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Traffic management in a Dual Band network

Traffic management features

A dual band network requires a functionality that enables the management of different subscriber
types.

In order to make the maximum use of the additional capacity provided by a dual band network, dual
band users must be carefully managed between the bands. The strategy must be to optimise the
availability and call quality of all users. This is achieved by managing the dual band mobiles between
the GSM 900/800 and GSM1800/1900 cells (micro/macro). This can be done in the idle mode, during a
call set up (on SDCCH), or during a call.

Figure 19: Traffic management

You must also be able to manage different kinds of subscriber type and mobile type profiles in billing
and charging, so that you can create different service packages with different tariffs based on the used
service and mobile type (Subscriber Segmentation in Dual Band).

Features used in idle mode

The C1 and C2 criteria can be used to force a dual band mobile station (MS) to camp on a specific cell
when the mobile is in the idle mode. The C2 parameter can be used, for example, to force the dual
band MSS to favour the GSM 1800/1900 cells in idle mode, even though they may have a lower signal
level than the GSM 900/800 cells. This simply gives a fixed signal level offset to the GSM 1800/1900
signal level received by the mobile when it decides on which cell to camp.

The problem with using C2 is that the offset is fixed. This may result in the mobile camping on a barely
acceptable GSM 1800/1900 carrier even though a far better, and possibly empty, GSM 900/800 carrier
exists. This results in less than optimum call quality. This kind of problem can be partly avoided by
setting a high enough value for the minimum access level for the cell.
The C1 and C2 equations are presented in ETSI TS 05.08 and the use is explained in ETSI TS 03.22.

It is important to remember that the C2 use requires a PHASE 2 mobile support, which all dual band
MSS have.
C1 and C2 equations

where

A= Average received LEVEL - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN

B= MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - P

and

RXLEVEL_ACCESS_MIN is the minimum downlink received level required to access the cell (BTS
parameter).

MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH is the maximum TX power level the MS may have in the cell (BTS parameter).

P is the maximum RF output power of the MS (fixed for each MS).

All values are expressed in dBm. The path loss value criterion is satisfied when C1 > 0 (GSM 03.22).

where

H(x) = 0 for x < 0, that is, Penalty_Time <T

H(x) = 1 for x ≥ 0, that is, Penalty_Time ≥ T

T is a timer started from 0 when the cell appears on the list of the 6 strongest BCCH frequencies of the
MS.
How to use C1 and C2 in Dual Band environment

All the parameters involved in these equations are cell-specific and they are sent within the System
Information messages on the BCCH.

The MS uses the C1 criterion in order to camp on the cells according to the received power levels and
minimum access levels of the cells. By using the C2 criterion, the MS camps again in another cell set,
where it starts a call set-up.

The method proposed here to set the C2 parameter is based on the difference in a cell of the
following values:
 GSM parameter RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN

 Propagation behaviour and EIRP


The parameter cell reselect offset is used to give a higher priority to the chosen cell (GSM
1800/1900, micro, and so on). To ensure the camping to the “right” cell, the cell reselect offset value
should be set higher than the difference in RxLev_Access_Min, Propagation, and EIRP between the
cells ("delta" offset) to camp on.

The "delta" offset is calculated as follows:

where

Propagation is normally set to 10 dB in favour of 900/800 MHz cells. Another value can be used on the
propagation difference measurements.

The parameter penalty time is used when the microcells are present to ensure that only slow
moving mobiles would camp in the micro layer. It means that, during the penalty time, the microcell
has a lower priority to be selected to get enough measurement results (to see if the MS is moving
slow or fast). After the penalty time, the microcell is selected if the MS is slow moving. The proposed
value is 20 seconds.

The parameter temporary offset is used to change the priority of the cell selection for the penalty
time (for example, microcell).

Example of C2 strategy

The following assumptions have been made:


 Three-layer network; macro 900, micro 900, macro 1800

 The highest priority for slow moving mobiles to the microcell

 The second priority to the 1800 cells (fast moving mobiles).

The following values have been selected for the sake of understanding, although they may be extreme
and require fine-tuning on an existing network.

RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN

M900 -110 dBm

M1800 -98 dBm

π900 -95 dBm

Table 9: Example values for RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN


Depending on the priority set for each layer, cell reselect offset can be calculated. To ensure
the camping to the chosen cell, cell reselect offset should be set bigger than the "delta"
offset between the candidate cells. The C2 parameter planning could proceed according to the
following steps:

1. In this example, the 2nd priority is given to the M1800 cell. The M1800 cell should be set to look
at least 27 dB stronger than the M1900 cell that has the lowest priority. The parameter cell
reselect offset can be set to 30 dB.
2. The 1st priority was set to the π900 cell. The π900 cell should be set to look at least 18 dB
stronger than the 2nd priority cell M1800 and 35 dB stronger than the M900 cell (MAX (30dB +
18dB), 35dB). cell reselect offset can be set to 60 dB.
3. Because fast moving MSS are not to be camped in the π900 cell, the penalty
time and temporary offset parameters must be used. The penalty time can be set to 20
seconds and temporary offset to 60 dB to cancel the effect of the cell reselect
offset parameter of the π900 cell during the penalty time.

Priority Cell types Cell reselect Penalty time Temporary offset RxLev
offset
Access Min

highest π900 60 dB 20 s. 60 dB - 95 dBm

M1800 30 dB 20 s. 0 dB - 98 dBm

lowest M900 0 dB 20 s. 0 dB - 110 dBm

Table 10: Example of the C2 parameters

During the penalty time, the highest priority is given to the M1800 and the 2nd priority to the M900
layer. The microcell layer is not selected because of the hightemporary offset value to ensure
that the fast moving MS stays in the macrocell layer.

After the penalty time, the microcell layer has the highest priority for slow moving mobiles. The
second priority is given to the M1800 layer (fast moving mobiles).

Features used during call set-up


If the call can be transferred from a GSM 900/800 cell to a GSM 1800/1900 cell during the call set-up
(that is, on SDCCH), less of the GSM 900/800 capacity is wasted, as compared to a case where the call
is first set up on the GSM 900/800 layer and then transferred to a GSM 1800/1900 cell. The
mechanisms for initiating the SDCCH handover are Direct Access to the Desired Layer/Band or the
normal Directed Retry.

Direct Access to the Desired Layer/Band

The existing priority and load factor concept can be used together with Direct Access to the Desired
Layer/Band (DADL/B). The call can be directed during the call set-up to the layer having the highest
priority, for example, the 1800/1900 layer. By using the load factors, it is possible to prevent the layer
with the highest priority from being blocked. If the load increases over the predefined threshold, new
priorities are calculated to favour the less occupied layer.

The following parameters are related to Direct Access to the Desired Layer/Band:
 min time limit directed retry

This parameter determines the period starting from the assignment request during
which the target cell evaluation for the directed retry handover is not allowed. Range:
1..14 (s).

 max time limit directed retry

This parameter determines the maximum time period starting from the assignment
request during which the target cell evaluation for the directed retry handover is
allowed. Range: 0..15 (s).

 BTS load threshold

DADL/B is applied if DADL/B is enabled in the BSC and if the load of the accessed cell is
higher than the BTS load threshold defined for the accessed cell and there are
adjacent cells defined as DADL/B handover target cells with the target cell of
direct access to desired layer(n) parameter. Range: 0..100%.

 target cell of direct access to desired layer

Adjacent cells handled by the BSC, considered as DADL/B target cells with a signal level
exceeding HO level umbrella, are sorted according to the adjacent cell priority
and load factor (HO priority level or HO Priority Level(n) - HO load
factor(n) (if the adjacent cell is loaded) to be used as target cells for the DADL/B
handover. Range: Y/N.

 Ho level umbrella

This parameter defines the minimum level for the target cell of direct
access to desired layer to be selected. The same parameter is used for the
umbrella and SMMS handover. Range: -110..-47 (dBm).

If the cell is congested, a directed retry is triggered and the network does not take DADL/B
into account.
Directed Retry

Directed Retry redirects an MS in a congested situation to attempt access to another cell from a
predefined list. The target cells are ranked in the order of signal levels and the best is chosen for the
handover.

Features used during call

All Nokia handover types can be used to transfer traffic between the bands. Which is the most suitable
in each case depends on the network structure. The suggested handover types are:

 The umbrella handover may be used for transferring traffic from the GSM 900/800 to
the 1800/1900 band, as this only takes into account the performance in the target cell. If
it meets the specified criteria (level threshold of the target cell), the handover is made.

 Negative power budget handover can also be used to transfer traffic from the GSM
900/800 to the 1800/1900 layer. If the Fast Moving Mobile algorithm is used to direct
traffic from the GSM 900/800 layer to the microcells, the umbrella HO algorithm cannot
be used and the negative power budget HO is the only possible solution.

 Once the call is on the GSM1800/1900 band, it should be kept there, if possible. This is
best accomplished by normal power budget handovers (that is, the call is kept in the
strongest cell). The same method is used in the GSM 900/800 band.

 The call may be returned to the GSM 900/800 layer by RX level/quality/interference (RR
HO) handovers. Prioritisation can be used with RR HOs to give a higher priority for the
GSM 1800/1900 or microcells.

 The MS Speed Detection or a Fast Moving Mobile algorithm can be used to direct slow
moving traffic to the microcells and to keep the fast moving mobiles in the macro layer.

By balancing the parameters of the handovers between each band it should be possible to balance
the traffic load on each band.

Power Budget Handover

Power Budget (PBGT) handovers are normally used to keep the calls inside one layer. The idea is to
keep the mobile in the strongest cell.

In a standard network, unwanted consecutive PBGT handovers between the source and the target cell
are avoided by using a positive margin. However, a negative margin can be used for a special multi
layer configuration, for example when moving the traffic from the GSM 900/800 layer to the GSM
1800/1900 layer. The PBGT handover must be disabled from the GSM 1800/1900 layer back to the GSM
900/800 layer in this case (high PBGT margin), since G800 has normally higher signal level.
Radio Reason Handovers

The level and quality handovers are normally used as safety handovers to transfer traffic back from the
GSM 1800/1900 or micro layer to the GSM 900/800 layer in a bad quality/level situation.
The level and quality handovers are performed if the target cell has a level exceeding the level of the
source cell of HO margin lev/qual dBm. Normally, the margin for quality handovers has been set
to 0 or to a negative value to favour handover to call drop.

The level and quality handovers target all kinds of cell, without any relation to the cell layer.
Prioritisation can, however, be used with Radio Reasons handovers to give a higher priority for a
certain layer or cells.
Umbrella Handover

The umbrella handover can be used to transfer mobiles from the 900/800 layer to the 1800/1900 layer
when the level in the target cell, that is, 1800/1900, meets a specified criterion, usually higher than -85
dBm to -90 dBm. This algorithm introduces a simple way to "suck" the traffic towards the 1800/1900
layer.

The implementation of this algorithm does not require the usage of the parameter adjacent cell
layer. In that case the Power Budget handover from the GSM 1800/1900 layer to the GSM 900/800
layer should be manually prevented by setting the PB margin to –63 dB.

If adjacent cell layer is used, it is reasonable to define the 1800/1900 layer as a lower layer for
the 900/800 layer. Thus, all Power Budget handovers are automatically prevented between the upper-
lower layers.
Fast Moving MS Handling and MS Speed Detection

Fast Moving MS Handling software product includes the adjacent cell layer parameter. An
adjacent cell can be of the SAME, UPPER, or LOWER layer, depending on the source cell.

The Fast Moving MS handover algorithm allows you to direct a mobile to the right layer regarding its
speed, that is, the fast mobile uses the upper layer cell (large coverage area cell), while the slow
mobile uses the lower layer cell, supposed to be the capacity-oriented one. This algorithm is mostly
used in microcellular networks. In a dual band configuration, the 1800/1900 cell provides the capacity
but its range is not similar to a microcell and thus it has to be used carefully. Normally, the GSM
1800/1900 cell can be defined as the same-layer cell as the GSM 900/800 cell to avoid an unwanted
microcell handover when going to the 1800/1900 macro layer.

When the speed measurements are not taken into account, the umbrella handover is triggered as
soon as one target cell meets the equation criterion.

The speed measurement in the BTS does not work if the MS is using frequency hopping.

Handover priorities and load management

When several layers of cells exist in the network, it is necessary to balance the load between the layers
to achieve the maximum capacity. By using the Adjacent Cell Priorities and Load Factors it is possible
to direct the mobiles to a particular band (or cell) based on the priority factor of the handover
candidate cells and the traffic load in those cells.
The target cell priority can be set in each cell for each adjacent cell. A load threshold can be defined to
dynamically change this priority according to the traffic load of the cell. The use of this load
management is an intra-BSC feature.

The table HO priority and load factor parameters describes the parameters of each adjacent cell
associated with this feature and the feature’s functionality.

Parameter Value/Function

HO priority 0 to 7. Highest priority is 7.


level

HO load factor 0 to 7. The amount by which Priority Level is reduced when cell Load
Threshold is exceeded.

load threshold 0 to 100%. Threshold above which the attractiveness of the cell is
reduced.

Table 11: HO priority and load factor parameters

If the load in the target cell exceeds the Load Threshold value, the priority of that cell as a handover
candidate is reduced by the HO Load Factor according to following equation.

For example, the coverage from the GSM 900 macrocell, GSM 900 microcell, and GSM 1800 macrocell
is overlapping. The mobile is served by the GSM 900 macrocell but has acceptable (from the RF point
of view) handover candidates to both the GSM 900 microcell and the GSM 1800 macrocell.

Figure 20: Handover candidates for GSM 900 macrocell

The cell parameters are given in the following table.


HO HO Priority Load HO Load Load New
Candidate Level Factor Threshold Priority

900 Micro 2 60% 1 70% 2

1800 Macro 4 80% 3 70% 1

Table 12: Example of handover priority and load factors

From the RF measurement point of view, the GSM 900 microcell would be the best candidate. The HO
priority level of the 1800 cell is, however, higher - it becomes the higher handover candidate.
But the 1800 cell is already overloaded, so its priority level is reduced by the HO load factor. The
highest priority is given to the 900 microcell which is chosen for the handover.

Load Management proceeds in the BSC for an MS entering a target cell. To trigger a handover for
load reasons in the serving cell (Traffic Reason HO), MSC support is needed.

Priorities and load factors are set on a cell adjacency basis and can be set for a whole layer.
Advanced Multilayer Handling

Advanced Multilayer Handling can be used to balance the load between the layers or to improve
network quality. It includes, for example, a traffic-reason handover triggered by traffic load to transfer
the calls from occupied cells to less occupied ones. Adjustable Power Budget margins based on the
traffic load can also be used.

For more information on Handover cases and equations see Handover cases in the
chapter Functionality of Dual Band Network.

Traffic management between network layers

You can choose different ways to implement dual band cells in the network. This choice also
influences the strategy to be used for handling the MS between the bands. The different strategies are
presented and explained below.

Two-layer dual band network

This first strategy is the simplest one to use. It works when the network uses only 2 layers: a GSM
900/800 macro layer and a GSM 1800/1900 macro layer.

The GSM 1800/1900 layer is defined as a LOWER layer for the GSM 900/800 layer and the handovers
used are:
 Umbrella handover to go from 900/800 to 1800/1900, with a typical threshold of -85
dBm.

 Radio reason (Level or Quality) handover to go from 1800/1900 to 900/800.


 Power budget handover within the same layer, with a margin of 6 dB.

Figure 21: Two-layer network

In this strategy, it is assumed that there are only two layers in the network, which means that
microcells are not defined as another lower layer. This case will be discussed later.

Dual band mobiles are directed to the 1800/1900 layer during the call by using an umbrella handover
and are kept in the suitable band with a power budget handover. When the quality or the level
becomes poor, the mobile returns to the 900/800 layer (or stays in the 1800/1900 layer). When the
1800/1900 and 900/800 cells are co-located, only one 1800/1900 neighbour - the co-located cell - can
be defined from each 900/800 cell (in the case of a coverage limited macrocell). This is justified by the
low capacity needed in the beginning and the level is always better in that cell than in the other ones.

Three-layer network

A three-layer network contains two macro layers, 900/800 and 1800/1900, and one micro layer,
900/800 or 1800/1900.

The traffic management strategy must be chosen to push the dual band MS towards the layers which
offer more capacity and have better quality. Normally, this kind of layers are the 1800/1900 layer and
the micro layer. The 900/800 macro layer is seen as a collector layer where the calls are set up. When
the calls are processed, they are routed by following the chosen strategy (the selection of the “right
layer” can also be done during the idle mode by using the C2 parameter).

Basically, there are two reasonable ways: the highest priority is given to the 1800/1900 layer or the
900/800 π-layer.
Priority to Microcell Layer

The figure Three-layer network strategy No.1, priority to microcell layer shows the general idea of this
strategy:
Figure 22: Three-layer network strategy No. 1, priority to microcell layer

The 1800/1900 and 900/800 macro layers are defined as the same-level layers and the microcellular
layer is defined as the lower layer from the 1800/1900 and 900/800 macro by using the adjacent
cell layer parameter.

The dual band mobiles are sent to the 1800/1900 layer with a Power Budget handover with a negative
margin, that is, the capture is done very quickly (the default value for the measurement window is 6
SACCH frames, which means approximately 6 seconds) - similar to an umbrella handover. The
recommended value for the margin is -24 dB and the recommended RxLevMin (the minimum level
value to access the cell during a handover) is -90 dB (in the 1800 cell). The negative power budget
handover is used here, because the umbrella handover cannot be used together with the Fast Moving
Mobile algorithm.

The microcellular layer can be used for slow mobiles only. The capture is done using the Fast Moving
Mobile algorithm from the 900/800 macro and from the 1800/1900 cells. The recommended value
for fast moving threshold is 32 SACCH frames, and the adjacent umbrella cell
level is set to -85 dB. The same parameters are used in the 1800/1900 and 900/800 source cells. This
ensures that all slow moving dual band mobiles go down to the microcellular layer.

The figure Strategy No. 1, priority to microcell layer, main parameter values summarises the main
parameter values.
Figure 23: Strategy No. 1, priority to microcell layer, main parameter values

Within a layer, 900/800 macro, 1800/1900 macro or micro, the mobiles use Power Budget algorithms
with a positive margin (+ 6 dB) to stay on the best cell. The mobiles are going from one layer to
another using radio-reason handover algorithms (level or quality handovers).

If the 1800/1900 layer coverage is not seamless, special parameterisation is used at the border areas.
The power budget margin is set at + 12 dB instead of + 63 dB to allow the mobiles to go back to the
900/800 layer before the level or the quality becomes poor. This is shown in the figure Parameter
change at coverage border. This could also be applied to the microcellular layer.
Figure 24: Parameter change at coverage border

The same strategy can be achieved by using the umbrella handover instead of the negative power
budget from macro 900/800 to macro 1800/1900.

The 1800/1900 is defined as a LOWER layer from the 900/800 macro layer and the microcellular layer
is defined as a LOWER layer from the 1800/1900 and 900/800 macro by using adjacent cell
layer parameter.

The dual band mobiles are sent to the 1800/1900 layer with an S5 MS speed algorithm with the fast
moving threshold set to 1 SACCH, which means that the capture is done nearly instantly. The
recommended value for RX lev min (the minimum level value to access the cell during a handover)
is -85 dB (in the 1800/1900 cell).

The microcellular layer must be used for slow mobiles so the capture is done by using the Fast Moving
mobile algorithm from the 900/800 macro and from the 1800/1900 cells. The recommended value for
the fast moving threshold is 32 SACCH frames and the adjacent umbrella cell
level is set to -85 dB. The same parameters are used in the 1800/1900 and 900/800 source cells. This
ensures that all slow moving dual band mobiles go down to the microcellular layer.
Priority to 1800/1900 Layer
Figure 25: Three-layer network strategy No. 2, priority to 1800 layer

The 1800/1900 and 900/800 macro layers are defined as the same-level layers and the microcellular
layer is defined as a lower-level layer from 1800/1900 and 900/800 macro by using the adjacent
cell layer parameter.

The dual band mobiles are sent to the 1800/1900 layer with a power budget handover with a negative
margin, that is, the capture is done very quickly (the default value for the measurement window is 6
SACCH frames, or approximately 6 seconds) - the same as an umbrella handover. The recommended
value for this margin is -24 dB,RX lev min (the minimum level value to access the cell during a
handover) is -85 dB (in the 1800 cell).

The microcellular layer must be used for slow mobiles, so the capture is done by using the Fast
Moving mobile algorithm from the 900/800 macro. The recommended value for the fast moving
threshold is 32 SACCH frames and the adjacent umbrella cell level is set to -85 dB.

In this case, dual band MSS must be routed to the 1800/1900 layer, even if they are analysed as slow
moving mobiles. In that order, the 1800/1900 layer is defined as a lower layer from the micro layer,
and the umbrella handover is enabled with a HO period of 6 SACCH. This parameterisation ensures a
fast capture of the dual band MS in the 1800/1900 layer. Another possibility would be to define
the fast moving threshold to equal 0 and to also disable the speed measurements.

Within a layer, 900/800 macro, 1800/1900, or micro, the mobiles use Power Budget algorithms with a
positive margin (+ 6 dB) to stay on the best cell.

The figure Strategy No. 2, main parameter values summarises the main parameters used:
Figure 26: Strategy No. 2, main parameter values

Traffic management in multivendor environment

In a multivendor dual band network, the handovers within each vendor's band are performed
normally in the same way they would be done in a single band network.

Regarding the handovers from the BSS to vendor X's BSS, the situation is similar to a single band
multivendor network situation. All the basic BSS handover features can be used, except some of the
more sophisticated Nokia features, like IUO and MS Power Optimisation in handovers. In addition, the
features that require the BSS to have the knowledge of the target cell (other vendor's MSC and/or
BSS) might not fully work. These features include, for example, prioritisation, traffic load control, MS
speed detection, and intelligent retry.

Handovers from the vendor X BSS cells to the BSS cells depend on the other vendor’s BSS handover
features and system capabilities.

The BSS features that can be used in a multivendor environment include at least the following:
 C1 and C2 (to direct the dual band MS to the GSM 1800/1900 cells in idle mode)

 Direct Retry, with some limitations

 Basic handover functionality (RX level, quality, interference, distance based handovers)

 Power budget handover (within a layer)


 Umbrella handover (between layers)

 Adjacent cell priorities in prioritising microcells and macrocells (Nokia to other vendor
OK, other vendor to Nokia Siemens Networks requires support from other vendors,
load information does not normally work)

 Rapid field drop handover

 IUO, with certain limitations (reporting)

 Fast Moving Mobile, with some limitations

For more information on interworking, see Interworking with other features.

By carefully planning the network, Nokia’s advanced features can be efficiently used in areas where
the GSM 900/800 or 1800/1900 band has a more continuous coverage, therefore gaining the
additional benefits in those areas.

DN9814105 Id: 0900d8058058fb6c ©2013 Nokia Siemens Networks