 MT

Hold No. 2 = 4416.00 - 116.00 = 4300.00 MT

Hold No. 1 = 3068.80 + 231.20 = 3300.00 MT

TOTAL = 16000.00 MT

Deflection and Trim can be checked as loading

progresses.

Checking the Midships Drafts can do this.

If loading is critical for any reason, a Draft and

Deadweight Survey must be done.

-58-

CHAPTER FIVE

TRIM AND STABILITY

GENERAL

of correctly interpreting plans, tables, and graphs.

Ship Stability and Tank manuals provide values for

Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (LCG). Transverse Centre

of Gravity (KG). Moment of Inertia, another data

necessary for ship loading calculations.

(Figure 16). Tables are more common, and are easier

to work from.

5.3 Longitudinal Centre of Gravity can be calculated from the

Forward Perpendicular (LCG EP), the After Perpendicular

(LCG AP), or from Midships (MID).

dealing with two sets of longitudinal moments. This

greatly reduces the chance of error, so all our examples

will be based on LCG FP.

centre of that hold. The LCG of uniformly distributed,

homogeneous cargo, such as grain, is also at the centre of

the hold.

is assumed to be at the centre of each type of cargo.

should supply the centre of gravity information.

- 59 -

TRIM CALCULATION

5.8 The LCG method is the most accurate for calculating the

trim of a ship, because all the major forces acting on the

ship, including buoyancy, are considered.

Perpendicular LCG (FP) is equal to One-half of the Length

Between Perpendiculars (LEP) plus or minus The Centre of

Gravity From Midships (MG).

2

Forward Perpendicular LCB (FP) is equal to one half LBP

plus or minus the Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (LCB).

2

5.10.2 If LCB is Forward, it is subtracted.

the ship, whether Cargo. Constant, Consumables.

or Ballast, is the Weight times the LCG (FP)

for that cargo.

unloaded, supplies are taken or consumed, and ballast

tanks are filled or discharged. The new LCG (FP) is

equal to the total Longitudinal Moments divided by the

Displacement.

-60-

consumed are subtracted.

Displacement

5.13 The Trim Lever is equal to the LCG(FP) minus the LCB(FP).

LCG(FP) is greater than LCB(FP), the ship is

trimmed By the Stern.

LCG(FP) is less than LCB(FP), the ship is Trimmed

by the Head.

5.13.3 if the Trim Lever is Zero, that is, if

LCG(FP) equals LCB(FP), the ship is on

an even keel. (See Pg. 27)

Displacement, divided by the Moment to Change Trim by

One Centimetre (MTC).

MTC

5.15 It is best practice to solve for the LCG(FP)

of the Constant after each Initial Survey of

the Ship’s Light Condition (Chapter Three).

An average may be used, unless an unusual amount

of stores has been delivered.

-61-

depending on the location and weight of crew effects,

stores, and all the additional weights that tend to

accumulate over the service life of a ship.

Figure 11 and Figure 19 The procedure used in the

example is the reverse of the procedure used in Figure

11 The LCG(FP) of the constant in Figure 11 is 200.42 if

which was the average for that ship.

Constant = 196.10 MT

DRAFT = 3.53265 M

DISP. = 8035.5 MT

LCB = 3.01 M

MTC = 182.1 MT

Trim = 1.773 M = 177.3 cm

DISP

= 177.3 x 182.1

8035.5

= 4.02 M

2 2

Aft of LCB(FP).

- 62 -

= 8035.5 x 69.01

= 554529.65

of each tank. Subtract these from the Final

Longitudinal Moments. The difference is the

Longitudinal Moment of the Constant.

= 554529.85 — 536968.25

Weight

= 17561.60

196.10

= 89.55 M

CHANGE OF DRAFT

required. Notice of draft requirements or limitations

are normally forwarded to a vessel in advance, because

weight added means greater mean draft. As little as

possible should be added to achieve the desired trim. If

possible, without adversely affecting the ship’s

stability, weight should be removed.

ratio of the trim to the proportion of the distance of

the actual Longitudinal Centre of Flotation (LCF) to the

FP and AP.

- 63 -

Midships is so small in relation to the length of the

ship. LCF is assumed to be midships. Therefore, change

of draft is calculated with sufficient accuracy, as trim

divided by two.

2

weight is added, the mean sinkage is greater:

TPC

NOTE: TPC here is the final TPC. That is, the TPC for the

final loaded condition.

increase the forward draft: it is placed aft of the

tipping centre to increase the after draft.

trim in centimetres divided by two.

2

Distance = 2 x MTC

TPC

even keel.

TPC = 27 MTC = 233

- 64 -

2

27

tipping centre.

a stable ship, in order to protect lives, the ship and

its cargo.

the loading calculations. Not only the crew’s comfort

but stress on a ship’s structure is affected by

stability, and a ship in stable equilibrium is not so

liable to capsize.

familiar with, so only the main, practical points are

summarised here.

Transverse Stability.

Total Change in Weights

GM = TKM – New KG

GM = GM - GG1

sq.rt GM

sq.rt GM

Where B = Breadth of Ship

- 65 -

no liquid moving as the ship rolls in the seaway. Avoid

slack tanks to the greatest extent possible to minimise

the loss of GM caused by tree surface.

with considerable speed and force, sometimes causing

damage to the tank itself.

percent capacity so as to avoids overflow oil pollution.

Fresh water and fuel are both subject to daily

consumption, so it is impossible to keep these tanks

full for the entire voyage. Dividers, or swash plates,

can minimise the free surface to a large extent.

limit, or empty. When filling these tanks, it is good

practice to let them overflow sufficiently to ensure no

air pockets are trapped inside.

following formula can be used for metric measure

rectangular tanks only.

12 x DISP x n³

B = Breadth of Tank

which into tank is divided

- 66 -

EXAMPLE: (Figure )

DISP = 22129.6 MT

KG = 8.277 M

TKM = 9.240 M

L = 25 M

B = l0 M

Sg = 1.024 , GM = TKM - KG = 0.963

12 x 22129.6 x 1²

= 0.096 M

KG = 8.277 M

New KG = 8.373 M

TKM = 9.240 M

New GM = 0.867 M

12 x 22129.6 x 2²

KG = 8.277 M

New KC = 8.301 M

TKM = 9.240 M

New GM = 0.939 M

minimised by Longitudinal divisions in tanks. Properly

arranged dividing of tanks can make the problem neg-

ligible.

follows (Figure 22 ), (Pg.70)

- 67 -

See Pg. 71

2 from midship )

2

2

= 196 x 121.40 =

= 23794.40 Tx M

Total Weights(Disp.)

= 1483410.13(Total Moments)

22129.60 T

= 67.03 M

2 2

= 66.58 M

MTC

= 0.45 x 22129.6 = 41 cm

241.8

2 2

= 20.5 cm or 0.205 M

Stern”

NOTE: Draft. NTC, LCB and DISP were calculated in Chapter Two,

Draft and Deadweight Surveys.

- 68 -

Manuals.

= 196 x 9.52 = 1865.92 TxM

(2) New KG = Total Moments(Vert.) =

Total Weights(Disp.)

= 183154.84 = 8.277 M

22129.60

Total Weight(Disp.)

= 7771.8 = 0.351 M

22129.6

sq.rt. 0.612 M 0.78

= 23 seconds

- 72 -

Trim and Fwd/Aft Drafts at the next loading or discharge

port.

5.33.1 Check Fwd and Aft Drafts upon arrival and solve

for corrected trim.

previous port. Add ballast water if taken in:

subtract if discharged.

Hydrostatic Tables and obtain Draft, MTC and

LCB. Check Sg to account for any difference from

Mean Draft found in 5.33.1.

Work back from Trim to Trim Lever to LCG(FP).

or discharged. Solve for their Longitudinal

Moments.

weights discharged to find new DISP. Refer to

Hydrostatic Tables for new Draft, MTC and LCB.

- 73 -

CHAPTER SIX

GRAIN LOADING

GENERAL

Loading Plan. This plan must meet with IMO and SOLAS

requirements, and must be approved by the appropriate

Government Agency.

S.2 The IMO and SOLAS requirements for loading grain are:

not be greater than twelve (12°) degrees.

than 0.075 metre-radians.

less than 0.30 metres.

made as soon as details of the grain cargo to be

loaded are received. Depending on the Stowage Factor

(SF) of tne grain to be loaded, slack holds may be

required. Check the approved Grain Loading Plan for

the designated slack holds in this situation.

to the Volumetric Heeling Moment (VEM) divided by the

Stowage Factor (SF) of the cargo.

Stowage Factor ofCargo(M³/F³)

- 76 -

is equal to the Volumetric Vertical Moment (VVM)

divided by the product of the Displacement and

SF.

Displacement x Stowage Factor

convert your figures.

6.6 VHM, VVM and allowable HVM are found in the Grain

Loading Plan. The actual HVM is calculated and

compared with the allowable HVM. If the actual HVM is

greater than the allowable HVM a new stowage

distribution with less heeling moment must be

planned.

designated slack hold is No. 3. Stowage Factor is

given as 42 F³/LT.

42 = 42 = 1.1706 M³

= 35.314 x 1.016 35.879024

—196.0 MT Constant 16763.0

16763.0

15745.0 MT Cargo Deadweight

- 77 -

1.1706

1.1706

1.1706

1.1706

TOTAL = 17437.63 MT

f or allowable loading in No. 3 Hold, the designated slack

hold.

Deadweight = 15746.00 MT

HOLD #1 = 3396.9844 MT

HOLD #2 = 4803.7585 MT

HOLD #4 = 4406.424 MT

TOTAL = - 12607.166 MT

revealed that the ship would be down by the Head by

1.6 cm. To correct the Trim, it was decided to shift

100.0 MT of fuel from No. 1 Fuel Oil Tank to No. 3

Fuel Oil Tank.

- 83 -

DISP = 21300.10 MT

MTC = 237.45 T—M

LCB = 66.45 M

LCG = 66.657M

TL = 0.20 M

TRIM = 18.6 cm

CD = 9.3 cm, or

= 0.093 M

Correction = -0.093 M = +0.093 M

New Draft = 8.597 M = 8.783 M = No change

the change in Vertical Moments caused by shifting

the Fuel Oil from No. 1 tank to No. 3 tank.

No. 3 tank = 186.6 + 100 = 286.8 MT x 0.82 M = 235.18 T—M

New Vertical Moment = 1419451.57

New KG = 1419451.51 = 6.64 M

21300.10

- 84 -

Horizontal Vertical

Moments Moments

21300.10 x 1.1705

1.1705

JUDGEMENT GOOD !

- 85 -

Department of Transport

Canadian Coast Guard

Ship Safety Branch

CALCULATION OF STABILITY

IN ACCORDANCE WITH

Captain:

to the commencement of loading. This is to indicate your

vessel’s worst condition during the forthcoming voyage. The

calculation should be made on this form and presented to the

Port Warden before the vessel can be issued with a Certificate

of Readiness to Load. If there are any subsequent changes to the

original stowage plan, (tonnage’s, commodities or stowage

factors, etc.) you should prepare a corrected plan for the Port

Warden’ s approval.

upon:

(a) Your type of vessel:

(b) The geographical position of your loading port: and

(c) The type of grain stability information with which your

vessel has been provided.

the provisions of IMO Resolution A264 (VIII) Part B, Sec. V(B),

you are required to prove that your vessel’s angle of heel, if

grain shifts, will not exceed 5° Your stability information will

indicate if your vessel is of this type and if so you should

complete only Tables I, II. III. IV and VII A.

the above Resolution; i.e. Maximum Values of (a) Angles of Heel

12°, and Minimum Values of (b) Residual Stability 0.075 metre

radians and (c) GM 0.30 M, you should complete the form by one

of the following methods.

- 86 -

Allowable Upsetting Moments, complete only Tables I II, III, IV, V,VI

OF HEEL) ABBREVIATED

Moments complete only Tables I II. III IV, V. VII B and VIII

information booklet that is closest to your proposed loading condi-

tion is not of a normal configuration, or if the maximum GZ value of

such curve occurs before 400, then you should complete the Type 4

Calculation.

HEEL) FULL

If your vessel is a tanker, all tanks except two (two wing tanks

or two centres) must be trimmed full or you will be required to meet

the conditions described in TYPE I above (5° ANGLE OF HEEL)

stating that your vessel at all times meets the required conditions

for draft and initial GM values and in this case, no calculation is

necessary. Alternatively, you may have information enabling you to

complete a TYPE I calculation. If not, you should complete only

Tables I, II. III and VII C.

waters, you may not be able to meet fully the requirements laid down

in your stability documents whilst in transit between such ports. In

this instance, you may take advantage of a relaxation of such

requirements whilst in transit between ports. In this case, you

should complete Tables I, II, III and X.

not in fact list more than 15° if grain in all slack holds shifts

through an angle with the horizontal of 12°, nor will your available

freeboard is immersed by more than 50%. Before taking advantage of

this provision, you are advised to study Section II of the

Canadian Grain Regulations.

— 87 —

should be borne in mind that your vessel will have to comply fully

with the Regulations prior to departure from sheltered waters.

OTHER CONDITIONS

criteria described above, or no documents should consult with the

Port Warden for further instructions.

the term "heeling moment is used in "some this term is an

alternative for "upsetting are to be taken to mean the same.

- 88 -

CHAPTER SEVEN

ROLLING PERIOD TEST FOR GM

GENERAL

port rotation produces unusual height concentration in

upper holds, stability must receive careful attention.

When a ship is nearing her stability limit, and there is

a significant amount of cargo deadweight allowances yet

available, it is good practice to conduct a rolling

period test in still waters.

timber carriers, but should be applied whenever GM is an

important factor for loading. It should be noted that

ships having a minimum corrected GM of have made safe

ocean crossings not more than 0.03 M at any point in the

voyage.

Water must be taken into account. An average loss of GM

per day can be derived from the departure and arrival

Trim and Stability calculations.

is that the actual GM is observed, making the result

almost error free. There will be a large difference

between the computed GM based on the shipbuilder’s data

and the actual GM based on test. This is because the

shipbuilders base their computations on the Inclining

Experiment of an empty ship.

sawn timber add fifteen (15) percent to the deck cargo

weight. Timber tends to absorb water at sea, and this

causes a considerable loss of GM.

- 89 -

is:

Deck Cargo Weight = 50 percent of Hold Cargo Weight

cargo.

timber carriers.

still waters, and the average taken at sea, is not

significant enough to cause alarm.

7.8 For the rolling period test to give good results, the

following conditions must be met :

berth, with her lines slack, so she can roll

freely.

not hinder the ship’s movement.

at least fifteen (15) degrees. Two or more

derricks may be required.

need for a test seems likely. Their co-operation in

lifting the weights is often required.

deck. There they can note the inclination of the

superstructure, especially the bridge wing, against a

reference point.

- 90 -

7.10 Lift the weights on one side of the ship. When the ship

has been steadied in the listed position drop the

weights onto the dock or into the water. Ensure the

cargo runners are slack, so they offer no resistance.

maximum angle of list through upright to opposite list,

and all the way back to original listed side That is:

or

ensure good accuracy of the average. Use this average

in the Rolling Period Formula to calculate the GM

( IMPERIAL) ( METRIC)

T = 0.44 B T = 0.797 B

Sq. Rt GM Sq. Rt GM

Therefore:

GM = 0.1936 x B² = 0.6352 x B²

T² T²

B = Breadth of Ship

GG1 = w x dKG

DISP +/- w

w= Weight to be Loaded or Discharged

W = Original Displacement

dKG = distance from KG to G of the Weight

DISP = Displacement

- 91 –

shift of G is upward, and GG1 is subtracted. If w is

removed above KG, or added below KG, the shift of G

is downward, and GG1 is added.

KG = 8.277 M

GM = 0.612 M

(1) Find the New Gm if 200 MT is loaded 9.5 M above the KG.

New DISP (W +/- w) 22129.6 + 200

above KG.

22129.6 — 200

SIMPLIFIED GM MEASURMENTS

can be calculated from a deliberate listing of the

ship. Weights are suspended from a derrick, or placed

on the deck if no derrick is available.

7.14 The weight (W), the distance of the weight from the

centre line of the ship (D), and the angle of list (0°)

are measured. The DISPL divides the product of the

weight (w) and the distance (D). The result is then

multiplied by the Cotangent of the Angle of List (cot

0°):

- 92 -

GM = W x D x cot 0°

DISP

FXAMPLE:

the derrick head is fifteen (15) metres from the

ship centreline; and the angle of list is read from

the clinometer as five (5°) degrees:

DISP = 8000 MT

GM = W x D x cot 0°

DISP

GM = 40 x 15 x cot 5° =

8000

- 95 -

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Son & Ferguson, Ltd., 1954.

Pitman Press, 1984.

TRIM FOR THE SHIP’S OFFICER, D. Van Nostrand Co.

Inc., 1956.

EXPLAINED, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1969.

1978.

1979.

Department of Transport (Canada) , 1960.

Stationery Office, 1973.

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