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,e;j mj;jpahaj;ijf; fw;gjd; %yk;

Ø G+ypad; ml;rufzpjk;
Ø G+ypad; ml;rufzpj mbg;gilj; Njw;wq;fs;
Ø ju;f;fg; gliyfs;
Ø $l;Lj; ju;f;fg; gliyfspd; %yk; Rw;Wf;fis mikj;jy;
Mfpad gw;wpa tpsf;fj;ijg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;syhk;.

mwpKfk;

ml;ru fzpjj;jpy; ml;rufzpjf; Nfhitfs; ml;rufzpjr; rkd;ghLfs; kw;Wk;


fzpjr; nra;iffs; Mfpad gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,q;F gj;i ; j mbahff; nfhz;l
vz; Kiwik gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. G+ypad; ml;rufzpjk; gw;wpf; fw;f Kd;djhf
nghJthd ml;ru fzpjj;jpy; ehk; mwpej
; ml;rufzpjf; Nfhitfs; ml;ru fzpjr;
rkd;ghLfs; Mfpad gw;wp mwpeJ
; nfhs;Nthk;.
ml;rufzpjf; Nfhitfs; ^# !)   ! &&

vz;fs;> vOj;Jf;fs;> ,yf;fq;fs;> FwpaPLfs;> (fzpjr; nra;iffs;)


khwpfs; kw;Wk; Neu; my;yJ kiw milahsq;fs; Mfpatw;iw fzpj uPjpahd
my;yJ ju;f;f uPjpahd fUj;Jf;fs; ntspg;gLkhW epiug;gLj;JNthkhapd;
mjid ml;rufzpjf; Nfhit vd;Nghk;.

cjhuzk; 4.1 :

.444-4%4
.444(04%4,,

87
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
4-1 vd;gJ xU ml;rufzpjf; Nfhitah?
,f;Nfhitapy; rkd; milahsk; ,lg;gl;bUg;gjdhy; ,J ml;rufzpjf;
Nfhit md;W.

ml;rufzpj rkd;ghLfs; +# !)


! ,
rkd; vDk; milahsj;jhy; ,izf;fg;gl;l ,uz;L ml;rufzpjf;
Nfhitfs; ml;rufzpj rkd;ghL vdg;gLk;.
cjhuzk; :
4:4%
44444444:4$
,yhgk;4: tUkhdk; - nryT

fzpjr; nra;iffs; +%!#)  ,


nghJthd ml;rufzpjj;jpy; $l;ly;^%&> fopj;jy; ^&> ngUf;fy; ^Í&>
tFj;jy; ^$& vDk; fzpjr; nra;iffs; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

ngWkhdq;fs; +$# ,

nghJthd ml;ru fzpjj;jpy; 4:4-%,4 vDk; rkd;ghl;ilf; fUj;jpw;


nfhs;Nthk; (ml;ltiz 4.1).

 
,+++, -+++,
44,++ 44,77
4444,+ 4444-,
44,+++ 44-++,
4,++++ 4-+++,
4.1
ml;ltiz 4.1
 MdJ kiw Kbtpyp njhlf;fk; Neu; Kbtpyp tiu ngWkhdq;fis
vLf;ff; $baJ. mt;thNw  ,w;Fk; kiw Kbtpyp njhlf;fk; Neu; Kbtpyp
tiuahd ngWkhdq;fs; fpilf;Fk;.

,jw;fika nghJthd ml;ru fzpjj;jpy; ngWkhdq;fSf;F ^#" & jrk


vz; Kiwikapy; kiw Kbtpyp njhlf;fk; Neu; Kbtpyp tiuahd vz;fs;
gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

88
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
4.1 G+ypad; ml;ru fzpjk; ^^#)# &&

G+ypad; ml;rufzpjk; njhlu;ghd G+ypad; Nfhitfs;


^"4   & vd;why; vd;d? G+ypad; ngWkhdq;fs; ahit? G+ypad;
fzpjr; nra;iffs; vd;why; vd;d? vd;gd gw;wpa tpsf;fk; vkf;F mtrpakhFk;.

G+ypad; ngWkhdq;fs; ^ #)$# &&

cz;ik ^! =& ngha; ^ " & Mfpa ju;f;fg; ngWkhdq;fs; G+ypad;


ngWkhdq;fs; vdg;gLk;.,q;F G+ypad; ngWkhdq;fis fhl;Ltjw;fhf ! 
my;yJ " 4vDk; nrhw;fs; my;yJ 1 my;yJ 0 vDk; FwpaL
P fs; ngUk;ghYk;
gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

G+ypad; Nfhitfs; ^#)   ! &&


VnjDnkhU $w;Wf;F cz;ik> ngha; vDk; ju;ff ; ngWkjpfis kl;LNk
Nru;ff
; KbAkhapd; mf;$w;W G+ypad; $w;W vdg;gLk;.

cjhuzk; 5.3 < = fpsp xU CDz;zp tpyq;fhFk;.


< =4#upad; Fspuhd nghUnshd;whFk;.

G+ypad; khwpfs; ^#)$ !#&&

VNjDnkhU khwp ,uz;L ngWkhdq;fis kl;Lk; vLf;Fkhapd; mk;khwp


G+ypad; khwp vdg;gLk;. ,g; ngWkhdq;fis !  my;yJ " 4 vdNth 0> 1
vdNth fhl;l KbAk;.
G+ypad; nra;iffs; ^^#)  &&

G+ypad; nra;iffs; gpdt


; UkhW mikAk;

 - G+ypad; $l;ly; ^"4  &



- G+ypad; ngUf;fy;; ^"4" "  &
! - G+ypad; ,l;L epug;gy; ^"4$"$ &

89
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
444444 - G+ypad; $l;ly;
G+ypad; $l;ly; vDk; nra;iff;nfd ~~%||gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,jid 
vdTk; miog;gu;. ,t; milahsk; rhjhuz ml;ru fzpjj;jpy; $l;ly; vDk;
nra;iff;F gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy;> G+ypad; ml;ru fzpjj;jpy; ,jw;F
gpwpnjhU tpsf;fk; toq;fg;gLk;.
 >  Mfpad ,uz;L G+ypad; khwpfs; Mapd; 4%  my;yJ 444 
vDk; $w;iw fUj;jpw; nfhs;Nthk;. ,q;F ehd;F re;ju;g;gq;fs; njhlu;ghf
fUj;jpw; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,J cz;ik ml;ltiz my;yJ nka;epiy
ml;ltiz ^! 4!"& vdg;gLk;
 4444 4444444444%4<44=
+ 4444+ +
+ 4444, ,
, 4444+ ,
, 4444, ,
ml;ltiz 4.2
Fwpg; G
4> 4 Mfpad G+ypad; khwpfshf mikAnkdpd; 4%44vd;gij 4rf 
vd;wy;yhJ 44 vdNt thrpjj ; y; Ntz;Lk;.
> 4 Mfpa G+ypad; khwpypfs; ,uz;bdJk; ngWkhdq;fs; 0 Mapd; kl;LNk
4%  vd;gJ 0 MFk;. Vida vy;yh re;ju;gg; q;fspd; NghJk; 44%  apd; ngWkhdk;
1 Mf mikAk;.
" >  Mfpad %d;W G+ypad; khwpfnsdpd; 4% %44 my;yJ 44
4444 vDk; Nfhitfis fUJNthk;. ,q;F " " 4Mfpa khwpfs; %d;Wk;
vLf;f $ba gy;NtW ngWkhdq;fis $l;Ltjw;F vl;L tupirfs; nfhz;l
cz;ik ml;ltiz tiuag;gl Ntz;Lk; (ml;ltiz 4.3).
   44444%%4<4444=
+ + + +
+ + , ,
+ , + ,
+ , , ,
, + + ,
, + , ,
, , + ,
, , , ,
ml;ltiz 4.3
90
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
4) ) - G+ypad; ngUf;fy;
G+ypad; ngUf;fYf;F ~~ . "" vDk; FwpaL
P gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,jid 

nra;if vdTk; miog;gu;.


 >  Mfpad G+ypad; khwpfs; ,uz;L vdpd;  ' 4<44
=4 vDk;
Nfhit vLf;ff;$ba gy;NtW ngWkhdq;fs; cz;ik ml;ltiz 4.4
tpsf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
  4444444)4<4
4=
+ + +
+ , +
, + +
, , ,
ml;ltiz 4.4

Fwpg;G

4. MdJ 44


44 vd miof;fg;gLk;.

> 4 Mfpa G+ypad; khwpfs; ,uz;bdJk; ngWkhdk; 1 vdpd; kl;LNk )


MdJ 1 MFk;. Vida vy;yhr; re;ju;gg; q;fspYk; )4 MdJ 0 MFk;.

 " >  Mfpad %d;W G+ypad; khwpfnsdpd; )) <44


44
44=
vDk; $w;Wfisf; fUJNthk;. ,q;F vl;L re;ju;gq;fs; gw;wpf; fUj;jpw;
nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

   ))
+ + + +
+ + , +
+ , + +
+ , , +
, + + +
, + , +
, , + +
, , , ,
ml;ltiz 4.5
"44> Mfpa khwpfs; %d;wpdJk; ngWkhdq;fs; 1 vdpd; kl;Lk; ))
MdJ 1 MFk;. Vida vy;yhr; re;ju;gg
; q;f
; spYk; ))4G+rr
; pakhFk;.

91
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
44") - G+ypa ,l;L epug;Gif ^ !#)%#%&&
' ))
!4vDk; nra;iff;nfd ** **my;yJ)** **)vDk; FwpaL
P gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

4 G+ypad; khwp vdpd; !4444 vDk; $w;iwf; fUJNthk;. ,q;F ,uz;L


re;ju;gg
; q;fs; gw;wp ftdj;jpw; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

 444!44<=
+ 444444444,
, 444444444+
ml;ltiz 4.6
 ,d; ngWkhdk; 1 MFk;NghJ !44 apd; ngWkhdk; 0 MtJld; 
apd; ngWkhdk; 0 MFk;NghJ !444 apd; ngWkhdk; 1 MFk;.
!4 nra;iff;nfd xU khwp kl;LNk gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

G+ypad; Nfhitfisr; RUf;Fjy;


G+ypad; Nfhitfisr; RUf;Fjy; gw;wp fw;f Kd;du; rhjhuz ml;rufzpj
Nfhitfisr; RUf;Fjy; gw;wpg; ghu;gN ; ghk;.
4:4-%34Ï144*404Ï4-2vDk; Nfhitiar; RUf;FNthk;. ,f;Nfhitia
vtu; RUf;fpdhYk; xNu tpilNa fpilf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jidr; RUf;Fk;NghJ
Kjypy; nra;ag;gl Ntz;ba fzpjr;nra;if vJntd ehk; mwpej ; pUf;fNtz;Lk;.
,lkpUe;J tykhff; Nfhitapd; topNa nry;Yk;NghJ 9%94&49Ï9&4z$Z fzpjr;
nra;iffis KiwNa mtjhdpf;fyhk; . ,tw;Ws; 9Ï94&4z$Z Mfpa fzpjr;
nra;iffs; % >  Mfpa fzpjr; nra;iffis tpl mjpf Kd;dpfo;T < '
= nfhz;ldthFk;. MfNt> ,q;F ngUf;fiy my;yJ tFj;jiy Kjypy;
Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,it ,uz;bDs;Sk; ngUf;fNy Kjypy; ,Ug;gjdhy;
mjidNa Kjypy; nra;aNtz;Lk;.
4:4-%34Ï44144*404Ï4-2
4:4-%-144*404Ï44-2
,uz;lhtjhf tFj;jiy Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
4:4-%64Ï4-2
mLj;J ngUf;fiy Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
4:4-%,342,Wjpapy; $l;liy my;yJ fopjj
; iy
Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
4:4,0
92
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
G+ypad; Nfhitfis my;yJ rkd;ghLfisj; jPu;f;Fk;NghJ gpd;tUk;
epge;jidfs; gpdg
; w;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
. ,lkpUe;J Muk;gpjJ; tyk; Nehf;fpr; nry;y Ntz;Lk;.milg;Gf; FwpfF
; s;
cs;s fzpjr; nra;iffs; Kjypy; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.gpdd
; u; vy;yh !
^& 4nra;iffisAk; ,lkpUe;J tykhfnra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.gpdd
; u; vy;yh

^)&4nra;iffisAk; ,lkpUe;J tykhfnra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
4. <w;wpy;  ^%& nra;ifia ,lkpUe;J tykhf nra;agl Ntz;Lk;.

cjhuzk; :
%)4vDk; G+ypad; Nfhitia RUf;Fk;NghJ ,lkpUe;J tykhf nry;Yk;NghJ
& 
Mfpa ,uz;L nra;iffSk; cs;sd. ,tw;Ws; 
nra;ifNa Kjypy;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ ) ia Kjypy; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. mLj;J
4nra;if Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.,jw;fhd cz;ik ml;ltiziaj;
jahupgN
; ghk;.    ) %)
+ + + + +
+ + , + +
+ , + + +
+ , , , ,
, + + + ,
, + , + ,
, , + + ,
, , , , ,
ml;ltiz 4.7
nraw;ghL
4.1
gpd;tUk; Nfhitfspd; ngWkhdq;fisf; fhz;f.
,) ,),%,)+ -) ,),%,)+
0) ,),),%+),%, 1) +%,%,),),
2) ,),%,)+ 3) ,),4)+4%,),),%+),%,
5) ,)+),4%<,),),%,),=), 6)444444<,4%4,%4,=)4<,%4,)4+=
7) ,4),4),4%<,),),%,),=), ,+)4444<,4%4,%4,=)<,%4,)4+=

4>  Mfpad G+ypad; khwpfnsdpd; gpd;tUk; G+ypad; NfhitfSf;fhd


cz;ik ml;ltiziaj; jahupf;Ff.
,) )% -) )%)4

93
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
4.2 G+ypadpd; ml;ru fzpj mbg;gilj; Njw;wq;fs;

444444&4&4 4Mfpa khwpfisf; fUJNthk;.

<=) 4:4+ Mf miktJ 84;,4 vdpd; my;yJ vdpd; kl;LNk


<=) 4:4, Mf miktJ 484;+4 vdpd; my;yJ vdpd; kl;LNk

<=) 4%4+4:4 4<=) 4)+4:4+ <= 4%4,4:, 4<


= 44)4,4:4

guptu;j;jid tpjp ))+%%!),


4444guptu;

44<=) 4%44:44%4 <=4) )44:4)4

,izT tpjp
44)),izT )+ !!),

<=) 4%4<4%4 =4:4<4%4=4%4 <=) )<) =4:4<)=)

guk;gy; tpjp )+ !  !!),


444)guk;

<=)444)<4%4 =4:4<)=4%4<) = <=) 4%4<) =4:4<4%4=4)4<4%4 =

mNjtY tpjp )+%)#,


)))mNjtY

<=) 444%44:4 <=)44444)44:4

,e;jj; Njw;wq;fis cz;ik <! 4!"= ml;ltiz %yk; epWTNthk;.

Njw;wk; 1
mNjtY tpjp +%),

<=44%44:4 4<=4)4:4
44 444444% 444 4 )
+ + + + 444+ 444444+
, , , , 444, 444444,
ml;ltiz 4.8 ml;ltiz 4.9

94
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
Njw;wk; 2

<=444%4,4:4, 444444<=44)+4:4+
444 4,44444444%, 4444444444+ )+
444+ , , 44+ + 444444+
444, , , 44, + 444444+
ml;ltiz 4.10 ml;ltiz 4.11

B Nkhfd;]; tpjp + ) * )" %,

<=<4%4=4:44. <=4<4.4=44:44%

444444444444444444%4444% 444444444444)
+ 4+ 4+ 444, 44, 4, 4,
+ , 4, 444+ 44, 4+ 4+
, + 4, 444+ 44+ 4, 4+
, , 4, 444+ 44+ 4+ 4+

ml;ltiz 4.12

nraw;ghL
4.2
44&4&4 4 Mfpad G+ypad; khwpfnsdpd; gpdt
; Uk; G+ypad; Nfhitisr;
RUf;Ff.
) )4<4%4= ) 44%4 4%4
) )<%= 444444444#)44444)) 4%4)
#) )4) 4%)) %)%,444444444#)44444<4%=)<%=

4.3 ju;f;fg; gliyfs


gliyfs; ^!) &&

,q;F mbg;gilg; gliyfs; %d;W gw;wp Muha;Nthk;.


. 
gliy
.
.
.
 gliy
!4 gliy

4 gliy
%d;W mbg;gilg;
gliyfs;
,jdhy;
/
.
.
4 gliy
4gliy
cUthf;fg;gLfpd;w
Vida gliyfs; /
95
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
444)) )) gliy

gliy %ykhf G+ypad; 
nra;if ngsjpf tbtpy;
vLj;Jiuf;fg;gLk;. ,jid gpdt
; Uk; cUtpdhy; fhl;lyhk;.

cU 4.1

,Jgw;wp tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s cU 4.2 ,y; jug;gl;l kpdR ; w;iwf; fUJNthk;.


>  Mfpa Mspfs; ,uz;Lk; njhlu; epiyapy; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,r; Rw;wpy;
>  Mfpa Mspfs; ,uz;Lk; %ba epiyapy; ^& kl;LNk ,r; Rw;wpD}lhf
kpdN
; dhl;lk; ghAk;. mt;thW ,y;yhj vr;re;ju;gj;jpYk; Rw;wpD}lhf kpdN ; dhl;lk;
ghahJ. ,q;F > 4Mfpa Mspfspy; ,uz;L ngWkhdq;fNs vLf;fg;gLk;.
<4my;yJ  =4MfNt> &4 Mfpad ,uz;ilAk; G+ypad; khwpfshff;
fUjyhk;.

cU 4.2

,J njhlu;ghd cz;ik ml;ltiz tUkhW

  )4<44
4=
+ + +
+ , +
, + +
, , ,
ml;ltiz 4.13
NkYs;s Rw;W (cU 4.1) ,uz;L gag;GfSf;fhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. %d;W
gag;GfSf;fhd Rw;W cU 4.3 ,y; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.

96
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
cU 4.3

444444 ))&))gliy
4 gliy %yk; ju;f;f tifaPl;Lr; nra;if ngsjpf Kiwapy;
vLj;Jiuf;fg;gLk;. mjidg; gpdt
; Uk; cUtpd; %yk; tpsf;f KbAk;.

cU 4.4
>  Mfpa Mspfs; ,uz;Lk; rkhe;jukhf ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;s NkNyAs;s
Rw;wpy; >  Mfpa Mspfs; ,uz;Lk; jpwe;j epiyapy; <=4 cs;sNghJ kl;LNk
,t; kpd;Rw;wpD}lhf kpd;Ndhl;lk; ghahJ. Vida vy;yh re;ju;g;gq;fspYk;
kpd;Ndhl;lk; ghAk;.

nraw;ghL
4.3

Nkw;$wg;gl;l Rw;wpwf
; hd cz;ik ml;ltiziaj; jahupAq;fs;.

444444") - gliy

!4gliy %yk; ju;ff ; r; nra;if ngsjpf uPjpahf vLj;Jiuf;fg;gLk;.


,J cU 4.5 ,y; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.

97
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
 )

cU 4.5
,jw;fhd cz;ik ml;ltiz 4.14 ,y; cs;sJ Nghd;W mike;jpUf;Fk;

 <!4=
+ ,
, +
ml;ltiz 4.14
nraw;ghL
4.4

NkNy $wg;gl;l ! gliyf;Fupa kpdR


; w;iwj; jahupAq;fs;.

 )gliy
gliy


gliy> ! gliy Mfpa ,uz;ilAk; njhluhf ,izg;gjd; %yk;

4gliy fpilf;Fk;.

cU 4.6
44444444
gliy ! gliy

gliy gpdt
; Uk; tupgg
; lk; %yk; tpsf;fg;gLfpwJ.

cU 4.7

44
4:44)44:44%4
,jw;Fupa cz;ik ml;ltiz tUkhW

98
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
  )4444444
4
+ + 4+ 44,
+ , 4+ 44,
, + 4+ 44,
, , 4, 44+
ml;ltiz 4.15

4 gliyf;Fupa vspa Rw;W gpdt
; UkhW

cU 4'8

&44Mfpa rhtpfs; %bAs;sNghJ <=4kl;LNk kpdF ; kpo; xspuhJ.


kpd;Rw;Wf;fisj; jhahupf;f gad;gLj;jg;gLk; mbg;gilg; gliyahd 

gliy epak njhifapLk; Rw;Wf;fspy; <= cs;sJ. ,tw;iw filfspy; thq;f


KbAk;.

 ) gliyiag; gad;gLj;jp  gliyiaj; jahupj;jy;.

 

cU 4'9 

 ) gliyiag; gad;gLj;jp  gliyiaj; jahupj;jy;.

 
  
  
cU 4'10


99
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
4) gliy

4gliy !4gliy Mfpatw;iw njhluhf ,izj;J 4gliy ngwg;gLk;

cU 4'11

4gliy gpd;tUk; tupglk; %yk; fhl;lg;gLk;.

cU 4'12

44444444444444444444444444444:4%4:44)4

,jw;Fupa cz;ik ml;ltiz gpdt


; UkhW
 %444444
++ 4+ 4444,
,+ 4, 4444+
+, 4, 4444+
,, 4, 4444+
ml;ltiz 4.16
4gliyf;Fupa Rw;W fPNo fhzg;gl;Ls;sJ.

cU 4.13
&44Mfpa Mspfs; ,uz;Lk; jpwe;j epiyapy; cs;sNghJ <= kl;LNk kpdF
; kpo;
xspUk;. Vida vy;yh re;ju;gg
; q;fspYk; kpdF
; kpo; xspuhJ fhzg;gLk;.
100
,ytr tpepNahfj;jpw;fhf
)) )()  )gliy
gliy
44gliy gpdt
; Uk; tupgg
; lk; %yk; tpsf;fg;gLfpdw
; J.

 4%4

cU 4'14

%
44444vdg;gLtJ 4444444vdTk; vOjg;gLtJld; mjd; tUtpisT
<4)4=4%<4)4= MFk;. mjw;Fupa cz;ik ml;ltiz gpdt
; UkhW

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