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READING STRATEGIES

BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM


KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA

2016
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

READING STRATEGIES PAGE

1. KWLH 3

2. 5 W’s and an H 4

3. PARApicture 5

4. PARApoint 6

5. SQ3R 7

6. QAR 8

7. Reading Comprehension Strategies 9

8. QUACK 10

9. ACID marks 11

10. RAP 12

11. CHATT 13

12. THRILD 14

13. Reciprocal Reading 15

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KWLH
How:

Students begin by brainstorming everything they Know about a topic. This information is recorded in
the K column of a K-W-L chart. Students then generate a list of questions about what they Want to
Know about the topic. These questions are listed in the W column of the chart. During or after
reading, students answer the questions that are in the W column. This new information that they
have Learned is recorded in the L column of the K-W-L chart. H stands for how they can learn more
or answer questions not answered in their worksheet. These include other sources of information,
including: organizations, experts, tutors, websites, librarians, etc

K KNOW
What we know

W WILL or WANT
What we want to know

L LEARNED
What we learned

H HOW?
How you can learn more

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5 W’s and an H

This reading strategy is to answer the questions that form the basis of good journalism:

Who What When Where Why and How


Who are the main characters?
What does the author say happened?
Where did the action occur?
When did it happen or what is the span of time?
Why did this happen?
How did it happen?

What happened?

Where did it When did it


happen? happen?

Topic Map About

__________
How did it happen?
Who was involved in
this event?

Why did it happen?

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PARApicture
What is PARApicture?
A technique for actively reading a passage and retrieving significant information using highlighter
reading and pictures in the margin.

How:
Students initially Preview or read a passage to determine what information is important. Next they
Analyze the text to locate and highlight the information that is fundamental to the understanding of
the content. They then Review the highlighted text and finally, Accent the highlighted information by
drawing symbols and visual representations in the margin (or on a strip of paper) to record the
important content. These drawings will consequently act as reminders and cues for the content
contained in the piece of reading.

Hence the acronym PARA:

Preview: Initial reading to determine what content is important.


Analyze: Locate and highlight information fundamental to the understanding of the content.
Review: Re-read the analyzed, highlighted information.
Accent: Draw pictures in the margin that summarize the highlighted information.

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PARApoint

How:
Students initially Preview a passage to determine what type of information is being presented using
a quick “THRILD” (see THRILD under Active Reading Strategies on the Interactive Strategies
Instruction CD). They scan the Title, Headings, Read the first paragraph, examine Illustrations, and
read the Last paragraph (Discussion questions are not a concern for Parapoint). Once they have
determined the main intent of the passage, they develop focus questions to guide their reading –
questions to which they want answers. They then Analyze the selections, locating and highlighting
the information that is fundamental to the understanding of the content and provides answers to the
focus questions. Next they Review the highlighted text and finally, Accent the important information
with short, point form notes in the margin (or on a strip of paper). These notes will consequently act
as reminders and cues for the content contained in the piece of reading.

Hence the acronym PARA:

Preview: Determine the type and purpose of the text by using a brief preview strategy
(THRILD) and develop focus questions to direct one’s analysis while reading.

Analyze: Highlight/underline and circle key information which answers predetermined focus
questions.

Review: Reread highlighted words to determine what information you want to accent.

Accent: Accent pertinent information in the margin using brief note form.

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SQ3R
.

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Source: http://www.gridgit.com/post_sq3r-graphic-organizer_567106/

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QAR
Question Answer Relationship
How:

1. Explain to students that there are four types of questions they will encounter. Define each type
of question and give an example.

2. Read a short passage aloud to your students.

3. Have predetermined questions you will ask after you stop reading. When you have finished
reading, read the questions aloud to students and model how you decide which type of question
you have been asked to answer.

In the text

Right there Think and search

The answer can be found right there in the text The answer is in the text, but you have to ‘think
and search’ to find the answer, sometimes within
Strategies: a paragraph, across paragraph, chapters or even
• Scan the text. books.
• Look for keywords.
Strategies:
• Skim the text.
• Search for important information in different
places in the text.

In your mind

Author and me
On my own
The answer is not in the text. You need to use
your own background knowledge and what the The answer is not in the text. You need to use your
author has told you to come out with the answer own background knowledge. You could even
answer the question without reading the text.
Strategies:
• Make inferences from clues found in the text. Strategies:
• Make predictions before, while, and after • Think about what you already know, your prior
reading the text. knowledge.
• Think about what you have heard or read before.

4. Show students how to find information to answer the question (i.e., in the text, from your own
experiences, etc.).

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Reading Comprehension Strategies

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QUACK
What are QUACK marks?
A strategy for actively reading a factual passage of text, making judgments on the types of
information included, and marking specific kinds of information with the following:

How:
While reading the text, students employ the following marks to highlight specific information. If you
do not want marks in the text, use an acetate over the page, place marks on the acetate and then
transfer Keywords and definitions to your notes.

Q ? (question mark) – beside words, phrases and ideas that you do not understand.
U underline – underline entire definitions.
A * (asterisk) – beside important or interesting ideas and information.
C circle – examples of important information or definitions.
K Keywords – place a capital K beside keywords (usually in bold or italics). Rewrite
the keywords and their definitions in the margin.

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ACID MARKS

What are ACID marks?


A strategy for actively reading a passage to increase comprehension and encourage students to
interact with reading materials. It involves making judgments on the
types of information being read and marking specific passages with the following:

How:
A.C.I.D. Marks has two parts:

1) A.C.I.D. and
2) Three separate “Marks”

As you read, ask yourself whether you:


A Agree with the statement
C are Confused by the statement
I find the point Interesting
D Disagree with the point

Place an A, C, I or D in the margin by the appropriate point.


Next comes the Marks. Re-read the article and insert the following marks:

Circle key terms


Asterisks important points (*)
Bracket or Underline supporting details. ( _________ )

It can be interesting to have students use this strategy and, while reading from a different
perspective, Agree or Disagree! For example, how would your responses differ if you read
the article imagining yourself to be from a different culture or ethnicity?

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RAP
Read•Ask questions•Paraphrase

How:

1. Label the paragraph


2. Read the paragraph
3. Ask yourself: Who or what is this paragraph about?
4. Put the main ideas into your own words.

Paragraph Ask yourself Who/What is the Put the main ideas into your own words: What does
Number paragraph about? it tell me about? It tells me…

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C.H.A.T.T.

How:
Students read the text and apply the C.H.A.T.T. marks to select important vocabulary, highlight main
ideas and identify details. Next, students transfer the key terms, written definitions (with an image)
and record the main points with supporting details to a separate “C.H.A.T.T. Sheet”. Finally, the
teacher provides a summary statement which the students record on their C.H.A.T.T. Sheet.

C Circle – key words.


H Highlight or Underline – main ideas.
A * (asterisk) – beside supporting details.
T Transfer – information to a C.H.A.T.T. Sheet.
T Teacher – provides a summary statement which students record on
their C.H.A.T.T.
Sheet.

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T.H.R.I.L.D

How:
As students scan the chapter, they perform six
steps. To begin with, they write down the chapter title and all the sub-headings. They read the
opening paragraph (or introduction) and write a brief summary of this information. Students write a
key word or phrase about the main idea of each illustration. After this, students write a brief summary
of the last paragraph or summary of the chapter. Finally, students scan the Discussion Questions
and select three that they
would like to know more
about.

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Reciprocal Reading

How:
First the teacher reads a section of the text aloud and models the following steps:

Summarize
Clarify
Question
Predict*
Respond*
*optional - depending on material

The teacher generates a short summary of what they just read, soliciting input from the class. Next
the instructor constructs a “main idea” question (one that could be used in a test setting). Once again,
input can be received from the listeners. In the clarify step, the teacher ensures that everyone
understands the vocabulary, terms, figurative language and generally comprehends the passage.
After this, the teacher makes a prediction, with listener input, about what may happen next. Finally,
at the end of a significant portion of text, students generate a written response about the passage
(i.e. “What would you do in the protagonist’s situation?”). Both the predict and respond steps are
optional, depending on the type of material being used (appropriate for fiction and poetry, but not a
science text).

This entire process is then repeated, with a student taking the role of the teacher, reading the
passage out loud and guiding the class through the steps. Eventually, students work in pairs or small
groups, each individual taking turns being the “teacher” (or reciprocating).

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Initially, it is important for the teacher to demarcate the size of the reading portions for each student
to read before changing roles (paragraph, 1⁄2 page, whole page). This will depend on student reading

abilities and the logical breaks in the material.

http://www.slideshare.net/ncmsa/reciprocal-teaching-bookmarks

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