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METRIC

Instructional
MANUAL
CONTENTS

Chapter Page
1 Introduction 1

2 Ship Draft, Trim and Stability Notes 14

3 Draft Survey 30

4 Cargo Deadweight 50

5 Trim and Stability 58

6 Grain Loading 73

7 Rolling Period Test for GM 88

Appendix 94

Draft and Stability Problems and Answers 94


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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE
1.1 This Handbook is intended to assist Deck Officers with their loading calculations.

Practical solutions are emphasised, and the most common questions about ship

loading are answered.

1.2 More detailed knowledge may be obtained from published tomes on the subject

which will provide fuller coverage of stability.

DESCRIPTION
1.3 Chapter One, Introduction - describes the purpose of the Handbook. There is a

summary of the contents of each chapter. An alphabetical listing of abbreviations

used, a listing by chapter of formulas, and some recommended materials and

equipment for performing ship-loading computations are also included.

1.4 Chapter Two, Ship Draft, Trim and Stability Notes -defines and discusses points

and practices which have a practical effect on safe and economic ship loading.

1.5 Chapter Three, Draft Survey - describes in detail, complete with worked

examples, the procedure for performing an International Standard Draft Survey.

1.6 Chapter Four, Cargo Deadweight - summarises the main considerations when

performing cargo deadweight calculations. Each step in the procedure is then

described in detail, complete with worked examples.

1.7 Chapter Five, Trim and stability - summarises the main considerations when

performing trim and stability calculations. Each step in the procedures is then

described in detail, complete with worked examples.


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1.8 Chapter Six, Grain Loading - summarises the IMCO and SOLAS requirements for

loading grain. Each step in the procedure is then described in detail, complete with

worked examples.

1.9 Chapter Seven, Rolling Period Test for Timber Carriers -describes the procedure

for measuring the rolling period of a ship. This is most frequently required when

there is timber deck cargo, but is applicable for any vessel or cargo. The

calculations to convert rolling period into GM are then described in detail, complete

with worked examples.

1.10 Appendix I, Problems - consists of twenty-seven (27) questions relating to the

material covered in this Handbook. All questions are worked out in detail.

1.11 The following abbreviations are commonly used through- out the text:

AP After Perpendiculars

DISP Displacement

DWT Deadweight

FP Forward Perpendiculars

GM Metacentric height

KB Transverse Centre of Buoyancy

KG Transverse Centre of Gravity

LBP Length Between Perpendiculars

LCB Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (Pg.26)

LCF Longitudinal Centre of Flotation

LCG Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (Pg 22)

LKM Longitudinal Metacentric Distance

MG Centre of Gravity from Midship or LCG

MTC Moment to Change Trim by One Centimetre


P Port
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QM Quarter Mean

S Starboard

SF Stowage Factor [M3/T ]

Sg Specific gravity [ T/M3 ]

TKM Transverse Metacentric Height

TPC Tonnes per Centimetre (Immersion)

VHM Volumetric Heeling Moment

VVM Volumetric Vertical Moment

FORMULAS

1.12 The following formulas are used in ship loading computations:

DRAFT SURVEY (Chapter 3)

Forward Draft = Fwd(P) + Fwd(S)


2

Aft Draft = Aft(P) + Aft(S)


2

Mid Mean = Mid(P) + Mid(S)


2
Trim = Aft - Fwd

Fwd/Aft Mean = Fwd + Aft


2

Mean of Mean = Fwd & Aft Mean + Mid Mean


2

QM = Mean of Mean + Mid Mean


2

DISPLACEMENT correction = TPC x Draft remainder in cm. Displacement = DISP + DISP

correction
-4-

First correction = TRIM xTPC x LCF x 100 = Corr for trim


LBP

Vessel trimmed by the STERN:

LCF is Fwd - you SUBTRACT

LCF is Aft - you ADD

Vessel trimmed by the HEAD:

LCF is Fwd - you ADD

LCF is Aft - you SUBTRACT

Second Correction = T² x 50 x MTC diff = Final Trim Correction


LBP

Displacement = TPI x Draft remaining in inertia

First Correction = Trim x TPI x LCF x 12”


LBP

Second Trim Correction = T² x 6” x MTI diff


LBP
MTC difference ( Metric ) :
(a) QM + 50cm = MTC (Found from Ship’s Data)

(b) QM - 50 cm = MTC (Found from Ship’s Data)

MTC diff = a–b (a) MTC


- (b) MTC
= MTC difference

MTI difference (Imperial):

(a) QM + 6” = MTI ( Found from Tables )

(b) Qm – 6” = MTI ( Found from Tables )

WEIGHT DEDUCTIONS ( Metric ) :

FUEL OIL_________________ MT
DIESEL OIL ____________ MT
LUBE OIL ____________MT
FRESH WATER ____________MT
DRINK WATER ____________MT
BOILER WATER ___________MT
BALLAST WATER _________MT
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SLUDGE __________________MT
STORES,etc _______________MT
CONSTANT _______________MT
TOTAL weight deductions

WEIGHT DEDUCTIONS ( Imperial ) :

Calculations are done in LT - Long Tons.

CARGO DEADWEIGHT (Chapter 4) ; Pg 70

Cargo DWT = DISP. corrected for density (2nd condition)


- TOTAL weight deductions (2nd condition)
= NETT displacement (2nd condition)

- NETT displacement (lightship = 1st condition)

= CARGO LOADED

PERCENTAGE (%) = Hold Capacity x 100


Total Capacity

DEFLECTION = MID MEAN

Hogging = MID MEAN - FWD & AFT MEAN [ Peregib ] , See Pg.23

Sagging = MID MEAN - FWD & AFT MEAN [ Progib ] , See Pg.23

Even Keel = MID MEAN - FWD & AFT MEAN

TRIM FORMULAS (Chapter 5) ; Page 58

LCG(FP) = LBP + MG
2

MG is Aft - you ADD

MG is Fwd - you SUBTRACT

Longitudinal Moment = Weight x LCG(FP)

New LCG(FP) = Total Longitudinal Moments


Displacement
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Trim Lever = LCG(FP) - LCB(FP)

TRIM =Trim Lever x Displacement x 100(m)


MTC
Final Longitudinal Moments = DISP x LCG(FP)

Longitudinal Moments of Constant = Final - all other Longitudinal Moments

LCFG(FP) of the Constant = Longitudinal Moment


Weight

(CD) Change of Draft = Trim


2

Mean Sinkage = + Weight


TPC

Distance = 2 x MTC
TPC

Weight = TPC x Trim(cm)


2

Vertical Moment = Weight x KG

KG = Total Moments (P) _ Total Moments (S)


Total Weights (P) Total Weights (S)

New KG = Old KG = Total Change in Moments


Total Change in Weights

GM = TKM - New KG

*GG = Total Inertia / Total Weights

G1M = GM - GG1
Rolling Period : ( Imperial ) ( Metric )

0.44B Ft___ 0.7978B Metres


sq.rt of G M sq. rt of GM

Rise of G due to Free Surface = _L x B³ x Sg___


12 x DISP x n²
-7-

Where:

L = Length of tank

B = Breadth of tank

Sg = Specific Gravity of liquid in tank

n = # of Longitudinal compartments into which the tank

ROLLING PERIOD TEST (Chapter 7)

( IMPERIAL ) ( METRIC )
GM = 0,1936 x B² GM = 0,6532 x B²
T² T²

Where :

T = Rolling Period in Seconds of time


B = Breadth of Ship

GG1 = w x dKG
DISP

Where:

GG1 = Shift in Centre of Gravity

DISP = W +/ - w

W = Original Displacement

w = Weight to be loaded or discharged

dKG = Distance from KG to G of weight

GM = W x D x cot.0°
DISP

Where:

W = Weight

D = Distance from water line

cot.0° = Angle of List


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GRAIN LOADING (Chapter 6)

HHM = ___VHM___
SF( cargo)

G0 G1 = VHM
DISP x SF

CUBIC METRES ( M ³) = Cubic Feet ( Ft³ )


35.315

NECESSARY MATERIALS

1.13 Work Forms are recommended to ease the work of calculations. Several forms are

included as part of the examples in this Handbook. These may be used as is, or

altered to suit personal or operational requirements.

1.14 Stability Booklet and Loading Manual, complete with:

- hydrostatic and deadweight tables;

- grain loading plan;

- general arrangement plan;

- capacity plan, and

- tank capacity plan or manual.

These items are all supplied by the shipbuilder to the ship and should be studied
with care.

1.15 Certified hydrometer and water sampler (water thief). These are used to measure

the specific gravity (Sg) of the water in which the ship is floating. A special

hydrometer for measuring the Sg of fuel and lubricating oils should also be

available.
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1.16 A sounding tape for measuring tank contents, and a standard tape for measuring

holds, lockers, and other spaces.

1.17 A good calculator will speed up calculations. Any of the better scientific calculators

will have a program for integration by Simpson’s Rule.


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Figure 2

Page 13 is skipped
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CHAPTER TWO
SHIP DRAFT, TRIM AND STABILITY NOTES

CONSTANT

2.1 The constant, in draft survey calculations, includes all

weights aboard ship, which are not included in the manuals.

These would include crew, crew's effects, provisions and

stores, lifesaving equipment, water in pipelines, mud in

the chain locker, and fouling of the hull.

2.2 A vessel’s constant will alter appreciably over a period

of time. It must be checked, and probably recalculated,

for every loading survey. Stores, paint especially,

together with lubricating oils, spare cylinder liners,

and additional equipment will often change the constant

by more than 100 tonnes in 6 months.

2.3 The constant also increases with age. Corrosion and the

accumulation of “it might be useful” stores are the main

causes for this increase. The old rule of thumb was:

"For a vessel of 10,000 tons, add one inch of draft


for each five years of vessel life".

Most vessels are now much larger, so the estimate will have to

depend on the surveyor’s experience. Check for unlisted stores

especially used lumbers and rope.

2.4 The weight of bottom growth is the most difficult to

allow for. It is frequently significant, and value of 50


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Kg/M² has been suggested. A check of the fouling exposed


when the vessel is light can be helpful.

A bottom survey by a qualified diver provides the most

accurate data.

2.5 One apparent change in constant must be guarded against.

A draft survey at anchor, or alongside with one anchor

down, will be minus the weight of the anchor and chain.

If, at the discharge port, both anchors are put on the

bottom whilst alongside, the difference between the

initial and final surveys will produce an apparent

increase in the weight of the cargo out-turn.

2.6 Ensure the weights of anchors and chains are properly

added or subtracted from the loading and unloading

constant calculations.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY ( Sg ) [ T/M3 ]

2.7 Specific gravity (Sg) is ratio of the weight of a given

volume of a substance compared to the weight of the same

volume of distilled water. The theoretical Sg

of distilled water is 1.000 T/M3 , the Sg of sea water is 1.025 T/M3

times as much as one cubic meter of distilled (fresh)

water. Therefore, a ship will displace 1.025 T/M3 less

seawater than fresh water.

2.8 The actual Sg is always changing, particularly in the

harbour. The effect of tide water and rivers is such that

constant measuring of the Sg is required throughout

loading. In some harbours where the effects of sea and

fresh water mixing are extreme, it is necessary to


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measure Fwd. Aft, and Amidships Sg’s, and use the average

for Draft and Deadweight calculations. It may be

necessary to get measurements for both port and starboard

sides of the ship if maximum accuracy is required.

Measuring the Sg at different depths may also be

required.

2.9 Use a partly stopped, weighted container and a line equal

in length to the distance from the deck to the keel, to

sample the water for Sg measurement. Drop the container

into the water and withdraw it at an even rate. With

practice, the container will be just filled as it breaks

the surface. Water samples collected in this way will

represent a good average of the water in which the ship

is floating.

2.10 Sg measurements for Draft and Deadweight surveys must be

made with a certified hydrometer.

DENSITY AND TEMPERATURE

2.11 A great deal has been written regarding the effect of

temperature on density. This is important when

viscosity is a consideration, or when specific gravity is

required for scientific calculations.

2.12 However, in draft surveys, it is unnecessary to measure

the temperature of the river, lake, or ocean water in

which the vessel is riding. The hydrometer reading. if

taken as soon as the sample is drawn, will include the


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temperature, as well as the salinity effect on specific

gravity.

A GOLDEN RULE IS. THEREFORE, MEASURE THE WATER TEMPERATURE IF

YOU MUST,BUT DO NOT USE IT IN DRAFT SURVEY CALCULATIONS.

The Sinkage and Trim caused by Currents and Tidal Streams*


Most seafarers are well aware of the effect known as “squat” which
causes ships to increase their draft when travelling at speed in shallow
water. What they may not be aware of is that a ship moored or
anchored in shallow water experiences the same effect when there is a
tidal stream or current running. The cause of both effects is similar.
Consider a ship moored in a river (Figure 4). When a current is
running the shin constricts the flow. The water must then increase its
speed In order that the same quantity passes through the restricted
space as does through the unrestricted space. In any given period of
time. The water flowing at a higher speed under the bottom of the
vessel causes a reduction In pressure on the bottom (this occurs by
virtue of the Bernoulli effect) arid the ship sinks deeper in the water.
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* E. Stokoe, Weight/Volume Relationship Required for Draft Survey


Calculations, Seawaves, Vol.Feb.1984, pp.15, 17.

The Bernoulli effect can be demonstrated by trying to blow a piece of card off
the end of a cotton reel (Figure 5). It is impossible to blow the card off. The high
air velocity on the inner face of the card causes a local drop in pressure relative
to the outer face of the card; thus keeping it firmly pressed on the end of the reel.
Bernoulli’s equation, which governs this effect, is P + p V²/2 + pgh = constant,
where
P + p V²/2 + pgh = constant, where
P - is pressure,
p - the water density,
v - Is the velocity, and
h - the depth of water.
Clearly as v increases, at a given water depth, P must decrease for the equation
to remain constant.

The amount of sinkage caused by this effect will depend,


therefore, on the water velocity. It will also depend on the depth
of water beneath the keel and the ship’s length. The sinkage in
some cases will be considerable. For example, a 1,600 tonne
coaster moored In a river where the current Is running at 4 knots
will experience a sinkage of at least 5 cm where there is about
0.35 in of water under the keel. It is therefore desirable to wait
until the depth of water under the keel is as large, as possible
before measuring draughts if there is any current.
Clearly In a tidal stream It would be better to measure the
draughts at slack Hater thus avoiding this sinkage effect If’ at
all possible. With data currently available it would not be
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possible for the sinkage likely to be experienced to be estimated


in all cases.
An approximate theoretical estimate can be made but the
procedure involved is relatively complicated (see Dand &
Ferguson. The Squat of Full Form Ships In Shallow Water,
TRINA Vol.115. 1973.

DISPLACEMEHT AND DEADWEIGHT

2.13 Displacement is the weight of water displaced by the

ship, which, for a floating vessel, equals the weight of

the ship. Light Ship’s weight plus Deadweight equals

Displacement (DISP).

2.14 Deadweight is the total weight carried by the ship.

Included in deadweight are: cargo, constant and stores,

fresh water, fuel and ballast.

SHIP STRUCTURE

2.15 All vessels must be able to remain afloat after certain

heavy seas. Watertight bulkheads are one of the major

structural items built into the ship for this purpose.

The length of the ship regulates the number of these

bulkheads.

2.16 Four is the usual minimum number of bulkheads required:

2.16.1 A collision bulkhead placed at one-twentieth

(1/20) of the ship’s length, measured from the

stem.

2.16.2 A bulkhead forward and the engine (and boiler, if

steam powered) space.

2.16.3 An afterpeak bulkhead positioned to enclose the

shaft tubes in a watertight compartment.


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SHIP STRUCTURAL STRESSES

2.17 A ship is considered a variably loaded, variably sup-

ported beam, for strength analysis. That is:

2.17.1 The weight of the ship, its equipment and

cargo, will vary meter by meter along its

length.

2.17.2 The water in which it floats supports the ship.

In still water, there is more support per meter

at the stern than at the bow because the ship is

fuller aft.

2.17.3 In a sea there is more displacement, and there-

fore more support or upward force, at the crest

of a wave. There is less displacement and

therefore less support in the troughs.

2.18 The major stresses are: longitudinal tension (or

stretching), compression in the deck and keel, and

shearing forces, as shown in Figure 7.

2.18.1 When the ratio of weight-to-support is greater at

the ends than amidships, the ship “hogs”. The

keel is in compression, the deck is in tension,

and the ship bends upward in the middle.

2.18.2 when the ratio of weight to support is greater

amidships than at the ends, the ship “sags”. The

keel is in tension, the deck is in compression,

and the ship bends downward in the middle.

2.19 Since the keel is constructed with a heavier weight

of metal, the deck is where almost all failures occur.


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The deck of a cargo vessel is further weakened by

hatchways and other necessary openings. These openings

must be reinforced. Sharp corners tend to concentrate

stresses, so hatch corners require special attention.

2.20 The deck is subject to other stresses such as deck cargo

and the weight of water when heavy seas are shipped.

Since deck beams must be cut out at hatch comings, the

load bearing strength is reduced. The weight and

placement of deck cargo and the effects of heavy seas

must be carefully considered. The deck plates should be

strengthened, if required. Hatch comings should be

checked for strength and rigidity.

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY

2.21 The longitudinal centre of gravity (LCG) of a ship is

that point along its length where one-half of all weights

are forward, and one-half aft. That is, it is the balance

point for the ship and its contents.

( Page 22 is skipped.)
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Figure 7
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LONDITUDIONAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY
METRIC MEASURE
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LONGITUDIONAL CENTER OF GRAVITY ( IMPERIAL MEASURE )


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LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY

2.22 The longitudinal centre of buoyancy (LCB) is that point

where one-half of the ship buoyancy is forward, and one-

half aft. Because a ship is finer at the bow than at the

stern, the LCE is usually aft of the longitudinal centre

of gravity. The LCB will also tend to move aft as

displacement increases. For cargo vessels, the distance

is so small, however, in ratio to the length between

perpendiculars (LBP), that one-half of LBP is used for

practical calculations.

TRIM

2.23 When calculating the projected trim of a ship:

2.23.1 When LCG is Aft of LCB, the ship is “trimmed by


the stern”.

2.23.2 When LCG is Fwd of LCB, the ship is “trimmed by


the head”

2.23.3 When LCG and LCE are the same, the ship is on an
“even keel”.

2.24 A ship trimmed by the head will be difficult to steer. It

will also be subject to excessive shipping of seas in a

seaway.

2.25 A trim of one meter by the stern is generally considered

ideal. Cargo stowage, fresh water, fuel oil, usage and

ballasting should be calculated to achieve this.


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2.26 Cargo segregation and port rotation sometimes make ideal

trimming difficult and costly. The consumption of fresh

water and fuel on a long voyage must be considered. The

removal of weight can make a poor trim worse or it can

improve it, depending on where the weight is located.

2.27 There are times when a ship is put on even keel because

of port requirements. The only good reason for having a

ship down by the head is for making emergency repairs to

the rudder or propeller.

BALLAST TANKS

2.28 All ships, except tankers, are built with double bottoms

to form tanks for fuel oil or ballast. These tanks are

divided Fwd and Aft and Athwartship.

2.29 When filling or checking ballast tanks, care must be

taken to avoid water damage to cargo. It is best done

when the hold above the tank is empty.

2.30 It is dangerous to assume these tanks are watertight,

even in a new ship. To check the ballast water tanks,

fill them until the water escapes through the overflow

pipes. Check the sounding to ensure the head is stable.

Also check the tank top seams and the manhole covers.

2.31 When a double bottom tank is filled there is considerable

upward force on the manhole covers. For a


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manhole of 1,300 cm² (approximately 41 cm or 16 inches

across) with a head of fresh water six meters above the

tank top, the upward force is:

0.6 kg/cm² x 1.300 cm² = 780 kg.


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CHAPTER THREE
DRAFT SURVEY
SURVEY PROCEDURE

3.1 This Survey Procedure is International Standard for any

type of ship. The ship is first surveyed light, to

calculate the constant. It is then re-surveyed after

loading to determine the weight of cargo.

APPARENT TRIM ( Vidimy Different )

3.2 The Forward (Fwd), Aft (Aft), and Midships (Mid) drafts

are read at both Port (P) and Starboard (S) marks. The P

and S readings are added, and the result divided by two.

3.3 The Aft draft is subtracted from the Fwd draft, and the

result is Apparent Trim. If Trim is positive, the ship is

trimmed By the Head; if Trim is negative, the ship is

trimmed By the Stern.

Fwd Draft = Fwd(P) + Fwd(S)


2

Aft Draft = Aft(P) + Aft(s)


2

Mean Mid = Mid(P) + Mid(s)


2

Trim = Aft - Fwd

DRAFT CORRECTIONS TO THE PERPENDICULARS

3.4 The After Perpendicular is a right angle line to the keel

passing through the rudderpost; it is also the first frame

marked “0” on the vessels drawings.


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The Forward Perpendicular is a right angle line to the keel

cutting the vessel’s Summer waterline at the stern. The

vessels stability information is calculated on the drafts

measured at the perpendiculars; as the draft marks rarely

coincide with these lines, a draft as read must be corrected.

3.5 If the marks are not on the perpendiculars, the vessel usually

has a tabulated plan in her hydrostatic books. However, some

of the older vessels do not have their tabulation and it is

therefore necessary to work out the correction to be applied

by referring to the vessels capacity plan and measuring the

horizontal distance between the draft marks and the

perpendiculars of the waterline.

3.6 The correction is calculated as follows:

Aft Perpendicular Corr = 7.10 x 1.75(trim)= 0.0971 cm (+)


128.0

Fwd Perpendicular Corr = - 1.21 x 1.75(trim)= - 0.0165 cm(-)


128.0

How to determine Signs of FWD and AFT Corrections: (see pg 36)

The Sign of A.P. / F.P. Corrections depending on Signs of two factors: Trim and
Location of Distance between FWD / AFT perpendiclar to FWD / AFT Draft mark.
Actually it appear atomatically when you insert in fomula all parametrs with their
own algebraical sign . Trim by STEN ( + ) ; Tim by HEAD ( - ).
Location of FWD /AFT perpendiculars FORWARD of FWD / AFT Draft mark ( - ) ;
Location of FWD / AFT Perpendiculas AFT of FWD / AFT Draft mark ( + ) .
Strictly say nesessary check all Signs in Ship’s Stability Manual to avoid any mistakes.

(7.10) - represents the distance from the AFT Draft mark to the
AFT Perpendicular.

(-1.21) - represents the distance from the FWD Draft mark to the
FWD Perpendicular.

(128.0) - represents the length of the vessel between the Draft


marks

(trim) - the difference between the Forward and After drafts


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— 33 —
3.7 The above corrections are applied to the forward and after

drafts read.

Fwd Draft 2.64 m Aft Draft 4.30 m


+ Fwd Corr. -0.0165 + Aft Corr +0.0971
Corrected Fwd Draft 2.6235 Corrected Aft Draft 4.3971

3.8 CORRECTED DRAFT

Corrected Draft Aft 5.019 = Aft - Fwd = Corr. Trim


Fwd 2.361
Corrected Trim 2.658

NOTE: This value is used in Trim Correction Formulas to

adjust the displacement

MEAN DRAFT CORRECTION ( M / M / M )

3.9 The Quarter Mean ( QM ) or Mean Draft Corrected for

Deformation must be solved next. Use the corrected

draft values

3.10 First calculate the Fwd/Aft Mean Draft. Add Fwd to Aft,

and divide the result by two:

Fwd /Aft Mean = Fwd + Aft


2
3.11 Next, calculate the Mean of Mean Add the Fwd/Aft Mean

(calculated in 3.10.) to the Mid Mean, and divide the

result by two:

Mean of Mean = Fwd/Aft Mean + Mid Mean


2

3.12 Now calculate the QM Add the Mean of Mean (calculated

in 3.11) to the Mid Mean, and divide the result by two

NOTE: The Mid Mean is applied twice, first in calculating

the Mean of Mean, and second in calculating the QM.


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QM = Mean of Mean + Mid Mean


2

EXAMPLE (USED IN REPORT ON PAGE 49):

FWD P 2.377 AFT P 5.017 MIDSHIP p 3.59


S 2.377 S 5.017 S 3.72
4.754 10.034 7.31

4.754 10.034 7.31


2 2 2

FWD = 2.377 AFT = 5.017 MEAN-MID = 3.655

TRIM = AFT – FWD ( APPARENT )

= 5.017 - 2.377

= 2.64 [Trim by the Stern (Apparent) because positive]

DRAFT CORRECTION

Corrections for the Fwd and Aft Drafts (Fwd corr. and Aft

corr.) and Corrected Trim must be calculated. The corrections

values are different for each ship, and are found in the

Stability Manuals. If required, they can be calculated from the

formula given in Figure 12.

EXAMPLE:

Fwd Correction Value = +/-(distance from Fwd Draft to Fwd Perp)


(distance between Fwd and Aft Marks)

Fwd Correction = Fwd Correction Value x Trim ( Apparent )=

= -0.006037 x 2.64 = - 0.016 ( - )

Aft Correction Value = +/-(distance from Aft Draft to Aft Perp)


(distance between Fwd and Aft Marks)

Aft Correction = +0.034716 x 2.64 = +0.91 ( + )

Note: See Page 31 for explanation Sign +/- in abovementions


Formulas.
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Corrected Draft:

Fwd Draft = 2.377 Aft Draft = 5.017


Fwd Corr = -0.016 Aft Corr = + 0.091
Fwd Draft Corrected = 2.361 Aft Draft Corrected = 5.108

Corrected Trim: Aft Draft Cor-ed - Fwd Draft Cor-ed =


= Corrected Trim (CT)

Aft Draft Corrected = 5.108


Fwd Draft Corrected = - 2.361
Corrected Trim (CT) 2.747

Note: This value used in the Trim correction Formulas to adjust the

displacement.

EXAMPLE:

Mid Mean = 3.655 M

Fwd + Aft = 2.361 M + 5.019 M = 7.38 M

Fwd and Aft Mean = 7.38 = 3.69 M


2
Fwd and Aft + Mid Mean = 3.69
+3.655
7.345

Mean Mean of Means = 7.345 = 3.672 M


2

Mean Mean of Means + Mid Mean = 3.672 + 3.655 = 7.327 M

Quarter Mean = 7.327 = 3.663 M


2

QM = 3.663 M

The value for QM is used throughout the remaining Draft Survey


Calculations.

NOTE : QM is the same as M/M/M

M/M/M = ( Fwd + 6 x Mid + Aft ) = 3.663 M


8
AFT Perp.
FWD Perp.

+ -1.21m

Note: The Sign of A.P./F.P. Correstions depending on Signs of two factors: Trim and Distance between F/A perpendiclar to F/A Draft mark.
Actually it appear atomatically when you insert in fomla all parametrs with their own algebraical signs.
Trim by STEN ( + ) ; Tim by HEAD ( - ). Location of F/A perpendiculars FORWARD of F/A Draft mark ( - ) ; Location of F/A
Perpendiculas AFT of F/A Draft mark ( + ) . Strictly say nesessary check all Signs in Ship’s Stability Manual to avoid any mistakes.
- 37 -

3.13 Refer to the vessel's Stability & Hydrostatic Manuals

and Tables for the following values:

TPC: tonnes per Centimetre Immersion

MTC: Moment to change Trim One Centimetre

LCB: Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy

LCF: Longitudinal centre of Flotation

KB: Transverse centre of Buoyancy

TKM: Transverce Metacentric Height

3.14 Interpolation
Calculate the Displacement Correction ( DISP. Corr.)

a) Subtract the nearest smaller Draft from the calculated

QM.

b)Multiply the result by 100 to convert Meters to Centi-

metres.

c) Multiply this by the TPC for the displacement.

d) This correction is added to the displacement given for

the nearest smaller draft.

NOTE: Refer to Figures 13 and 14 for sample Hydrostatic

Tables.

Draft Remainder (cm) = Draft remainder x 100

DISP. Corr. = TPC x Draft remainder (cm)

Displacement = DISP. + Disp. Corr. = Actual Displacement

EXAMPLE:

a) Draft remaining = 3.6635 - 3.66 = 0.0035 M

b) Draft remaining = Draft Remainder(M) x 100 = 0.0035 M =0.35cm


- 38 -
- 40 -

c) Displacement Correction = TPC x Remaining draft (cm)

= 17.66 x 0.35 cm = 6.181 MT

d) DISPL.CORRECTED = DISPL.(at SMALLER DRAFT ) + correction


= 7587.00 + 6.181 = 7593.181 MT (corrected)

TRIM CORRECTION

3.15 Trim Correction values for a given Displacement is

tabulated in the Ship Stability Manual. Even if these are

readily available, the following formulas should be

studied in order that the principles governing a Draft

Survey are fully understood.

3.16 Before calculating the First Trim Correction, Corrected

Trim (CT) (Ref. 3.3) must be converted from meters to

centimetres. Multiply CT (in) by 100 to get centimetres.

Converted Corrected trim = CT x 100

3.17 To calculate the First Trim Correction, multiply TRIM by

TPC, then multiply the product by the longitudinal Centre

of Flotation (LCF) x 100. Then, divide the final product

by the Length Between Perpendiculars (LBP).

First Correction = TRIM x TPC x LCF x 100


LBP

Second Correction = T² x +/-50 cm x MTC diff.


LBP

3.18 The first correction can be either positive (add), or


-41-

negative (subtract), depending on the location of the LCF

and the trim condition. (It's mean sign of LCF and TRIM )

3.18.1 VESSEL TRIMMED BY THE STEM


LCF is Forward (Fwd) (+) ADD Trim Correction
LCF is Aft (Aft) (-) SUBTRACT Trim
Correction

3.18.2 VESSEL TRIMMED BY THE STERN


LCF is Fwd (—) SUBTRACT Trim Correction
LCF is Aft (+) ADD Trim Correction

3.19 The second Trim Correction is required when the

Trim is greater than the LBP divided by 100. It may be

applied without adverse effect at smaller trims.

Second Correction = T² x +/-50 cm x MTC diff.


LBP

3.20 The second correction is always (+) (additive)

regardless of the trim or other factors.

3.21 Before calculating the Second Trim Correction, MTC

difference, sometimes referred to as dM/dZ, must be

found.

3.21.1 ADD 50 cm to the Quarter Mean Draft ( QM ) to

find the corresponding MTC from the vessel’s

Hydrostatic book.

3.21.2 SUBTRACT 50 cm from the Quarter Mean Draft

(QM) to find the corresponding MTC from the

Vessels Hydrostatic book.

3.21.3 The difference between 3.21.1 and 3.21.2 is

the MTC difference, or dM/dZ.


- 43 -

EXAMPLE:

(1)First correction: Trim = 2.74 M ( By STERN "+" )

TRIM x LCF x TPC x 100


LBP

(+)2.74 x (—)4.53 x 17.65 x 100 = 159.909 (-) MT


137.00
= 159.91(-)

2) Second Correction: T² x +/-50 x MTC diff


LBP

MTC diff.:

a) Q M + 50cm = MTC ( Found in Ship’s book)

b) Q M - 50cm = MTC ( Found in Ship’s book)

MTC diff= ( a) — ( b)

a) QM = 3.675
+ 0.50
4.175 MTC = 169.4
b) QM = 3.675
— 0.50
3.175 MTC =160.7

(a) = 169.4
(b) = - 160.7
MTC diff = 8.7

7.5 x 50 x 8.7 = 23.81 + MT


137

(3) DISP Corrected for TRIM:

1st correction: a) 7587.00


b)- 159.91
=c) 7427.09 (-)
- 44 -

2nd Correction: c) 7427.09


d) + 23.81
= e) 7450.90 (+) = Displ. Corr.for
Trim

NOTES for TRIM FORMULAS FOR IMPERIAL CALCULATIONS:


TPI = Tons Per Inch (12 converts all to inches)

6” = +/-6” of the QM draft to obtain the two MTI differences.

1st Correction = TRIM x LCF x TPI x 12


LBP

2nd Correction = T² x +/-6” x MTI diff


LBP

SPECIFIC GRAVITY CORRECTION


3.22 A Specific Gravity (Sg) of 1.025 is generally assumed

for SeaWater in calculating Displacement (DISP).

Because the Sg. is almost never exactly 1.025, Sg. correction

must be calculated.

3.22.1 Sg. is always minus if the measured Sg. is

1.025 or less.

3.22.2 Sg. is plus if the measured S9. is 1.026 or

more.

3.23 Calculate the Sg. correction by subtracting the

measured density from 1.025, divide this by 1.025 and

then multiply that answer by the DISP.

Sg. corr. = 1.025 - Measured Density x DISP.


1.025

EXAMPLE:

Measured Density = l.020.4

1.025 — 1.0204 x 7450.9 = 32.71


1.025
- 45 -

DISP. corr. for Trim 7450.90


Density Corr. (Sg.) — 32.71
DISP. Corr. for Density 7418.19

VESSEL’S CONSTANT

3.24 Subtracting the Lightship, weights, ballast and

consumables from the Displacement solves the Constant

of an unladen vessel.

3.25 Tank tables or graphs should be available so the tank

soundings can be converted from measure to volumes and

corrected for trim.

3.26 Figure 16 is a typical tank graph. In addition to

volume against sounding information, it provides KG

and Inertia data for trim and stability calculations.

Figure 17 is a tank trim correction table and Figure

18 is a typical tank table.

3.27 Volume multiplied by Sg. equals weight. A Sg. of 1.000

is used for Fresh Water, and for Salt Water Ballast a

Sg. of 1.025 is used. Therefore, one cubic meter of

Fresh Water equals one Metric Tonne and one cubic

Meter of SeaWater equals 1.025 Metric Tonnes.

3.28 The Chief Engineer is obliged to supply the Sg. of the

various fuel oils on board. It is good practice, if

possible, to measure the Sg. at the same time the tanks

is being sounded.
- 46 -

3.29 WEIGHTS

FUEL OIL 545.86 MT

DIESEL OIL 100.70 MT

LUBE OIL 21.00 MT

FRESH WATER 401.00 MT

DRINK WATER NIL

BOILER WATER NIL

BALLAST WATER 1870.84 MT

SLUDGE (BILGE) 5.50 MT

STORES, etc. NIL

CONSTANT 200.42 MT
= TOTAL WEIGHT 3145.32 MT

NETT DISP. 7418.19 MT

- TOTAL WEIGHT 31475.32 MT

NETT DISP LIGHTSHIP 4272.87 MT

FINAL SURVEY

3.29 The Final Survey follows the same procedure as the

Initial Survey. Total cargo equals DISP. minus

Lightship Weight.

NOTE: See completed form – Figure 19 (Page 49 – Picture )


- 47 -
-50-

CHAPTER FOUR
CARGO DEADWEIGHT

GENERAL

4.1 The weight a ship can carry varies considerably with


location and season. More can be loaded in Tropical

countries, but less in a Summer Season Zone. Seasonal

Winter Zone loading, when applicable, is smaller still.

4.2 Study the Loadline Certificate carefully to avoid conflict


between the ship and the Port Authorities, or with the ship

owners. A Freeboard Table (Figure 1) is provided in the

Ship Stability Manual.

4.3 Consumables, such as fresh water, fuel oil, lubeoil,


ballast, etc., necessary for the intended voyage,must

be considered when calculating Cargo Deadweight.

4.3.1 Make adjustments for re-supply if a call at a


bunkering port is required.

4.3.2 If supply is much larger than projected

consumption, less Cargo Deadweight may be

CARGO DEADWEIGHT CALCULATION

4.4 Calculating the Cargo Deadweight Available is relatively

simple. Consult the Freeboard Table for Draft and Dis-

placement allowed, Subtract Lightship Weight. Constant,

Ballast and Consumables. The remainder is Cargo Deadweight


Available.
-51-

EXAMPLE:

For a simple voyage with a Timber Cargo, in winter, through

a Seasonal Winter Zone.

Timber Winter Displacement = 8.819 MT Draft

Displacement = - 21654.000 MT

Lightship Weight = - 4341.000 MT


17313.000 MT
Constant = — 196.000 MT
17117.000 MT
Ballast = — 2651.000 MT
14466.000 MT
Fresh Water = - 308.000 MT
14158.000 MT

Fuel Oils = - 696.000 MT

CARGO DEADWEIGHT AVAILABLE = 13462.000 MT

CONSUMABLE CONSUMPTION

4.5 If oil and fresh water are to be replenished at an

intermediate port, the Cargo Deadweight may have to be


reduced. If the planned intake, plus the fresh water and

fuel remaining after passage to the bunkering port, is


greater than the consumables on board at Final Survey, the

difference must be deducted from Cargo Deadweight

Available.
-52-

EXAMPLE:

Length of voyage to bunkering port = 16.5 days.


Fresh Water = 150 MT
Fuel Water = + 660 MT
Total Consumables = 810 MT a)
Fresh Water Consumption 8.0/day x 16.5 = 132 MT
Fuel Oil Consumption 24.0/day x 16.5 = + 396 MT

Total Consumption = 528 MT b)

Balance of Fuel and Water Left (810-528) = 282 MT (a-b)


Planned Intake - Fresh Water = 200 MT
- Fuel Oil = +400 MT
- Total = 600 MT
Balance of Fuel and Water = +282 MT
Total after Replenishment = 882 MT
Consumables at Port of Lading = -810 MT
Difference of = 72 MT

The 72 MT must be deducted from Port of Lading Cargo Deadweight


Available.

SEASONAL ZONES

4.6 Less cargo may be carried if a ship loads in a Summer Zone

and will enter a Seasonal Winter Zone.

EXAMPLE:

Summer Timber Loadline = 9.07 M = 22336.00 MT

Winter Timber Loadline = 8.819 M = 21654.00 MT

Difference = 682.00 MT
-53-

4.7 The weight of Consumables used in the voyage from port of


lading to the Winter Zone may be added to the Winter Zone
allowable displacement when calculating allowable Cargo
Deadweight.

4.8 If the ship is to take on consumables at an intermediate


bunkering port in the Winter Zone, the total planned weight
of consumables on board at that port will govern the
allowable Cargo Deadweight.

LOW DENSITY CARGO

4.9 Total Cubic Capacity of the ship is available in the


Capacity Plan. Bale Capacity is used if the booked cargo is
not grain or other bulk commodities.

EXAMPLE:

Load a full, homogeneous cargo with Stowage Factor of 65


CF/LT.

Conversion - 1 Ft³ / LT = 0.0278715 M³ / MT


1 M³ / MT = 35.3145 Ft³ /LT

Therefore SF 65 Ft³/LT x 0.0278715 = 1.81 M³/MT


Bale Capacity = 19183.82 M³

Weight of Cargo = Bale Capacity


SF

= 19183.82
1.81

= 1598.795 MT

NOTE: A number of good books on cargoes and their Stowage Factors


are available. “ STOWAGE - THE PROPERTIES AND STOWAGE OF
CARGOES ” by Captain R. E. Thomas, is a particularly
complete reference.
-54-
CARGO DISTRIBUTION

4.10 The first consideration is to distribute cargo so that


weight is evenly spread throughout the ship.

4.10.1 If Weight-to-Flotation is greater at the ends of


the ship than in the middle, the deck will deflect
up. This is called “ Hogging ”.

4.10.2 If Weight-to-Flotation is greater in the middle


than at the ends of the ship, the deck will deflect
down. This is called “ Sagging ”.

4.11 In a Hogging condition, the deck is placed in tension, and


the keel in compression. In a sagging condition, the deck
is placed in compression, and the keel in tension.

4.12 The keel is stronger than the deck because of the greater
weight of metal used in construction. The deck is further
weakened by necessary openings, such as cargo hatches.
These openings are reinforced, but, since they are the
weakest points in the ship’s structure, careful inspection
is required.

4.13 To determine the amount that the ship is hogging or sagging


Measure deflection.

Deflection = Mid Mean – Fwd and Aft Mean


Fwd and Aft Mean = Fwd Mean + Aft Mean
2

4.13.2 If Mid Mean is greater than Fwd and Aft Mean, the
ship is Sagging.

4.13.3 If the Mid Mean equals Fwd Mean equals Aft Mean,
the ship is on an even keel.
NOTE: Ship’s decks are stronger in tension than in com-
therefore, a small amount of Hogging is preferred to
Sagging.
-55-
4.14 Most modern ships have their machinery and superstructure
Aft. This produces a large trim By the Stern. And a
Hogging moment, in the light condition.

4.14.1 First load the midships holds to eliminate the


Hogging.
4.14.2 Next load the Forward hold to decrease the trim.

4.15 Part loading, or other conditions may produce Sagging.

4.15.1 First load the forward hold to eliminate Sagging.


4.15.2 Distribute the remaining load for desired trim.

4.16 Distributing weight is easier with a homogeneous bulk


cargo, such as grain or concentrates. General cargoes
are often more difficult because of factors such as
port rotation and cargo segregation.

EXAMPLE:

(1) Check the Capacity of each hold (M³)


Hold Number 1 = 3680.35 (M3)
Hold Number 2 = 5293.91 (M³)
Hold Number 3 = 5291.50 (M³)
Hold Number 4 = 4918.06 (M³)

TOTAL CAPACITY = 19183.81 (M³)

(2) Solve for Percentage of each hold

Percentage = Hold Capacity x 100


Total Capacity

Hold No. 1 = 3680.35 x 100 = 19.18%


19183.82

Hold No. 2 = 5293.91 x 100 = 27.60%


19183.82

Hold No. 3 = 5291.50 x 100 = 27.58%


19183.82

Hold No. 4= 4918.06 x 100 = 25.64%


19183.82
-56-

(3) Order is to carry 16,000 MT Cargo.

Hold No. 1 = 16000x .1918 = 3068.80 MT


Hold No. 2 = 16000x .2760 = 4416.00 MT
Hold No. 3 = 16000x .2758 = 4412.80 MT
Hold NO. 4 = 16000x .2564 = 4102.40 MT

TOTAL = 16000.00 MT

NOTE: If the ship has Twin Deck Holds, solve for each cargo
space as demonstrated.

4.17 The percentage of cargo per hold calculation will often


produce a concentration of weight in the middle. This
will cause Sagging. This can be minimised by shifting
some weight forward.

4.18 Inspection of the calculated results, and rounding to


100 Metric Tonnes, will give a good approximation.

EXAMPLE:

Hold No. 4 = 4102.40 — 2.40 = 4100.00 MT


Hold No. 3 = 4412.80 — 112.80 = 4300.00 MT
Hold No. 2 = 4416.00 - 116.00 = 4300.00 MT
Hold No. 1 = 3068.80 + 231.20 = 3300.00 MT

TOTAL = 16000.00 MT

4.19 The best practice is to part load each hold in rotation.


Deflection and Trim can be checked as loading
progresses.

4.20 Draft rust is watched constantly to avoid overloading.


Checking the Midships Drafts can do this.
If loading is critical for any reason, a Draft and
Deadweight Survey must be done.
-58-

CHAPTER FIVE
TRIM AND STABILITY
GENERAL

5.1 Trim and Stability calculations are mainly a matter


of correctly interpreting plans, tables, and graphs.
Ship Stability and Tank manuals provide values for
Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (LCG). Transverse Centre
of Gravity (KG). Moment of Inertia, another data
necessary for ship loading calculations.

5.2 This data may be in graph form (Figure 14), or tabular


(Figure 16). Tables are more common, and are easier
to work from.
5.3 Longitudinal Centre of Gravity can be calculated from the
Forward Perpendicular (LCG EP), the After Perpendicular
(LCG AP), or from Midships (MID).

5.4 Calculations of LCG from the PP are shorter, and avoid


dealing with two sets of longitudinal moments. This
greatly reduces the chance of error, so all our examples
will be based on LCG FP.

5.5 The LCG of a hold is assumed to be at the longitudinal


centre of that hold. The LCG of uniformly distributed,
homogeneous cargo, such as grain, is also at the centre of
the hold.

5.6 If the hold is to be loaded with mixed cargo, then an LCG


is assumed to be at the centre of each type of cargo.

5.7 For special cargoes such as heavy machinery, the shipper


should supply the centre of gravity information.
- 59 -

TRIM CALCULATION

5.8 The LCG method is the most accurate for calculating the
trim of a ship, because all the major forces acting on the
ship, including buoyancy, are considered.

5.9 The Longitudinal Centre of Gravity from the Forward


Perpendicular LCG (FP) is equal to One-half of the Length
Between Perpendiculars (LEP) plus or minus The Centre of
Gravity From Midships (MG).

LCG (FP) = LBP + MG


2

5.9.1 If MG is Aft, it is added.

5.9.2 If NC is Forward, it is subtracted.

5.10 The Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy From the


Forward Perpendicular LCB (FP) is equal to one half LBP
plus or minus the Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (LCB).

LCB (FP) = LBP + LCB


2

5.10.1 If LCB is Aft, it is added.


5.10.2 If LCB is Forward, it is subtracted.

5.11 The Longitudinal Moment of everything aboard


the ship, whether Cargo. Constant, Consumables.
or Ballast, is the Weight times the LCG (FP)
for that cargo.

Longitudinal Moment = Weight x LCG (FP)

5.12 The LCG (FP) changes whenever Cargo is loaded or


unloaded, supplies are taken or consumed, and ballast
tanks are filled or discharged. The new LCG (FP) is
equal to the total Longitudinal Moments divided by the
Displacement.
-60-

5.12.1 Cargo unloaded, ballast discharged, and supplies


consumed are subtracted.

5.12.2 Cargo, ballast, and supplies loaded are added.

New LCG (FP) = Total Longitudinal Moments


Displacement

5.13 The Trim Lever is equal to the LCG(FP) minus the LCB(FP).

(BG) Trim Lever = LCG(FP) - LCB(FP) (Pg.27)

5.13.1 If the Trim Lever is Positive, that is, if


LCG(FP) is greater than LCB(FP), the ship is
trimmed By the Stern.

5.13.2 If the Trim Lever is Negative, that is, if


LCG(FP) is less than LCB(FP), the ship is Trimmed
by the Head.
5.13.3 if the Trim Lever is Zero, that is, if
LCG(FP) equals LCB(FP), the ship is on
an even keel. (See Pg. 27)

5.14 Trim is equal to the product of the Trim Lever and


Displacement, divided by the Moment to Change Trim by
One Centimetre (MTC).

Trim = Trim Lever x Displacement x 100 (M)


MTC

LCG(FP) OF THE CONSTANT


5.15 It is best practice to solve for the LCG(FP)
of the Constant after each Initial Survey of
the Ship’s Light Condition (Chapter Three).
An average may be used, unless an unusual amount
of stores has been delivered.
-61-

5.16 The LCG(FP) of the Constant moves fore and aft,


depending on the location and weight of crew effects,
stores, and all the additional weights that tend to
accumulate over the service life of a ship.

5.17 It is of interest to compare the work forms given in


Figure 11 and Figure 19 The procedure used in the
example is the reverse of the procedure used in Figure
11 The LCG(FP) of the constant in Figure 11 is 200.42 if
which was the average for that ship.

EXAMPLE: (see Figure 11 – Page 32)

From Initial Survey Chapter Three (Figures 11 and 19):

Constant = 196.10 MT
DRAFT = 3.53265 M
DISP. = 8035.5 MT
LCB = 3.01 M
MTC = 182.1 MT
Trim = 1.773 M = 177.3 cm

(1) Trim Lever = Trim x MTC x 100 (M)


DISP

= 177.3 x 182.1
8035.5
= 4.02 M

(2) LCB(FP) = LBP +/- LCB = 136 - 3.01 M = 64.99 M


2 2

(3) New LCG(FP) = LCB(FP) + Trim Lever

New LCG(FP) = 64.99 + 4.02 = 69.01 M

NOTE: Since the ship is trimmed By the Stern, the LCG(FP) is

Aft of LCB(FP).
- 62 -

(4) Final Longitudinal Moments DISP x LCG(FP)


= 8035.5 x 69.01
= 554529.65

(5) Calculate the lightship weight longitudinal moments


of each tank. Subtract these from the Final
Longitudinal Moments. The difference is the
Longitudinal Moment of the Constant.

Longitudinal Moment of Constant

= Final - all other Longitudinal Moments

= 554529.85 — 536968.25

= 17561.60 Total Moment

(6) LCG(FP) of Constant = Longitudinal Moment


Weight

= 17561.60
196.10

= 89.55 M

CHANGE OF DRAFT

5.18 Change of draft at one end of the ship only is sometimes


required. Notice of draft requirements or limitations
are normally forwarded to a vessel in advance, because
weight added means greater mean draft. As little as
possible should be added to achieve the desired trim. If
possible, without adversely affecting the ship’s
stability, weight should be removed.

5.19 The change of draft is calculated, theoretically, as a


ratio of the trim to the proportion of the distance of
the actual Longitudinal Centre of Flotation (LCF) to the
FP and AP.
- 63 -

5.20 For practical purposes, because the distance from LCF to


Midships is so small in relation to the length of the
ship. LCF is assumed to be midships. Therefore, change
of draft is calculated with sufficient accuracy, as trim
divided by two.

Change of Draft = Trim


2

5.21 Mean Sinkage is equal to weight divided by TPC. If


weight is added, the mean sinkage is greater:

if the weight is removed, the mean sinkage is less.

Mean Sinkage = +/- Weight


TPC

NOTE: TPC here is the final TPC. That is, the TPC for the
final loaded condition.

5.22 The weight is placed forward of the tipping centre to


increase the forward draft: it is placed aft of the
tipping centre to increase the after draft.

5.22.1 The weight required is equal to TPC times the


trim in centimetres divided by two.

Weight = TPC x TRIM


2

5.22.2 The distance to locate the weight is two times

the MTC divided by the TPC.

Distance = 2 x MTC
TPC

EXAMPLE: A vessel, trimmed by the stern, must be put on an


even keel.

Fwd Draft = 8.36 M Aft Draft = 8.46 M


TPC = 27 MTC = 233
- 64 -

Weight = 27 x (8.46 - 8.36) x 100 = 135.0 M/T


2

Distance 2 x 233.0 — = 17.26 M


27

A weight of 135.0 M/T placed 17.26 M forward of the


tipping centre.

STABILITY CALCULATION FORMULAS

5.23 It is the responsibility of an office to always maintain


a stable ship, in order to protect lives, the ship and
its cargo.

5.24 Stability calculations are the most important aspect of


the loading calculations. Not only the crew’s comfort
but stress on a ship’s structure is affected by
stability, and a ship in stable equilibrium is not so
liable to capsize.

5.25 Transverse Stability is a subject all Deck Officers are


familiar with, so only the main, practical points are
summarised here.

5.26 The following formulas are used in calculating


Transverse Stability.

Vertical Moment = Weight x KG

New KG = Old KG * Total Change in Moments


Total Change in Weights

GM = TKM – New KG

GG1 = Total Inertia + Total Weight

GM = GM - GG1

Rolling Period (IMPERIAL) = 0.44B (feet)


sq.rt GM

Rolling Period (METRIC) = 0.797B (meters)


sq.rt GM
Where B = Breadth of Ship
- 65 -

FREE SURFACE EFFECT

5.27 Full or empty tanks have no free surface, since there is


no liquid moving as the ship rolls in the seaway. Avoid
slack tanks to the greatest extent possible to minimise
the loss of GM caused by tree surface.

5.28 In a heavy seaway, the liquid in a slack tank will surge


with considerable speed and force, sometimes causing
damage to the tank itself.

5.29 Fuel oil tanks are normally only filled to 80 or 85


percent capacity so as to avoids overflow oil pollution.
Fresh water and fuel are both subject to daily
consumption, so it is impossible to keep these tanks
full for the entire voyage. Dividers, or swash plates,
can minimise the free surface to a large extent.

5.30 Seawater ballast tanks should be either filled to their


limit, or empty. When filling these tanks, it is good
practice to let them overflow sufficiently to ensure no
air pockets are trapped inside.

5.31 If Free Surface Correction data is not available, the


following formula can be used for metric measure
rectangular tanks only.

Rise of C due to Free Surface = L x B³ x Sg


12 x DISP x n³

Where: L = Length of Tank

B = Breadth of Tank

Sg = Specific Gravity of Contents

n = Number of Longitudinal Compartments


which into tank is divided
- 66 -

EXAMPLE: (Figure )

DISP = 22129.6 MT
KG = 8.277 M
TKM = 9.240 M
L = 25 M
B = l0 M
Sg = 1.024 , GM = TKM - KG = 0.963

(1) If the tank is undivided:

Rise of G due to Free Surface = 25 x 10³ x 1.024 =


12 x 22129.6 x 1²

= 0.096 M

KG = 8.277 M

New KG = 8.373 M

TKM = 9.240 M

New GM = 0.867 M

(2) If the tank is divided into two section:

Rise of G due to Free Surface = 25 x 10³ x 1.024


12 x 22129.6 x 2²

KG = 8.277 M

New KC = 8.301 M

TKM = 9.240 M

New GM = 0.939 M

NOTE: The Rise of G due to Free Surface Effect can be


minimised by Longitudinal divisions in tanks. Properly
arranged dividing of tanks can make the problem neg-
ligible.

5.32 Stability and Trim Calculation Report was worked as


follows (Figure 22 ), (Pg.70)
- 67 -

See Pg. 71

5.32.1 For Trim: Using LCG(FP)

LCG(FP) = LBP + MG , (MG – Centre of Gravity


2 from midship )

(1) LCG(FP) of Constant = 136 + 53.40 M = 121.40 M


2

(2) LCG(FP) of No.1 FOT = 136 — 21.49 M = 46.51 M


2

(1) Longitudinal Moments of Constant = Weight x LCG(FP)


= 196 x 121.40 =
= 23794.40 Tx M

(3) New LCG(FP) = Total Moments(Longitud)


Total Weights(Disp.)

= 1483410.13(Total Moments)
22129.60 T

= 67.03 M

LCB(FP) = LBP +/- LCB = 136 – 1.42 =


2 2

= 66.58 M

(4) Trim Lever = LCG(FP) - LCB(FP)

= 67.03 — 66.58 = 0.45M

(5) Trim = Trim Lever x DISP =


MTC

= 0.45 x 22129.6 = 41 cm
241.8

(6) Change of Draft = Trim = 41 =


2 2

= 20.5 cm or 0.205 M

LCG(FP) is Aft of LCB(FP), therefore Ship is trimmed “By the


Stern”
NOTE: Draft. NTC, LCB and DISP were calculated in Chapter Two,
Draft and Deadweight Surveys.
- 68 -

5.32.2 For Stability

NOTE: KG of Holds and Tanks are found in the Stability

Manuals.

KG of a Cargo is assumed to be at its Geometrical

Centre (Figure 20). (Pg.57)

(1) Vertical Moments of Constant = Weight x KG


= 196 x 9.52 = 1865.92 TxM
(2) New KG = Total Moments(Vert.) =
Total Weights(Disp.)
= 183154.84 = 8.277 M
22129.60

(4) GG1 = Total Inertia =


Total Weight(Disp.)

= 7771.8 = 0.351 M
22129.6

NOTE: TKM was read from Hydrostatic Tables at DISP of

22129.6 MT (Figure 13). (Pg.38)

Inertia, KG and GM are found in the Hold and Tank

Tables or Graphs (Figures 16 and 18).

GM = TKM – KG = 9.240 M — 8.277 = 0.963

G0M = GM - GG1 = 0.963 — 0.351 = 0.612 M

Rolling Period = 0.797 x 22.860 M = 18.22 =


sq.rt. 0.612 M 0.78

= 23 seconds
- 72 -

LCG(FP) METHOD CHECK LIST

5.33 The following list summarises the steps to calculate


Trim and Fwd/Aft Drafts at the next loading or discharge
port.

5.33.1 Check Fwd and Aft Drafts upon arrival and solve
for corrected trim.

5.33.2 Deduct fuel oil and water consumed from DISP at


previous port. Add ballast water if taken in:
subtract if discharged.

5.33.3 Using DISP calculated in 5.33.2, refer to


Hydrostatic Tables and obtain Draft, MTC and
LCB. Check Sg to account for any difference from
Mean Draft found in 5.33.1.

5.33.4 Solve for Total Longitudinal Moments on arrival,


Work back from Trim to Trim Lever to LCG(FP).

5.33.5 Measure the LCG(FP) of all weights to be loaded


or discharged. Solve for their Longitudinal
Moments.

5.33.6 The New Total Longitudinal Moments equals 5.33.4

plus or minus 5.33.5.

5.33.7 Add all weights taken in and subtract all


weights discharged to find new DISP. Refer to
Hydrostatic Tables for new Draft, MTC and LCB.
- 73 -

CHAPTER SIX
GRAIN LOADING
GENERAL

6.1 If a ship ts to carry grain. it must have a Grain


Loading Plan. This plan must meet with IMO and SOLAS
requirements, and must be approved by the appropriate
Government Agency.

IMO and SOLAS REQUIREMENTS

S.2 The IMO and SOLAS requirements for loading grain are:

6.2.1 The Angle of Heel due to shift of grain shall


not be greater than twelve (12°) degrees.

6.2.2 The residual stability area shall not be less


than 0.075 metre-radians.

6.2.3 The correct metacentric height shall not be


less than 0.30 metres.

GRAIN STABILITY CALCULATIONS

6.3 The trim and stability and Grain stability should be


made as soon as details of the grain cargo to be
loaded are received. Depending on the Stowage Factor
(SF) of tne grain to be loaded, slack holds may be
required. Check the approved Grain Loading Plan for
the designated slack holds in this situation.

6.4 The actual Horizontal Heeling Moment (HHM) is equal


to the Volumetric Heeling Moment (VEM) divided by the
Stowage Factor (SF) of the cargo.

Heeling Moment = Volumetric Horizontal Moment


Stowage Factor ofCargo(M³/F³)
- 76 -

6.5 The increase in Vertical Centre of Gravity (GG0)


is equal to the Volumetric Vertical Moment (VVM)
divided by the product of the Displacement and
SF.

GG0 = Volumetric Vertical Moment


Displacement x Stowage Factor

NOTE: If cargo data is given in Imperial Measure, then


convert your figures.

Metric Tonnes = Long Tons x 1.01605

Cubic Metres(M³) = Cubic Feet(F³) x 35.31476

6.6 VHM, VVM and allowable HVM are found in the Grain
Loading Plan. The actual HVM is calculated and
compared with the allowable HVM. If the actual HVM is
greater than the allowable HVM a new stowage
distribution with less heeling moment must be
planned.

EXAMPLE: (See Pg.70)

A grain cargo is to be loaded at summer draft. The


designated slack hold is No. 3. Stowage Factor is
given as 42 F³/LT.

(1) Stowage Factor = 42 F³ /LT

42 = 42 = 1.1706 M³
= 35.314 x 1.016 35.879024

(2) Cargo Deadweight

16959.0 MT Summer Draft Deadweight


—196.0 MT Constant 16763.0
16763.0

—1017.0 MT FO, LO, FW, Ballast, etc.


15745.0 MT Cargo Deadweight
- 77 -

(3) Ships Capacity

HOLD #1 = 3976.51 M³ = 3396.9844 MT


1.1706

HOLD #2 = 5623.28 M³ = 4803.7587 MT


1.1706

HOLD #3 = 5654.54 M³ = 4830.463 MT


1.1706

HOLD #4 = 5158.16 MT³ = 4406.424 MT


1.1706

TOTAL = 17437.63 MT

This exceeds the cargo deadweight, therefore we must solve


f or allowable loading in No. 3 Hold, the designated slack
hold.

(4) Allowable Loading in the Slack Hold Cargo


Deadweight = 15746.00 MT

HOLD #1 = 3396.9844 MT
HOLD #2 = 4803.7585 MT
HOLD #4 = 4406.424 MT

TOTAL = - 12607.166 MT

Cargo space available in HOLD #3 = 3138.834 MT

Cargo space used in HOLD #3 x Stowage Factor =

= 3138.834 x 1.1706 = 3674.319 M³

(5) Stability and Trim calculations (Chapter Five)


revealed that the ship would be down by the Head by
1.6 cm. To correct the Trim, it was decided to shift
100.0 MT of fuel from No. 1 Fuel Oil Tank to No. 3
Fuel Oil Tank.
- 83 -

DISP = 21300.10 MT

Longitudinal Moments = 1414999.13 Total Moments

#3 F.O.T. = + 100 x 94.51 M = + 9451.00

#1 F.O.T. = — 100 x 46.51 M = — 4651.00

= + 4800.00 Total Moments

New Grand Total = 1414999.13 + 4800.00

= 1419799.13 Total Moments

At DIsplacement of 21300.10 MT = DRAFT = 8.69 M


MTC = 237.45 T—M
LCB = 66.45 M
LCG = 66.657M
TL = 0.20 M
TRIM = 18.6 cm
CD = 9.3 cm, or
= 0.093 M

Fwd Draft = 8.690 M Aft Draft = 8.690 M Mid = 8.69 M


Correction = -0.093 M = +0.093 M
New Draft = 8.597 M = 8.783 M = No change

(6) Calculate the new KG :

To calculate the new KG, we must first calculate


the change in Vertical Moments caused by shifting
the Fuel Oil from No. 1 tank to No. 3 tank.

No. 1 tank = 355.4 - 100 = 255.4 MT x 0.44 M = 112.38 T—N


No. 3 tank = 186.6 + 100 = 286.8 MT x 0.82 M = 235.18 T—M

TOTAL MOMENT = 347.56 T-M

Old Vertical Moment = 1419799.13 — 347.56


New Vertical Moment = 1419451.57
New KG = 1419451.51 = 6.64 M
21300.10
- 84 -

(7) GRAIN STABILITY

Horizontal Vertical
Moments Moments

Cargo Hold #1 669.857 154.946

Cargo Hold #2 949.838 233.758

Cargo Hold #3 8 350.000 1675.000

Cargo Hold #4 984.570 231. 828

TOTALS : 10954.265 2295.532

GGO = 2295.532 = 0.092 M


21300.10 x 1.1705

KG1 = 6.789 + 0.365 + 0.092 = 7.246 M

Allowable Heeling Moment (Figure ) = 99270.20

Actual Heeling Moment = 10954.265 = 9358.08


1.1705

JUDGEMENT GOOD !
- 85 -

Department of Transport
Canadian Coast Guard
Ship Safety Branch

CALCULATION OF STABILITY

FOR A VFSSEL LOADING BULK GRAIN

IN ACCORDANCE WITH

CANADIAN GRAIN REGULATIONS

Captain:

You are required to complete a stability calculation prior


to the commencement of loading. This is to indicate your
vessel’s worst condition during the forthcoming voyage. The
calculation should be made on this form and presented to the
Port Warden before the vessel can be issued with a Certificate
of Readiness to Load. If there are any subsequent changes to the
original stowage plan, (tonnage’s, commodities or stowage
factors, etc.) you should prepare a corrected plan for the Port
Warden’ s approval.

The manner in which this calculation is made will depend


upon:
(a) Your type of vessel:
(b) The geographical position of your loading port: and
(c) The type of grain stability information with which your
vessel has been provided.

TYPE 1 CALCULATION (5° ANGLE OF HEEL)

If your vessel is a bulkcarrier and an “existing ship under


the provisions of IMO Resolution A264 (VIII) Part B, Sec. V(B),
you are required to prove that your vessel’s angle of heel, if
grain shifts, will not exceed 5° Your stability information will
indicate if your vessel is of this type and if so you should
complete only Tables I, II. III. IV and VII A.

If your vessel has to meet the provisions of Regulation 4 of


the above Resolution; i.e. Maximum Values of (a) Angles of Heel
12°, and Minimum Values of (b) Residual Stability 0.075 metre
radians and (c) GM 0.30 M, you should complete the form by one
of the following methods.
- 86 -

TYPE 2 CALCULATION (ALLOWABLE *UPSETTING MOMENTS 12° ANGLE OF HEEL)

If your vessel’s grain stability information contains a table of


Allowable Upsetting Moments, complete only Tables I II, III, IV, V,VI

TYPE 3 CALCULATION (WITHOUT ALLOWABLE UPSETTING MOMENTS, 12° ANGLE


OF HEEL) ABBREVIATED

If you are not provide with a table of Allowable Upsetting


Moments complete only Tables I II. III IV, V. VII B and VIII

If, however, the GZ curve depicted in your grain stability


information booklet that is closest to your proposed loading condi-
tion is not of a normal configuration, or if the maximum GZ value of
such curve occurs before 400, then you should complete the Type 4
Calculation.

TYPE 4 CALCULATION (WITHOUT ALLOWABLE UPSETTING MOMENTS, 12° ANGLE OF


HEEL) FULL

In this case, COMPLETE Tables I, II III, IV. V. VII B and IX.

TYPE 5 CALCULATION (5° ANGLE OF HEEL) TANKERS

If your vessel is a tanker, all tanks except two (two wing tanks
or two centres) must be trimmed full or you will be required to meet
the conditions described in TYPE I above (5° ANGLE OF HEEL)

Your Administration may have provided you with a statement


stating that your vessel at all times meets the required conditions
for draft and initial GM values and in this case, no calculation is
necessary. Alternatively, you may have information enabling you to
complete a TYPE I calculation. If not, you should complete only
Tables I, II. III and VII C.

TYPE 6 CALCULATION (REDUCED STABILITY CRITERIA SHELTERED WATERS)

If your vessel is loading at more than one port within sheltered


waters, you may not be able to meet fully the requirements laid down
in your stability documents whilst in transit between such ports. In
this instance, you may take advantage of a relaxation of such
requirements whilst in transit between ports. In this case, you
should complete Tables I, II, III and X.

If you meet the requirements of Table X, your vessel will


not in fact list more than 15° if grain in all slack holds shifts
through an angle with the horizontal of 12°, nor will your available
freeboard is immersed by more than 50%. Before taking advantage of
this provision, you are advised to study Section II of the
Canadian Grain Regulations.
— 87 —

If it is decided to take advantage of this relaxation, it


should be borne in mind that your vessel will have to comply fully
with the Regulations prior to departure from sheltered waters.

OTHER CONDITIONS

Vessels having onboard documents requiring other than the


criteria described above, or no documents should consult with the
Port Warden for further instructions.

• It is possible that stability booklets. moment " and the two


the term "heeling moment is used in "some this term is an
alternative for "upsetting are to be taken to mean the same.
- 88 -

CHAPTER SEVEN
ROLLING PERIOD TEST FOR GM
GENERAL

7.1 When a large AMOUNT of deck cargo is carried, or when


port rotation produces unusual height concentration in
upper holds, stability must receive careful attention.
When a ship is nearing her stability limit, and there is
a significant amount of cargo deadweight allowances yet
available, it is good practice to conduct a rolling
period test in still waters.

7.2 The Rolling Period Test is most frequently used for


timber carriers, but should be applied whenever GM is an
important factor for loading. It should be noted that
ships having a minimum corrected GM of have made safe
ocean crossings not more than 0.03 M at any point in the
voyage.

7.3 The loss of GM through consumption of Fuel Oil and Fresh


Water must be taken into account. An average loss of GM
per day can be derived from the departure and arrival
Trim and Stability calculations.

7.4 The main advantage of conducting a rolling period test


is that the actual GM is observed, making the result
almost error free. There will be a large difference
between the computed GM based on the shipbuilder’s data
and the actual GM based on test. This is because the
shipbuilders base their computations on the Inclining
Experiment of an empty ship.

TIMBER DECK CARGO

7.5 When loading a deck cargo of TIMBER particularly dry,


sawn timber add fifteen (15) percent to the deck cargo
weight. Timber tends to absorb water at sea, and this
causes a considerable loss of GM.
- 89 -

7.6 A rule of thumb for calculating timber deck cargo weight


is:
Deck Cargo Weight = 50 percent of Hold Cargo Weight

that is, one third of the total cargo loaded is deck

cargo.

NOTE: This approximation is not reliable for purpose-built


timber carriers.

ROLLING PERIOD DIFFERENCE

7.7 The difference in rolling period obtained by testing in


still waters, and the average taken at sea, is not
significant enough to cause alarm.

ROLLING PERIOD STILL WATER TEST

7.8 For the rolling period test to give good results, the
following conditions must be met :

7.8.1 If the ship is alongside, she must be clear of her


berth, with her lines slack, so she can roll
freely.

7.8.2 Barges end lighters must be well clear so as to


not hinder the ship’s movement.

7.8.3 Enough weights must be available to list the ship


at least fifteen (15) degrees. Two or more
derricks may be required.

NOTE : The stevedores should be informed in advance if the


need for a test seems likely. Their co-operation in
lifting the weights is often required.

The best position for the observers is the forecastle


deck. There they can note the inclination of the
superstructure, especially the bridge wing, against a
reference point.
- 90 -

7.10 Lift the weights on one side of the ship. When the ship
has been steadied in the listed position drop the
weights onto the dock or into the water. Ensure the
cargo runners are slack, so they offer no resistance.

7.11 It is best to time the complete period of roll from


maximum angle of list through upright to opposite list,
and all the way back to original listed side That is:

STARBOARD - PORT - STARBOARD

or

PORT - STARBOARD - PORT

7.12 Time the period of rolls at least three (3) times to


ensure good accuracy of the average. Use this average
in the Rolling Period Formula to calculate the GM

CALCULATING GM FROM ROLLING PERIOD

( IMPERIAL) ( METRIC)

T = 0.44 B T = 0.797 B
Sq. Rt GM Sq. Rt GM

Therefore:

GM = 0.1936 x B² = 0.6352 x B²
T² T²

Where : T = Rolling Period in Seconds

B = Breadth of Ship

GG1 = w x dKG
DISP +/- w

Where : GG1 = Shift of Centre of Gravity


w= Weight to be Loaded or Discharged
W = Original Displacement
dKG = distance from KG to G of the Weight
DISP = Displacement
- 91 –

NOTE : If w is added above KG, or removed from below KG, the


shift of G is upward, and GG1 is subtracted. If w is
removed above KG, or added below KG, the shift of G
is downward, and GG1 is added.

EXAMPLE : DISP = 22129.6 MT


KG = 8.277 M
GM = 0.612 M

(1) Find the New Gm if 200 MT is loaded 9.5 M above the KG.

GG1 = W x dKG = 200 x 9.5 = 0.085 M


New DISP (W +/- w) 22129.6 + 200

Since the shift of G is upward:

New GM = GM GG1 = 0.612 — 0.085 = 0.527 M

(2) Find the new GM it 200 MT is discharged from 8.0 M

above KG.

GG1 = 200 x 8.0 = 0.073 M


22129.6 — 200

Since the shift of G is downward:

New GM = GM + GG = 0.612 + 0.073 = 0.685

SIMPLIFIED GM MEASURMENTS

7.13 If a close estimate of GM is all that is required, it


can be calculated from a deliberate listing of the
ship. Weights are suspended from a derrick, or placed
on the deck if no derrick is available.

7.14 The weight (W), the distance of the weight from the
centre line of the ship (D), and the angle of list (0°)
are measured. The DISPL divides the product of the
weight (w) and the distance (D). The result is then
multiplied by the Cotangent of the Angle of List (cot
0°):
- 92 -

GM = W x D x cot 0°
DISP

FXAMPLE:

A forty (40) ton weight is suspended from a derrick;


the derrick head is fifteen (15) metres from the
ship centreline; and the angle of list is read from
the clinometer as five (5°) degrees:

DISP = 8000 MT

GM = W x D x cot 0°
DISP

GM = 40 x 15 x cot 5° =
8000

= 0.075 x 11.43 =0.875


- 95 -

BIBLIOGRAPHY

• Pursey, H. J., MERCHANT SHIP STABILITY, Brown,


Son & Ferguson, Ltd., 1954.

• Kemp & Young, SHIP STABILITY NOTES & EXAMPLES,


Pitman Press, 1984.

• LaDage, John & Van Gemert, Lee, STABILITY AND


TRIM FOR THE SHIP’S OFFICER, D. Van Nostrand Co.
Inc., 1956.

• Klinkert, J., & White, G. W.NAUTICAL CALCULATIONS


EXPLAINED, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1969.

• Wolfram, J., SEAWAYS, Nautical Institute Bulletin,


1978.

• HYDROSTATIC TABLES, Ishikawajima Heavy Industries,


1979.

• PLIMSOLL MARKS, M/V “Alpha Faith” 1987.

• GRAIN STABILITY LOADING REGULATIONS AND. FORMS,


Department of Transport (Canada) , 1960.

• SURVEY OF LOAD LINE SHIPS, London, Her Majesty's


Stationery Office, 1973.