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Department of Mechanical Engineering
CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction to Kota Thermal Power Station, Kota For the power generation with 2x110 MW and 3x210 MW of K.S.T.P.S. authorities are required to be operative to active full operation. The auxiliaries are basically operation either on L.T. System i.e. 415 V 3-Ø power supply is made available to the system after providing the station transformer of 3x50 MVA capacity with voltage 220 KV/ 7.2/7.2 KV & different service transformers of capacity 1.0 MVA, 1.5 MVA, 2.0 MVA, which are located near the load centre as the transformer having the voltage of 6.6 KV /415 V. The 6.6 KV power is distributed through 6.6 KV interconnected Bus System for all the five units with a control through DC of 220 V.
The 415 V power supply is done through a L.T. SWGR (Switchgear) which are located nearby the distribution transformer as well as the load centers. The all incomers, which are breaker controlled , are having the control the L.T. SWGR are having the control system on 110/ 220 V AC. The 6.6 KV power supply which are either MOCB (Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker) of JYOTI MAKE or Air Circuit Breakers. The 6.6 KV power supply to various draining equipment‟s i.e. more is made through breakers which are either MOCB of Jyoti make air circuit breaker which are either of voltage makers as well as SF 6 of NGEF make. The LT supply is also controlled through air break circuit breaker which are either L&T make or English Electric Company of India. The various H.T. motors are switched on started through on direct ON line (DOL) in order to inverse the availability of equipment at full efficiency without time gap.
Further , the 6.6 KV system which is normally in delta configuration and terms as an unearthed system so also to keep the running motor complete in operating condition in case of any one .phase of motor winding is earthed due to any one reason. Earthling is detected by an protection system with alarm facility to take remedial measures immediately and at the same time to maintain the generation level in the same condition, prior to occurring the earth fault the single phase earth fault is detected in due course till the motor is not earthed to other or another phase. “PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM” is available through in area of each unit which helps in fast communication for prompt remedial measure.
Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering, Jaipur
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Soot Blowers are there in the boiler area on the furnace side or Zone which helps in blowing the soot / ash deposition regularly of the furnace wall / economizer tubes to keep heat transfer at the required parameter.
In April 1973, Central Electricity Authority prepared a Project Report for power station comprising of the two units of each of capacity 110 MW for RSEB subsequently in September. 1975 this was revised by the Consultant Thermal Design Organization , Central Electricity Authority for invention of 2x110 MW units being manufactured by BHEL, Hyderabad in 1st Stage. The planning commission cleared the project report in Sept., 1976 for installation of two units each of 110 MW in first estimated cost of Rs. 143 Crores.
The KSTPS has four stage & six unit power station. In first stage there is 2 unit of 110 MW, in second stage 2 unit of 210 MW. In third & fourth stage, there each having 210MW &195 MW units respectively. The fifth stage contains 1 unit of 195 MW. The total power generated in KSTPS is 1045 MW.
1.2 Stages: K.S.T.P.S. is designed in following stages:
Table-Chapter-1 Table 1.1-Stages
STAGE I STAGE II STAGE III STAGE IV STAGE V
2x110 MW 2X210 MW 1X210 MW 1X195 MW 1X195MW
1.3 Location: The Kota Thermal Power Station is ideally on the left bank of Chambal River at Up Stream of Kota Barrage. The large expanse of water reached by the barrage provides an efficient direct circulation of cooling system for the power station. The 220 KV GSS is within ½ Kms. from the power station.
1.4 Land: Land measuring approx. 250 hectares was required for the project in 1976, For disposal of ash tank very near to power station is acquired which the ash in slurry form is disposed off through ash and slurry disposal plants.
Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering, Jaipur
Department of Mechanical Engineering
1.5 Coal: Coal India limited owns and operates all the major coal fields in India through its coal producing subsidiary companies viz. Eastern Coal Fields Limited, Western Coal Fields Limited/Coal India limited is supply coal from its coal mines of coal producing subsidiaries BCCL, SECL & ECL to Kota Thermal Power Station through railway wagons. The average distances of SECL, ECL & BCCL are 800, 950 and 1350 Kms. respectively.
1.6 Water: The source of water for power station is reservoir formed by Kota Barrage on the Chambal River. In case of large capacity plants huge quantities of coal and water is required. The cost of transporting coal and water is particularly high. Therefore, as far as possible, the plant must be located near the pit rather than at load centre for load above 200 MW and 375 MW. The transportation of electrical energy is more economical as compared to the
transportation of coal.
1.7 Design Features: The satisfactory design consists of the flowing steps. Estimation of cost. Selection of site. Capacity of Power Station. Selection of Boiler & Turbine. Selection of Condensing Unit. Selection of Electrical Generator. Selection of Cooling System. Design of Control and instrumentation system.
The design of steam power station requires wide experience as the subsequent operation and maintenance are greatly affected by its design. The most efficient design consists of
properly sized component designed to operate safely and conveniently along with its auxiliaries and installation.
2. 4.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Air and Gas Circuit. Steam is produced in Boiler is exported in prime mover and is condensed in condenser to be fed into the boiler again. (The figure is shown below. Cooling Water Circuit. Fuel and Ash Circuit. . Feed water and Steam Circuit. In practice of good number of modifications are affected so as to have heat economy and to increase the thermal efficiency of plant.) Figure-Chapter-2 Figure 2. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering Page |4 CHAPTER -2 GENERAL LAYOUT & BASIC IDEA A control system of station basically works on Rankin Cycle.1 Categorization: The Kota Thermal Power Station is divided into four main circuits: 1.1-Plant Overview 2. 3.
A small part of water and steam is lost while passing through different components therefore water is added in hot well. Thereafter. 2. The water is drawn from reservoir and after use it is drained into the river. From reheater it goes to IP turbine and then to the LP turbine and then exhausted through the condenser into hot well. Then its goes to degenerator where extra air and non-condensable gases are removed from the hot water to avoid pitting / oxidation. From degenerator it goes to boiler feed pump which increases the pressure of the water.1. The quantity of ash produced is approximately 35-40% of coal used. which on combustion in the boiler produced the ash.1. The flue gas gases are first pass around the boiler tubes and super heated tubes in the furnace. .4 Cooling Water Circuit: A large quantity of cooling water is required to condense the steam in condenser and marinating low pressure in it. they are exhausted to the atmosphere through fans. next through dust collector (ESP) & then economizer.2 Air and Gas Circuit: Air from the atmosphere is supplied to the combustion chamber of Boiler through the action of forced draft fan and induced draft fan. feed water enters into the boiler drum through economizer.1 Fuel & Ash Circuit: Fuel from the storage is fed to the boiler through fuel handling device. In boiler tubes water circulates because of density difference in lower and higher temperature section of the boiler. 2. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering Page |5 2. This water is called the make up water. From the BFP it passes through the high pressure heaters. The low pressure steam called the cold reheat steam (CRH) goes to the reheater (boiler). The fuel used in KSTPS is coal. 2. Finally.3 Feed Water and Steam Circuit: The condensate leaving the condenser is first heated in low pressure (LP) heaters through extracted steam from the lower pressure extraction of the turbine. The wet steam passes through superheated. This ash is collected at the back of the boiler and removed to ash storage tank through ash disposal equipment.1.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. From superheated it goes into the HP turbine after expanding in the HP turbine.1.
It costs approximate 2 crores of rupees per day including transportation expenses. The approximate per day consumption at KSTPS is about 1400 metric tonnes. Each train consists of 58 wagons and each wagon consists of 50 tonnes of coal.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.2. The main coal sources for KSTPS are SECL (South Eastern Coalfields Limited). is in the form of net so that coal pieces of only equal to and less than 200 mm. The coal is brought to the KSTPS through rails there are fourteen tracks in all for transportation of coal through rails. which is made of Iron . From the hopper coal pieces fall on the vibrator. The rollers roll with the help of a rope moving on pulley operated by a slip ring induction motor with specification: . size pass through it.2 Wagon Unloading System: Wagon Tripler: It unloads the coal from wagon to hopper. 2) Crushing System.2 Coal Handling Plant 2. It is a mechanical system having two rollers each at its ends. The whole transportation of coal is through conveyor belt operated by 3-Ø Induction motor.2. 2. The coal is firstly unloaded from wagon by wagon triplers then crushed by crushers and magnetic pulley and pulverized to be transformed to the boiler. The coal handling plant can broadly be divided into three sections: 1) Wagon Unloading System. ECL (Eastern Coalfield Limited) and BCCL (Bharat Coking Coal Limited). Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering Page |6 2. Everyday 3 to 4 trains of coal are unloaded at KSTPS. 3) Conveying System. The hopper.1 Introduction: It can be called the heart of thermal power plant because it provided the fuel for combustion in boiler. The bigger ones are broken by the workers with the help of hammers.
3 Crushing System: Crusher House: It consists of crushers which are used to crush the coal to 20 mm.) Page |7 Figure-Chapter-2 Figure 2.2. of phases Frequency 71 KW 415 V 14.22 Amp 975 rpm 3 50 Hz The four rollers place themselves respectively behind the first and the last pair of wheels of the wagon. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering (The figure is shown below.2-Tripler Table-Chapter-2 Table 2. size. There are mainly two type of crushers working in KSTPS: . When the motor operates the rollers roll in forward direction moving the wagon towards the “Wagon Table”. 2. On the Wagon table a limit is specified in which wagon is kept otherwise the triple would not be achieved.1-Specifications Rated Output Rated Voltage Rated Current Rated Speed No.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.
Ring granulators.3-Specifications Type Capacity Feed Material Feed size End product size Motor rating 12‟ x 21o Rotary Breaker 800 TPH Rated/ 1000 TPH Design Coal with rejects (-) 0-500 mm (-) 0-200 mm 125 HP. 1500 rpm .e. i) Rail crushers or. Secondary Crushers i.e. which breaking of coal in CHO Stage 1 & Stage 2 system is done at wagon tripler hopper jail up to the size (-) 250 mm. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering Page |8 1.) (-) 500 mm 2 Nos. Primary Crushers i. 100 rpm 225 (ii) Rotary Breaker: Table-Chapter-2 Table 2. ii) Rotary breaker. Primary Crushers: Primary crushers are provided in only CHP stage 3 system. 125 KW.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.2-Specifications Type Capacity Feed material Feed size End Product size Motor rating Crushers 80” 5 A breakers 1350 TPH Rates/ 1500 TPH Design Rom Coal (-) 1200 mm. (approx. 2. (i) Rail Crusher: Table-Chapter-2 Table 2.
Ring granulators crush by compressing accompanied by impact and shearing. In CHP Stage 1 & 2 having 64 Nos. The coal discharges through grating at the bottom. Crushers of this type employ the centrifugal force of swinging rings stroking the coal to produce the crushing action. crushing rings and other internal parts are made of tough manganese (Mn) steel. . These rows are hung on a pair of suspension shaft mounted on rotor discs. of ring hammers.2. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering Page |9 Secondary Crusher: Basically there are four ways to reduce material size: impact attrition . While stacking material is being fed from the main line conveyor via tripler unit and vibrating feeder on the intermediate conveyor which feds the boom conveyor of the stacker cum reclaimer. cages. The rotor consists of four rows of crushing rings each set having 20 Nos.4 Conveying System: Stacker Reclaimer: The stacker re-claimer unit can stack the material on to the pipe or reclaim the stack filed material and fed on to the main line conveyor. and output size of 20 mm. The crusher is coupled with motor and gearbox by fluid coupling. 2.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. of plain rings. The unique feature of this granulator is the minimum power required for tone for this type of material to be crushed compared to that of other type of crushers. Shearing and Compression. Most of the crushers employ a combination of three crushing methods. Construction & Operation: Secondary crushers are ring type granulators crushing at the rate of 550 TPH / 750 TPH for input size of 250 mm. During reclaiming the material dis discharged on to the boom conveyor by the bucket fitted to the bucket wheel body and boom conveyor feeds the material on the main line conveyor running in the reverse direction. of toothed rings and 18 Nos. Main parts of granulator like break plates. The coal is admitted at the top and the rings stroke the coal downward.
) Belt width 38 28 meters Variable to suit the system 1400 mm.2 m/second All 3-Ø induction motors 90 KW 70 KW 90 KW 22 KW 10 KW 7.4-Specifications Belt width Speed Schedule of motor Bucket wheel motor Boom Conveyor motor Intermediate Conveyor Motor Boom Housing Motor Slewing assembly Travel Motor Vibrating Feeder Total installed power 1400 mm 2.5 Feeders: This structure is erected to serve the purpose of storage. . Under ground machines are installed known as plow feeder machines. Jali chutes are used to prevent dust.5-Specifications Capacity 1350 tonne per hour 750 tonne per hour No.5 KW 2x6 KW 360 KW Conveyor Specification: Table-Chapter-2 Table 2. These machines collect the coal from conveyor and drop it to the other from one conveyor with the help of jaws and this coal is taken to huge erected structure from where the coal falls to the ground. specification of conveyor motor 2. of conveyor Horizontal length Lift(M) (approx.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 10 Conveyor belt Specification of Stacker / Reclaimer: Table-Chapter-2 Table 2.2.
) P a g e | 11 Figure-Chapter-2 Figure 2. oil burners are also used. Ash produced as .Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The Pulverization also increases the overall efficiency and flexibility of boilers. Air and Gas Plant. Ash Disposal and & Dust Collection Plant.3-Feeder 2.2. However for light up and with stand static load.6 Ash Handling Plant: Categorization: This plant can be divided into 3 sub plants as follows:1) 2) 3) Fuel and Ash Plant. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering (The figure is shown below. In order to get an efficient utilization of coal mills. Fuel and ash plant: Coal is used as combustion material in KTPS.
Ash Handling Plant at KTPS consists of specially designed bottom ash and fly ash in electro static precipitator economizer and air pre-heaters hoppers. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 12 the result of combustion of coal is connected and removed by ash handling plant. Finally the flue gases after passing through the Electro-Static Precipitator is exhausted through chimney. Dry free fly ash is collected in two number of 31 fly ash hoppers which are handled by two independent fly ash system. combustion of coal. Two slurry pumps are provided which is common to both units & used to make slurry and further transportation to ash dyke through pipe line. In KTPS there are two FD fans and three ID fans available for draft system per unit. The air before being supplied to the boiler passes through pre-heater where the flue gases heat it. Ash Handling Plant consists of especially designed bottom and fly ash system for two path boiler. Ash Disposal & Dust Collection Plant: KSTPS has dry bottom furnace. The ash is removed from fly ash hoppers in dry state is carried to the collecting equipment where it is mixed with water and resulting slurry sump is discharged . In economizer the heat of flue gases raises the temperature of feed water. Air & Gas Plant: Air from atmosphere is supplied to combustion chamber of boiler through the action of forced draft fan. In re-heater the The pre heating of primary air causes improved and intensified temperature of the steam (CRH) coming from the HP turbines heated with increasing the number of steps of re-heater the efficiency of cycle also increases. The system for both units is identical and following description is applied to both the units the water compounded bottom ash hopper receives the bottom ash from the furnace from where it is stores and discharged through the clinker grinder.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The flue gases formed due to combustion of coal first passes round the boiler tubes and then it passes through the super heater and then through economizer .
In view of the environmental impact of disposal.S. 4. 2. Manufacturing of pozzuolana cement. today an Eco friendly industry is must. Making of concrete. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 13 Utilization: Utilization of coal-ash is always practice than its disposal. Road construction etc. which causes ionization of the gases & they changed into ion while traveling towards opposite charged electrode get deposited as particles and thus dust is electric deposited an electrode creating the field. Fabric filter high efficiency cyclone separations and stilling room.2. It is continuous process. 3.S.75 microns to 100 micron use gradually use E. where the particle size vary from 0.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.P. These filters are E.7 Electro-Static Precipitator: Scope & Principle of Operation: For general mankind. to purify the flue gases due to its higher efficiency & low running cost etc. 2. In an ESP the dust lidder gas is passed through an intense electric field. The choice depends on the size of suspended particle matter. Manufacturing of building materials. There are various methods of utilization of coal-ash along with established engineering technologies some of them are mentioned below: 1. Fop fly ash . As far as air pollution is concerned now a days various flue gases filter are there in service. . In all the above cases financial constraint discourages the entrepreneurs to take up the work.P. Government may give attractive subsidy and create marketing facility so that entrepreneurs may come forward to use as their raw material.
Input out waves of the controller and HVR are also shown above. The output of controller with respect to time is also controlled by microprocessor.2.8 Controller: Now a day micro-processor based intelligent controllers are used to regulate the power fed to the HVR.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 14 2. so that ESP operation is smooth and efficient. which clearly indicates that average power fed to ESP field can be controlled by variation of the firing angle of thyristor. The char is as shown: As can be seen in the event of spark between electrodes the output of controller is reduced to zero for few millisecond for quenching the spark.4-Controller . The controls the firing / ignition angle of the thyristor connected in parallel mode. (The figure is shown below.) Figure-Chapter-2 Figure 2. Controller also takes place care of fault in KVR and gives a trapping and non-trapping alarm as per the nature of fault.
S. The emitting is also isolated from the roof through the support insulators which are supporting the emitting electrode frame works and also the supply to these electrodes is fed through support insulators. .C.9 High Voltage Rectifier Transformer: HVR receives the regulated supply from controller. field through its negative bushing. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 15 2. located in the ESP auxiliaries control panels. supply is fed to E. From these hoppers ash is evacuated by ash handling system and dispose to the disposal area.10 E. The positive bushing so connected to earth through small resistance which forms a current feed back circuit. The ash depositing on these electrode is rapped down by separate wrapping mechanism happens at the bottom of the field. A very high resistance column is also connected with negative bushing. By several similar plates which the emitting electrodes are of the shape of spring. These two feedbacks are used in the controller for indication and control purpose.2. It forms the voltage feed back circuit. Field: The field consists of emitting and collecting electrodes structure which are totally isolated from each other and hanging with the top roof of field.P. Strong on the emitting frame work with the help of hooks in both the ends. It steps up to high voltage rectifier. The collecting electrodes are of the shape of flat plates. The wrapping system is automatically controlled with the help of the programmable metal controller. The D.P. 2.S.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.2.
tangentially fired. A boiler is always designed to absorb maximum amount of heat released in process of combustion. convection and radiation. conduction. Better efficiency of plant owing to rapid and uniform circulation of water in tubes. of ball mills of 34MT/hr. Easy removal of scale from inside the tubes. over hanged type. Natural circulation. These tubes are interconnected to common water channels and to steam outlet. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 16 CHAPTER -3 BOILER A boiler (or steam generator) is a closed vessel in which water.1 Fire Tube Boiler: In this type the products of combustion pass through the tubes which are surrounded by water. Pulverized coal is directly fed from the coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes with the help of heated air coming from PA fan. In KSTPS. 3. The pressure inside boiler is so as to minimized the pollution and looses & to prevent the accidents outside the boiler.e. Better heat transfer to the mass of water. Boilers are classified as: 3. capacity each have been installed for each boiler. light oil (diesel oil) is sprayed for initialization then heavy oil (high speed diesel oil) is used for stabilization of flame. Better overall control. Oil burners are provided between coal burners for initial start up and flame stabilization. It is one of the major components of a thermal power plant. under pressure is converted into steam. Water tube boilers are used.2 Water Tube Boiler: In this type of boiler water flows inside the tubes and hot gases flow outside the tubes. Four nos. . The water tube boilers have many advantages over the fire tube boilers High evaporation capacity due to availability of large heating surface. This is transferred to the boiler by all the three modes of heat transfer i. Firstly. These are economical for low pressure only.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.
Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering, Jaipur
Department of Mechanical Engineering
P a g e | 17
For ensuring safe operation of boilers, furnace safe guard supervisory system (FSSS) of combustion engineering USA designed has been installed. This equipment systematically feed fuel to furnace as per load required. The UV flame scanners installed in each of the four corners of the furnace, scan the flame conditions and in case of unsafe working conditions trip the boiler and consequently the turbine. Turbine - boiler interlocks safe guarding the boiler against possibility furnace explosion owing to flame failure. 3.3 Furnace: Furnace is primary part of the boiler where the chemical energy available in the fuel is converted into thermal energy by combustion. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion. Major factors that assist for efficient combustion are the temperature inside the furnace and turbulence, which causes rapid mixing of fuel and air. In modern boilers, water-cooled furnaces are used.
(The figure is shown below.)
Figure-Chapter-3 Figure 3.1-Water Cooled Furnace
Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering, Jaipur
Department of Mechanical Engineering
P a g e | 18
3.4 Pulverized Fuel System: The boiler fuel firing system is tangentially firing system in which the fuel is introduced from wind nozzle located in the four corners inside the boiler.
(The figure is shown below.)
Figure-Chapter-3 Figure 3.2-Pulverized Fuel System
The crushed coal from the coal crusher is transferred into the unit coalbunkers where the coal is stored for feeding into pulverizing mill through rotary feeder .The rotary feeders feed the coal to pulverize mill at a definite rate. Then coal burners are employed to fire the pulverized coal along with primary air into furnace. These burners are placed in the corners of the furnace and they send horizontal streams of air and fuel tangent to an imaginary circle in the center of the furnace.
3.5 Fuel Oil System: The functional requirement of the fuel burning system is to supply a controllable and uninterrupted flammable furnace input of fuel and air and to continuously ignite and burn the fuel as rapidly as it is introduced into the furnace. This system provides efficient conversion of chemical energy of fuel into heat energy. The fuel burning system should function such that fuel and air input is ignited continuously and immediately upon its entry into furnace. The Fuel air (secondary air) provided FD fan, surrounds the fuel nozzles. Since this air provides covering for the fuel nozzles so it is called as mantle air. Dampers are provided so that quantity of air can be modulated. Coal burners distribute the fuel and air evenly in the furnace.
Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering, Jaipur
Department of Mechanical Engineering
P a g e | 19
Ignition takes place when the flammable furnace input is heated above the ignition temperature. No flammable mixture should be allowed to accumulate in the furnace. Ignition energy is usually supplied in the form of heat. This ignition energy is provided by oil guns and by igniters.
3.6 Boiler Drum: The drum is a pressure vessel. Its function is to separate water and steam from mixture (of steam & water) generated in the furnace walls. It provides water storage for preventing the saturation of tubes. It also houses the equipment needed for purification of steam. The steam purification primarily depends on the extent of moisture removal, since solids in steam are carried by the moisture associated with it. The drum internals reduce the dissolved solids content of the steam to below the acceptable limit. Drum is made up of two halves of carbon steel plates having thickness of 133 mm. The top half and bottom half are heated in a plate heating furnace at a very high temperature and are pressured to form a semi cylindrical shape. The top and bottom semi cylinders with hemispherical dished ends are fusion welded to form the boiler drum. The drum is provided with stubs for welding all the connecting tubes i.e. down comer stubs, riser tubes stubs and super heater outlet tube stubs.
(The figure is shown below.)
Figure-Chapter-3 Figure 3.3-Steam Drum Internals
Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 20 Boiler drum is located at a height of 53m from ground.7 Draft System: The combustion process in a furnace can take place only when it receives a steady flow of air and has the combustion gases continuously removed. Water from the drum goes to water walls through six down comers. It ensures that there is no egress of air or hot gas and ash into boiler house. Manhole is used for facilitating the maintenance person to go inside the drum for maintenance. . 3. Theoretically balanced draft means keeping furnace pressure equal to atmospheric pressure.8 Draught Fans: A fan can be defined as volumetric machine which like pumps moves quantities of air or gas from one place to another. The following fans are used in boiler house. In doing this it overcomes resistance to flow by supplying the fluid with the energy necessary for contained motion. Feed water is supplied to the drum from the economizer through feed nozzles. movement of fluid from the drum to the combustion zone and back to boiler drum. but in practice the furnace is kept slightly below atmospheric pressure. The drum form the part of boiler circulating system i.e.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Main parts of boiler drum are: Feed pipe Riser tube Down comer Baffle plate Chemical dosing pipe Turbo separation Screen dryer Drum level gauge 3. The drum is provided with manholes and manhole covers.
Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 21 Forced draught fan (F. fan): (The figure is shown below.) Figure-Chapter-3 Figure 3. 6.) Figure-Chapter-3 Figure 3.D.6KV. fan): The combustion process in the furnace can take place only when it receives a steady flow of air. Its speed varies from 600-1500 RPM.408 T/Hr (The figure is shown below.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.4-FD Fan Induced draught fan (I. Specification of Force Draft fan: 3. This air is supplied by FD fan.5-ID Fan . 700KW Rated Current-74A RPM-1500 Discharge.D. Thus FD fan takes air from atmosphere at ambient temperature & so provides additional draught.
Two air fans are usually provided. Typical speed 3000 RPM. Usually sized for 1500 RPM due to high pressure.6KV. fans trip the scanner air fan will draw air from atmosphere through emergency damper. .11 Scanner Air Fan: Used to provide necessary cooling air to the flame scanners. 3.1A RPM-745 Discharge.720 T/Hr 3. Specification of ID fan: 3. Secondly.9 Primary air fan (P. Two fans are usually provided. 3.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. One will run and other will remain as stand by. One will run and 2nd will remain as stand by.D. 1750KW Rated current-192. 6. When F.10 Igniter air fan:It is used to provide necessary combustion air to igniter. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 22 The flue gases coming out of the boiler are passed to the ESP & then dust free gases are discharged up by the chimney to the atmosphere through the ID fan. this fan also dries the coal. Typical speed is 1460 RPM.A. fan) or Exhauster Fan: Pulverized coal is directly fed from coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes with the help of heated air coming from PA fan. A control damper is provided on the discharge which modulates to maintain a constant differential pressure across igniter when any igniter is in service.
Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.6-Economizer 3. Cooling of flue gases by 20% raises the plant efficiency by 1%.12 Economizer: The flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of heat. (The figure is shown below. The use of economizer results in saving fuel consumption and higher boiler efficiency but needs extra investment. The rotor is placed in a drum which is divided into two compartments. An economizer extracts a part of this heat from the flue gases and uses it for heating the feed water before it enters into the steam drum. thus improving the overall efficiency of the boiler.e. In KSTPS regenerative type of preheater is used. Feed water enters the tubes through the other. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 23 3. In an economizer. The flue gases flow outside the tubes.) Figure-Chapter-3 Figure 3.13 Air preheaters: Air preheaters are employed to recover the heat from the flue gases leaving the economizer and are used to heat the incoming air for combustion. This raises the temperature of the furnace gases. air compartment (primary air coming from primary air fan and . a large number of small diameter thin walled tubes are placed between two headers. i. They use a cylindrical rotor made of corrugated steel plate. improves combustion rates and efficiency and lowers the stack (chimney) temperature.
has been heated above the temperature corresponding to its pressure. are pass through alternatively gas and air zone. The steam is superheated to the highest economical temperature not only to increase the efficiency but also to have following advantages: Reduction in requirement of steam quantity for a given output of energy owing to its high internal energy reduces the turbine size. which contains more heat than the saturated steam at the same pressure i. As the rotor rotates the flue gases. 3. This additional heat provides more energy to the turbine and thus the electrical power output is more. . The air temperature required for drying in the case of coal-fired boiler decided the size of the air heaters.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering (The figure is shown below.e.) P a g e | 24 Figure-Chapter-3 Figure 3.7-Air Pre-Heater Secondary air for air coming from FD fan with positive pressure) and flue gases (from economizer with negative pressure) compartments.14 Superheater: Superheated steam is that steam. To avoid leakage from one compartment to other seals are provided. A superheater is a device which removes the last traces of moisture from the saturated steam leaving the boiler tubes and also increases its temperature above the saturation temperature. The rotor is fixed on an electrical shaft rotating at a speed of 2 to 4 rpm. it. The rotor elements are heated by flue gases in their zone and transfer the heat to air when they are in air zone.
3. This is done so that the steam remains dry as far as possible through the last stage of the turbine.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. After header. it is delivered to economizer. We are well known that a greater number of tubes are presented inside the boiler. No corrosion and pitting at the turbine blades occur owing to dryness of steam./cm3 steam is allowed to enter the turbine to convert potential energy to kinetic energy. In the drum. turbine blades remain dry so the mechanical resistance to the flow of steam over them is small resulting in high efficiency.15 Reheater: Reheaters are provided to raise the temperature of the steam from which part of energy has already been extracted by HP turbine. There are mainly three types of soot blower are used in KSTPS: Water wall soot blower Super heater soot blower . the steam is separated out through the steam separators and passed to the super heater. In water wall tubes a part of the water is converted to steam due to boiler and the mixture flows back to the drum. water delivered to steam generator from header. From economizer the water enters the drum and thus joins the circulation system through down covering water wall tubes. 3. which are at a temperature well below the saturation value corresponding to that pressure. Soot is a thermal insulating material. which heated to above the saturation temperature.17 Soot Blower: The boiler tubes are cleaned with the help of steam by the process called soot blowing. radiation or combination of both. 3. A reheater can also be convection. Slowly and slowly the fine ash particles are collected on the tube surface and from a layer this is called soot. After the super heater when the steam temperature becomes high and pressure up to 150 Kg. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 25 Superheated steam being dry.16 Circulation System: In natural circulation system.
1 No. . 1 No. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 26 Air pre heater soot blower 3. 1 No. Service 70 Nos. of coal mills in No.18 Technical Specification of Boiler: Table-Chapter-3 Table 3. /Cm2 86. of soot blowers Two BHEL 375 tonnes per hour 139 Kg. 2 Nos. 2 Nos. 540oC 3 Nos.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. natural circulation balance draft water tube boiler. No. of Units Make Capacity Steam Pressure Efficiency Number of fans service: ID fans FD fans PA fans Seal Air fan Scanner Air fan Igniter fan Steam Temperature No.6 % 2 Nos.1-Specifications Type Direct fired.
Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Pulverized coal is directly fed from the coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes. of flue gas ESP 1/2 180 Meters 198 M3/ Sec. They are designed for burning low grade coal with high ash content.3-Specifications Type Quantity HSD and fuel oil a) HSD – 5520 KL per year b) Furnace Oil: 28800 KL per year No. balance draft. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 27 Fuel: a) COAL: Table-Chapter-3 Table 3. Oil burners are located between coal burners for flame stabilization. of chimney / stack Height of Chimney Volume of flue Gas Temp.19 General Description: Boilers are tangentially fired. Air emitted 140oC One for each unit 3. dry bottom with direct fired pulverized coal from bowl mills. natural circulation. From this tank the mixture is taken to an overhead hydro-bin where water is decanted and the mill reject are disposed off . The pulverized fuel pipes from the mills to the bunkers are provided with basalt lined bends to reduce erosion and to improve the life of these pipes owing to poor grade of coal there is a high percentage of mill rejects.2-Specifications Type Quantity consumed Type of handling Ash disposal Slack Coal 3074 tonnes per day Conveyor Wet system b) OIL: Table-Chapter-3 Table 3. The mill rejects are conveyed in a sluice way to an under-ground tank. radiant type.
Superheated steam temperature is controlled by attemperation. Turbine – boiler interlocks safe guarding the boiler against possibility furnace explosion owing to flame failure. furnace safe guard supervisory system (FSSS) of combustion engineering USA designed has been installed. A multi-flue reinforced concrete stack with two internal flues has been provided. This equipment systematically feed fuel to furnace as per load requirement. . For ensuring safe operation of boilers. Oil preheating arrangement is provided on the tanks floors for the heavy oil tanks.8% have been provided to reduce environmental pollution and to minimize induce draft fan wear. Facilities have been provided to simultaneously unload and transfer 10 light oil and 40 heavy oil tankers to the designated tanks. Due to anticipated high abrasion of ID fans impellers. Three ID fans each of 60% capacity have been provided one ID fan to serve as standby. scan the flame conditions and in case of unsafe working conditions but out fuel and trip the boiler and consequently the turbine. Two boiler feed pumps each of 100 % capacity are driven by AC motor through hyd. coupling with scoop tube arrangement for regulating feed water pressure for each unit. Re-heater steam temperature is primarily by tilting fuel burners through + 30o and further control if necessary is done by attemperation. ESP with collection efficiency of 99. The UV flame scanners installed at two elevation in each of the four corners of the furnace. The air required for combustion is supplied by two forced draft fans. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 28 by trucking.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.
The rapidly moving particles of steam.) Figure-Chapter-4 Figure 4. (The figure is shown below. may take place in such a manner that the pressure at the outlet side of the blade is equal to that at the inlet inside.1 Introduction: Turbine is a machine in which a shaft is rotated steadily by impact or reaction of current or stream of working substance (steam. The processor of expansion and direction changing may occur once or a number of times in succession and may be carried out with difference of detail. Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse turbine.) upon blades of a wheel. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 29 CHAPTER – 4 STEAM TURBINE 4. gases etc. On the other hand the pressure of the . air.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The steam is caused to fall in pressure in a passage of nozzle: doe to this fall in pressure a certain amount of heat energy is converted into mechanical kinetic energy and the steam is set moving with a greater velocity. This constitutes the driving force of the machine. water.1-Steam Turbine 4. When the working substance is steam it is called the steam turbine.2 Principal of Operation of Steam Turbine: Working of the steam turbine depends wholly upon the dynamic action of Steam. It converts the potential or kinetic energy of the working substance into mechanical power by virtue of dynamic action of working substance. The passage of steam through moving part of the commonly called the blade. enter the moving part of the turbine and here suffer a change in direction of motion which gives rose to change of momentum and therefore to a force.
1-Specifications Rated output Economic output Rated speed 110 MW 95 MW 3000 rpm Direction of rotation viewing from the front Clockwise bearing pedestal. yet the methods where by these principles carried into effect very end as a result.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. 5. The blade or deflector. therefore two important elements. Simple impulse steam turbine. 6.3 Technical Data of Turbines: The main technical data of 110 MW turbines is given below: Table-Chapter-4 Table 4. certain types of turbine have come into existence. in which the steam particles changes its directions and hence its momentum changes. Impulse reaction turbine. the drop in pressure suffered by the steam during its flow through the moving causes a further generation of kinetic energy within the blades and adds to the propelling force which is applied to the turbine rotor. 1. The blades are attach to the rotating elements are attached to the stationary part of the turbine which is usually termed the stator. 4. casing or cylinder. 4. These are the nozzle in which the system expands from high pressure end a state of comparative rest to a lower pressure end a status of comparatively rapid motion. Pure reaction turbine. The majority of the steam turbine have. Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse reaction turbine. 2. Rated steam pressure before stop valve Maximum steam pressure before stop valve 130 ata 146 ata . Although the fundamental principles on which all steam turbine operate the same. Pressure-velocity compounded turbine. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 30 steam at outlet from the moving blade may be less than that at the inlet side of the blades. or Sets of such elements. 3. Simple velocity compounded impulse turbine. The pressure compounded impulse turbine.
Double flow IP turbine with 20 reaction stages per flow. 2 reheat stop & control valves. Double flow LP turbine with 8 reaction stages per flow.5 K Cal/Kwh. of steam before MP Casing Maximum Temp. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 31 Rated temperature of steam before the stop 535oC valve Maximum temperature of steam before the 545oC stop valve Rated pressure of steam MP Casing Rated pressure of steam before 31.2-Specifications Rated Temp. 2 main stop & control valves. MP Cylinder LP cylinder 12 moving wheels 4 moving wheels of Double row design Quantity of oil for first filling 1800 liters for the turbine Single flow HP turbine with 25 reaction stages. & & 2 steam check valve in CRH.6 ata 35 ata 4. HP Cylinder 2 row carts wheel + 8 moving wheels. . 2 bypass stop & control valve. of steam before MP Casing 535oC 545oC Informative heat flow at the economic output 2135 K Cal/Kwh Informative heat rate at the rated output 2152.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.4 MP Casing: Table-Chapter-4 Table 4.
The moving and stationary blades are inserted into appropriately shapes into inner casing and the shaft to reduce leakage losses at blade tips. Main steam is admitted before blending by two combined main stop and control valves. into HP turbine. Because of its rotation symmetry the barrel type casing remain constant in shape and leak proof during quick change in temperature. 4. HP Turbine: The HP casing is a barrel type casing without axial joint. The casing of IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double shell construction. The double flow inner casing is supported kinematically in the outer casing. 4 & 5 & one 195 MW turbine installed for unit 6 & 7 (which one is under final stage of construction & generation of power is expected in Sept.5 Description of Steam Turbines: Steam flow: 210 MW steam turbine is a tandem compound machine with HP. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 32 At KSTPS there are 2x110 MW turbines installed for unit 1 & 2 and 210 MW turbines installed for units 3. IP & LP parts. The HP turbine consists of 25 reaction stages. The centre flows compensates the axial thrust and prevent steam inlet temperature affecting brackets.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The arrangements of inner casing confines high steam inlet condition to admission branch of casing. The IP turbine exhausts directly goes to LP turbine by cross ground pipes. The steam coming from reheated called HRH is passed to turbine via two combined stop and control valves. IP Turbine: The IP part of turbine is of double flow construction. Due to this reason barrel type casing are especially suitable for quick start up and loading. The HP cylinder has a throttle control. while the joints of outer casing is subjected only to lower pressure and temperature . bearing etc. 2008). The inner casing too is cylinder in shape as horizontal joint flange are relieved by higher pressure arising outside and this can kept small. The steam from HP turbine after reheating enters the inner casing from above and below through two inlet nozzles. The HP part is single flow cylinder and HP & LP parts are double flow cylinders. The HP turbine exhaust (CRH) leading to reheated have tow swing check valves that prevent back flow of hot steam from reheated. The individual turbine rotors and generator rotor are rigidly coupled.
The IP turbine consists of 20 reaction stages per flow. iv) When it burns more like a gas as solid in conventional domestic or industrial grate with additional amount of air called secondary air supplied by “Forced Draft Fan”. 4. i) ii) iii) By conveyer belts to coal bunkers from where it is fed to pulverizing mills. The outer casing consist of the front and rear walls. The coal is brought to station by train or other means travels from the coal handling system. Oil and Natural Gas) whichever fuel is used the object is same to convert the heat into mechanical energy to electrical energy by rotating a magnet inside the set of winding. Steam admitted to LP turbine from IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides through steam inlet nozzles. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 33 at the exhaust of inner casing. The outer casing is supported by the ends of longitudinal beams on the base plates of foundation.6 Electricity Generator: Thermal power station burns the fuel and use the resultant heat to raise the steam which drives the turbo-generator. The inner shell is attached to outer shell with provision of free thermal movement. . The pressure in outer casing relieves the joint of inner casing so that this joint is to be sealed only against resulting differential pressure. The double flow inner casing consists of outer shell and inner shell. v) The water quenched ash from the bottom of furnace is carried out boiler to pit for subsequent disposal. In a coal fired thermal power station other raw materials are air and water.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The moving and stationary blades are inserted in appropriately shaped grooves in shaft and inner casing. Mills grind it fine as face powder. Some of its fine particles blinds together to form a lump which falls into the ash pit at the bottom of furnace. As the coal has been grinded so resultant ash is also as fine as powder. Then this powdered coal mixed with preheated air is blow into boiler by a Fan known as primary air fan (PA fan). The shells are axially split and have rigidly welded construction. LP Turbine: The casing of double flow type LP turbine is of three shell design. The fuel may be “Fossil” (Coal. the lateral longitudinal support bearing and upper part.
permit the windings. But these two types of water (boiler feed water and cooling water) must never mix together. To the end of the turbine rotor of generator is coupled. so that when turbine rotates the rotor turns with it. The steam which has given up its heat energy in changed back into a condenser so that it is ready for reuse. vii) Now after passing through ESP few gases are discharged up to chimney Meanwhile the heat reloaded from the coal has been absorbed by kilometers a long tube which lies in boiler walls inside the tubes “Boiler Feed Water” which is transferred into turbine blades and makes them rotate. Temperature detectors and other devices installed or connected within then machine. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 34 vi) Most of ash still in fine particles form is carried out to electrostatic precipitators where it is trapped by electrode charged with high voltage electricity. The cold water continuously pumped in condenser. and incorporated with most modern design concepts and constructional features. The source of excitation of rotor windings is thyristor controlled D.L. The auxiliary equipment‟s supplied with the machine suppresses and enables the control of hydrogen pressure and purity.E. The generator is driven by directly coupled steam turbine at a speed of 3000 rpm. teeth core & hydrogen temperature. The Generator is designed for continuous operation at the rated output. supply. with constructional & operational economy.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The generator stator is a tight construction. pressure & purity in machine under the conditions. 4. which ensures reliability. supporting & enclosing the stator windings. The rotor is housed inside the stator having coil of copper bars in which electric is produced through the movement of magnetic field created by rotor The electricity passes from the stator winding to the transformer which steps up the voltage so that it can be transmitted effectively over the power line of grid.C. The cooling water is drawn from the river but the Boiler Feed Water must be pure than potable water (DM Water).H. The steam passing around the tubes loose heat and rapidly change into water. shaft sealing . core and hydrogen coolers.7 Turbo Generator: Theory: TURBO GENERATOR manufactured by B. The dust is then conveyed to the disposal area or to bunkers for sale. Cooling medium hydrogen is contained within frame & circulated by fans mounted at either ends of rotor.
Stator Frame: The stator frame of welded steel frame construction. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 35 lubricating oils. There is a provision for cooling water in order to maintain a constant temperature of coolant (hydrogen) which controls the temperature of windings. (The figure is shown below. which gives sufficient & necessary rigidity to minimize the vibrations and to withstand the thermal gas pressure. All welded joints exposed to hydrogen are specially made to prevent leakage. The stator constructed in a single piece houses the core and windings.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The complete frame is subjected to hydraulic test at a pressure of 7 ATA. Ribs subdivide the frame and axial members to form duct from which the cooling gas to & fro radial ducts in the core and is re-circulated through internally mounted coolers. The horizontally mounted water cooled gas coolers being so arranged that it may be cleaned on the water side without opening the machine to atmosphere. Heavy end shields enclose the ends of frame and form mounting of generator bearings and radial shaft seals. Main parts of generator: Stator: 1.) Figure-Chapter-4 Figure 4.2-Stator Assembly . All the gas ducts are designed so as to secure the balanced flow of hydrogen to all parts of the core.
Laminations are assembled on guide bass of group separated by radial ducts to provide ventilation passage. The main distribution for the bar consists of resin rich mica loosed thermosetting epoxy. 3. Its moisture absorbing tendency is very low and behavior of mica is for superior than any other conventional tape insulation system. Semi-conductor coating is also applied to a part of overhung with a straight overlap of conductive coil in the sides to reduce eddy currents to minimum. The ventilation ducts are disposed so as to distribute the gas evenly over the core & in particularly to give adequate supports to the teeth. The segment of insulating material is inserted at frequent intervals to provide additional insulation. Use of nonmagnetic steel reduces considerably by heating of end iron clamping. At frequent intervals during stacking the assembled laminations are passed together in powerful hydraulic press to ensure tight core which is finally kept between heavy clamping plates which are non-magnetic steel. In order to reduce the losses in the ends packets special dampers are provided at either ends of core. The laminations are stamped out with accurately fine combination of ties. The overhung portion of the bar is divided into four quadrants & insulated. The arrangement reduces additional losses due to damping currents which otherwise be present due to self-induced non-uniform flux distribution in the coil slots. which are welded to the inner periphery of the clamping plates. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 36 2. The laminations of high quality silicon steel which combines high permeability with low hysterias and eddy current losses. They are made in strips to reduce skin effect. Stator Core: It is built up of special sheet laminations and whose assembly is supported by a special guide bass. Mostly dampers are provided to prevent hunting in ac machines. This has excellent mechanical and electrical properties & does not require any impregnation. Each stator half coil is composed of double glass cover and bars of copper transposed in straight portion of “Robill Method” so that each strip occupies every radial portion in the bar.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. After stamping each lamination is varnished on both sides with two coats. . Conductor material is electrolytic copper connections brazed with free coating silver alloy to obtain joints. The winding overhead is in volute shape. which are both electrically & mechanically sound. The method of construction ensures that the core is firmly supported at a large number of points on its periphery. The footed region of the core is provided by pressing figures of non-magnetic steel. For an equal length along the bar. Stator Bars: Stator bars are manufactured as half bars.
The exposed portion of windings is finally coated. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 37 4. The complete assembly is secured by high tensile brass blots. The large terminals are of neutral & current transformer is inserted. Slot numbering is clockwise from turbine end. Several such turns form a phase. Hollow portions enable bushings to be hydrogen cooled. The top & bottom are brazed and insulated at either end to form turns. lap wound. three phase. A thick line identifies the top bar in slot No. External connections are to be made to the three shorter terminals. 3 short) have been brought out of the coming on the exciter side. The bearings are formed for forced lubrication of oil at a pressure of 2-3 ATM. Phases are connected to form a double star winding. The winding is designed to withstand short circuit stresses.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Insulation of individual bars & stator windings at various stress is tested with applied high voltages of AC of Hz. End windings will be sealed against movement of short circuit by both axial & peripheral bracing. The arrangement of complete stator winding electrical circuit is viewed from turbine end of generator & rotor windings. so that with the coils. From the same pump that supplies oils to the turbine. Terminal Bushings: Six output leads (3 long. they form a continuous rigid ring. Glass cord or top is used lashing the packing of blocks. Ends of bushings are Silver-plated: middle portion of the bushing is adequately insulated & has a circular flange for bolting the stator casing.1. 5. bearings & governing gears. There is a provision to ensure & measure the rotor bearing temperature by inserting a resistance thermometer in the oil pockets. . Gaskets are provided between the Flange of terminal bushings and castings to make it absolutely gas tight. 6. short pitch type. Stator Windings: Stator windings are double star layers. which are phase terminals. The later consists of hardened glass laminated blocks inserted between adjacent coil sides in coil overhangs. The conductor of Generator terminal bushing having hollow copper tubes with Copper brazed at the ends to avoid leakage of hydrogen. Bearings: Generator bearings have electrical seats of consists of steel bodies with removable steel pads.
Sulfur prist tests. Hydrogen Coolers: Three Hydrogen Coolers each comprising of two individual units are mounted inside the stator frame. 9 Rotor: Rotor shaft consists of single piece alloy steel forging of high mechanical and magnetic properties performance test includes: 1. 4. Rated load operating temperature is well within the limits corresponding to the Class B operation. 2. 5. from nondriving side as well as turbine side. 6. 8. Two axial fans mounted on either side of the rotor to ensure circulation of hydrogen.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The stator is designed for radial ventilation by stem. . Design of special ventilation is so as to ensure almost uniform temperature of rotor windings and stator core. The Clearing of the individual cooler element can be carried out from both ends of the Generator even during operation. The inlet and outlet of cooling water from both of machine i. Visual examination of bore. Surface examination. 3. Transverse slots Slots are milled on the rotor gorging to receive the rotor winding. Magnetic crack detection. machined in the pole faces of the rotor to equalize the moment of inertia in direct and quadrilateral axis of rotor with a view minimizing the double frequency. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 38 7. Embedded Resistance Temperature Detectors do continuous monitoring of Hydrogen temperature at active parts of Generator. The end stator core packets & core clamping & plates are intensively cooled by Hydrogen through special ventilation system. The assembly of individual cooler elements in stator frame is however carried out only from the non-driving side. Ventilation System: The machine is designed with ventilation system having 2 atm rated hydrogen pressure.e. Tensile test on specimen piece. Ultrasonic examination.
Special precautions are taken to prevent oil & oil vapor from shaft seals . 11.3-Rotor 10. heavy dove tail wedges of non-magnetic materials will seal the insulation at the top of slot portion. bent on edge to form coil. When the windings have cooled. The bearing are pressure lubricated from the turbine oil supply. The bore is machined on an elliptical shape so as to increase the mechanical stability of the rotor. Bearings: The bearings are self-aligned & consist of slip steel shells linked with special bearing metal having very low coefficient of friction. Rotor Windings: Rotor winding is of direct coil type and consists of parallel strips of very high conductivity Silver Bearing Copper. The coils are placed in impregnated glass. Treated glass spacers inserted between the coils and solid ring prevent lateral movement of coil overhang. The complete winging will be packed at high temperature and pressed to size by heavy steel damping rings. 12. using glass strips inter turn insulation and will be brazed at the end to form continuous winding.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The cooling medium hydrogen gas will be brought in direct contact with copper by means of radial slots in embedded portion. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering (The figure is shown below) P a g e | 39 Figure-Chapter-4 Figure 4. The formation and description of glass spacer is such as to leave ample space for ventilation. laminated short shells. Vibration of Rotor: The fully brazed rotor is dynamically balanced and subject to 120 % over speed test at the work balancing tunnel so as to ensure reliable operation.
A helical spring is mounted rapidly over each bush so that pressure is applied on the centerline of bush. and reduce time required to draught. which are connected to the winding. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 40 and bearing along the shaft. They are located at either side of Generator Shaft. The slip ring towards the exciter side is given positive polarity initially. 15. On one end and to the slip ring on the other end with insulated (terminal) studs passing „though‟ the radial holes in the rotor shaft. each carrying on brush in radial position are fixed to a silver plated copper studs mounted on the collecting arm concentric with each slip rings. A metal cap is riveted to the brass bead and is provided with a hole to maintain the position of the spring plug. Calibrated mica is first built up to required thickness on the shaft where slip rings are located. 13. The insulation resistance of the stator phase winging against earth and with reference to other phases under hot condition shall not be less than the value obtained automatically. Excitation current is supplied to the rotor winding.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. seals & necessary pipes are inclined from the frame. Rin U = = µ/(s/100+1000) m 52 rated winding Voltage under test. The brushes are provided with a double flexible copper or pigtails. 14. The terminal studs at both the ends of excitation leads are fitted gas cat seals to prevent leakage. Several brush holder. Slip Rings: The slip rings are made of forged steel. Bush Gear Assembly: Generator bushes are made from the various compositions of natural graphite and binding material. The circulation of shaft current is liable to damage. The collecting arm is made out of a copper strip. which is homogeneous in nature and practically impervious to moisture. Drying of Winding: Generator stator bars are insulated with mica insulation . They have helical grooves and skewed holes in the body for cooling purpose by air. The bearing surface is protected by insulation so placed that the bearings. Through the slip rings. The slip rings are insulated from the rotor shaft. . They have a low coefficient of friction and are self lubricating.
In hot condition must not fall below 0.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.602 1. of terminals Main diameter of slip rings Voltage regulation Reactance t.220 A 3000 r.4-Specifications Nos. 16.8 (lagging) 1000 + 5% rated 7.m 50 Hz double star 6 420 mm 39% Informative Hydrogen Cooler: Table-Chapter-4 Table 4.5 m 52. Slip ring & shaft/ earth (volts).34.10. 2.p.500 KVA 7. of elements Cooling medium Discharge losses Quantity of H2 Quantity of water Temp 6 Water.37. The insulation resistance of entire excitation system circuit. The insulation resistance in calculated as per the formula Rin Rin Rv U1 = = = = Rv (U1 +U2) / (U-1) Insulation resistance of exciter Internal resistance of voltmeter Voltage measured btw. H2 at 2 ATM 1500 KW 30 M3/ sec 34oC .g. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 41 Rin = insulation resistance under hot conditions Rated o/p of turbo generator.000 KW 0. Technical Data: Generator (110 MW): Table-Chapter-4 Table 4.3-Specifications Type Continuous apparent power Active power Power factor Rated voltage Current Critical speed Frequency Phase connection No.p.
0 atm of hydrogen heat carrying capacity is 1. It also has higher transfer co-efficient . Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 42 Cooling cold H2 Temp How resistance(H2 side) Inherent voltage regulation Short circuit ratio Type 400C 12 mm. Casing must be maintained as high as possible.8 Cooling System General: In KSTPS hydrogen cooling system is employed for generator cooling. The silica gel is reactivated . of peak 39% 0. Moisture in this gas is absorbed by silica gel in the dryer as the absorbed gas passes through it. Smooth operation of machine in view of vertical elimination of wind age noise & the use of heavy gas light enclosure and dirty probe casing. Relative cooling properties of air and hydrogen are given below :1) 2) 3) Elimination of fire risk because hydrogen will not support combustion. Density of hydrogen is approx. Its ability to transfer heat through forced convection is about 75% better than air. Since oxidation is not possible.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. of hydrogen heat carrying capacity is 1. Thermal conductivity of hydrogen 7. At pressure 0. Hydrogen Dryers: Two nos. But at 2. 7/14 of the air at a given temperature and pressure. In case of hydrogen purity drops below 98% an alarm is provided. of dryers are provided to absorb the hydrogen in the Generator. Hydrogen is used for cooling medium primarily because of its superior cooling properties & low density. Increasing the hydrogen pressure the machine improves its capacity to absorb & remote heat.95 to overcome the serious possibility of hydrogen explosion with in the machine and to ensure the safety of operation purity of hydrogen on the generator.035 atm. The natural of silica gel is indicated by change in its color from blue to pink. This reduces the wind age losses in high speed machine like turbo-generator.5% HC-WLL-BS/C46 4.3 times of air. Corona discharge is not harmful to insula. The purity of hydrogen should be 98% above but should not be less than 98%.
3-Hydrogen Cooled Alternator . 4.9 Hydrogen Cooled Alternator: (The figure is shown below.) Figure-Chapter-4 Figure 4. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 43 by heating.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. By suitable change over from drier to the other on uninterrupted drying is achieved.
accuracy etc.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The terminal voltage of the system machine is maintained at its value. it is chiefly dependent on exciter. of thyristor converters. Exciter supply is given from 5. either by normal controller automatic control so that for all operation & between no load and rated load.1 Function of excitation system: The main function of excitation system is to supply required excitation current at rated load condition of turbo Generator.4 times the rated filed voltage and nominal exciter response of minimum 0. The ultimate is to achieve stability. stable in operation and must response quickly to excitation current requirements. Brushes excitation system. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR). When excitation system response is controlled by fast acting regulators. There has been continuing reach among the design and the use alike from improving the excitation system performance. the modern excitation system adopted presently on BHEL makes turbo-generator I.5. Conventional DC excitation system. Nos. The excitation system must be reliable. It should be able to adjust the field current of the Generator.2 Type of Excitation System:There have been many developments in excitation system design. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 44 CHAPTER – 5 EXCITATION SYSTEM The electric power Generators requires direct current excited magnets for its field system. Static Excitation System: In KSTPS static excitation system is provided it mainly consists of the following: 1) 2) 3) 4) Rectifier transformer. 5. Field suppression equipment.Exciter of quick response & high voltage of not less than 1. The excitation system makes contribution improving power system stability steady state condition. transformer and then rectified. The excitation system that are commonly termed quick response system and have following principal feature :. .
the DC power is fed to the Generator field winding through a field breaker. 5.e. full wave. The field breakers have 4 main breaking contacts and two discharge contacts. The AVR is also having provision of stator and rotor currents limits and load angle limits for optimum utilization of lagging and leading reactive capacities of generator. 5. converter.4 Rectifier Transformer: This transformer steps down the bus voltage 11 KV to 640 V and has a rating of 1360 KVA. It is dry type. . 5. Each thyristor converter consists of 6 thyristor connected in 3-3 . 20 % reserve.3 General Arrangement: In the excitation system the power required for excitation of Generation are tapped from 11 KV bus ducts through a step down rectifier transformer. which close before main contact break. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 45 5) Field flashing equipment. After rectification in thermistor. (a) A very fast response. 6-pulse bridge from and they are cooled by fans provided with a fuse for protection against short circuit. 5. Thyristor converter are connected in parallel each rates for continuous current o/p of 20 % of the rated capacity i.6 Automatic Voltage Controls: The AVR is transistorized thyristor controlled equipment with very fast response.5 Thyristor Convertor: The thyristor panel and are intended for controlled rectification of AC Input power.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. The field flashing system facilitates initial built up of the Generator voltage from the static AC or DC supply. The AVR control the o/p from thyristor converter by adjusting the firing angle depending upon Generator voltages. 5.7 Field Suppression Equipment: The field equipment consists of a field breaker with discharge resistors. 6. it is however provided with current relays and two temperature sensors.
The impurities present in water are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Un-dissolved and suspended solid materials.m. This action is taken for synchronizing the Generator. b) Silica.p.8 Operation: After bringing the speed to operation speed say 3000 r. Wave form and phase sequence of the Generator are determined at the design of each connection SYNCHRONIZING of the generator. . c) Micro Biological. Low maintenance cost. d) Sodium & Potassium Salt. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 46 (b) (c) (d) (e) Extremely reliable in view of static components. 5. Fast field suppression through field and discharge resistance as well as through Thyristor Bridge. the voltage is slowly built up with the help of excitation system. Internal corrosion costs power station crores of rupees in repair without strict control impurities in steam also form deposit over turbine blades and nozzles. Dissolved gases Other minerals (oil. acid etc. feeding the Generator field. .Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.9 Water Treatment Plant: The principle problem in high pressure boiler is to control corrosion and steam quality. Dissolved slats and minerals. e) Dissolved Sales Minerals. 5. High efficiency.). a) Turbidity & Sediment. These are (I) Voltage (II) Frequency (III) Phase displacement (IV) Phase sequence (V) Wave form. Synchronizing: For synchronizing the Generator to the grid system 5 condition of equality have to be satisfied.
5. From main line water passes through filter bed to filter the water. Chlorified water is pumped to 42 m elevation by two pumps of capacity 270 M3/Inch at discharge pressure of 6. cation exchanger and mixed bed exchanger. PLANT: Circulating water pump house has pumps for condensing the steam for condenser. .M. Arrangement for dosing ammonia solution into de-mineralized water after mixed bed unit has been provided p+1 correction before water is taken in de-condensate transfer pump the DM water to unit condenser as make up.9 Kg.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. b) CO2 gas./Cm2.Three seal water pump are used for sealing circulating water pump shaft at pr. 5. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 47 6) a) O2 gas.10 D.94 Kg.5 kg.. 4. Five pumps are used for condensing Unit No. The filter water to DM plant through 250 dia. Two pumps for unit 1 & 2 with one stand by is used for supplying raw water to chlorified chemical dosing is tone between and chlorified water is taken through main line. Pune.1 & 2 and after condensing this water is discharged back into the river.11 C. and develop pressure about 1.W. Plant: In this plant process water is fed from all these dissolved salts. When water passed an activated carbon filter will remove residual chlorine from water. header from where a heater top off has been taken to softening plant. Wanson (India) Ld. weak acid. Two filtered water booster pumps are provided on filtered water line for meeting the pressure requirement in DM Plant./cm2. air flow through degasified lower and degassed water is pumped to strong base exchanger (anion exchanger). Provision is made for back washing the activated carbon filter. Each pump has capacity of 8275 M3/Hr. This plant consists of two streams each stream with activated carbon filter. The deception water the weak base anion exchanger unit water then enters de-gasified unit where free CO2 is scrubbed out of water by upward counter flow of low pr. Sodium Sulphate solution of required strength is dosed into different filtered water by mean of dosing pump to neutralize chlorine prior to activated carbon filter. Equipment for demineralization cum softening plant is supplied and erected by M/s. When pressure drop across filter exceeds a prescribed limit from the activated carbon filter the works acid cation unit.
C. 5.12 B. Oil coolers are situated on ground and there is number of tress for each unit. BCW here stand for water used for cooling oil used for cooling the bearing. From here the water is pumped to CW Pump by TWS (Traveling water screens) pumps are run by motors of 90 KW and has a capacity of 240 Cum/hr/pump at pressure of 5 kg/cm2.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. In CW pump house water is discharged from nozzle and impinged for traveling water screens for cleaning it.W. . The raw water used in ash handling plant and remaining quantity is stored in sumps of BCW Pump House. At 42 M elevation the water is stored in tank and used for cooling the oil coolers and returned back to river. Pump House: Filter water after demineralization is used for bearing cooling from BCW pump house after passing through strainer and heat exchanger it enters at 30-32oC and leave exchanger at 38oC. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 48 /Cm2.
In the plant transformer is one of the most important equipment. It is used to step down from 6.4333 KV. To step up the generated voltage.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. 6.1. there are about 83 transformer installed at various places to operate the auxiliaries. Main transformers.5 KV to 220 KV.2 GENERATOR TRANSFORMER (GT – B): It steps up the voltage from 16. The main transformers installed in the transformer yard are: 6. 6. It connects the plant with the 220 KV switchyard. 3. To start the plant by taking the supply from the grid.6 KV to 0. 6. It connects the plant with the 400 KV switchyard.1 Classification: 6. 6. It steps down the voltage from 16.1.1. Are installed in a transformer yard.5 KV to 400 KV.4 UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER (UAT):It is a step down transformer with 20 MVA capacities.1.9 KV. .1.5 STATION SERVICE TRANSFORMER (SST):It is a step down transformer with 2MVA capacity. To supply power to the auxiliaries from the generator.1 GENERATOR TRANSFORMER (GT – A): It steps up the voltage from 16.3 STATION TRANSFORMER (ST):It is a step down transformer with 50 MVA capacities.5 KV to 6. 2. In the whole plant.9 KV. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 49 CHAPTER-6 TRANSFORMER Transformer is a static device which is used to change the voltage level keeping the power and frequency same. It is used to step down 220 KV from the grid to 6. It is located in between the main plant and the switchyard. which are necessary: 1.
5 45 50 ONAF 240 240 329. which step up the voltage from 16. The output from the generator is fed to the generator transformer.5 KV Ynd11 65300 Liters There are 5 generator transformers in the plant.1. Neutral is solidly grounded.4333 KV.6 UNIT SERVICE TRANSFORMER (UST):It is a step down transformer with 2 MVA capacity.1-Specifications Type of cooling Rating HV (in MVA) Rating LV (in MVA) Line Current HV Line Current LV Temperature rise in oil (C) Temperature rise in wdg (C) ONAN 160 160 219.9 8397.V. It is used to step down from 6. Generator transformer winding connected in star\delta with a phase displacement of 30 degrees. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 50 6. In case neutral is solidly connected to the earth a very small current flowing through the neutral causes the tripling of the transformer.5 KV to 400 KV and supplies power to grid.2 Generator Transformer: Table-Chapter-6 Table 6.8 45 50 OFAF 315 315 433. . Neutral point on the H. Three – phase supply from the generator is connected to the low voltage side bushings and the output is taken from the opposite side. 6.6 kV to 0. one for each unit.9 5598. side is provided at the side of the tank.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. So in this case more care is to be taken.0 11022 45 50 No load voltage HV (KV) No Load voltage LV (KV) Connection symbol Oil - 420KV 16.
. UAT is connected between the generator and the GT. Auxiliaries of one unit take about 20MW of power. The rating of the station transformer is 50 MVA. UAT bus is connected to the station bus. which are not necessary to be energized in case of sudden tripping of generator. When the generator is synchronized and starts producing power. 220 Kv L. The rating of UAT is 20 MVA.3 Station Transformer: When the unit is to be started.V. which steps down the voltage from 16. Current (line) H. UAT bus supplies only those auxiliaries. The load that requires uninterrupted supply is left connected on the station transformer. 6. It takes power from the grid at 220 kV and steps it down to 6. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 51 6. It is a step down transformer. Before starting of the unit.6 kV. power supplied to the auxiliaries is taken from the station transformer. UAT relieves GT from extra load of about 20 MW which is to be supplied to the auxiliaries via GT and ST thus increasing the efficiency. There are 5 S.9kV. Type of cooling MVA rating H. about 80% of the load is shifted on to the unit auxiliary transformer. When the unit starts generating electricity these transformers are energized and then supplies power to the auxiliaries. one for each stage.T‟s in the plant. A tapping is taken from the power coming from the generator to the GT. ONAN ONAF 40 26 50 31.V.5 kV to 6.V.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.V. At the time of starting all the auxiliaries are supplied from the station transformer.9 Kv 6.05 105 3351 131 4189 Voltage (line):H. L.V.4 Unit Auxiliary Transformer: Each unit has two unit auxiliary transformers.V. L.
. 6. By closing bus coupler between 220 KV buses and putting line feeders whose breaker required maintenance of any one bus through by pass isolators and all other line feeders whose breaker is by passed is then transformed to bus coupler breaker.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Jaipur GSS. two to SKATPURA GSS and other to HEERAPURA .2 kva four feeder take off from 220 switch yard.6 KV system (Station Switchyard) viz. 270/7/7. It is rated for 245 KW. line feeder and bus coupler is provided with minimum oil circuit breaker of BHEL make.7 Switch Yard: 220 KV System: Two 220 KV bus bars have been provided in switch yard and are inter-connected through a bus coupler. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 52 6. It steps down the voltage from 6. BS-IS & SB-IB.5 Unit Station Transformer: It is a step down transformer. Each of four feeder are provided with bypass isolators which is connected across line breaker and breaker isolator. 6. Circuit Breakers: Each of generator transformer. which is connected to the station bus. A brief description of equipments of 220 KV system is as follows. Each of the two 110 MW generator is connected to this system through a step up of 125 MVA 240/ 11 KV yard generator transformer. There are two step down transformer each feeding 6.6 kV to 0. Each station transformer has two windings one secondary side and is rated for 50/25/25 mva. station transformer.6 Unit Service Transformer: It is also a 66-kV/ 415 V transformers which is used to supply the auxiliaries connected to the unit secondary switchgear bus.433 kV it is used to supply the low voltage auxiliaries. 2500 A and 13400 MVA circuit breaker is used to break the circuit either in load condition or in no load condition.
Circuit Transformer: All the 220 KV current transformers are provided for measuring and protection. oil filled nitrogen sealed outdoor type. generator transformer. 10/53 KV. (one for each phase). All the E.A.‟S are core for each phase of BHEL make. The L. If we have to do some work on line. has two secondary windings on secondary side and selected for 220/53 KV. single phase. Triple pole double breaker type and power switch yard L&T make these and are rates for 245 KV and 1250 A. Potential Transformer: Each of 220 KV buses is provided with three P.T. Distance protection core II 600-300/IA. All the L.A. insulator.T. station transformer has been provided with three L. For metering and measuring 600-300/ IA.A. of generator transformer and station transformer are located near them. . O/C and E/F protection core 600-300 /IA.S.S. are multicored with each core having specification upon duty it is to perform.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. first earth line through earthing isolator for discharging the line capacitance and then work. The four isolators are provided with earth switch. are 2 Ø outdoor type and are rated for 198 KV these are manufactured by W. There are single phase . They are BHEL make. elicitor magnetic type P.T. Feeder circuit have 5 cores. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 53 Isolator: All the isolators are provided in 220KV switchyard and are motor operated. oil filled outdoor. Lightening Arrestor: For protection against lightening each of line feeders. N2 sealed. It has larger value of capacitance and will change up to line voltage. 1) 2) 3) 4) Bus bar protection core I 1250/250/IA.
Trichy Outdoor.4-Specifications Manufacturer Type Rated Voltage Nominal Max BHEL.3-Specifications Manufacturer Number Type Rated Current No. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 54 220 KV MOCB: Table-Chapter-6 Table 6. Oil filled 220 KV 220 KV 245 KV . of Phase Rated Voltage A&S Power SWGR LTD 36 Double break operated 1250 Amp 3Ø 245 KV 220 KV Current Transformer: Table-Chapter-6 Table 6. Hyderabad 9 HLR 245/2503 B-I 50 Hz 2240 Amp Motor charging Spring Closed 220 KV ISOLATORS: Table-Chapter-6 Table 6.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.2-Specifications Manufacturer Total Nos Type Rated Frequency Nominal Current Type of operating mechanism BHEL.
ML2.5-Specifications Make Type Maximum Continuous Voltage No. Air Circuit Breaker 500 V for circuit breaker operation 3-Ø 415 V Power Capacitor: Table-Chapter-6 Table 6. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 55 Rated Frequency No. of Poles Rated Voltage for main Contacts L&T Limited ML1. of Phase Class of Insulation Rated Primary Voltage Secondary Voltage Wdg I Secondary Voltage Wdg.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.6-Specifications Make Type No. ML3. ML4.II 50 Hz 1-Ø A 2220/ 53 V 110/53 V 110/53 V Circuit Breaker: Table-Chapter-6 Table 6. ML12 3 500 V . ML8. of Phase Rated Voltage L&T Circuit Breaker Ltd.
7-Specifications Manufacturer Type No. of Phases Rated Voltage Nominal Discharge Current High Current Impulse Long Duration Rating W-S Isolators India Ltd.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Chennai Heavy Duty CPL II 3-Ø 198 KV 10 KA 100 KA 500 KA . Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 56 220 KV Lightening Arrestor: Table-Chapter-6 Table 6.
10. 7. Inter-turn Fault Negative Phase Sequence Protection. Rotor Earth Fault Protection. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 57 CHAPTER -7 PROTECTION 1. 7.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. 2. 5. Field Protection.1 General Protection: It is most important electrical equipment of many generating station. Forward Power Protection. Generator Voltage Protection. The basis function of protection applied to generator is to reduce voltage to minimum by rapid discrimination clearance of faults. Under Frequency & Over Frequency Protection. to isolate faulty generator is not sufficient to prevent future damage. 4. 9. Pole Slipping. Tripping of even a generating unit may cause overloading of associated machines and even to system unstability . . 6. Reverse Power Protection. Plane Overload Protection.B. 8. Unlike other apparatus the opening of C. 3.
S. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 58 7.T. ID fan 2 Unit (Each boiler) No. 2. water tube boiler. LOCATION CAPACITY Table-Chapter-7 Table 7. of oil burners 3 Units 68 8 1 Unit . of units Max.P.6 + 1) % 375 tonnes 1 Hr 139 Kg.1-Stages Sakatpura. balance draft.2-Specification Type Tangentially fired natural circulation. BOILER Chambal River Table-Chapter-7 Table 7. No. of coal mills in service. 1. direct fired radiant reheat. of Soot blower in service No.S. STAGE I STAGE II STAGE III STAGE IV STAGE V 2x110 MW 2X210 MW 1X210 MW 1X195 MW 1X195MW 3.2 Salient Features of K. fans 2 Unit (Each boiler) 2. No. Kota. SOURCE OF WATER 4. of Air fans in Service i)Primary 2 Unit ii) Seal Air fan 1 Unit iii) Scanner No.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering. Efficiency Capacity Steam Pressure Steam Temp No. /cm2 540oC 1. of draft fans in Service 6 BHEL (86.
Belt Conveyor . Used Ash contents Sulphur contents Type of Handling Stack Coal 4450 K. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 59 5.3-Specification Type Calorific Value Qty.Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.COAL: Table-Chapter-7 Table 7./Kg 3074 tonnes per day 40% 0.5%.Cal. FUEL .
It also provides an opportunities to lean low technology used at proper place and time can cave a lot of labor e. It has allowed an opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical fundamentals.110 MW & 210 MW turbines and generators. It is recommended that there should be some project specially meant for students where presence of authorities should be ensured. There should be strict monitoring of the performance of students and system of grading be improved on the basis of work done. but the greater part is of planning proper management. Jaipur Department of Mechanical Engineering P a g e | 60 CONCLUSION The first phase of practical training has proved to be quiet fruitful. . However training has proved to be quite fruitful. wagon Tripler (CHP).Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering.g. It provided an opportunity for encounter with such huge machines like wagon tippler .But there are few factors that require special mention. The architecture of the power plant the way various units are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled make the student realize that engineering is not just learning the structured description and working of various machines. Training is not carried out into its tree sprit.
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