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This can be grouped into four stages viz. Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and Coupling onto
the antenna.
1. The ability to deposit smooth metal electrodes and as well grow or deposit ultrathin oxide layer.
2. Rectification reversal, this results when there is higher current under the reverse biased than
forward bias direction at a particular biasing voltage. It often occurs as a result of transition
between the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) and the direct tunneling.
These issues range right from its designing stage to fabrication, characterization and integration to
antenna. Designing or modelling of MIM diode requires consideration of various material parameters
and device structures to get desired current-voltage characteristic. Also different constraints of the
metal-insulator interfaces impose trade-offs between its figures of merit. The requirement of extremely
precise fabrication processes, e.g. deposition of smooth metal electrodes, ability to grow or deposit
ultrathin oxide layer, patterning Nano-scale devices, are some other challenges which obstruct this
objective. Besides, the problem of rectification reversal, coupling efficiency and difficult RF
Characterization also limit its applicability. It takes into consideration the selection of optimal material
combination, insulator thickness and device structure.

The parameters for selecting electrodes are their work function and conductivity while those for insulator is the
dielectric constant, bandgap and electron affinity.