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Transporation I – Guidelines

Urban road network

Grid iron pattern- rectangular, hexagonal. Such patterns are easy to lay and develop, even spread of traffic,
imposition of one way street.

Radial pattern- star and block, star and circular, star and grid. These patterns are mark of recent development.
Ring road (orbital motorway, beltway (United States), circumferential highway, or loop highway is a road that
encircles a town or city. For a town of 50 to 100 thousand population a single ring road is required and for a
city of 2.5 million double ring roads may be sufficient.

Linear pattern- old towns and unplanned cities

Classification of roads [NRS]- classification based on traffic flow and services

Requirement of highway alignment- short, easy, safe, economical

Factors governing alignment

Factors governing alignment

• Obligatory points

– The location should avoid obstructions such as places of cemeteries, archeological, historical
monument, public facilities like schools and hospitals, utility services.

– Geometric design features

– Facilitate easy grade and curvature

– Enable ruling gradient in most sections

– Void sudden changes in sight distance, especially near crossings

– Avoid sharp horizontal curves

– Avoid road intersections near bend or at the top or bottom of a hill

• Precautions at river and railway crossings

– Bridges should be preferably be located at right angles to the river flow, not located on a
horizontal curve

– Crossing railway lines should avoid intersections at gradient, frequent crossing and recrossing

• Topographical control points

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Transporation I – Guidelines

– The alignment, where possible should avoid passing through

• Marshy and low lying land with poor drainage

• Flood prone areas

• Unstable hilly features

• Avalanche prone areas

– A location on high ground should be preferred rather than valley to avoid cross drainage works

• Materials and constructional features

– Deep cutting should be avoided

– Earth work is to be balanced; quantities for filling and excavation

– Alignment should preferably be through better soil area to minimize pavement thickness

– Location may be near sources of embankment and pavement materials

Structure of the route location process is a continuously searching and selecting technique. It is a hierarchically
structured process in which bands of 8 to 16km, corridors of 3 to 10 km, strips of 1 to 1.5 km and alignment of 30 to
50 m are selected.

Geometric elements of road

Camber- provided for quick drain off the rain water.

Profile- generally parabolic

Width of carriageway- see NRS as per classification

Kerbs- indicate the boundary between the carriage way and the shoulder or islands or footpaths.

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Transporation I – Guidelines

An unevenness index value less than 1500 mm/km is considered as good, a value less than 2500 mm/km is
satisfactory up to speed of 100 kmph and values greater than 3200 mm/km is considered as uncomfortable
even for 55 kmph.

White roads have good visibility at night, but caused glare during day time. Black roads has no glare during
day, but has poor visibility at night Concrete roads has better visibility and less glare.

The maximum permissible width of a vehicle is 2.44 and the desirable side clearance for single lane traffic is

. It is desirable to have a width of 4.6 m for the shoulders. A minimum width of 2.5 m is recommended for 2-
lane rural highways.

Footpath-Minimum width is 1.5 meter and may be increased based on the traffic.

Sight distance

Stopping sight distance (SSD) or the absolute minimum sight distance

Intermediate sight distance (ISD) is the defined as twice SSD

Overtaking sight distance (OSD) for safe overtaking operation

Head light sight distance is the distance visible to a driver during night driving under the illumination of head

Safe sight distance to enter into an intersection

Reaction time taken as 2.5 sec. and efficiency of brakes as 50% only for safety

IRC suggests the coefficient of longitudinal friction as 0.35-0.4 depending on the speed and coefficient of
later friction as 0.15.

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In case of OSD

If vb not given Vb=Va-16 kmph

On divided highways, d3 need not be considered

On divided highways with four or more lanes, IRC suggests that it is not necessary to provide the OSD, but
only SSD is sufficient.

Overtaking zones

Overtaking zones are provided when OSD cannot be provided throughout the length of the highway. These
are zones dedicated for overtaking operation, marked with wide roads. The desirable length of overtaking
zones is 5 time OSD and the minimum is three times OSD

Horizontal alignment

Condition for overturn and condition for skid at the horizontal curve

Superelevation design

Attainment of superelvatoin

1. Elimination of the crown of the cambered section by:

(a) rotating the outer edge about the crown :.

(b) shifting the position of the crown:

2. Rotation of the pavement cross section to attain full super elevation by: (a) rotation about the center line :
(b) rotation about the inner edge:

IRC species a maximum super-elevation of 7 percent for plain and rolling terrain, while that of hilly terrain is
10 percent and urban road is 4 percent. The minimum super elevation is 2-4 percent for drainage purpose,
especially for large radius of horizontal curve.

IRC recommends spiral as the transition curve as it fulfills the requirement of an ideal transition curve

(a) rate of change or centrifugal acceleration is consistent (smooth) and

(b) radius of the transition curve is 1 at the straight edge and changes to R at the curve point (Ls α 1/R)and
calculation and field implementation is very easy.

Extra widening- mechanical and psychological

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Transporation I – Guidelines

Setback distance- distance required from the centerline of a horizontal curve to an obstruction on the inner
side of the curve to provide adequate sight distance.

Vertical alignment- condition for formation of summit and valley curve.

Types of gradient-

The ruling gradient or the design gradient is the maximum gradient with which the designer attempts to
design the vertical profile

Limiting gradient-This gradient is adopted when the ruling gradient results in enormous increase in cost of

Exceptional gradient are very steeper gradients given at unavoidable situations. They should be limited for
short stretches not exceeding about 100 metres at a stretch

Critical length-The maximum length of the ascending gradient which a loaded truck can operate without
undue reduction in. A speed of 25 kmph is a reasonable value.

When the uphill climb is extremely long, it may be desirable to introduce an additional lane so as to allow
slow ascending vehicles to be removed from the main stream so that the fast moving vehicles are not affected.
Such a newly introduced lane is called creeper lane.

The deviation angle provided on summit curves for highways are very large, and so a simple parabola is
almost congruent to a circular arc, between the same tangent points. Parabolic curves is easy for computation
and also it had been found out that it provides good riding comfort to the drivers. It is also easy for field
implementation. Due to all these reasons, a simple parabolic curve is preferred as summit curve.

Gradient for different roads

For gradually introducing and increasing the centrifugal force acting downwards, the best shape that could be
given for a valley curve is a transition curve. Cubic parabola is generally preferred in vertical valley curves.

Highway drainage system

Highway drainage system is the process of removing and controlling excess surface and subsurface water within right of
way [RoW]

Components of drainage- surface and sub-surface systems

Rational formula is used for computing run-off, intensity of rainfall is found from intensity duration curve,
frequency of storm is taken as 10,20 etc.

Inlet time – time for storm to flow from the farthest point to the inlet of drainage

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Time of flow- time taken by water to flow in the drainage to the nearest cross drainage structures

Total time/ time of concentration equals the sum of two times.

Side drain min depth =30cm

The mitre drains (or off-shoot drains) lead water away from the side ditches to lower areas

Catch water drains provided nearly parallel to the road

Design criteria for filter materials-

clogging criteria

permeability criteria

US army additional criteria

Road aggregates and bitumen binder

By volume, aggregate generally accounts for 92to 96 percent of Bituminous concrete and about 70 to 80
percent of Portland cement concrete. Road aggregates should be strong, hard, tough, durable, proper shape,
and possess adhesion with bitumen.

Various tests on road aggregate and their specification

Descriptive test- particle shape, surface texture

Non destructive quality test- gradation, water absorption, FI and EI index

Durability test- abrasion, strength and toughness- ACV, AIV, CBR, soundness

Specific gravity test

Aggregate crushing value- 40 tons load applied at the rate of 4 ton per minute. A value less than 10 signifies
an exceptionally strong aggregate while above 35 would normally be regarded as weak aggregates.

Abrasion test- 30-33 rpm A maximum value of 40 percent is allowed for WBM base course in Indian
conditions. For bituminous concrete, a maximum value of 35 is specified.

Impact test- Metal hammer of weight 13.5 to 14 Kg is arranged to drop with a free fall of 38.0 cm by vertical
guides and the test specimen is subjected to 15 number of blows. Aggregates to be used for wearing course,
the impact value shouldn't exceed 30 percent. For bituminous macadam the maximum permissible value is 35
percent. For Water bound macadam base courses the maximum permissible value defined by IRC is 40

Water absorption <2%

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Bitumen adhesion- Immerse aggregate coated with the binder in water bath at 40 degree for 24 hours

Value is reported as % of stone surface that is stripped off Max 5% for bituminous roads

Bitumen- soluble in carbon disulphide. Bitumen consists85 parts of carbon12 parts of hydrogen3 parts of

Consistency test- penetration, ductility, viscosity, softening test

Composition test- distillation, water content, loss on heating, ash content, solubility

Specific gravity

Safety test- flash and fire test

Various tests and standard specification

— Penetration test- grade of bitumen, load applied for 5 sec

— Ductility test- 27 degree temp. 5 to 100cm. IRC 75 cm for field.

— Softening point test- ring and ball apparatus, heating rate 5.05degree/min

— Viscosity test- tar viscometer, time required for 50ml bitumen to drop

— Flash and Fire point test- Pensky-Martens apparatus, safety test, temp at which bitumen catches fire,
burns for few sec. dia of test flame = 4mm

— Water content test<0.2%

— 99.5% soluble in carbon disulphide

— Loss on heating test-1% of weight. Penetration values 150-200 up to 2% loss in weight is allowed.

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