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- Franco Bassani - Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics (2007, Elsevier Science (E)).pdf
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sible without the devoted effort of the personnel ~K. P. Beuermann, C. J. Rice, K. C. Stone, and R. K.

of the Orbiting Geophysical Observatory office Vogt, Phys. Rev. Letters 22, 412 (1969).

at the Goddard Space Flight Center and at TR%. 2J. L'Heureux and P. Meyer, Can. J. Phys. 46, S892

(1968).

3J. Rockstroh and W. R. Webber, University of Min-

nesota Publication No. CR-126, 1969.

~Research supported in part under National Aeronau- 46. M. Simnett and F. B. McDonald, Goddard Space

tics and Space Administration Contract No. NAS 5-9096 Plight Center Report No. X-611-68-450, 1968 (to be

and Grant No. NGR 14-001-005. published) .

)Present address: Department of Physics, The Uni- 5W. R. Webber, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 4905 (1968).

versity of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. GP. B. Abraham, K. A. Brunstein, and T. L. Cline,

(Also Department of Physics. Phys. Rev. 150, 1088 (1966).

John F. Clauserf

Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027

Michael A. Horne

Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215

and

Abner Shimony

Departments of Philosophy and Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215

and

Richard A. Holt

Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138

(Received 4 August 1969)

A theorem of Bell, proving that certain predictions of quantum mechanics are incon-

sistent with the entire family of local hidden-variable theories, is generalized so as to

apply to realizable experiments. A proposed extension of the experiment of Kocher and

Commins, on the polarization correlation of a pair of optical photons, will provide a de-

cisive test betw'een quantum mechanics and local hidden-variable theories.

Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) in a classic paper presented a, paradox which led them to in-

fer that quantum mechanics is not a complete theory. They concluded that the quantum mechanical

description of a physical system should be supplemented by postulating the existence of "hidden vari-

ables, " the specification of which would predetermine the result of measuring any observable of the

system. They believed the predictions of quantum mechanics to be correct, but only as consequences

of statistical distributions of the hidden variables. Bohr argued in reply that no paradox can be de-

rived from the assumption of completeness if one recognizes that quantum mechanics concerns only

the interaction of microsystems with experimental apparatus and not their intrinsic character.

There is an extensive literature purporting to prove the inconsistency of hidden-variable theories

with the statistical predictions of quantum mechanics. These proofs, though mathematically valid,

rest upon physically unrealistic postulates. ' Bell' succeeded in replacing these postulates by a physi-

cally reasonable condition of locality. He showed that in a, Gedankenexperiment of Bohm' (a variant of

that of EPR) no local hidden-variable theory can reproduce all of the statistical predictions of quantum

mechanics. This result is somewhat ironical in view of Einstein's convictions' that quantum mechani-

cal predictions concerning spatially separated systems are incompatible with his conditions for local-

ity unless hidden variables exist.

Bell's theorem has profound implications in that it points to a decisive experimental test of the en-

tire family of local hidden-variable theories. The aim of this paper is to propose explicitly such an

880

VOI UME 23, NUMBER 15 PHYSICA L REVIEW LETTERS 13 OcTGBER 1969

experiment. For this purpose, we first present a generalization of Bell's theorem which applies to

realizable experiments. Second, we indicate that neither of the experimental realizations of Bohm's

Gedankenexperiment has produced evidence against local hidden-variable theories, even though the re-

sults of both are compatible with quantum mechanical predictions. Third, we show that a simple ex-

tension of one of these experiments can provide a decisive test.

Generalization of Bell's theorem. —Consider an ensemble of correlated pairs of particles moving so

that one enters apparatus I, and the other apparatus II~, where a and 5 are adjustable apparatus pa-

rameters. In each apparatus a particle must select one of two channels labeled +1 and —1. Let the re-

sults of these selections be represented by A(a) and 8(b), each of which equals +I according as the

first or second channel is selected.

Suppose now that a statistical correlation of A(a) and 8(b) is due to information carried by and local-

ized within each particle, and that at some time in the past the particles constituting one pair were in

contact and communication regarding this information. The information, which emphatically is not

quantum mechanical, is part of the content of a set of hidden variables, denoted collectively by ~. The

results of the two selections are then to be deterministic functions A(a, h) and 8(b, h). Locality reason-

ably requires A(a, h) to be independent of the parameter b and 8(b, h) to be likewise independent of a,

since the two selections may occur at an arbitrarily great distance from each other. Finally, since

the pair of particles is generally emitted by a source in a manner physically independent of the adjust-

able parameters a and b, we assume that the normalized probability distribution p(h) characterizing

the ensemble is independent of a and b.

Defining the correlation function P(a, b) —

= j rA(a, h)B(b, h)p(h)dh, where 1 is the total h. space, we

have

( ) p(h) dh = Jr [ A(a, h) 8(b, h) [1—8(b, h)8(c, h) ]p(h) dh

(

=

Suppose that for some b' and b we have P(b', b) = l-b, where 0 ~ b -1. Experimentally interesting

cases will have 6 close to but not equal to zero. Here we avoid Bell's experimentally unrealistic re-

striction that for some pair of parameters b and b there is perfect correlation (i.e. , 5=0). Dividing

I' into two regions I"+ and I' such that 1, 'b. Hence,

=(h~A(b', h) =+8(b, h)j, we have fr p(h)dh= —,

J r 8(b, h) 8(c, h) p(h) dh = J r A(b', h)8(c, h) p(h) dh-2 f r A(b', h) 8(c, h) p (h) dh

-P(b', )-2f IA(b', h)8(, h) lp(h)dh=P(b', )-b,

and therefore

~

b)-P(b', c) (Ia)

In the experiment proposed below P(a, b) depends only on the parameter difference b a Def—

ini.ng o.

= b a, P=c-b,-and y=b b', we have—

—

IP(o)-P(~+tI) I

-2 P(y) P(P-+y)-

In principle entire measuring devices, each consisting of a filter followed by a detector, could be

used for I, and Ilq, and the values +I of A(a) and 8(b) would denote detection or nondetection of the

particles. Inequalities (1) would then apply directly to experimental counting rates. Unfortunately, if

the particles are optical photons (as in the experiment proposed below) no practical tests of (1) can

presently be performed in this way, because available photoelectric efficiencies are rather small. We

shall therefore henceforth interpret A (a) = +I and 8(b) =+I to mean emergence or nonemergence of the

photons from the respective filters. Also the filters will be taken to be linear polarization filters, and

a and 5 will represent their orientations. It will be convenient to introduce an exceptional value ~ of

the parameter a (and likewise of b) to represent the removal of a polarizer; clearly, A(~) and 8(~)

necessarily equal +1. Since P(a, b) is an emergence correlation function, in order to derive an exper-

imental prediction from (1) an additional assumptione must be made: that if a pair of photons emerges

from I„

ilq the probability of their joint detection is independent of a and b Then if .the flux into I„

Ilq is a constant independent of a and b, the rate of coincidence detection R(a, b) will be proportional

to re[A(a)„8(b), ], where u[A(a), , 8(b), ] is the probability that A(a) =+I and 8(b) =+1. Letting RO=R(~,

881

VoLUME 257 NUMBER 15 PHYSr CA I, RZV&ZW r. ZTTZRS 1) OCTOBER 1'96/

~), R, (a) =R(a, ~), and R, (b) =R(~, b), making use of the evident formulas

P(a, b) =w[A(a), B(b), ]—w[A(a) „B(b) ]—w[A(a), B(b), ] +w[A(a), B(b) ]

and

and of similar formulas for w[A(~) „B(b)+]and w[A(~) „B(~),], we obtain

Ao Ao Ao

We can now express (1) in terms of experimental quantities, namely eoincidenee rates with both polar-

izers in, and with one and then the other removed. If A, (a) and A, (b) are found experimentally to be

constants 8,

and A„ the result is

b)-A(a, c) +A(b', ~

b) (2a)

In the special ease in which P(a, b) = P(a b), —

(2a) becomes

~A(n)-A(n+P) ~ +A(~)+A(P+&) R, A, -0-. - (2b)

has not been performed, nor does it appear to be easily realizable. Two related experiments have

been performed on polarization correlation of photons. Wu and Shaknov (WS)' examined polarization

correlation of 0. 5-MeV y rays emitted during positronium annihilation. Although the polarization

state of the pair is suitable for our purposes, their high energy requires the use of Compton polarim-

eters. Thus, instead of directly examining the polarization correlation, WS examined the polariza-

tion-dependent joint distribution for Compton scattering of the pair. Inequality (2) cannot be immedi-

ately applied to such a scattering experiment because neither photon is forced to make a binary deci-

sion. However, a suitable binary result may be imposed by partitioning the scattering sphere into two

arbitrary regions, denoted, respectively, by +I, and by letting the adjustable parameter a (or b) des-

ignate the particular mode of partitioning. But as one can see" by examining the joint scattering dis-

tribution, "

no such partitioning can yield a correlation in violation of (2). The essential difficulty is

that the direction of Compton scattering of a photon is a statistically weak index of its linear polariza-

tion.

The other experiment, that of Kocher and Commins (KC), involved polarization correlation of pho-

ton pairs emitted in the 6'So-4'P, -O'S„cascade of calcium. Since the two photons are in the visible,

filters of the Polaroid type could be used. The photons impinged normally upon a pair of these polar-

izers whose planes were parallel, and the polarization correlation was measured with standard coinci-

dence techniques. With this arrangement inequality (2b) is applicable upon assumption of a. local hid-

den-variable theory. However, the data obtained by KC do not suffice to test (2b), because their po-

larizers were not highly efficient and were placed only in the relative orientations 0 and 90 .

Proposed experiment. —A decisive test can be obtained by modifying the KC experiment to include

observations at two appropriate relative orientations of the polarizers, and also with one and then the

other removed. For realizable apparatus, quantum mechanics predicts violation of inequality (2b).

Define e~' as the efficiency of the polarizer i (i = I, II) for light polarized parallel to the polarizer

axis and e, ' as that for light perpendicularly polarized. Consider a point source and filter-detector

assemblies, each of which gathers the photons emitted into a cone of half-angle 0. Then for a J= 0

-4=1- J =0 electric-dipole cascade (0-1-0) the quantum mechanical predictions for the counting rates

are"

R(+)/Ao 4 (EM + Em )(E'M + Fm ) + 4 (E'M E'm )(EM cm )F&(8) cos2y,

Here y is the angle between the polarizer axes,

882

VOLUME 2), NUMBER 15 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 13 OCToBER 1969

'(-',

G, (8) = —, ', —'(sin'8+2) cos8, G,(8) =. —cos8- —

—, ", cos'8. ~3

cade (and for a 1-1-0, provided the initial sta- implies a lower limit on cM, and vice versa.

tistical state of the atom is isotropic) are ob- Since both E,(8) and E,(8) are monotonically de-

tained from (3) upon replacing F, (8) with F-, (8) creasing functions, a lower limit on E~ (8) im-

where plies an upper limit on 8. Condition (4) and num-

erical evaluation of E,(8) and E,(8) lead to the

E2(8) = 2G, (8) [2G2(8) G,(8) + ~ G,2(8) j

curves shown in Fig. 1, from which one can di-

For sufficiently efficient polarizers one easily rectly read combinations of 0 and ~~ suitable for

sees that there exist sets of relative orientations a decisive experiment. The experiment can be

for which the quantum mechanical counting rates performed with uncoated calcite polarizers (e~

violate Inequality (2b). The greatest violation =0.92); however, if the polarizers have antire-

always occurs at o. =22. 5', I8=45', and y=157. 5' flection coatings (a~=0. 95), a larger 8 and hence

for the 0-1-0 cascade and at a = 67. 5', P= 135', a larger counting rate can be achieved.

and y = 112.5' for the 0-1-1 cascade. Note that The authors gratefully acknowledge helpful dis-

in each case the four angles o'. , u+P, y, and P cussions with Y. Aharonov, M. Jammer, L. Kas-

+y which occur in Inequality (2b) characterize day, D. Nartonis, C. Papaliolios, F. Pipkin,

only two distinct relative orientations of the po- D. Pritchard, J. L. Snider, H. Stein, and C. R.

larizers, namely 22. 5' and 67. 5'. Willis.

In an actual experiment FJ(8) is less than 1,

because of finite half-angle 0, and &M is never *This paper is an expansion of ideas presented by one

unity. Assuming the use of calcite polarizers of us (J.F.C. ) at the Spring 1969 meeting of the Ameri-

(for which c~= 10 '), taking eM'=a~" =EM for can Physical Society [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 14, 578

simplicity, and using the above choices for n, P, (1969)j. The same conclusions had been reached inde-

and y, we find that for either type of cascade, pendently by two of us (A. S. and M. A. H. ).

)Present address: Department of Physics, Universi-

the condition for violation of Inequality (2b) is

ty of California, Berkeley, Calif.

v 2 Fi(8) + 1 ) 2/e~ (4) A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, Phys. Hev.

47, 777 (1935).

This is the essential requirement on the design N. Bohr, Phys. Rev. 48, 696 (1935).

of a decisive experiment. For given EJ(8), (4) 3For an excellent survey of these proofs see J. S.

Bell, Rev. Mod. Phys. 38, 447 {1966).

4J. S. Bell, Physics 1, 195 (1965).

5D. Bohm, Quantum Theory (Prentice-Hall, Inc. ,

70- Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1951), p. 614.

Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, edited by

60- P. Schilpp (Library of Living Philosophers, Evanston,

Ill. , 1949), pp. 681-682.

50- ~C. S. Wu and I. Shaknov, Phys. Rev. 77, 136 {1950);

C. A. Kocher and E. D. Commins, Phys. Rev. Letters

40- 18, 575 {1967). See also C. A. Kocher, thesis, Univer-

sity of California, 1967, University of California Radi-

tQ

It may appear that the assumption can be established

20. experimentally by measuring detection rates when a

controlled flux of photons of known polarization imping-

IO- es on each detector. From the standpoint of hidden-

variable theories, however, these measurements are

\

irrelevant, since the distribution of the hidden vari-

.84 .86 .88 .90 .92 .94 .96 .98 I.OO ables when the fluxes are thus controlled is almost cer-

6M tain to be different from the p(&) governing our ensem-

FIG. l.

Upper limits on detector half-angle 0 as a ble. In view of the difficulty of an experimental check,

function of polarizer efficiency c~. To test for hidden- the assumption could be challenged by an advocate of

variable theories, the experiment must be performed hidden-variable theories in case the outcome of the

in the region below the appropriate curve — the upper proposed experiment favors quantum mechanics. How-

curve for a 0-1-0 cascade, the lower for a 0-1-1. ever, highly pathological detectors are required to con-

883

VOLUME 23, NUMBER 15 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 13 OcTQBER 1969

vert hidden-variable emergence rates into quantum Furry, Phys. Rev. 49, 393, 476 {1936).

mechanical counting rates. For details see M. A. Horne, thesis, Boston Univer-

~It has been shown by D. Bohm and Y. Aharonov, sity, 1969 (unpublished).

Phys. Rev. 108, 1070 (1957), that the WS experiment The distribution is given in H. S. Snyder, S. Paster-

is a decisive refutation of a hypothesis studied by W. H. nack, and J. Hornbostel, Phys. Rev. 73, 440 (1948).

S. Apsell, N. Barash-Schmidt, L. Kirsch, and P. Schmidt

Department of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02154

and

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742

and

M. Goldberg, K. Jaeger, C. McCarthy, B. Meadows, and G. C. Monetize

Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13210

and

J. Bartley, R. M. Dowd, J.

Schneps, and G. Wolsky

Department of Physics, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155

(Received 25 August 1969)

Evidence is presented for four - resonances in the reaction K p " ~'E . In addi-

tion to the well known "(1530), significant structures are observed in the "m system at

masses of 1630, 1800, and 1960 MeV, although the latter two are not statistically distin-

guishable from a single broad structure at 1950 MeV. No significant enhancements at

these masses are observed in the ™~7tK' final state.

:. resonances are produced with relatively fit to Reaction (1), while 265 events fit Reaction

small cross sections, cannot be studied in forma- (2) uniquely. The 94 events fitting both reactions'

tion experiments, and have complex decay topolo- have been apportioned to each with a weight of

gies. For these reasons, only large bubble- 0. 5.

chamber exposures have yielded significant in- The Dalitz plot for Reaction (1), shown in Fig.

formation bearing on the existence and proper- 1, shows strong production of ='(1530) and

ties of these particles. This experiment, de-

signed for the study of " resonances below a 88-

mass of 2 GeV, involves 10' pictures of K p in-

N

teractions at 2. 87 GeV/c taken at the Brookhaven I-

R

66-

4J

U.

44—

alternating-gradient IK

LIP

Cl

lent of 24 events/p, b has been accumulated to Z

D

K 22-

date. In this Letter, we report on =n mass spec-

tra observed in the reactions 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5

K P @+K,

K f) " n'K. (2) — L25

Cl

X

+

M

d.

For this study, all film was scanned twice. for 4

- 0.75

events with at least two visible decays of strange

particles. Those events with one or more suc- I I I I

0.25 I I j 1

0.25

l04 78 52 26 0 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5

cessful kinematic fits (confidence level) 0. 1%) NVMBER OF EVENTS XI 4 Pl MSQ

izations. A total of 635 events achieved a unique with I 1.("

FIG. Dalitz plot for the reaction Z"P

x') and M (E vr") projections.

n'Jf', .

884

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