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44 Welding Technology and Design

Table 1.9 Typical parameters for inertia welding

Base material Peripheral Minimum Axial pressure


speed weld energy for 15 mm
meter/s kg.m./sqmm kg/sqmm
LC steel 2.5 - 5 6.6 11.2
MC steel 2.5 - 5 7.7 12.0
S.S. 3.0 - 4.5 8.2 13.8
S.S. to carbon steel 3.0 - 4.0 3.2 13.8

Radial friction welding of pipes


Radial friction welding is a one-shot welding process with great potential for the
joining of pipe lines. It operates on the principle of rotating and compressing a
solid ring on two stationary pipe ends producing a solid state bond. Radial friction
welding is essentially a forge welding process where heat is provided by relative
rotary motion of the ring and the pipe. The pipes to be joined are clamped stationary
and the welding action is provided by the rotating solid ring located around the
pipe ends. A simple form of the process is shown in Fig. 1.24. The rotating ring is
compressed radially and welding of the pipe ends is initiated by the heat produced
due to friction and the plastic flow of the material. After a predetermined heating
period, ring rotation is stopped and an increased level of compressive force is
applied to consolidate the weld. Throughout the weld sequence, the two pipes are
securely clamped to prevent axial and rotational movement. A support mandrel
can be inserted in the bore of the pipes to prevent pipe collapse and flash metal
penetration. Experience has shown that defect free welds are readily produced in
carbon-manganese steel and duplex stainless steel.

Fig. 1.24 Radial friction welding of pipes

1.2.5.3 Diffusion bonding


Diffusion bonding is a joining process which requires high temperature to
enhance diffusion, but involves very little macroscopic deformation; the joint is
formed without any filler metal and the microstructure and composition at the
interface are the same as those of the base metals. Pressure is applied which will