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1) Creswell (2003) identifies three major knowledge claims: (a) postpositivism, (b)

constructivism, (c) pragmatism. Define each knowledge claim by explaining its

key characteristics. Using one research topic, show how each knowledge claim
will conceptualize the same topic into a specific research question, and relate this
conceptualization to the knowledge claim’s key characteristics.

Post-Positivism Constructivism Pragmatism

Post-Positivism is a Constructivism is a Pragmatism is
deterministic philosophy perspective typically concerned with
where causes are shown seen as an approach to applications and
to determine effects or qualitative research. solutions to problems.
Most researchers argue Constructivists believe It does not commit to
that the approach that individuals seek one philosophy or
resembles the scientific understanding of the approach but utilizes all
method in that it tests a world in which they live approaches and
theory by collecting data and work. recognizes that the
to prove whether it collection of both
supports or refutes the Individuals develop quantitative and
theory. subjective meanings of qualitative data are
their experiences— needed to address a real
Postpositivists identify meanings directed world problems.
probable causes that toward certain objects or
lead to outcomes. things.
Quantitative approaches
are usually used to verify The goal of Researchers Concerned with
theories or hypothesis. is to look for the Workable applications
complexity of views as
opposed to the reduction Plural selection of
of variables. Method and Procedure
Real World Practice-
Constructivists Oriented.
acknowledge that the
experiences also shape
the analysis and affect
the interpretation of the

The theory may be used

in the beginning as a
lens to help guide the
researcher but may also
emerge or be generated
at the end after the data
have been analyzed.

What is the lived experience of victims of residential fires?

How do disaster-counseling programs aid victims of residential fires?
What is the relationship between one’s psychological distress and the extent of loss in
victims of residential fires?