DEPT.

OF ARCHITECTURE AND REGIONAL PLANNING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KHRAGPUR AMOL SAMPATRAO HOLEY 09AR6022 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: PROF. JAYDEEP BURMAN

[TULSHIBAUG-MANDAI: THE LOSS OF SYMBOLISM]
[ ABSTRACT
Conveying certain facts or messages symbolically has always been attempted in various fields related to art. Height/ vertical elements have since long ages been a symbol of victory or power. This symbol was well incorporated when building the Tulshibaug Temple in Pune and again when building the Mandai to dominate the temple. Conservation should aim at not merely conserving the structures, but also the messages associated with them. ] 1

PUNE. The markets range from a vegetable market. LAXMI ROAD CITY POST ARYAN PARKING VISHRAMBAUG WADA TULSHIBAUG TEMPLE COMPLEX MAHATMA PHULE MANDAI BAJIRAO ROAD MINERVA PARKING NEW MANDAI SHIVAJI ROAD 2 . It has been witness to major historical events in the city.MANDAI AREA. like Ganeshotsav. ladies’ shopping lanes. The area is always vibrating with life as it is a seat of a number of socio-cultural activities.TULSHIBAG. be it the Peshwa period. Gokulashtami. A number of structures representing the particular eras in which they were built are present here. located in the very heart of Pune. the British or the post Independence period. The area is a congested core of the city. INTRODUCTION The study area is a part of Shukrawar Peth. with a number of markets thriving and flanked by busy roads like Laxmi Road towards the north. Ram Navami etc. Shivaji Road towards the east and Bajirao Road toward the west. and utensils market to jewellery and clothings markets.

To understand how the superiority of the British over the Peshwas was symbolised in Mandai one must first understand symbolism and how it is used in various fields and then the history of the city. hold a number of symbolic elements in them. 3 . The most dramatic being the symbolism intentionally incorporated in the duo Tulshibaug Mandir.The structures built in various periods of history.Mahatma Phule Mandai. The history will also reveal how the perception of symbolism has changed over the years.

In symbolism concrete objects can be used to represent an abstract idea or concept. usually spiritual or mystical in nature. Symbols give meaning to an object. or animal. For example. In a narrow context. power and might since ages In Religion: the swastika symbolizes. Symbolism through connecting lines and void spaces In dance: the various ‘Mudras’ in Indian Classical dance Verticality: has been the symbol of victory. Berlin. which represent the inner life of people. plant. It had its roots in literature with poets such as Baudelaire believing ideas and emotions could be conveyed not only through the meaning of words but also in their sound and rhythm. Symbolism is the systematic or creative use of arbitrary symbols as abstracted representations of concepts or objects and the distinct relationships in-between. in various contexts: luck. Brahma In Planning: Chandigarh. the sun. Symbolism began as a reaction to the literal representation of subjects preferring to create more suggestive and evocative works. In Architecture: Jewish Museum. "symbolism" is the applied use of any iconic representations that carry particular conventional meanings. as they define both context and the narrower definition of terms. the two upright stones in the Zen Garden could symbolize a man and a woman standing on the shore of a river.SYMBOLISM Symbolism is an art style developed in the late 19th century characterized by the incorporation of symbols and ideas. There is a systematic use of recurrent symbols or images in a work to create an added level of meaning. City as a human being 4 .

Map showing extent of the Maratha Empire (in yellow). decided to build a Ram Mandir in 1763. it gave a serious blow to the morale of the rulers as well as the general public. It is said that the history of the nation would have been quite different if the Peshwas had not lost to Ahmed Shah Abdali in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. a number of Wadas came up. he shifted base from Saswad to Pune in the early 1700’s. The temple was set in the then outskirts of the city. but also the Maratha Empire expanded and reached right up to the thresholds of Delhi. The Ram Mandir came up in the corner of this garden. To symbolically remind the people of the glory of the Maratha Empire and to boost their morale in some way. The effects of the battle were deep. After Balaji Vishwanath. and the Katraj aqueduct which brought water from Katraj Lake right upto Shaniwar Wada was laid. Under the Peshwas not only did the city thrive. Vishram Baug. Shaniwar Wada was constructed. amidst natural settings of gardens and orchards such as the Khasgiwale Baug. the Prime Minister of the Chhatrapati of Satara. Bajirao I became the Peshwa. the Shikhara of the temple was intentionally kept high. More importantly a typical ‘Puneri’ Brahmanical culture developed during the times of the Peshwas. Gradually the temple grew in 5 . In search of a better capital town. Apart from checking the expansion of the Maratha Empire. with the Ambil Odha on the western side. under the Peshwas TULSHIBAG MANDIR COMES UP: SYMBOLISM OF THE PAST GLORY It was in the wake of this hour that Naro Appaji Khire. new wards (Peths) were set up. It is still the highest in Maharashtra.HISTORY UNDER THE PESHWAS The 1700’s when the Peshwas ruled was the Golden Period in the history of Pune. He owned a garden/ orchard called the Tulshibaug in Shukrawar Peth. an administrator in the Peshwa Court. A few wadas of the elite were also located here.

A number of new structures came up in the vicinity of the Tulshibaug Temple complex.importance in the social life of ‘Punekars’. like the Nagar Wachan Mandir which is a library and the City Post. There was a certain emotional pride of the citizens attached with it. The ‘Owrya’ or the spaces in the outer walls of the complex were rented out as shops for revenue generation. It proved as a space of retreat for the ladies who were mostly indoors. It became difficult for the Tulshibaugwales and the Khasgiwales to maintain the huge gardens. owing to the presence of ladies who used the complex as a social interaction space. engrossed in the daily chores. especially the ladies. A utensils market soon picked up. Tulshibaug thus had a great place in the socio cultural life of the city. the older parts were affected due to some of their policies. Although the British based themselves in the Cantonment. Maintaining the temple complex too became difficult for the Tulshibaugwales. Later other structures such as the Rameshwar temple built by the Khasgiwales and the Wishrambaug Wada came up in the area. The height of the Shikhara of the temple: symbolising the glory of the Maratha history. The Shaniwar Wada was largely neglected. the British took over the Peshwas and the city came under the rule of the Whites. UNDER THE BRITISH In 1818. Shops came up in the temple precincts to generate revenue for maintenance of the temple 6 . and finally a fire razed the palace to the grounds.

The site selected was in front of the Tulshibaug temple. the height of the structure was kept taller than the shikhara of the Tulshibaug Mandir. The British were adamant. now with a greater speed. There is always heavy traffic on these routes. The overall form of the market as well dominated the temple building. To symbolise their might. and the structure. the boundaries of Pune began to expand and the population grew. then known as the Reay Market came up. Laxmi Road and Bajirao road. well accepted by the people as their own. The eight arms still house a vegetable market. The markets continued to prosper. the very one who had opposed its construction. The form and height of Mandai dominating the Tulshibaug temple: symbolically showing the might of the British. POST INDEPENDENCE: LOSS OF SYMBOLISM After Independence. Finally the Reay Market was constructed and slowly accepted by the public. the fact of irony is that Mandai was renamed after Mahatma Jotirao Phule. To ease the traffic conditions.MANDAI COMES UP: SYMBOLISM OF MIGHT A vegetable market thrived in front of the Dilli Darwaja of Shaniwar Wada. The British decided to relocate it. Apart from this traffic. All three are major connecting routes. In fact after Independence. This move received tremendous opposition from the local leaders like Mahatma Jotirao Phule. They intentionally chose a site opposite the temple. which looked feeble in front of it. The British knew the importance of the Tulshibaug temple. 7 . Shivaji Road and Bajirao Road have been declared one way. Initially the central octagonal spire housed the Pune Municipal Office. Mandai was already absorbed in the fabric of the town. INCREASE IN CONGESTION The area is bounded by Shivaji Road. the area itself attracts people to the markets. where once was the Khasgiwale Baug. It was argued that the revenue being spent on constructing it was unnecessary and unjustified. In spite of this the congestion continues to grow.

Loss of scale: leading to loss in the symbolism. A number of festivals like Ganeshotsav. Tulshibaug Market Lanes LOSS OF SCALE This area having a mixed land use has a high population density.The parking conditions are bad.cultural life of Pune. Two parking towers had to be built for accommodating the growing number of vehicles. Now taller structures surround the Mandai. No height restrictions are imposed on the new structures coming up. SOCIO CULTURAL The Tulshibaug – Mandai area holds an important position in the socio. 8 . The width of the roads continues to remain the same in spite of the increase in traffic and heights of the structures. These parking towers show absolute no consideration for the heritage The Aryan Parking Tower near Mandai monuments around them. The British built the spire of the Mandai taller than the Shikhara of Tulshibaug temple. The original scale of the area no longer exists. Janmashtami and Ramnavami draw people from all over the city to this area each year.

Religious festivals attract thousands to the area. At the end of the 10 day festivities. These Ganeshotsav Mandals also organise Dahi Handi during Janmashtami festival. a procession leaves for the ‘Ganesh Visarjan’ (immersion of the Ganesh idol in the river). OTHER ISSUES The structures as such are well conserved. and is a total contrast to chaos outside. This festival pulls thousands of people who come in the evenings to watch the decorations done by these Mandals. Hutatma Babu Genu Mandals are in this area. Since the whole temple complex is privately owned by the Tulshibaugwales. Additions like nameplates and digital clock on Mandai. Billboards blocking view of Mandai from strategic locations. The traffic needs to be diverted for these activities each year. The temple complex maintains its sanctity. the Pune Municipal Corporation can do little in this context. Both the Mandai and Tulshibaug are structurally still sound. Mandai. But the residential and commercial structures in the temple complex seem to be ageing. 9 . The most important ‘Ganeshotsav Mandals’ of Pune like the Dagdusheth. This event also attracts thousands.The most significant festival is Ganeshotsav. Ramnavami is being celebrated in the Tulshibaug Temple since a long time.

Billboards. Mandai still has clear sky for background and is not overpowered by taller structures behind. RESTORING THE SYMBOLISM  Controlling the traffic congestion.  Imposing height restrictions on the future constructions. These are visually damaging the beauty of Mandai.co. barring the view of the structures from many places.The PMC has put up two name plates bearing the name ‘Mahatma Phule Mandai’ and a digital clock on the Mandai. o The road connecting Shivaji Road and Bajirao Road should be made one way. Harawlele Pune. Jayashree Diddee. Samita Gupta. Due to lack of space in Mandai. o The proposed widening of Shivaji Road should be implemented. Without height restrictions even this will be lost.org http://www. o The heights and positions of these stalls should not bar the view of Mandai. Pune Queen of Deccan http://www. o Well designed stalls which will respond sympathetically to the architectural character of Mandai should be provided.com 10 . REFERENCES Avinash Sovani. o From certain parts. many temporary stalls are erected in the precincts.librarything. advertisement boards are erected haphazardly.uk http://en.wikipedia.   Controlling the positions and heights of advertisements. as they do not respond to the architectural style of the structure.cleanlanguage. billboards.

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