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METRIC

Instructional
MANUAL
CONTENTS

Chapter Page
1 Introduction 1

2 Ship Draft, Trim and Stability Notes 14

3 Draft Survey 30

Appendix 94

Draft and Stability Problems and Answers 94

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE
1.1 This Handbook is intended to assist Deck Officers with their loading calculations.

Practical solutions are emphasised, and the most common questions about ship

1.2 More detailed knowledge may be obtained from published tomes on the subject

which will provide fuller coverage of stability.

DESCRIPTION
1.3 Chapter One, Introduction - describes the purpose of the Handbook. There is a

used, a listing by chapter of formulas, and some recommended materials and

1.4 Chapter Two, Ship Draft, Trim and Stability Notes -defines and discusses points

and practices which have a practical effect on safe and economic ship loading.

1.5 Chapter Three, Draft Survey - describes in detail, complete with worked

examples, the procedure for performing an International Standard Draft Survey.

1.6 Chapter Four, Cargo Deadweight - summarises the main considerations when

described in detail, complete with worked examples.

1.7 Chapter Five, Trim and stability - summarises the main considerations when

performing trim and stability calculations. Each step in the procedures is then

described in detail, complete with worked examples.

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1.8 Chapter Six, Grain Loading - summarises the IMCO and SOLAS requirements for

loading grain. Each step in the procedure is then described in detail, complete with

worked examples.

1.9 Chapter Seven, Rolling Period Test for Timber Carriers -describes the procedure

for measuring the rolling period of a ship. This is most frequently required when

there is timber deck cargo, but is applicable for any vessel or cargo. The

calculations to convert rolling period into GM are then described in detail, complete

1.10 Appendix I, Problems - consists of twenty-seven (27) questions relating to the

material covered in this Handbook. All questions are worked out in detail.

1.11 The following abbreviations are commonly used through- out the text:

AP After Perpendiculars

DISP Displacement

FP Forward Perpendiculars

GM Metacentric height

P Port
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QM Quarter Mean

S Starboard

FORMULAS

2

2

2
Trim = Aft - Fwd

2

2

2

correction
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LBP

LBP

LBP

Second Trim Correction = T² x 6” x MTI diff

LBP
MTC difference ( Metric ) :
(a) QM + 50cm = MTC (Found from Ship’s Data)

- (b) MTC
= MTC difference

WEIGHT DEDUCTIONS ( Metric ) :

FUEL OIL_________________ MT
DIESEL OIL ____________ MT
LUBE OIL ____________MT
FRESH WATER ____________MT
DRINK WATER ____________MT
BOILER WATER ___________MT
BALLAST WATER _________MT
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SLUDGE __________________MT
STORES,etc _______________MT
CONSTANT _______________MT
TOTAL weight deductions

Cargo DWT = DISP. corrected for density (2nd condition)

- TOTAL weight deductions (2nd condition)
= NETT displacement (2nd condition)

Total Capacity

DEFLECTION = MID MEAN

Hogging = MID MEAN - FWD & AFT MEAN [ Peregib ] , See Pg.23

Sagging = MID MEAN - FWD & AFT MEAN [ Progib ] , See Pg.23

TRIM FORMULAS (Chapter 5) ; Page 58

LCG(FP) = LBP + MG
2

Displacement
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TRIM =Trim Lever x Displacement x 100(m)

MTC
Final Longitudinal Moments = DISP x LCG(FP)

Weight

2

Mean Sinkage = + Weight

TPC

Distance = 2 x MTC
TPC

2

KG = Total Moments (P) _ Total Moments (S)

Total Weights (P) Total Weights (S)

New KG = Old KG = Total Change in Moments

Total Change in Weights

GM = TKM - New KG

*GG = Total Inertia / Total Weights

G1M = GM - GG1
Rolling Period : ( Imperial ) ( Metric )

0.44B Ft___ 0.7978B Metres

sq.rt of G M sq. rt of GM

Rise of G due to Free Surface = _L x B³ x Sg___

12 x DISP x n²
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Where:

L = Length of tank

ROLLING PERIOD TEST (Chapter 7)

( IMPERIAL ) ( METRIC )
GM = 0,1936 x B² GM = 0,6532 x B²
T² T²

Where :

GG1 = w x dKG
DISP

Where:

GG1 = Shift in Centre of Gravity

DISP = W +/ - w

W = Original Displacement

dKG = Distance from KG to G of weight

GM = W x D x cot.0°
DISP

Where:

W = Weight

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HHM = ___VHM___
SF( cargo)

G0 G1 = VHM
DISP x SF

CUBIC METRES ( M ³) = Cubic Feet ( Ft³ )

35.315

NECESSARY MATERIALS

1.13 Work Forms are recommended to ease the work of calculations. Several forms are

included as part of the examples in this Handbook. These may be used as is, or

- tank capacity plan or manual.

These items are all supplied by the shipbuilder to the ship and should be studied
with care.

1.15 Certified hydrometer and water sampler (water thief). These are used to measure

the specific gravity (Sg) of the water in which the ship is floating. A special

hydrometer for measuring the Sg of fuel and lubricating oils should also be

available.
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1.16 A sounding tape for measuring tank contents, and a standard tape for measuring

holds, lockers, and other spaces.

1.17 A good calculator will speed up calculations. Any of the better scientific calculators

will have a program for integration by Simpson’s Rule.

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Figure 2

Page 13 is skipped
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CHAPTER TWO
SHIP DRAFT, TRIM AND STABILITY NOTES

CONSTANT

by more than 100 tonnes in 6 months.

2.3 The constant also increases with age. Corrosion and the

"For a vessel of 10,000 tons, add one inch of draft

for each five years of vessel life".

Most vessels are now much larger, so the estimate will have to

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Kg/M² has been suggested. A check of the fouling exposed

when the vessel is light can be helpful.

accurate data.

2.6 Ensure the weights of anchors and chains are properly

constant calculations.

fresh water mixing are extreme, it is necessary to

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measure Fwd. Aft, and Amidships Sg’s, and use the average

required.

is floating.

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gravity.

The Sinkage and Trim caused by Currents and Tidal Streams*

Most seafarers are well aware of the effect known as “squat” which
causes ships to increase their draft when travelling at speed in shallow
water. What they may not be aware of is that a ship moored or
anchored in shallow water experiences the same effect when there is a
tidal stream or current running. The cause of both effects is similar.
Consider a ship moored in a river (Figure 4). When a current is
running the shin constricts the flow. The water must then increase its
speed In order that the same quantity passes through the restricted
space as does through the unrestricted space. In any given period of
time. The water flowing at a higher speed under the bottom of the
vessel causes a reduction In pressure on the bottom (this occurs by
virtue of the Bernoulli effect) arid the ship sinks deeper in the water.
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* E. Stokoe, Weight/Volume Relationship Required for Draft Survey

Calculations, Seawaves, Vol.Feb.1984, pp.15, 17.

The Bernoulli effect can be demonstrated by trying to blow a piece of card off
the end of a cotton reel (Figure 5). It is impossible to blow the card off. The high
air velocity on the inner face of the card causes a local drop in pressure relative
to the outer face of the card; thus keeping it firmly pressed on the end of the reel.
Bernoulli’s equation, which governs this effect, is P + p V²/2 + pgh = constant,
where
P + p V²/2 + pgh = constant, where
P - is pressure,
p - the water density,
v - Is the velocity, and
h - the depth of water.
Clearly as v increases, at a given water depth, P must decrease for the equation
to remain constant.

The amount of sinkage caused by this effect will depend,

therefore, on the water velocity. It will also depend on the depth
of water beneath the keel and the ship’s length. The sinkage in
some cases will be considerable. For example, a 1,600 tonne
coaster moored In a river where the current Is running at 4 knots
will experience a sinkage of at least 5 cm where there is about
0.35 in of water under the keel. It is therefore desirable to wait
until the depth of water under the keel is as large, as possible
before measuring draughts if there is any current.
Clearly In a tidal stream It would be better to measure the
draughts at slack Hater thus avoiding this sinkage effect If’ at
all possible. With data currently available it would not be
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possible for the sinkage likely to be experienced to be estimated

in all cases.
An approximate theoretical estimate can be made but the
procedure involved is relatively complicated (see Dand &
Ferguson. The Squat of Full Form Ships In Shallow Water,
TRINA Vol.115. 1973.

the ship. Light Ship’s weight plus Deadweight equals

Displacement (DISP).

SHIP STRUCTURE

stem.

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length.

fuller aft.

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point for the ship and its contents.

( Page 22 is skipped.)
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Figure 7
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LONDITUDIONAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY
METRIC MEASURE
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perpendiculars (LBP), that one-half of LBP is used for

practical calculations.

TRIM

the stern”.

2.23.2 When LCG is Fwd of LCB, the ship is “trimmed by

2.23.3 When LCG and LCE are the same, the ship is on an
“even keel”.

seaway.

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improve it, depending on where the weight is located.

2.27 There are times when a ship is put on even keel because

the rudder or propeller.

BALLAST TANKS

2.28 All ships, except tankers, are built with double bottoms

pipes. Check the sounding to ensure the head is stable.

Also check the tank top seams and the manhole covers.

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CHAPTER THREE
DRAFT SURVEY
SURVEY PROCEDURE

APPARENT TRIM ( Vidimy Different )

3.2 The Forward (Fwd), Aft (Aft), and Midships (Mid) drafts

are read at both Port (P) and Starboard (S) marks. The P

3.3 The Aft draft is subtracted from the Fwd draft, and the

2

2

2

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coincide with these lines, a draft as read must be corrected.

3.5 If the marks are not on the perpendiculars, the vessel usually

128.0

128.0

How to determine Signs of FWD and AFT Corrections: (see pg 36)

The Sign of A.P. / F.P. Corrections depending on Signs of two factors: Trim and
Location of Distance between FWD / AFT perpendiclar to FWD / AFT Draft mark.
Actually it appear atomatically when you insert in fomula all parametrs with their
own algebraical sign . Trim by STEN ( + ) ; Tim by HEAD ( - ).
Location of FWD /AFT perpendiculars FORWARD of FWD / AFT Draft mark ( - ) ;
Location of FWD / AFT Perpendiculas AFT of FWD / AFT Draft mark ( + ) .
Strictly say nesessary check all Signs in Ship’s Stability Manual to avoid any mistakes.

(7.10) - represents the distance from the AFT Draft mark to the
AFT Perpendicular.

(-1.21) - represents the distance from the FWD Draft mark to the
FWD Perpendicular.

marks

(trim) - the difference between the Forward and After drafts

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— 33 —
3.7 The above corrections are applied to the forward and after

Fwd Draft 2.64 m Aft Draft 4.30 m

+ Fwd Corr. -0.0165 + Aft Corr +0.0971
Corrected Fwd Draft 2.6235 Corrected Aft Draft 4.3971

Corrected Draft Aft 5.019 = Aft - Fwd = Corr. Trim

Fwd 2.361
Corrected Trim 2.658

Deformation must be solved next. Use the corrected

draft values

3.10 First calculate the Fwd/Aft Mean Draft. Add Fwd to Aft,

Fwd /Aft Mean = Fwd + Aft

2
3.11 Next, calculate the Mean of Mean Add the Fwd/Aft Mean

result by two:

2

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2

FWD P 2.377 AFT P 5.017 MIDSHIP p 3.59

S 2.377 S 5.017 S 3.72
4.754 10.034 7.31

2 2 2

= 5.017 - 2.377

= 2.64 [Trim by the Stern (Apparent) because positive]

DRAFT CORRECTION

Corrections for the Fwd and Aft Drafts (Fwd corr. and Aft

corr.) and Corrected Trim must be calculated. The corrections

values are different for each ship, and are found in the

EXAMPLE:

Fwd Correction Value = +/-(distance from Fwd Draft to Fwd Perp)

(distance between Fwd and Aft Marks)

Aft Correction Value = +/-(distance from Aft Draft to Aft Perp)

(distance between Fwd and Aft Marks)

Formulas.
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Corrected Draft:

Fwd Draft = 2.377 Aft Draft = 5.017

Fwd Corr = -0.016 Aft Corr = + 0.091
Fwd Draft Corrected = 2.361 Aft Draft Corrected = 5.108

Corrected Trim: Aft Draft Cor-ed - Fwd Draft Cor-ed =

= Corrected Trim (CT)

Aft Draft Corrected = 5.108

Fwd Draft Corrected = - 2.361
Corrected Trim (CT) 2.747

Note: This value used in the Trim correction Formulas to adjust the

displacement.

EXAMPLE:

Fwd and Aft Mean = 7.38 = 3.69 M

2
Fwd and Aft + Mid Mean = 3.69
+3.655
7.345

2

2

QM = 3.663 M

Calculations.

M/M/M = ( Fwd + 6 x Mid + Aft ) = 3.663 M

8
AFT Perp.
FWD Perp.

+ -1.21m

Note: The Sign of A.P./F.P. Correstions depending on Signs of two factors: Trim and Distance between F/A perpendiclar to F/A Draft mark.
Actually it appear atomatically when you insert in fomla all parametrs with their own algebraical signs.
Trim by STEN ( + ) ; Tim by HEAD ( - ). Location of F/A perpendiculars FORWARD of F/A Draft mark ( - ) ; Location of F/A
Perpendiculas AFT of F/A Draft mark ( + ) . Strictly say nesessary check all Signs in Ship’s Stability Manual to avoid any mistakes.
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TKM: Transverce Metacentric Height

3.14 Interpolation
Calculate the Displacement Correction ( DISP. Corr.)

QM.

metres.

Tables.

EXAMPLE:

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d) DISPL.CORRECTED = DISPL.(at SMALLER DRAFT ) + correction

= 7587.00 + 6.181 = 7593.181 MT (corrected)

TRIM CORRECTION

LBP

LBP

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negative (subtract), depending on the location of the LCF

and the trim condition. (It's mean sign of LCF and TRIM )

3.18.1 VESSEL TRIMMED BY THE STEM

LCF is Forward (Fwd) (+) ADD Trim Correction
LCF is Aft (Aft) (-) SUBTRACT Trim
Correction

3.18.2 VESSEL TRIMMED BY THE STERN

LCF is Fwd (—) SUBTRACT Trim Correction
LCF is Aft (+) ADD Trim Correction

LBP

found.

find the corresponding MTC from the vessel’s

Hydrostatic book.

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EXAMPLE:

LBP

137.00
= 159.91(-)

LBP

MTC diff.:

b) Q M - 50cm = MTC ( Found in Ship’s book)

MTC diff= ( a) — ( b)

a) QM = 3.675
+ 0.50
4.175 MTC = 169.4
b) QM = 3.675
— 0.50
3.175 MTC =160.7

(a) = 169.4
(b) = - 160.7
MTC diff = 8.7

137

b)- 159.91
=c) 7427.09 (-)
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2nd Correction: c) 7427.09

d) + 23.81
= e) 7450.90 (+) = Displ. Corr.for
Trim

NOTES for TRIM FORMULAS FOR IMPERIAL CALCULATIONS:

TPI = Tons Per Inch (12 converts all to inches)

LBP

LBP

SPECIFIC GRAVITY CORRECTION

3.22 A Specific Gravity (Sg) of 1.025 is generally assumed

Because the Sg. is almost never exactly 1.025, Sg. correction

must be calculated.

1.025 or less.

more.

1.025

EXAMPLE:

1.025
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DISP. corr. for Trim 7450.90

Density Corr. (Sg.) — 32.71
DISP. Corr. for Density 7418.19

VESSEL’S CONSTANT

possible, to measure the Sg. at the same time the tanks

is being sounded.
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3.29 WEIGHTS

STORES, etc. NIL

CONSTANT 200.42 MT
= TOTAL WEIGHT 3145.32 MT

FINAL SURVEY

Initial Survey. Total cargo equals DISP. minus

Lightship Weight.

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CHAPTER FOUR

GENERAL

4.1 The weight a ship can carry varies considerably with

location and season. More can be loaded in Tropical

4.2 Study the Loadline Certificate carefully to avoid conflict

between the ship and the Port Authorities, or with the ship

4.3 Consumables, such as fresh water, fuel oil, lubeoil,

ballast, etc., necessary for the intended voyage,must

4.3.1 Make adjustments for re-supply if a call at a

bunkering port is required.

Available.
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EXAMPLE:

Timber Winter Displacement = 8.819 MT Draft

Displacement = - 21654.000 MT

Lightship Weight = - 4341.000 MT

17313.000 MT
Constant = — 196.000 MT
17117.000 MT
Ballast = — 2651.000 MT
14466.000 MT
Fresh Water = - 308.000 MT
14158.000 MT

CARGO DEADWEIGHT AVAILABLE = 13462.000 MT

CONSUMABLE CONSUMPTION

intermediate port, the Cargo Deadweight may have to be

reduced. If the planned intake, plus the fresh water and

fuel remaining after passage to the bunkering port, is

greater than the consumables on board at Final Survey, the

Available.
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EXAMPLE:

Length of voyage to bunkering port = 16.5 days.

Fresh Water = 150 MT
Fuel Water = + 660 MT
Total Consumables = 810 MT a)
Fresh Water Consumption 8.0/day x 16.5 = 132 MT
Fuel Oil Consumption 24.0/day x 16.5 = + 396 MT

Balance of Fuel and Water Left (810-528) = 282 MT (a-b)

Planned Intake - Fresh Water = 200 MT
- Fuel Oil = +400 MT
- Total = 600 MT
Balance of Fuel and Water = +282 MT
Total after Replenishment = 882 MT
Consumables at Port of Lading = -810 MT
Difference of = 72 MT

Available.

SEASONAL ZONES

EXAMPLE:

Winter Timber Loadline = 8.819 M = 21654.00 MT

Difference = 682.00 MT
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4.7 The weight of Consumables used in the voyage from port of

lading to the Winter Zone may be added to the Winter Zone
allowable displacement when calculating allowable Cargo

4.8 If the ship is to take on consumables at an intermediate

bunkering port in the Winter Zone, the total planned weight
of consumables on board at that port will govern the

4.9 Total Cubic Capacity of the ship is available in the

Capacity Plan. Bale Capacity is used if the booked cargo is
not grain or other bulk commodities.

EXAMPLE:

CF/LT.

Conversion - 1 Ft³ / LT = 0.0278715 M³ / MT

1 M³ / MT = 35.3145 Ft³ /LT

Therefore SF 65 Ft³/LT x 0.0278715 = 1.81 M³/MT

Bale Capacity = 19183.82 M³

SF

= 19183.82
1.81

= 1598.795 MT

NOTE: A number of good books on cargoes and their Stowage Factors

are available. “ STOWAGE - THE PROPERTIES AND STOWAGE OF
CARGOES ” by Captain R. E. Thomas, is a particularly
complete reference.
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CARGO DISTRIBUTION

4.10 The first consideration is to distribute cargo so that

weight is evenly spread throughout the ship.

4.10.1 If Weight-to-Flotation is greater at the ends of

the ship than in the middle, the deck will deflect
up. This is called “ Hogging ”.

4.10.2 If Weight-to-Flotation is greater in the middle

than at the ends of the ship, the deck will deflect
down. This is called “ Sagging ”.

4.11 In a Hogging condition, the deck is placed in tension, and

the keel in compression. In a sagging condition, the deck
is placed in compression, and the keel in tension.

4.12 The keel is stronger than the deck because of the greater
weight of metal used in construction. The deck is further
weakened by necessary openings, such as cargo hatches.
These openings are reinforced, but, since they are the
weakest points in the ship’s structure, careful inspection
is required.

4.13 To determine the amount that the ship is hogging or sagging

Measure deflection.

Deflection = Mid Mean – Fwd and Aft Mean

Fwd and Aft Mean = Fwd Mean + Aft Mean
2

4.13.2 If Mid Mean is greater than Fwd and Aft Mean, the
ship is Sagging.

4.13.3 If the Mid Mean equals Fwd Mean equals Aft Mean,
the ship is on an even keel.
NOTE: Ship’s decks are stronger in tension than in com-
therefore, a small amount of Hogging is preferred to
Sagging.
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4.14 Most modern ships have their machinery and superstructure
Aft. This produces a large trim By the Stern. And a
Hogging moment, in the light condition.

4.14.1 First load the midships holds to eliminate the

Hogging.
4.14.2 Next load the Forward hold to decrease the trim.

4.15.1 First load the forward hold to eliminate Sagging.

4.15.2 Distribute the remaining load for desired trim.

4.16 Distributing weight is easier with a homogeneous bulk

cargo, such as grain or concentrates. General cargoes
are often more difficult because of factors such as
port rotation and cargo segregation.

EXAMPLE:

(1) Check the Capacity of each hold (M³)

Hold Number 1 = 3680.35 (M3)
Hold Number 2 = 5293.91 (M³)
Hold Number 3 = 5291.50 (M³)
Hold Number 4 = 4918.06 (M³)

Total Capacity

19183.82

19183.82

19183.82

19183.82
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Hold No. 1 = 16000x .1918 = 3068.80 MT

Hold No. 2 = 16000x .2760 = 4416.00 MT
Hold No. 3 = 16000x .2758 = 4412.80 MT
Hold NO. 4 = 16000x .2564 = 4102.40 MT

TOTAL = 16000.00 MT

NOTE: If the ship has Twin Deck Holds, solve for each cargo
space as demonstrated.

4.17 The percentage of cargo per hold calculation will often

produce a concentration of weight in the middle. This
will cause Sagging. This can be minimised by shifting
some weight forward.

4.18 Inspection of the calculated results, and rounding to

100 Metric Tonnes, will give a good approximation.

EXAMPLE:

Hold No. 4 = 4102.40 — 2.40 = 4100.00 MT

Hold No. 3 = 4412.80 — 112.80 = 4300.00 MT
Hold No. 2 = 4416.00 - 116.00 = 4300.00 MT
Hold No. 1 = 3068.80 + 231.20 = 3300.00 MT

TOTAL = 16000.00 MT

4.19 The best practice is to part load each hold in rotation.

progresses.

Checking the Midships Drafts can do this.
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CHAPTER FIVE
TRIM AND STABILITY
GENERAL

5.1 Trim and Stability calculations are mainly a matter

of correctly interpreting plans, tables, and graphs.
Ship Stability and Tank manuals provide values for
Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (LCG). Transverse Centre
of Gravity (KG). Moment of Inertia, another data

5.2 This data may be in graph form (Figure 14), or tabular

(Figure 16). Tables are more common, and are easier
to work from.
5.3 Longitudinal Centre of Gravity can be calculated from the
Forward Perpendicular (LCG EP), the After Perpendicular
(LCG AP), or from Midships (MID).

5.4 Calculations of LCG from the PP are shorter, and avoid

dealing with two sets of longitudinal moments. This
greatly reduces the chance of error, so all our examples
will be based on LCG FP.

5.5 The LCG of a hold is assumed to be at the longitudinal

centre of that hold. The LCG of uniformly distributed,
homogeneous cargo, such as grain, is also at the centre of
the hold.

5.6 If the hold is to be loaded with mixed cargo, then an LCG

is assumed to be at the centre of each type of cargo.

5.7 For special cargoes such as heavy machinery, the shipper

should supply the centre of gravity information.
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TRIM CALCULATION

5.8 The LCG method is the most accurate for calculating the
trim of a ship, because all the major forces acting on the
ship, including buoyancy, are considered.

5.9 The Longitudinal Centre of Gravity from the Forward

Perpendicular LCG (FP) is equal to One-half of the Length
Between Perpendiculars (LEP) plus or minus The Centre of
Gravity From Midships (MG).

2

5.10 The Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy From the

Forward Perpendicular LCB (FP) is equal to one half LBP
plus or minus the Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (LCB).

2

5.10.1 If LCB is Aft, it is added.

5.10.2 If LCB is Forward, it is subtracted.

5.11 The Longitudinal Moment of everything aboard

the ship, whether Cargo. Constant, Consumables.
or Ballast, is the Weight times the LCG (FP)
for that cargo.

5.12 The LCG (FP) changes whenever Cargo is loaded or

unloaded, supplies are taken or consumed, and ballast
tanks are filled or discharged. The new LCG (FP) is
equal to the total Longitudinal Moments divided by the
Displacement.
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5.12.1 Cargo unloaded, ballast discharged, and supplies

consumed are subtracted.

New LCG (FP) = Total Longitudinal Moments

Displacement

5.13 The Trim Lever is equal to the LCG(FP) minus the LCB(FP).

5.13.1 If the Trim Lever is Positive, that is, if

LCG(FP) is greater than LCB(FP), the ship is
trimmed By the Stern.

5.13.2 If the Trim Lever is Negative, that is, if

LCG(FP) is less than LCB(FP), the ship is Trimmed
5.13.3 if the Trim Lever is Zero, that is, if
LCG(FP) equals LCB(FP), the ship is on
an even keel. (See Pg. 27)

5.14 Trim is equal to the product of the Trim Lever and

Displacement, divided by the Moment to Change Trim by
One Centimetre (MTC).

MTC

LCG(FP) OF THE CONSTANT

5.15 It is best practice to solve for the LCG(FP)
of the Constant after each Initial Survey of
the Ship’s Light Condition (Chapter Three).
An average may be used, unless an unusual amount
of stores has been delivered.
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5.16 The LCG(FP) of the Constant moves fore and aft,

depending on the location and weight of crew effects,
stores, and all the additional weights that tend to
accumulate over the service life of a ship.

5.17 It is of interest to compare the work forms given in

Figure 11 and Figure 19 The procedure used in the
example is the reverse of the procedure used in Figure
11 The LCG(FP) of the constant in Figure 11 is 200.42 if
which was the average for that ship.

From Initial Survey Chapter Three (Figures 11 and 19):

Constant = 196.10 MT
DRAFT = 3.53265 M
DISP. = 8035.5 MT
LCB = 3.01 M
MTC = 182.1 MT
Trim = 1.773 M = 177.3 cm

DISP

= 177.3 x 182.1
8035.5
= 4.02 M

2 2

Aft of LCB(FP).
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= 8035.5 x 69.01
= 554529.65

(5) Calculate the lightship weight longitudinal moments

of each tank. Subtract these from the Final
Longitudinal Moments. The difference is the
Longitudinal Moment of the Constant.

= Final - all other Longitudinal Moments

= 554529.85 — 536968.25

Weight

= 17561.60
196.10

= 89.55 M

CHANGE OF DRAFT

5.18 Change of draft at one end of the ship only is sometimes

required. Notice of draft requirements or limitations
are normally forwarded to a vessel in advance, because
weight added means greater mean draft. As little as
possible should be added to achieve the desired trim. If
possible, without adversely affecting the ship’s
stability, weight should be removed.

5.19 The change of draft is calculated, theoretically, as a

ratio of the trim to the proportion of the distance of
the actual Longitudinal Centre of Flotation (LCF) to the
FP and AP.
- 63 -

5.20 For practical purposes, because the distance from LCF to

Midships is so small in relation to the length of the
ship. LCF is assumed to be midships. Therefore, change
of draft is calculated with sufficient accuracy, as trim
divided by two.

2

5.21 Mean Sinkage is equal to weight divided by TPC. If

weight is added, the mean sinkage is greater:

Mean Sinkage = +/- Weight

TPC

NOTE: TPC here is the final TPC. That is, the TPC for the

5.22 The weight is placed forward of the tipping centre to

increase the forward draft: it is placed aft of the
tipping centre to increase the after draft.

5.22.1 The weight required is equal to TPC times the

trim in centimetres divided by two.

2

the MTC divided by the TPC.

Distance = 2 x MTC
TPC

even keel.

Fwd Draft = 8.36 M Aft Draft = 8.46 M

TPC = 27 MTC = 233
- 64 -

2

27

tipping centre.

5.23 It is the responsibility of an office to always maintain

a stable ship, in order to protect lives, the ship and
its cargo.

5.24 Stability calculations are the most important aspect of

but stress on a ship’s structure is affected by
stability, and a ship in stable equilibrium is not so
liable to capsize.

5.25 Transverse Stability is a subject all Deck Officers are

familiar with, so only the main, practical points are
summarised here.

5.26 The following formulas are used in calculating

Transverse Stability.

New KG = Old KG * Total Change in Moments

Total Change in Weights

GM = TKM – New KG

GM = GM - GG1

sq.rt GM

Rolling Period (METRIC) = 0.797B (meters)

sq.rt GM
Where B = Breadth of Ship
- 65 -

5.27 Full or empty tanks have no free surface, since there is

no liquid moving as the ship rolls in the seaway. Avoid
slack tanks to the greatest extent possible to minimise
the loss of GM caused by tree surface.

5.28 In a heavy seaway, the liquid in a slack tank will surge

with considerable speed and force, sometimes causing
damage to the tank itself.

5.29 Fuel oil tanks are normally only filled to 80 or 85

percent capacity so as to avoids overflow oil pollution.
Fresh water and fuel are both subject to daily
consumption, so it is impossible to keep these tanks
full for the entire voyage. Dividers, or swash plates,
can minimise the free surface to a large extent.

5.30 Seawater ballast tanks should be either filled to their

limit, or empty. When filling these tanks, it is good
practice to let them overflow sufficiently to ensure no
air pockets are trapped inside.

5.31 If Free Surface Correction data is not available, the

following formula can be used for metric measure
rectangular tanks only.

12 x DISP x n³

n = Number of Longitudinal Compartments

which into tank is divided
- 66 -

EXAMPLE: (Figure )

DISP = 22129.6 MT
KG = 8.277 M
TKM = 9.240 M
L = 25 M
B = l0 M
Sg = 1.024 , GM = TKM - KG = 0.963

Rise of G due to Free Surface = 25 x 10³ x 1.024 =

12 x 22129.6 x 1²

= 0.096 M

KG = 8.277 M

New KG = 8.373 M

TKM = 9.240 M

New GM = 0.867 M

Rise of G due to Free Surface = 25 x 10³ x 1.024

12 x 22129.6 x 2²

KG = 8.277 M

New KC = 8.301 M

TKM = 9.240 M

New GM = 0.939 M

NOTE: The Rise of G due to Free Surface Effect can be

minimised by Longitudinal divisions in tanks. Properly
arranged dividing of tanks can make the problem neg-
ligible.

5.32 Stability and Trim Calculation Report was worked as

follows (Figure 22 ), (Pg.70)
- 67 -

See Pg. 71

2 from midship )

2

2

= 196 x 121.40 =
= 23794.40 Tx M

(3) New LCG(FP) = Total Moments(Longitud)

Total Weights(Disp.)

= 1483410.13(Total Moments)
22129.60 T

= 67.03 M

2 2

= 66.58 M

(5) Trim = Trim Lever x DISP =

MTC

= 0.45 x 22129.6 = 41 cm
241.8

(6) Change of Draft = Trim = 41 =

2 2

= 20.5 cm or 0.205 M

LCG(FP) is Aft of LCB(FP), therefore Ship is trimmed “By the

Stern”
NOTE: Draft. NTC, LCB and DISP were calculated in Chapter Two,
- 68 -

Manuals.

(1) Vertical Moments of Constant = Weight x KG

= 196 x 9.52 = 1865.92 TxM
(2) New KG = Total Moments(Vert.) =
Total Weights(Disp.)
= 183154.84 = 8.277 M
22129.60

(4) GG1 = Total Inertia =

Total Weight(Disp.)

= 7771.8 = 0.351 M
22129.6

Rolling Period = 0.797 x 22.860 M = 18.22 =

sq.rt. 0.612 M 0.78

= 23 seconds
- 72 -

5.33 The following list summarises the steps to calculate

port.

5.33.1 Check Fwd and Aft Drafts upon arrival and solve
for corrected trim.

5.33.2 Deduct fuel oil and water consumed from DISP at

previous port. Add ballast water if taken in:
subtract if discharged.

5.33.3 Using DISP calculated in 5.33.2, refer to

Hydrostatic Tables and obtain Draft, MTC and
LCB. Check Sg to account for any difference from
Mean Draft found in 5.33.1.

5.33.4 Solve for Total Longitudinal Moments on arrival,

Work back from Trim to Trim Lever to LCG(FP).

5.33.5 Measure the LCG(FP) of all weights to be loaded

or discharged. Solve for their Longitudinal
Moments.

5.33.7 Add all weights taken in and subtract all

weights discharged to find new DISP. Refer to
Hydrostatic Tables for new Draft, MTC and LCB.
- 73 -

CHAPTER SIX
GENERAL

6.1 If a ship ts to carry grain. it must have a Grain

requirements, and must be approved by the appropriate
Government Agency.

6.2.1 The Angle of Heel due to shift of grain shall

not be greater than twelve (12°) degrees.

6.2.3 The correct metacentric height shall not be

less than 0.30 metres.

6.3 The trim and stability and Grain stability should be

made as soon as details of the grain cargo to be
(SF) of tne grain to be loaded, slack holds may be
the designated slack holds in this situation.

6.4 The actual Horizontal Heeling Moment (HHM) is equal

to the Volumetric Heeling Moment (VEM) divided by the
Stowage Factor (SF) of the cargo.

Heeling Moment = Volumetric Horizontal Moment

Stowage Factor ofCargo(M³/F³)
- 76 -

6.5 The increase in Vertical Centre of Gravity (GG0)

is equal to the Volumetric Vertical Moment (VVM)
divided by the product of the Displacement and
SF.

GG0 = Volumetric Vertical Moment

Displacement x Stowage Factor

Cubic Metres(M³) = Cubic Feet(F³) x 35.31476

6.6 VHM, VVM and allowable HVM are found in the Grain
compared with the allowable HVM. If the actual HVM is
greater than the allowable HVM a new stowage
distribution with less heeling moment must be
planned.

A grain cargo is to be loaded at summer draft. The

designated slack hold is No. 3. Stowage Factor is
given as 42 F³/LT.

(1) Stowage Factor = 42 F³ /LT

42 = 42 = 1.1706 M³
= 35.314 x 1.016 35.879024

—196.0 MT Constant 16763.0
16763.0

- 77 -

1.1706

1.1706

1.1706

HOLD #4 = 5158.16 MT³ = 4406.424 MT

1.1706

TOTAL = 17437.63 MT

This exceeds the cargo deadweight, therefore we must solve

hold.

HOLD #1 = 3396.9844 MT
HOLD #2 = 4803.7585 MT
HOLD #4 = 4406.424 MT

TOTAL = - 12607.166 MT

(5) Stability and Trim calculations (Chapter Five)

revealed that the ship would be down by the Head by
1.6 cm. To correct the Trim, it was decided to shift
100.0 MT of fuel from No. 1 Fuel Oil Tank to No. 3
Fuel Oil Tank.
- 83 -

DISP = 21300.10 MT

MTC = 237.45 T—M
LCB = 66.45 M
LCG = 66.657M
TL = 0.20 M
TRIM = 18.6 cm
CD = 9.3 cm, or
= 0.093 M

Fwd Draft = 8.690 M Aft Draft = 8.690 M Mid = 8.69 M

Correction = -0.093 M = +0.093 M
New Draft = 8.597 M = 8.783 M = No change

To calculate the new KG, we must first calculate

the change in Vertical Moments caused by shifting
the Fuel Oil from No. 1 tank to No. 3 tank.

No. 1 tank = 355.4 - 100 = 255.4 MT x 0.44 M = 112.38 T—N

No. 3 tank = 186.6 + 100 = 286.8 MT x 0.82 M = 235.18 T—M

Old Vertical Moment = 1419799.13 — 347.56

New Vertical Moment = 1419451.57
New KG = 1419451.51 = 6.64 M
21300.10
- 84 -

(7) GRAIN STABILITY

Horizontal Vertical
Moments Moments

GGO = 2295.532 = 0.092 M

21300.10 x 1.1705

Actual Heeling Moment = 10954.265 = 9358.08

1.1705

JUDGEMENT GOOD !
- 85 -

Department of Transport
Ship Safety Branch

CALCULATION OF STABILITY

IN ACCORDANCE WITH

Captain:

You are required to complete a stability calculation prior

vessel’s worst condition during the forthcoming voyage. The
calculation should be made on this form and presented to the
Port Warden before the vessel can be issued with a Certificate
of Readiness to Load. If there are any subsequent changes to the
original stowage plan, (tonnage’s, commodities or stowage
factors, etc.) you should prepare a corrected plan for the Port
Warden’ s approval.

The manner in which this calculation is made will depend

upon:
(c) The type of grain stability information with which your
vessel has been provided.

If your vessel is a bulkcarrier and an “existing ship under

the provisions of IMO Resolution A264 (VIII) Part B, Sec. V(B),
you are required to prove that your vessel’s angle of heel, if
grain shifts, will not exceed 5° Your stability information will
indicate if your vessel is of this type and if so you should
complete only Tables I, II. III. IV and VII A.

If your vessel has to meet the provisions of Regulation 4 of

the above Resolution; i.e. Maximum Values of (a) Angles of Heel
12°, and Minimum Values of (b) Residual Stability 0.075 metre
radians and (c) GM 0.30 M, you should complete the form by one
of the following methods.
- 86 -

If your vessel’s grain stability information contains a table of

Allowable Upsetting Moments, complete only Tables I II, III, IV, V,VI

TYPE 3 CALCULATION (WITHOUT ALLOWABLE UPSETTING MOMENTS, 12° ANGLE

OF HEEL) ABBREVIATED

If you are not provide with a table of Allowable Upsetting

Moments complete only Tables I II. III IV, V. VII B and VIII

If, however, the GZ curve depicted in your grain stability

tion is not of a normal configuration, or if the maximum GZ value of
such curve occurs before 400, then you should complete the Type 4
Calculation.

HEEL) FULL

TYPE 5 CALCULATION (5° ANGLE OF HEEL) TANKERS

If your vessel is a tanker, all tanks except two (two wing tanks
or two centres) must be trimmed full or you will be required to meet
the conditions described in TYPE I above (5° ANGLE OF HEEL)

stating that your vessel at all times meets the required conditions
for draft and initial GM values and in this case, no calculation is
necessary. Alternatively, you may have information enabling you to
complete a TYPE I calculation. If not, you should complete only
Tables I, II. III and VII C.

TYPE 6 CALCULATION (REDUCED STABILITY CRITERIA SHELTERED WATERS)

waters, you may not be able to meet fully the requirements laid down
in your stability documents whilst in transit between such ports. In
this instance, you may take advantage of a relaxation of such
requirements whilst in transit between ports. In this case, you
should complete Tables I, II, III and X.

If you meet the requirements of Table X, your vessel will

not in fact list more than 15° if grain in all slack holds shifts
through an angle with the horizontal of 12°, nor will your available
freeboard is immersed by more than 50%. Before taking advantage of
this provision, you are advised to study Section II of the
— 87 —

If it is decided to take advantage of this relaxation, it

should be borne in mind that your vessel will have to comply fully
with the Regulations prior to departure from sheltered waters.

OTHER CONDITIONS

Vessels having onboard documents requiring other than the

criteria described above, or no documents should consult with the
Port Warden for further instructions.

• It is possible that stability booklets. moment " and the two

the term "heeling moment is used in "some this term is an
alternative for "upsetting are to be taken to mean the same.
- 88 -

CHAPTER SEVEN
ROLLING PERIOD TEST FOR GM
GENERAL

7.1 When a large AMOUNT of deck cargo is carried, or when

port rotation produces unusual height concentration in
upper holds, stability must receive careful attention.
When a ship is nearing her stability limit, and there is
a significant amount of cargo deadweight allowances yet
available, it is good practice to conduct a rolling
period test in still waters.

7.2 The Rolling Period Test is most frequently used for

timber carriers, but should be applied whenever GM is an
ships having a minimum corrected GM of have made safe
ocean crossings not more than 0.03 M at any point in the
voyage.

7.3 The loss of GM through consumption of Fuel Oil and Fresh

Water must be taken into account. An average loss of GM
per day can be derived from the departure and arrival
Trim and Stability calculations.

7.4 The main advantage of conducting a rolling period test

is that the actual GM is observed, making the result
almost error free. There will be a large difference
between the computed GM based on the shipbuilder’s data
and the actual GM based on test. This is because the
shipbuilders base their computations on the Inclining
Experiment of an empty ship.

TIMBER DECK CARGO

sawn timber add fifteen (15) percent to the deck cargo
weight. Timber tends to absorb water at sea, and this
causes a considerable loss of GM.
- 89 -

7.6 A rule of thumb for calculating timber deck cargo weight

is:
Deck Cargo Weight = 50 percent of Hold Cargo Weight

cargo.

timber carriers.

7.7 The difference in rolling period obtained by testing in

still waters, and the average taken at sea, is not
significant enough to cause alarm.

ROLLING PERIOD STILL WATER TEST

7.8 For the rolling period test to give good results, the
following conditions must be met :

7.8.1 If the ship is alongside, she must be clear of her

berth, with her lines slack, so she can roll
freely.

7.8.2 Barges end lighters must be well clear so as to

not hinder the ship’s movement.

7.8.3 Enough weights must be available to list the ship

at least fifteen (15) degrees. Two or more
derricks may be required.

NOTE : The stevedores should be informed in advance if the

need for a test seems likely. Their co-operation in
lifting the weights is often required.

The best position for the observers is the forecastle

deck. There they can note the inclination of the
superstructure, especially the bridge wing, against a
reference point.
- 90 -

7.10 Lift the weights on one side of the ship. When the ship
has been steadied in the listed position drop the
weights onto the dock or into the water. Ensure the
cargo runners are slack, so they offer no resistance.

7.11 It is best to time the complete period of roll from

maximum angle of list through upright to opposite list,
and all the way back to original listed side That is:

or

7.12 Time the period of rolls at least three (3) times to

ensure good accuracy of the average. Use this average
in the Rolling Period Formula to calculate the GM

CALCULATING GM FROM ROLLING PERIOD

( IMPERIAL) ( METRIC)

T = 0.44 B T = 0.797 B
Sq. Rt GM Sq. Rt GM

Therefore:

GM = 0.1936 x B² = 0.6352 x B²
T² T²

GG1 = w x dKG
DISP +/- w

Where : GG1 = Shift of Centre of Gravity

w= Weight to be Loaded or Discharged
W = Original Displacement
dKG = distance from KG to G of the Weight
DISP = Displacement
- 91 –

NOTE : If w is added above KG, or removed from below KG, the

shift of G is upward, and GG1 is subtracted. If w is
removed above KG, or added below KG, the shift of G
is downward, and GG1 is added.

EXAMPLE : DISP = 22129.6 MT

KG = 8.277 M
GM = 0.612 M

(1) Find the New Gm if 200 MT is loaded 9.5 M above the KG.

GG1 = W x dKG = 200 x 9.5 = 0.085 M

New DISP (W +/- w) 22129.6 + 200

above KG.

22129.6 — 200

New GM = GM + GG = 0.612 + 0.073 = 0.685

SIMPLIFIED GM MEASURMENTS

7.13 If a close estimate of GM is all that is required, it

can be calculated from a deliberate listing of the
ship. Weights are suspended from a derrick, or placed
on the deck if no derrick is available.

7.14 The weight (W), the distance of the weight from the
centre line of the ship (D), and the angle of list (0°)
are measured. The DISPL divides the product of the
weight (w) and the distance (D). The result is then
multiplied by the Cotangent of the Angle of List (cot
0°):
- 92 -

GM = W x D x cot 0°
DISP

FXAMPLE:

A forty (40) ton weight is suspended from a derrick;

the derrick head is fifteen (15) metres from the
ship centreline; and the angle of list is read from
the clinometer as five (5°) degrees:

DISP = 8000 MT

GM = W x D x cot 0°
DISP

GM = 40 x 15 x cot 5° =
8000

- 95 -

BIBLIOGRAPHY

• Pursey, H. J., MERCHANT SHIP STABILITY, Brown,

Son & Ferguson, Ltd., 1954.

• Kemp & Young, SHIP STABILITY NOTES & EXAMPLES,

Pitman Press, 1984.

• LaDage, John & Van Gemert, Lee, STABILITY AND

TRIM FOR THE SHIP’S OFFICER, D. Van Nostrand Co.
Inc., 1956.

• Klinkert, J., & White, G. W.NAUTICAL CALCULATIONS

EXPLAINED, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1969.

1978.

1979.