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Design Applications of

Defected Ground Structures

Authored by:
Jason Yun
Peter Shin
Ansoft Corporation
Ansoft 2003 / Global Seminars: Delivering Performance

Presentation #9
Outline
w Introduction
w DGS Definition and Characteristics
w Design Challenge
w Ansoft Design Solution

w DGS Bandpass Filter Design


w Design Procedure
w Unit DGS Modeling and Analysis
w DGS Bandpass Filter Design using Ansoft Designer and HFSS
w DGS Bandpass Filter Design with an Additional DGS

w Design applications using DGS


w Lowpass Filter Design
w Branch Line Coupler Design
w Unequal Wilkinson Power Divider Design

w Conclusion
w References
What is a DGS?
w A Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is an etched
lattice shape, which locates on the ground plane
w Evolution from Photonic Band Gap (PBG) Structure
w Periodic or non-periodic
w Easy to represent as an equivalent circuit (LC resonator)
w Applications
w Planar resonators
w High characteristic impedance transmission line
w Filter, Coupler, divider/combiner, Oscillator, Antenna. Power Amp.
DGS Characteristics
w Disturbs shielding fields on the ground plane
w Increases effective permittivity
w Increases effective capacitance and inductance of transmission line
w One-pole LPF characteristics (3dB cutoff and resonance Frequency)
w Four design parameters (a, b, g, and w) under given substrate

a
w g S11

S21
DGS Design Challenges
w DGS has an arbitrary shape which locates on the
backside metallic ground plane
w Accurate EM simulator is necessary

w Equivalent circuit modeling


w Equivalent circuit modeling is important for rapid design
w Co-simulation or dynamic link is needed between EM and
circuit simulators to extract an equivalent circuit

w Many design parameters


w Automated parameter sweep
w Powerful optimization
Ansoft DGS Design Solution
Design Spec.
equivalent circuit, cutoff, and resonance freq.

Ansoft Designer v1.1


Ansoft Dynamic Link

Planar EM System/Circuit HFSS v9.0


Mixed Circuit design
2.5D pattern analysis Full 3D analysis
(lumped,distributed)

Physical dimension
(3-dimensional configuration : lattice dimension, gap
distance and transmission line width, layer stackup)

Ansoft provides the best solution for integration between physical


design and circuit modeling.
Ansoft HFSS v9.0

- Full 3D FEM Solver


- Built-in Parameterization
- Implicit to entire system
- Complete Integration of Optimetrics™ Simul
Simul
- Parameter sweeps and optimizations are an ation
integral part of the entire design environment ation
- Easy-to-set-up sweeps, optimizations, sensitivities,
and statistical analyses measu
measu
- Wideband Fast Frequency Sweep remen
remen
t
- fast frequency sweep technology t
- Adaptive Lanczos Pade Sweep
- Circuit Co-simulation with Ansoft Designer v 1.1
- Powerful Field Post-Processor
Ansoft Designer v1.1

- Include Circuit/System and Planar EM


Solver
- Dynamic Link with HFSS v9.0
- Full model parameterization
- Automated parameter sweeps
- Mixed-meshing capabilities
- Automated transmission and reflection
calculation
- Circuit and EM Integration
- Dynamic postprocessor
Ansoft Scalable 3D Dynamic Link

Design parameters were


passed from HFSS v9.0
into Ansoft Designer v1.1
DGS Bandpass Filter Design
Design Procedure
Propose DGS structure

Propose Equivalent circuit of DGS

DGS Filter Design using Ansoft Designer

Extracting Physical dimensions using HFSS

Fabrication for Verification


Proposed Unit DGS

w g
Equivalent Circuit for the DGS

ωo ω −1 ωc 1
X LC = ω0C ( − ) (1) C= ⋅ 2 (4)
ω ωo Z o g1 ω o − ω c2
X L = ωL = ω ' ⋅ Z o g1 (2)
1
L= (5)
4π 2 f o2 ⋅ C
X L ω '=1 = X LC ω =ω c
(3)
Unit DGS Modeling with HFSS v9.0
w Define project variables
w Create 3D model
w Ground planes

w Traces

w Dielectrics

w Draw unit DGS section


w Slots

w Traces

w Define material properties


w Define boundary conditions
w Define excitations
w Setup solution information
w Analysis
Parameterized Unit DGS

w Unit DGS library can be build


using fully parameterized
Ansoft Designer™ Planar EM
and HFSS™
w Modeling parameter
w Etched lattice dimension
w Gap distance
w Substrate thickness
w Design validation can be
done by measurement at the
end
The lattice, and gap distance can all be varied with a few
The lattice, and gap distance can all be varied with a few
central Project Variables to permit analysis of any similar
central Project Variables to permit analysis of any similar
DGS. Or, a parametric sweep can generate and maintain
DGS. Or, a parametric sweep can generate and maintain
results for many variations at once.
results for many variations at once.
Parameter Sweeps
Effect of Lattice Dimension, a

dB(S11)

7mm
Freq
6mm a
b 5mm
4mm 2mm
a 3mm
w g
Effect of Gap Dimension, g

b 300um 700um
400um 600um
a
g 500um
w
Electric Field on the DGS
Magnetic Field on the DGS
DGS Filter Design
Using Ansoft Designer

Schematicofofthe
Schematic thecoupled-line
coupled-linebandpass
bandpassfilter
filterwith
withtwo
twoDGS
DGS
sections.
sections.
Substrate : ROGERS RT/Duroid 6010, Er=10.2, h=50mil,
Substrate : ROGERS RT/Duroid 6010, Er=10.2, h=50mil,
Center Frequency : 3 GHz, Bandwidth : 10%
Center Frequency : 3 GHz, Bandwidth : 10%
Physical Dimension of DGS
L

Circuit
Simulation
C

LL==2.573nH
2.573nH
CC==0.64pF
0.64pF
fc = 2.871 GHz
fc = 2.871 GHz
Planar EM f0f0==3.92
3.92GHz
GHz
Simulation
b

w g
Measured

FinalDGS
DGSdimension
dimension: :
Final

Simulatedand
andMeasured
MeasuredResults
Resultsfor
forthe
theunit
unitDGS
DGS a=4.15mm,b=6.2mm,
a=4.15mm, b=6.2mm,
Simulated
g=0.5mm,W=1.2mm
g=0.5mm, W=1.2mm(50Ω)
(50Ω)
ROGERS RT/Duroid 6010, Er=10.2, h=50mil
ROGERS RT/Duroid 6010, Er=10.2, h=50mil
EM Simulation of DGS filter

Ansoft Designer™ Circuit

Ansoft Desigenr™ Planar EM

Resultscomparison
Results comparisonbetween
betweenCircuit
Circuitand
andEM
EMSimulation
Simulation
Fabrication for Verification

Ansoft
Designer
PlanarEM

(a) Top view


Measured

(b) Bottom view

Photographofofthe
Photograph the Resultscomparison
comparisonbetween
betweenEMEMsimulation
simulationand
andmeasurement
measurementon
on
fabricatedcoupled-line
coupled-line Results
fabricated thefabricated
the fabricatedDGS
DGScoupled-line
coupled-lineBPF
BPF
bandpassfilter
bandpass filterwith
withDGS.
DGS.
DGS Bandpass Filter
with An Additional DGS

Schematicofofthe
Schematic theDGS
DGScoupled-line
coupled-linefilter
filterwith
withan
anadditional
additional
DGSsection
DGS sectioninincoupled-resonator.
coupled-resonator.
Physical Dimension Extraction
of Additional DGS L

Circuit L = 1.11nH
L = 1.11nH
Simulation C = 0.66pF
C = 0.66pF
fc = 4.8 GHz
fc = 4.8 GHz
f0 = 5.9 GHz
f0 = 5.9 GHz

b
Planar EM a
Simulation
g
w

DGS Dimension : a=1.55mm, b=6mm,


DGS Dimension : a=1.55mm, b=6mm,
g=0.2mm
g=0.2mm
Conductor Line : w=1.2mm (50Ω)
Conductor Line : w=1.2mm (50Ω)
Substrate : ROGERS RT/Duroid 6010,
Substrate
Er=10.2, :h=50mil
ROGERS RT/Duroid 6010,
Er=10.2, h=50mil

SimulatedResult
Simulated Resultfor
forthe
theadditional
additionalunit
unitDGS
DGS
EM Simulation Using HFSS

Ansoft Designer™

Ansoft HFSS™

Circuitand
Circuit andEM
EMsimulated
simulatedresults
resultscomparison
comparison
Fabrication for Verification

Ansoft
HFSS

(a) Top view


Measured

(b) Bottom view

Photographofofthe
Photograph the
fabricatedDGS
fabricated DGScoupled-
coupled-
linebandpass
line bandpassfilter
filterwith
with Comparisonresults
resultsbetween
betweenEMEMsimulation
simulationand
andmeasurement
measurementon
on
anadditional
additionalDGS.
DGS. Comparison
an thefabricated
the fabricatedDGS
DGScoupled-line
coupled-lineBPF
BPF
Lowpass Filter Application
Proposed DGS LPF

(a) (b)

Designedlowpass
Designed lowpassfilters
filterswith
withthe
theproposed
proposedDGS
DGSunit
unitsections
sectionswith
with(a)
(a)T-junction
T-junctionopened
openedstub
stubfor
for
parallelcapacitance
parallel capacitancewhere
wherethe
thestub
stubwidth
widthand
andlength
lengthare
are5mm
5mmandand10mm,
10mm,respectively
respectively (b)
(b)cross-
cross-
junctionopened
junction openedstub
stubforforparallel
parallelcapacitance
capacitancewhere
wherethethestub
stubwidth
widthand
andlength
lengthare
are5mm
5mmand and6mm,
6mm,
respectively.
respectively.
Fabrication and Measurement

(a) Top view (b) Bottom view

Photographs of the fabricated DGS Lowpass filter with T-


junction type open stub (a) Top view and (b) bottom view.

Comparisonofofmeasured
Comparison measuredresults
resultsforfor
(b) Bottom view thefabricated
the fabricatedDGS
DGSlowpass
lowpassfilters
filters
(a) Top view
withthe
with theT-junction,
T-junction,the
thecross-
cross-
Photographs of the fabricated DGS lowpass filter with cross- junctiontype
junction typeopen
openstub,
stub,and
andthethe
junction type open stub (a) Top view and (b) bottom view. conventionallowpass
lowpassfilter.
filter.
conventional
Branch Line Coupler Application
Fabrication for Verification
Substrate : RT/Duroid 5880, Er=2.2,
a Substrate : RT/Duroid 5880, Er=2.2,
s thickness=31mils.
thickness=31mils.
The physical length and width of conductor
The physical length and width of conductor
corresponding to quarter wave 150ohms
w corresponding to quarter wave 150ohms
line with 1-D periodic DGS are 26mm and
c g line with 1-D periodic DGS are 26mm and
1mm at 1.84GHz, respectively. The quarter
1mm at 1.84GHz, respectively. The quarter
wave length and width of 150ohms line on
b wave length and width of 150ohms line on
conventional microstrip are 31mm and
conventional microstrip are 31mm and
d 0.2mm. In left Fig., the period S = 8mm, a
0.2mm. In left Fig., the period S = 8mm, a
= b = 6mm, c = 12mm, d = 1mm and g =
= b = 6mm, c = 12mm, d = 1mm and g =
1mm.
1mm.
(a) Top view

(b) Bottom view

Photographofof (a)
Photograph (a)top
top
and(b)
and (b)bottom
bottomsides
sidesofof
thefabricated
the fabricated90°
90°
branch-linecoupler
coupler Thesimulation
The simulationand
andmeasurement
measurementresults
resultsofofthe
thebranch
branchline
linecoupler
couplerwith
with
branch-line DGSsection
section
withDGS
with DGScells.
cells. DGS
4:1 Unequal Wilkinson Power
Divider Application
P2
Z2 N
P1 N Z2 [W] Z3 [W] Rint[W] R2 [W] R3 [W]
R2
Rint 2 51.5 103.0 106.1 35.4 70.7

Zo 3 43.9 131.6 115.5 28.9 86.6


Z3
1 4 39.5 158.1 125.0 25.0 100.0
P3
R3
Table 1. Characteristic impedance and
resistor values of N:1 unequal Wilkinson
Conventional N:1 unequal Wilkinson power divider power divider

Reference[4]
Reference [4]: :Due
Due to the increased effective inductance of the DGS, the aspect ratio of the 158 W microstrip line has
to the increased effective inductance of the DGS, the aspect ratio of the 158 W microstrip line has
been increased to 235% and the length of l/4 has been reduced to 83%. The fabricated conductor width of the 158 W
been increased to 235% and the length of l/4 has been reduced to 83%. The fabricated conductor width of the 158 W
microstrip line were 0.4mm, while 0.17mm for the conventional one. The enlarged conductor width and reduced length has
microstrip line were 0.4mm, while 0.17mm for the conventional one. The enlarged conductor width and reduced length has
aagreat
greatadvantage
advantageinindesign
designand
andrealization
realizationsuch
suchaahigh
highimpedance
impedancelinelineand
andsmaller
smallercircuit.
circuit.The
Thefabricated
fabricated4:1
4:1divider
divider
showedexcellent
excellentmatching
matchingand
andisolation,
isolation,and
andexact
exactdividing
dividingratios
ratiosofof-1dB
-1dBand
and-7dB
-7dBatatport
port22and
andport
port33without
withoutadditional
additional
showed
losses induced by the DGS over 1.2 ~ 1.8GHz.
losses induced by the DGS over 1.2 ~ 1.8GHz.
Proposed Divider structure
c

b
wL2
λ/4
Port2 c
Z2 ZL2
c
w2
c
b
Rs
Port 1
a
c
Z3
c c
b w3
a
λ/4
ZL3 wL3
Etched Defect
Port 3
in Ground plane Transmission line

Dielectric Substrate

h
Grounded plane

Simulatedresult
Simulated resultofofunit
unitDGS
DGS
Dimension: :a=6mm,
a=6mm,b=6mm,
b=6mm,c=0.4m,
c=0.4m,d=0.4mm
d=0.4mm
Dimension
Transmissionline
lineimp.=158
imp.=158Ohm
Ohm
Transmission
UnequalWilkinson
Unequal Wilkinsonpower
powerdivider
dividerwith
withDGS
DGS substrate : RT/Duroid 5880, Er= 2.2 h=31mils
mils
substrate : RT/Duroid 5880, Er= 2.2 h=31
Fabrication for Verification

(a) (b)
Photographofof (a)
Photograph (a)top
topand
and(b)
(b)bottom
bottomsides
sidesofofthe
the
fabricated90°
fabricated 90°branch-line
branch-linecoupler
couplerwith
withDGS
DGScells.
cells.

HFSS Measurement

Thesimulated
The simulatedand
andmeasured
measuredresults
resultsofofthe
thePower
PowerDivider
Dividerwith
withDGS
DGSsection
section
Conclusion
w Technical Summary
w Unit DGS and its equivalent circuit were derived and explained
w Field effects of unit DGS were shown by HFSS
w A coupled line 3-pole bandpass filter with DGS was designed and measured
w Various design applications using DGS were shown

w Defected Ground Structure Design solution : Ansoft Designer and HFSS


w Fully parameterizable geometries, materials, analyses
w Automated analyses, sweeps, optimization, post-processing
w Integrated design environment with EM, circuit and system analyses
w Flexible geometry types/shapes configuration
w Efficient design flow

w Ansoft Products applied in this presentation


w Ansoft Designer™
w Ansoft HFSS
References
[1] J. S. Yun, J. S. Park, D. Ahn, “A design of the novel coupled-line bandpass filter using defected ground
structure with wide stopband performance,” IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.
50, No.9, pp.2037~2043, Sept. 2002.

[2] D. Ahn, J. S. Park, C. S. Kim, Y. Qian, and T. Itoh "A Design of the Lowpass Filter Using the Novel Microstrip
Defected Ground Structure," IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.49 No.1, pp.86-
93, Jan. 2001.

[3] ,“ ,”

[4] " ," IEEE


Microwave and Wireless Components Letters

[5] T. J. Ellis and G. M. Rebeiz, “ MM-wave tapered slot antennas on micromashined photonic bandgap
dielectrics,” IEEE MTT-s Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., June 1996, pp.1157-1160.

[6] V. Radisic, Y. Qian, and T. Itoh, “Broadband power amplifier using dielectric photonic bandgap structure,”
IEEE Microwave Guide Wave Lett. Vol.8, pp.13-14, Jan. 1998.

[7] M. P. Kesler, J. G. Maloney, and B. L. Shirley, “ Antenna design with the use of photonic bandgap material as
all dielectric planar reflectors,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett, Vol.11, No.4, pp.169-174, Mar. 1996.

[8] V. Radisic, Y. Qian, R. Coccioli, and T. Itoh, “Novel 2-D photonic bandgap structure for microstrip lines,” IEEE
Microwave Guide Wave Lett. Vol.8, No.2, pp.69-71, Feb. 1998.

[9] C. S. Kim, J. S. Park, D. Ahn, and J. B. Lim, "A Novel 1-Dimensional periodic Defected Ground Structrure for
Planar circuits," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Lett., Vol.10, No.04, pp.131-133, April, 2000.
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