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Internship Report:

Date: 28 August 2016


Mari Petroleum Company Limited
Fueling The National Economy

MPCL Mari Rig 3


Internship Duration
18 July to 28 August (2016)

Submitted by:
MUHAMMAD YOUNUS
Registration# (2013-ME-440)
Mechanical Engineering (VII Semester)
Session (2013-2017)
myounus02@gmail.com

University of Engineering & Technology Lahore


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Table of Contents
Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................................ 4
Preface.............................................................................................................................................. 5
Mari Petroleum Company................................................................................................................. 6
SUJAWAL BLOCK (SUJAWAL DEEP -1) ............................................................................................. 10
HSE ................................................................................................................................................. 11
Seismic Survey ................................................................................................................................ 14
Well planning.................................................................................................................................. 15

Drilling Programme_Sujawal Deep-1 .............................................................................................. 19

Daily Drilling report ........................................................................................................................ 20

Mari RIG 3 ....................................................................................................................................... 22

Rig Components.............................................................................................................................. 24

Power System ................................................................................................................................. 31

Hoisting system .............................................................................................................................. 37

Circulating System .......................................................................................................................... 47

Well Control System ....................................................................................................................... 62

Tubular and Tubular Handling Equipment ...................................................................................... 73

Drill Bits .......................................................................................................................................... 80

Measurement While Drilling(MWD) .............................................................................................. 81

Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 85
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I am very thankful to the ALMIGHTY ALLAH, by the assistance of HIM, I have


accomplished my Task. This internship opportunity offered by Mari petroleum company
ltd for Graduate university students during summer of 2016 for six weeks. As I had
selected for first phase from 18 July to 28 August 2016 for RIG MARI-3. I would take a
moment to show my gratitude to Mari Petroleum Company Limited for honoring me with
an opportunity to experience the practical environment of the oil industry. I would like
to thank all of the people who directly or indirectly helped me to achieve this Target. I
take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide for
exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the internship
period at MPCL.

The stay at Sujawal Block (MARI RIG 3) has been the splendid experience of my
life. I am thankful to staff of MPCL (Mari Petroleum Company Limited) for answering each
query regarding the process of the company. I am extremely thankful to the Company
man, Tool Pusher, Engineers and all the operators at Mari RIG 3 for sharing their
knowledge with us during internship. I am obliged to staff members of Mari RIG 3 for the
valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. I am grateful for their
cooperation during the period of my assignment.
I am also greatly thankful to HOD’s and Principle of our respective universities who
kindly provided us opportunity to check our abilities in a good organization like Mari Gas.
It was valuable experience and interesting work for us and it was really a delightful job.
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PREFACE

The Mechanical Engineering curriculum is designed in such a way that students


can grasp maximum knowledge and can get practical exposure to the corporate world in
minimum possible time. The Summer Internship Program provides an opportunity to the
students in understanding the industry with special emphasis on the development of
skills in analyzing and interpreting practical problems through the application of theories
and techniques. It is a new platform of learning through practical experience, it gives the
student an opportunity to relate the theory with the practice, to test the validity and
applicability of his classroom learning against real life Technical situations.
Field experience such as at Sujawal Block (RIG) is the right way to attain such goals. The
purpose of writing this report is to express the knowledge, experience and skills, which I
learned at RIG Mari-3 during my six weeks’ internship. The content of the report depicts
the major components and operations performed at a drilling RIG.
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Mari Petroleum Company


“Being one of the largest petroleum exploration and production companies in Pakistan,
we visualize the earth as something beautiful and mysterious, for it has so many secrets
to reveal”
History & Profile
Mari Petroleum Company Limited is one of Pakistan’s largest E&P companies operating
the country’s 2nd largest gas reservoir at Mari Field, District Ghotki, Sindh. Mari Gas Field
was originally owned by Pakistan Stanvac Petroleum Project, a joint venture formed in
1954 between Government of Pakistan and M/s Esso Eastern Incorporated, having 49%
and 51% ownership interest, respectively. The first gas discovery was made by the Joint
Venture in 1957 when the first well in lower Kirthar ‘Zone-B’ Limestone Formation was
drilled. Production from the field started in 1967. In 1983, M/s Esso Eastern transferred
its entire share to Fauji Foundation, which set up a public limited company for the
purpose of acquiring the assets and liabilities of the Project.
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MPCL primarily operated as a production company till 1997, developing the discovered
Habib Rahi Reservoir in phases for supply of gas to the new fertilizer plants. The
hallmark of MPCL’s growth and expansion is also represented by its entry into
exploration activities in year 2001. In its exploration segment, MPCL is operating total
seven exploration blocks:
 3 exploration blocks (Ziarat, Hanna & Harnai) and 1 D&P Lease (Zarghun South) in
Balochistan
 2 exploration blocks in Sindh (Sukkur & Sujawal)
 1 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Karak) and
 1 in Punjab (Ghauri) In addition, the Company is also joint venture partner in:
 2 exploration blocks (Kohlu & Kalchas) in Balochistan
 2 exploration blocks (Kohat & Bannu West) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
 1 block (Zindan) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa / Punjab and
 1 block (Hala) in Sindh. Moreover, MPCL is also exploring opportunities of expanding
its business to become a player in
the International Hydrocarbon Market. The Company is also joint venture partner in
block 43B with 25% working interest in Oman with MOL.
Company Vision:
MPCL envisions becoming an international Exploration & Production Company by
improving its professional capacity with highly knowledgeable and talented manpower
that builds its underground petroleum reserves by discovering more than the ongoing
production within Pakistan and abroad, and improving financial capacity and
profitability through enhanced production, while taking environmental safeguard and
catering the social welfare needs of the communities inhabiting the area of operations.
Mission:
To enhance Exploration & Production capability by exploiting breakthroughs in
knowledge and innovations in technology and by adopting competitive industrial
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practices of optimal and cost effective operations to replenish the produced reserves by
at least 50% and to enhance production for maximizing revenues and return to the
stakeholders and to maintain highest standards of HSE and environmental protection.

 Providing uninterrupted petroleum products supply to customers.


 Maintaining best and safe operational practices.
 Adopting advanced technology, cost effective/efficient operations, increasing
operating efficiency and adherence to high environmental standards.
 Exploring and enhancing the potential of our human resources.
 Aligning the interests of our shareholders, human resources, customers and other
stakeholders to create significant business value characterized by excellent
financial results, outstanding professional accomplishments and superior
performance.
Permissible Business Activities:
MPCL is the second largest Pakistani exploration and production company, primarily
engaged in the business of oil & gas exploration, drilling, field development, production
and distribution of hydrocarbons (including natural gas, crude oil, condensate and LPG)
as well as provision of E&P related services on commercial basis.

Corporate Culture & Core Values:

Values are deeply ingrained principles that guide


organizational actions. The Core values are
central and enduring tenets of a successful
organization.

MPCL is governed by its core values which


distinguish us and guide our actions while
shaping our corporate culture and reflecting the
behavior essential to our relationship with all the
stakeholders.

Achievements:

MPCL was awarded 2nd Position in recognition of “Best


Practices in HRD/IR/Working Condition & Safety/CSR and
Training” in the category of Large National Companies at the
4th Employer of the Year Awards 2015 by the Employers’
Federation of Pakistan. This marks yet another great
achievement for MPCL which could only be possible through
dedicated teamwork, devoted leadership and effective
participation of workforce.
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Mari Drilling Services Unit (MDU)

MDU consists of three drilling rigs having Rig Mari 2 ST (300 HP), Rig Mari 1 (1500HP)
and Rig Mari 3 (2500 HP) providing the capability to drill onshore wells between the
depths of 500 meters up to 6,000 meters. MPCL increased its fleet of rigs by inclusion of
2500 HP having capability to drill well up to 6000 meters purchased from BOMCO
(subsidiary of CNPC) during 2014. MPCL has hired renowned professionals from the
industry to run its rigs fleet which has been performing drilling operations in challenging
frontier areas.

Rig Mari 1

Rig Mari 1 (1500HP) was purchased from M/s Honghua in 2006/07 and has carried
extensive drilling in different blocks operated by MPCL. Recently it has Successfully
completed drilling of Kalabagh X-1A Exploration Well in September 2015 and currently
preparing to Drill Khetwaro Exploration well in Khetwaro Exploration Licence during
December 2015.

Rig Mari 3

Rig Mari 3 was purchased from BOMCO in 2014 and got commissioned in Pakistan during
February 2015. Completed successful drilling of Halini Deep X-1 well up to 5900 meters
in Karak Exploration License which is one of the deepest well drilled during MPCL’s
history.

Rig Mari 2 (ST)

Rig Mari 2 (ST) has been with MPCL for last four decades and has drilled numerous wells
in Mari D&PL. Lately it drilled four HRL wells in Mari D&PL during September/November
2015. This rig is still in good condition owing to proper maintenance. It can drill wells up
to 800 meters and can play vital role during work over operations.
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SUJAWAL BLOCK (SUJAWAL DEEP -1)

During my six weeks’ internship period Rig 3 used for drilling activity at Sujawal block
project name as Sujawal Deep 1. The Block is located in district Thatta and Sujawal of Sindh,
having a total area of about 2,416.43 square kilometers (km2), whereas, reserve forest areas of
the block comprises of about approximately 570.23 km2. MPCL is planning to acquire 2D
seismic data in approximately 320 Line km (L. Km) and 900 sq. km for 3D data, followed by
drilling activity. It is envisaged that one well will be drilled on the basis of seismic survey data,
most probably at eastern part of the block.

SUJAWAL DEEP-1 is the 3rd well of Sujawal block with a prognoses depth of 4,100
meters with the 46o Direction and then it will be vertical to the deep. During my
internship period drilling at 2916 m to 3300 m via different tools like using PD directional
tool and Mud motor according to require situation.
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HSE at Mari RIG 3


Abbreviation for health, safety and environmental. These three issues are of paramount
importance to the drilling and drilling fluids community, as they are to the
entire petroleum industry.

Safety
Safety should be the highest priority in well planning. Personnel considerations must be
placed above all other aspects of the plan. In some cases, the plan must be altered
during the course of drilling the well when unforeseen drilling problems endanger the
crew. Failure to stress crew safety has resulted in loss of life and burned or permanently
crippled individuals.

The second priority involves the safety of the well. The well plan must be designed to
minimize the risk of blowouts and other factors that could create problems. This design
requirement must be adhered to rigorously in all aspects of the plan

According to the rules assigned by HSE, PPE’s (Personal Protective Equipment’s) are
provided to every visitor and all employees. Without PPE no one is allowed to enter in
the working zone.
These are:
Hard hat/ Helmet
Safety shoes
Safety glasses
Appropriate clothing (Coverall)
Hand gloves
Ear Muffs\Ear plugs

Helmet Safety shoes Glasses MPCl Coverall

Muster points:
3 Emergency assembly points are at rig mari-3 as shown above in Rig Map and
procedure is guided to every visitor, employee and inspection team. In case of
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emergency everyone has to gather at a common point called Muster point (Assembly
point). There are also first aid boxes and emergency showers provided at fix points
in case of any emergency. Emergency alarms are placed at different points.
SAFETY PRECUTIONS:
Visitors are told how and which type of fire extinguisher must be used for the
particular type of fire.
Do not stand under the fork lifter when heavy weight is being lifted.
Never start or try to get in some kind of quarrel.
Internee Engineers are asked to keep safe distance from heavy duty work.
There is a very large capacity fire-fighting equipment is present near the mud
pumps
and VFD.
There are alarms present in case of emergency like fire and Hydrogen
Sulphide gas H2S leakage.
Always use the fire extinguishers in the direction of air flow as directed by
the wind indicators.

SAFETY RULES:
Housekeeping.
No Smoking near the Accommodations.
Waste management responsibility.
Emergency situations and contact.
Designated smoking areas.
No Alcohol and other prohibited drugs.
Mobile phone is not allowed on the rig floor and during work.
Over speeding is prohibited and Speed limit boars are present.
And safety belts in the cars and on the derrick are necessary.

Fire Extinguisher:
A portable device that discharges a jet of water, foam, gas, or other material to
extinguish a fire.
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Procedure to Use the Fire Fighting Equipment:

Open the seal and press the lever by hand.


Grip the pipe from the recommended portion.
Direct the stream towards flame.
Wash twice after using fire extinguisher.
Fully press the handle.
Keep extinguisher vertical.
Prevent touching the exhaust pipe.

Portable Multi-Gas Detectors:


A multi gas detector ensures safe operations around tanks and
pipelines. By taking the time to periodically check pipelines
and pipe joints for leaks with a versatile multi gas detector,
ensuring that minute quantities of escaping gases are detected
swiftly so that repairs can be made. An air monitor also helps
keep watch over the atmospheric mixture of oxygen and other
breathable and toxic gases.

Firefighting Station at Mari Rig 3:


Mari Rig 3 has owned Fire station equipped with diesel engine for emergency usage.
Specifications of fire station are:

ITEM SPECIFICATION
Model QBPM-170
Volume of fuel tank (L) 160
Volume of firefighting
15000
water tank (L)
Volume of the foam
2000
tank (L)
Parameter of the
diesel engine
Rated Power (KW) 225
Rated speed (turn/
1800 rpm
minute)
Parameter of fire
pump
Rated power (kW) 155
Rated speed (rpm) 4020
Rate of flow (m3/h) 80
Exit pressure (MPa) 1.0
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Seismic Survey

The MPCL Company also owns and operates a 3D seismic data acquisition unit, a 2D/3D
seismic data processing center. A seismic survey is conducted by creating a shock wave –
a seismic wave – on the surface of the ground along a predetermined line, using an energy
source. The seismic wave travels into the earth, is reflected by subsurface formations, and
returns to the surface where it is recorded by receivers called geophones – similar to
microphones. The seismic waves are created either by small explosive charges set off in
shallow holes (“shot holes“) or by large vehicles equipped with heave plates (“Veibroseis”
trucks) that vibrate on the ground. By analysing the time it takes for the seismic waves to
reflect off of subsurface formations and return to the surface, a geophysicist can map
subsurface formations and anomalies and predict where oil or gas may be trapped in
sufficient quantities for exploration activities.
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Well planning
Well planning is perhaps the most demanding aspect of drilling engineering. It requires
the integration of engineering principles, corporate or personal philosophies, and
experience factors. Although well planning methods and practices may vary within the
drilling industry, the end result should be a safely drilled, minimum-cost hole that
satisfies the reservoir engineer’s requirements for oil/gas production. Objective of well
planning
The objective of well planning is to formulate from many variables a program for drilling
a well that has the following characteristics:
 Safe
 Minimum cost
 Usable
Unfortunately, it is not always possible to accomplish these objectives on each well
because of constraints based on:
 Geology
 Drilling equipment
 Temperature
 Casing limitations
 Hole sizing
 Budget

Minimum cost
A valid objective of the well-planning process is to minimize the cost of the well without
jeopardizing the safety aspects. In most cases, costs can be reduced to a certain level as
additional effort is given to the planning. It is not noble to build “steel monuments” in the
name of safety, if the additional expense is not required. On the other hand, funds should
be spent as necessary to develop a safe system.

Well costs can be reduced dramatically if proper well planning is implemented.


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Usable holes:
Drilling a hole to the target depth is unsatisfactory if the final well configuration is not
usable. In this case, the term “usable” implies the following:
 The hole diameter is sufficiently large so an adequate completion can be made.
 The hole or producing formation is not irreparably damaged.
This requirement of the well planning process can be difficult to achieve in abnormal-
pressure, deep zones that can cause hole-geometry or mud problems.

Formation pressure:
The formation, or pore, pressure encountered by the well significantly affects the well
plan. The pressures may be normal, abnormal (high), or subnormal (low).

Normal-pressure wells generally do not create planning problems. The mud weights are
in the range of 8.5 to 9.5 lbm/gal. Kicks- and blowout-prevention problems should be
minimized but not eliminated altogether. Casing requirements can be stringent even in
normal-pressure wells deeper than 20,000 ft because of tension/collapse design
constraints.

Subnormal-pressure wells may require setting additional casing strings to cover weak or
low-pressure zones. The lower-than-normal pressures may result from geological or
tectonic factors or from pressure depletion in producing intervals. The design
considerations can be demanding if other sections of the well are abnormal pressured.

Abnormal pressures affect the well plan in many areas, including:

Casing and tubing design


Mud-weight and type-selection
Casing-setting-depth selection
Cement planning

In addition, the following problems must be considered as a result of high formation


pressures:

Kicks and blowouts


Differential-pressure pipe sticking
Lost circulation resulting from high mud weights
Heaving shale

Well costs increase significantly with geopressures.

Because of the difficulties associated with well planning for high-pressure exploratory
wells, many design criteria, publications, and studies have been devoted to this area. The
amount of effort expended is justified. Unfortunately, the drilling engineer still must
define the planning parameters that can be relaxed or modified when drilling normal-
pressure holes or well types such as step-outs or infills.
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Well planning process


Well planning is an orderly process. It requires that some aspects of the plan be
developed before designing other items. For example, the mud density plan must be
developed before the casing program because mud weights have an impact on pipe
requirements.

Bit programming can be done at any time in the plan after the historical data have been
analyzed. The bit program is usually based on drilling parameters from offset wells.
However, bit selection can be affected by the mud plan [i.e., the performance of
polycrystalline-diamond (PCD) bits in oil muds]. Casing-drift-diameter requirements
may control bit sizing.

Casing and tubing should be considered as an integral design. This fact is particularly
valid for production casing. A design criterion for tubing is the drift diameter of the
production casing.
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The completion plan must be visualized reasonably early in the process. Its primary effect
is on the size of casing and tubing to be used if oversized tubing or packers are required.
In addition, the plan can require the use of high-strength tubing or unusually long seal
assemblies in certain situations.

Drilling a well comprises of many operations and therefore most of the times many
different companies called the services companies are hired to execute certain operations
by the operating company.

OPERATING COMPANY:
The operating company plays the most important part. It is an oil or gas company which
has a license to drill and produce petroleum within a defined area. In some cases, the
actual license is held by a number of companies who work under a partnership and
nominate one of the partners as the operating company. At Sujawal Deep-1 the
operating company is MPCL.

DRILLING CONTRACTOR:
In many cases the operating company is itself the drilling company as well like in the
case of Sujawal Deep-1 MPCL is itself the operator and the contractor company but
sometimes to do the actual drilling of the well a drilling contractor is hired. Usually the
drilling contractor is the owner of the drilling rig and is responsible for providing the
personnel who make up the drilling crew and rig mari-3 is owned by MPCL and the
whole drilling crew is the employee of MPCL. To put a check on the efficiency of the
drilling (The Drilling Parameters) and other operations carried out by the contractor,
and a team of professionals that may be a Geologist, Mud Engineer or the Mud Logging
crew under a Company Man who is the senior representative of the company is
deployed at the rig site to work with the contractor.

SERVICE COMPANIES:
While drilling a well many special services are required such as casing, cementing, wire
line logging, acid jobs, fishing and most of the times these specialized services are
carried out by other companies having specialty in a particular domain. It is the
responsibility of the operator to engage these companies and systematize their jobs and
activities. Services companies at Rig mari-3(Sujawal deep-1) are:

1. Schlumberger for directional drilling, MWD, cementing.

2. Petro services for mud logging.

3. Baker Hughes for mud preparing.

4. Weather ford for wireline logging.

5. Halliburton for Casing Job.


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Drilling Programme_Sujawal Deep-1

Well Design of Sujawal Deep-1


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Drilling Segments
Site Preparation
Rig Up
Spud
Drilling
MWD (Measurement while Drilling)
Mud Logging
Casing
Cementing
Wireline Logging
Perforation
DST (Drill String Testing)
SWT (Surface Well Testing)
Completion
Rig Down
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Mari RIG 3
Mari Rig 3 Model ZJ80DB3 drilling rig is a 2500 HP Rig (second biggest Rig in Pakistan)
having capability to drill well up to 8000 meters purchased from BOMCO (subsidiary of
CNPC) during 2014. Completed successful drilling of Halini Deep X-1 well up to 5900
meters in Karak Exploration License which is one of the deepest well drilled during
MPCL’s history. It is a cyber chair rig. Now it is used for drilling at Sujawal Deep-1 for
4400 m deep Well.

Mari Rig 3drilling rig is an AC-DC-AC AC variable frequency, electric drive, full digital
control drilling rig that is designated to satisfy the exploration and development of deep
wells in oilfield. Main matching components of the drilling rig conform to code
American Petroleum Institute (API is the only national trade association that
represents all aspects of America's oil and natural gas industry) and be able to meet the
requirements of new technology, their technical performance and reliabilities can reach
the international advanced standard.
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Site Layout of Mari Rig 3:

Drilling Rig Components List:

1. Crown Block
2. Catline Boom and Hoist Line
3. Drilling Line
4. Monkey board
5. Traveling Block
6. Top Drive
7. Mast
8. Drill Pipe
9. Doghouse
10. Blowout Preventer
11. Water Tank
12. Electric Cable Tray
13. Engine Generator Sets
14. Fuel Tanks
15. Electric Control House
16. Mud Pump
17. Bulk Mud Storage
18. Mud Pits
19. Reserve Pits
20. Mud Gas Separator
21. Shale Shaker
22. Choke Manifold
23. Pipe Ramp
24. Pipe Racks
25. Koomey Unit
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Rig Components:
Mari Rig 3 Components detail is as Under:

1.Crown Block:
Crown block is a fixed pulley block which is installed at the top of mast, it constitutes
the fast sheave and the pulley system by combining traveling block through the wire
rope, which reduces the tension of fast line significantly, thus it reduces the load of
boring winch in various operations (i.e. tripping, casing running, drilling, drilling tool
hanging) and reduces the rated power of engine block as well. TC585-3 crown block is
manly composed of crown block frame, main sheave assembly, guide sheave assembly,
auxiliary sheave assembly, hoist frame, anti-collision device, anti-rope frame, fence and
lighting rod seat etc.
CROWN SHEAVE

FAST SHEAVE
Technical parameters of Crown Block:
a. Model TC585-3
b. Max. load 5850 kN (650 Us tons)
c. Diameter of applicable line Φ38mm (1 1/2 in)
d. OD of sheave Φ1524mm (60 in)
e. OD of guide sheave Φ1524mm (60 in)
f. Number of main sheave 7 pieces
g. Number of guide sheave 1 piece
h. Maximum load of hoist frame 75 kN
i. OD of auxiliary sheave Φ400 mm (15 5/8 in)
j. Number of auxiliary sheave 2 pieces
k. Outside dimension (length ×width ×height) 3760×2980× 2550(mm)
l. Theoretical weight 11730 kg
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2.Drilling Line:
A wire rope hoisting line, reeved on sheaves of the crown block and traveling block (in
effect a block and tackle). Its primary purpose is to hoist or lower drill pipe or casing
from or into a well. Also, a wire rope used to support the drilling tools.
Draw works to Crown block Line is called Fast line.
Return line from crown block to deadline anchor is known as dead line.
Parameter:
Diameter of drilling wire rope 1-1/2″(Ф38mm)

3.Monkey Board:
The derrick man’s working platform. A monkey board located at a height in the derrick
or mast equal to two, three, or four lengths of pipe respectively.
Parameter:
Standpipe capacity of monkey board (5 1/2” drill pipe , 28m stand) (286) 8000m
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4.Travelling Block:
An arrangement of pulleys or sheaves through which drilling cable is reeved, which
moves up or down in the derrick or mast. The travelling part of drilling rig is of 7×8
structure, with the rope being coiled in crown block. The maximum load capacity of
hoisting equipment is 5850 kN.

5. Mast:
A portable derrick that can be raised as unit.
For transporting by land, the mast can be
divided into two or more section. Mast is of K-
shape structure and is mainly composed of
mast main body, racking platform, casing
platform, tubing platform, lifting device, cadge
ladder assembly and platform, etc. In addition,
it is also equipped with auxiliary devices such
as standpipe platform, laddering assistance
mechanism, anti-fall device, dead line
stabilizer, hydraulic damping device, tong
balancing weight and tong pulley, etc.
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Mast ZJ80DB3 Parameters:


Mast Type K Type

Max. hook load (7×8 rope system , full setback , wind speed 16.5m/s)
5850kN
Effective height (from drilling platform to the bottom of crown block beam)
48m

Top span(front/side) 2.6m/2.4m

Bottom span (front) 10m

Standpipe capacity of (5 1/2” drill pipe , 28m stand) (286) 8000m


monkey board

6. Rig Floor:
The floor is a relatively small work area in which the rig crew conducts operations,
usually adding or removing drill pipe to or from the drill string. The rig floor is the most
dangerous location on the rig because heavy iron is moved around there. Drill string
connections are made or broken on the drill floor, and the driller's console for
controlling the major components of the rig are located there. Attached to the rig floor is
a small metal room, the doghouse, where the rig crew can meet, take breaks and take
refuge from the elements during idle times.

Mouse Hole
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The drilling floor is arranged with a 5T pneumatic winch on its left-front and a 5T
pneumatic winch on its right-left, the pneumatic winch shall be fastened by flange. 2
16T hydraulic cat-works shall be arranged at the two sides of the center line of well
head at the backside of drilling floor. The driller side of drilling floor shall be equipped with a
dog house of 10000mm×2800mm×2800mm.

Technical parameter:
Height of rig floor 10.5m
Area of rig floor 13.8m×11.9m
Height of beam bottom of rotary table 9m
Maximum rated static hook load 5850kN
Max. load of rotary table 5850kN
Rated stand load 3630kN
Maximum combined rated static hook 9480 kN
load and rated setback capacity

7.Mouse Hole:
An opening in the rig floor near the rotary table, but between the rotary table and the
vee-door, that enables rapid connections while drilling. The mousehole is usually fitted
underneath with a length of casing, usually with a bottom. A joint of drillpipe that will
be used next in the drilling operation is placed in the mousehole, box end up, by the rig
crew at a convenient time (immediately after the previous connection is made). When
the bit drills down and the kelly is near the rotary table, another piece of drillpipe must
be added for drilling to continue. This next piece of pipe is standing in the mousehole
when the kelly is screwed onto it. Then the kelly and the joint of pipe in the mousehole
are raised to remove the pipe from the mousehole, the mousehole pipe screwed onto
the rest of the drillstring, and the drillstring lowered, rotated, and pumped through to
continue drilling. Another piece of pipe is put in the mousehole to await the next
connection.

8.Rat hole:
A storage place for the kelly, consisting of an opening in the rig floor fitted with a piece
of casing with an internal diameter larger than the outside diameter of the kelly, but less
than that of the upper kelly valve so that the kelly may be lowered into the rathole until
the upper kelly valve rests on the top of the piece of casing.
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9. Doghouse:
A small enclosure on the rig floor used as an office for the driller or as a storehouse for
small objects. Also, any small building used as an office or for storage.
Dimension (length × width × height) is 10,000 mm×2,800 mm×2,860 mm

10. Stabbing Board:

A platform in the derrick on which personnel work while casing


is being run to aid in guiding a tubular joint into another tubular
joint for makeup.

11.V-Door:

V-Door is an opening on the front of the derrick facing the Pipe Ramp. This opening is
used to lift up drill pipes.
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12.Deadline anchor:
An equipment that holds down the deadline part of the wire rope. It is usually bolted on
to the substructure.

ITEM SPECIFICATION
Model JZG46
Sensor JZG72.3 (6.83MPa)
Max. Deadline Load 460 kN
Mounting location Vertical
Weight 1412Kg

13.Mono Rail:

A rail that’s guide the TDS. During the up


and down movement this rail aligns the
TDS motor.

Mono Rail
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Drilling Rig systems


There are many individual pieces of equipment on a rotary drilling rig. These individual
pieces of equipment can however be grouped together into five subsystems.
These systems are:
 Power
 Hoisting
 Rotating
 Circulating
 Control and measurement

Detail of these systems is as discussed below:

Power System
ZJ80/5850DB drilling rig is an AC-DC-AC AC variable frequency, electric drive, full
digital control drilling rig. The power system at RIG Mari-3 consists of 2 main
components before it provided useful electrical energy to the relevant equipment.
Namely:
Generator Sets
Variable frequency drive
At rig mari-3 we have 2 types of generator-sets that are being used:
1. Caterpillar 3512B
2. Caterpillar C1
 We have four 3512B and three C15 in number.
 Three 3512B are used when heavy drilling is being done and 1 is for back-up.
 The C15 present near the Rig is used only when the drilling operations are either
not started or are completed otherwise it is not used regularly.
 The two C15 present near the camp side are used to power the camps with
electricity. One is working at a time and the other one is for back up.
 The Gen-sets produce raw electricity that is fed to the VFD through 3 phase
electric supply system and is then stepped down to usable energy.
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Generator Set 3512B

It is basically a 12-cylinder V-type 60o degree Electronic Fuel Injection 4-stroke


Internal Combustion Diesel engine.
It is rocker arm valve opening type with lower head cam engine.
The engine side has an operator module called the Engine Control Module that
controls the EFI system of this engine.
From the flywheel of the engine a shaft is coupled with the rotor of the generator
which is an electromagnet which is surrounded by electromagnet stator. The
revolution of that rotor cause the flux change in stator to produce 3 phase
electricity.
This electromagnet is not self-excited but is excited by a separate source.
There are 4 turbo chargers for increased volume of air to the engine cylinders.
Two on each side of manifold.
There are 2 pre-cleaners also called cyclone filter containing primary and
secondary filters to provide clean air for the turbochargers.
The silencer contains catalytic plates to reduce the carbon contents and to
convert carbon mono oxide to carbon di oxide, less toxic.
These generators are 3-phase generators.
This electricity produced is of high voltage and is passed to the VFD through 3-
phase wires to convert it into useable energy by stepping down its voltage and
controlling the frequency.
The engine is stationary but also equipped with the radiator to cool the water
that is being used for the water cooling of the engine. It is a separate jet water
cooling system.
Pneumatic motors are used for cranking of the engine.
There is another fan at the rear end of the engine near the rotor shaft to cool the
generator.
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3512B Engine

CAT 3512B Parameters and Specifications:


ITEM SPECIFICATION

Rated Speed (rpm) 900-1800


Idle Speed (rpm) 650
Power 1200kW
Cylinders and Arrangement 60-degree V 12
Bore 170mm
Stroke 190mm
Type 4 stroke cycle
Compression Ratio 14:1
Aspiration Turbocharged
Method of cooling turbocharged air Jacket water after cooling
Displacement per cylinder 4.3L
Total Displacement 51.8L
Fuel Diesel
Fuel Injection Electronic
Method of Starting Electric starting motor
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GENERATOR SET C15:


It is basically a 6 cylinder, Turbo-charged, Inline, EFI, 4Stroke, IC diesel Engine.
Its functionality is the same as the 3512B but the difference is that it is in in-line.
It has a different source of electric energy for cranking it. It is cranked by
providing 24 volts with the help of 2 acid batteries.
SPECIFICATIONS
Model C15
Bore dia. 137mm
Stroke length 172mm

Max. Rated Speed 2100rpm


Cooling system Air cooled
Total displacement 15.2 Liters
Working speed 1500rpm
Operating phase 3Phase (6 wires)
Total power at 1500rpm 417KW=559HP
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Variable Frequency Drive:


Its basic function is to step down the voltage and control the frequency while
electricity is being used by the equipment. Furthermore, it distributes the load
evenly on all of the gen sets.
It basically receives the 600V electricity from the gen-sets and converts them in
the useable power and energy for the respective motors and pumps.
It has two parts. One for the controls and transformer that steps down the high
voltage into required voltage like 220V, 110 or 24 volts for different equipment.
The second part consists of the resistor bank that is used for rejecting the excess
energy made by the motors of the draw works while rotating in opposite
direction.
When the hook is being hoisted upward by the draw-works it uses two motors
that use 840V (max.) to lift it but when hook is being lowered it rotates in
opposite direction and the motors of the Draw-works act like generators and
produce power which increases the voltages to almost 1045 V which are given to
the resistor bank that rejects and controls excess voltages and power.
A separately powered cooling system is used to cool the transformer and the
resistor bank.
A control room is used for turning on and off various electrically operated
machinery and controlling the electric supply for various machines and
equipment being operated at different Voltages.
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ITEM SPECIFICATION

INV module unit Simense S120.

Model No SACE E3

Inverter Draw works A cubicle 0~600V 1000kW

Inverter Draw Works B cubicle 0V~600V 1000kW

Inverter Rotary Table cubicle 0~600V 800kW

Inverter MP1 cubicle 0~600V 1200kW

Inverter MP2 cubicle 0~600V 1200kW

Simovert MasterDrive’s 6SE71, 37kW – 1500kW

Frequency output 0~200Hz

Braking capacity 75KA

Incoming power supply 380VAC, 3-phase ,50Hz, TN-S system

Output power supply 380/220VAC, 3-phase/single-phase, 50Hz TN-S


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Hoisting system
The hoisting system is a large pulley system which is used to lower and raise equipment
into and out of the well. The components parts of the hoisting system are shown in Figure.
The drawworks consists of a large revolving drum, around which a wire rope (drilling
line) is spooled. The drum of the drawworks is connected to an electric motor and
gearing system. The driller controls the drawworks with a clutch and gearing system
when lifting equipment out of the well and a brake (friction and electric) when running
equipment into the well. The drilling line is threaded (reeved) over a set of sheaves in
the top of the derrick, known as the crown block and down to another set of sheaves
known as the travelling block. A large hook with a snap-shut locking device is suspended
from the travelling block. This hook is used to suspend the drillstring. A set of clamps,
known as the elevators, used when running, or pulling, the drillstring or casing into or
out of the hole, are also connected to the travelling block. Having reeved the drilling line
around the crown block and travelling block, one end of the drilling line is secured to an
anchor point somewhere below the rig floor. Since this line does not move it is called the
deadline. The other end of the drilling line is wound onto the drawworks and is called
the fastline. The drilling line is usually reeved around the blocks several times. The
tensile strength of the drilling line and the number of times it is reeved through the blocks
will depend on the load which must be supported by the hoisting system.
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Draw works
Draw works is the core component of drilling rig. In the petroleum drilling process, it is
not only responsible for the operations of drilling tool rising and lowering, casing
running, drilling pressure controlling, accident handling, core extracting and oil testing,
but also responsible for the rising and lowering of mast and base. The hoisting
mechanism on a drilling rig. It is essentially a winch that spools off or takes in the drilling
line and thus raises or lowers the drill string. A modern draw-works
consists of five main parts: the drum, the motor(s), the reduction gear, the disc brake.
Draw works is a type of AC VFD single shaft draw works with gear drive and mainly
comprised of such unit components as AC VFD motor, reduction gearbox, hydraulic disc
brake, drum shaft, draw works frame, automatic feed driller, air system, lubrication
system. The draw works is powered by two AC VFD motors of power 1000kW (1360hp)
and speed 0-2600r/min.
The draw works is equipped with an automatic feed driller which is powered by one
45kW (50hp)/ 42.5kW (60hp) AC VFD motor. The function of automatic bit feed is
achieved by the drum which is driven by one vertical gear reducer.
Technical parameters:
Rated input power 2000kW
Max. fast line tension 555.3kN
Diameter of wire rope Ф38mm
Number of gears 2 forward and 2 reverse
(step less speed regulating)
Dimension of grooved drum (Diameter ×length) Ф770×1635.5mm
Dimension of brake disc (External diameter ×thickness)
Ф1520×76mm
Draw works Outside dimension 7700×3231×2530mm
Draw works Weight 46700kg
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Draw Works Hydraulic Disk Brake System :


The Break System of Draw works consists of a pneumatically controlled valve assembly
and hydraulically controlled disc brakes.
The system has three parts:

a) Brake Actuation Mechanism:


The brake actuation mechanism consists of braking caliper, caliper frame and friction
disc. Braking calipers include normal open service calipers and normal closed safety
calipers.
Service Calipers consists of mainly normal open single-action cylinder, disc springs,
lever and brake pad.
Working principle: Hydraulic pressure in the form of oil is provided to the brake pads.
When the brake pad contacts the friction disc, the braking force is produced. Due to the
proportional relationship between braking force and oil pressure, the friction disc will
be halted completely. With the decreasing of oil pressure P, the braking force will
decrease and brake will be released.
Safety Calipers consists of normal closed single-acting oil cylinder, disc spring, lever
and brake pad.
When the normal closed single-acting cylinder’s oil pressure is P=0, the set-in disc
springs transmits the force through the two levers to the brake pad and consequently
acts on the friction disc realizing brake. When the oil pressure is applied it will
overcome the disc spring force to compress the disc spring, releasing the brake through
the lever.
Friction Disc which forms the brake pair together with brake pad is one of the core
components. Usually, each set of product is equipped with two friction discs, which are
mounted on both ends of the draw-works drum.

 At rig mari-3 the friction plate is water cooled with water flowing through the
stuffing boxes to compensate the heat due to friction.

1=Drum
2=Friction disc
3=Caliper frame
4=Service caliper
5=Safety caliper
6=Base
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b) Hydraulic Power Unit:


It is basically a hydraulic power supply unit,
which provides necessary hydraulic power for
the actuation mechanism. The hydraulic power
unit includes oil tank assembly (accumulators),
pumps, control block assembly, oil filling
assembly and electrical control box. A control
valve assembly assigns path to the Hydraulic
fluid to apply pressure.
Specifications
 Rated Flow of single Pump 15 L/min/18.5
L/min
 Oil tank Capacity 90L
 Motor Power 3KW
 Accumulator Capacity 6.3L

Control System
The control system is the hydraulic power control unit. The control system includes
manual proportion potentiometer (also disc brake); parking brake transforms switch,
emergency brake push button and electrical control cabinet. Electrical control cabinet
includes atmosphere switch, power supply, amplifier (microphone) etc.

Supply_Real
A spool that stores the unused portion of the Drilling Line.
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Rotary System & Components


The rotary system is used to rotate the drillstring, and therefore the drillbit, on
the bottom of the borehole. The Rig Equipment responsible for rotating the Drillstring.
Consist of the following:

Top drive system:


A device that turns the drillstring. It consists of one or more motors (electric or hydraulic)
connected with appropriate gearing to a short section of pipe called a quill, that in turn
may be screwed into a saver sub or the drillstring itself. The topdrive is suspended from
the hook, so the rotary mechanism is free to travel up and down the derrick. This is
radically different from the more conventional rotary table and kelly method of turning
the drillstring because it enables drilling to be done with three joint stands instead of
single joints of pipe. It also enables the driller to quickly engage the pumps or the rotary
while tripping pipe, which cannot be done easily with the kelly system.
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TDS-8SA SGB:
The TDS-8SA SGB Top Drive is the portable version of the TDS-8SA. It generates 1,150
horsepower and a continuous drilling torque rating of 62,500 ft.-lbs. The TDS-8SA SGB
features a maximum speed of 270 rpm and an intermittent torque of 95,000 ft.-lbs, with
a 750 ton hoisting capacity. The TDS-8SA SGB uses a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)
control system. The TDS8-SA SGB, with its high capacity helical gears and single-speed
gearbox, offers a wide range of torque and speed performance.
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The drive stem functions as the main output shaft driving the drill string. The AC drilling
motor, through the gear transmission, rotates the drive stem. The drive stem passes
through the rotating link adapter.
The rotating link adapter allows the hydraulic lines to remain connected as the pipe
handler rotates with the drive stem components. The rotating link adapter has the torque
arrester frame hanged to it and the link tilt mechanism integrated into its body. The
rotating link adaptor hangs from a stem bolted at the lower gear case. During tripping,
when the drill pipe elevator supports the weight of the drill string, the rotating link
adaptor strokes down to the landing collar seat and, in turn, transfers the load to the main
shaft. Internal blow out preventer valves (IBOP) connect to the end of the drive stem.
The driller can close the upper IBOP valve from the driller’s console and can manually
close the lower IBOP valve and send it down hole while controlling a kick. A mechanical
wash-pipe assembly is located between the main shaft and the gooseneck.

 The cooling system consists of a heavy-construction pressure motor cooling


blower and duct mounted on the drilling motor.
 The whole TDS assembly moves up and down on the sectional guide beam with
the help of a number of guide rollers.
 A Mechanical Wash pipe is that portion of TDS that connects the Static and
rotating portion of the TDS.
The Wash pipe consists of an upper and lower nut, an upper floating assembly,
and the seal set.

 The Link tilt assembly is responsible for motion of the elevator link. Elevator
link holds the pipes while up or down motion.

 Internal Blow out Preventers aka IBOP are present at the main Rotating shaft
of TDS, as Upper and Lower IBOP.
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Upper IBOP is operated from drillers control room, while lower IBOP is
controlled manually.
Its Purposes are:
 IBOP blocks the mud circulation during making or breaking of joints.
 It is also used as a safety measure in case of a Kick.

Benefit of TDS:
 Highest safety level
 High performance due to increased torque
 Robust design
 Extended service interval
 Components with longer life time
 Low maintenance cost

TDS 8SA (NOV) Parameters and Specifications:


ITEM SPECIFICATION
Weight 38,750 lbs.

TDS working Height 24 ft

Horse power 1150 hp

Torque capacity. 100,000 ft-lbs


Drilling speed range 0 to 270 rpm continuous

Hoisting capacity 750 tons (650-ton option), API-8C, PSL-1, SR-1

Low gear ratio 8.5:1

Max cont. torque 62250 ft-lb

Static lock brake 67400 ft-lb

Wash pipe packing 5k or 7.5k psi

Pipe handler PH-100

Cooling system Air cooled

Rated working Pressure 7500 psi

Upper and Lower IBOP valve, ID 15000 psi, 3.82”

Pipe handler rotation 360o

Diameter range of jaws for OD connections 3.75 to 9”


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Counter Balance System:


This system is equipped with the top drive
system to avoid excessive load being
applied on the threads or the pipes. It is
used when two pipes or stands are being
joined by the threads. Since TDS and pipes
are so heavy that they can damage the
thread of the lower box threads so counter
balance is used to balance the
excessive load and it works automatically. It
senses the height of pips and threads
and then allows the TDS to lower and
complete the joint.

Rotary table:
A rotary table is a mechanical device on a drilling rig that provides clockwise or Counter
Clock Wise rotational force to the drill string to facilitate the process of drilling a borehole.
Rotary speed is the number of times the rotary table makes one full revolution in one
minute (rpm).
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Rotary Table

Model ZP375

Max. Working torque 71969 Nm

Max. Short Torque 107953 Nm

Speed 0~210 r/min

Main motor

Model BS03/BS03A

Rated Voltage 600 V

Rated Power 800 kW

Rated speed 741 r/min

Rated frequency 37.5 Hz

Max constant power speed (r/min) 1485 r/min

Cooling mode Forced ventilation cooling

Master bushing
A device that fits into the rotary table to accommodate the slips and drive the drill
string.
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Circulating System
The circulating system is used to circulate drilling fluid down through the drill string and
up the annulus, carrying the drilled cuttings from the face of the bit to surface. The Mud
Circulation system plays an important role in drilling and controlling the well. Drilling
mud, also called drilling fluid, in petroleum engineering, a heavy, viscous fluid mixture
that is used in oil and gas drilling operations to carry rock cuttings to the surface and also
to lubricate and cool the drill bit. At Mari Rig 3 Water based mud is circulating through
the string in the well.

Mud
Pumps Surface
Manifold
Suction
Tanks

Stand
Pipe

Mud
Cleane
r Mud Circulation
Kelly
Cycle Hose

Shale
Shaker
TDS
Goose

Possum
Belly Drill Bit

The complete, circuitous path that the drilling fluid travels. Starting at the
main rig pumps, major components include surface piping, the standpipe, the kelly
hose (rotary), the TDS, the drillpipes, drill collars, bit nozzles, the various annular
geometries of the openhole and casing strings, the bell nipple, the flowline, the mud-
cleaning equipment, the mud tanks, the centrifugal precharge pumps and, finally, the
positive displacement main rig pumps.
The detail of all components is discussed below:
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1.MUD Pumps:
Mari Rig 3 have a total no of three mud pumps being used. At a time 2 in use 1 at
backup. These are positive displacement (Reciprocating); single acting piston cylinder
type triplex pumps. There is a suction manifold (intake) and a return/discharge manifold
(discharge). The mud pump is the primary component of any circulating system. It is used
to circulate the drilling fluid at the required pressure and volume from the Mud Tanks
through the stand pipe to rotary hose and then from the drill stem to the bit.
Triplex Pump:
Triplex pumps have three cylinders having only one suction and one discharge
valve, hence called (Single Acting). The cylinder is filled as the piston moves back due to
suction created and is discharged as the piston moves forward.

Piston Stroke
One complete cycle of suction and discharge cycle of piston is called Piston Stroke.
The longer the stroke of the piston, the greater will be the pump output.
Each piston is placed in a liner usually 12 inches in length. The smaller the liner diameter,
the smaller is the volume pumped on each stroke but as the liner walls are thicker, more
pressure is available because the force of the piston is same as before.
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F-1600HL Drill Pump:


The design of F-1600HL drilling pump complies with API SPEC 7K.
F-1600HL drilling pump applies horizontal triplex single-action plunger piston
pump, with such advantages as advanced structure, use reliability,
interchangeability, easy maintenance and care, etc.
This kind of pump is mainly composed of power end and fluid end. The power
end includes: Frame, pinion shaft, crankshaft, crosshead, extension rod, etc. The
fluid end includes: Liquid tank, valve assembly, liner, piston, suction pipe and
discharge pipe, etc.
In order to prevent line shock and reduce outlet pressure fluctuation, on the
lateral of inlet pipe and outlet, suction capsule and discharge capsule are
respectively installed.
Technical specification of F-1600HL drilling pump.
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Performance parameters:

Gear, bearing and crosshead, etc. of power end adopt double lubrication combining
forced lubrication and splashing lubrication to confirm good lubrication condition.
The liner piston of the fluid end is supplied with cooled lubricant by centrifugal
spraying pump (water-basis lubricant cooler) to make the cleaning and cooling.

Pump Components:

Super Charger Pump:


This pump is used to increase the efficiency of mud pumps. This pump provides
extra mud to the intake chamber or liner to the mud triplex pump. This is basically a
centrifugal type pump with the Rated Power capacity of 75 kw, flow rate is 240 m 3/h.
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Pulsation dampener:
A pulsation dampener, or desurger, installed on triplex pumps to reduce the variation
in discharge pressure. The capsule is filled with nitrogen or air, shall not be filled with
oxygen, hydrogen or likewise combustible and explosive gas.

Shear relief valve:

This relief valve is installed on the side of the discharge manifold, and its function
is to lower the pressure instantly when the working pressure of the pump is
above the allowed limit, so as to ensure equipment safety.

The spraying pump assembly:


The spraying pump assembly is comprised of the spraying pump, water tank and
spraying pipe, etc. Its function is to make necessary rinsing and cooling of the
liner, piston and the sealing in the process of pump running, in order to extend its
life-span.
Splashing lubricating
In the splashing lubricating system to control sap flow, the big gear draws the oil
from the oil tank, when the big gear and small gear joggle, the oil is splashed to
various oil sinks and frame oil cavities. Oil flows into two pinions bearings directly
through pipe after being shaken into oil groove.
Lubricating oil lies up in oil cavity at the top of crosshead. It flows into crosshead
baffle through choke and then enters oil line to lubricate crosshead pin bearing.
There are two oil lines on crosshead pin.
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2.Vibrating Hose:
It is basically a rubber hose connects the 4discharge of mud pump with the surface
manifold.

2.Surface Manifold:
An arrangement of piping and valves that receives drilling fluid from one or more mud
pumps and transmit the drilling fluid to the succeeding circulating component.

3. Stand pipe:
The discharge line from the mud pumps is connected to the standpipe - a steel pipe
mounted vertically on one leg of the Mast.
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4. Stand pipe Manifold:


It controls and regulates the mud pressure coming from the pumps through stand pipes.
It is mounted on the Rig floor.

5.Kelly hose:
A flexible rubber hose (Kelly hose) connects the top of the standpipe to the TDS via
the gooseneck.
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5.Bell Nipple & Flow Line:


An enlarged pipe at the top of a casing string that serves as a funnel to guide drilling
tools into the top of a well. The bell nipple is usually fitted with a side outlet to permit
drilling fluids to flow back to the surface mud treating equipment through another
inclined pipe called a flowline.

5.Possum Belly:
A Possum belly, on a drilling rig, is a metal container at the head of the shale shaker that
receives the flow of drilling fluid and is directly connected to and at the end of the flow
line. A possum belly may also be referred to as a distribution box or flowline trap.

6.Shale Shakers:
Once the mud has been circulated round the system it will contain suspended drilled
cuttings, perhaps some gas and other contaminants. These must be removed before the
mud is recycled. The mud passes over a shale shaker, which is basically a vibrating
screen. This will remove the larger particles, while allowing the residue (underflow) to
pass into settling tanks. A series of trays with sieves or screens that vibrate to remove
cuttings from circulating fluid in rotary drilling operations. The size of the openings in
the sieve is selected to match the size of the solids in the drilling fluid and the
anticipated size of cuttings. Also called a shaker.
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ITEM SPECIFICATION
Series FLC 2000 – 3 Panel
Motors Quantity and Style 2 x Super G Vibrator Motors
Model SGX (Super G Explosion Proof)
Operating Voltage 380/400 VAC, 3 Phase, 50 Hz
Speed 1500 RPM
Screen Panel Dimensions 48 inches’ x 30 inches
No. of Screen Panels FLC 2000 - 3 – Three
Screen Tensioning System
Type Rapid Change Draw Bolt or Ramp Lock
Draw Bolt System
No. of Assemblies 24 – FLC 2000-3
Motor Weight 290 lbs (132 kg) each
Weir Feeder Types Weir or weir bypass
Cleanout Connection 4” (101 mm)
Weir Height 24” (508 mm)
Hopper Capacity 3 Barrels
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8. Sand Trap:
The settling pit or sand trap is located below the shakers. It is the first pit that receives
the returning mud from the shakers. The pit has a sloped bottom, where particles
separated by gravity. A clean out valve is periodically opened in order to dump the solids
that have accumulated.

9.Degasser:
If the mud contains gas from the formation it will be passed through a degasser which
separates the gas from the liquid mud. A device that removes air or gases (methane, H2S,
CO2 and others) from drilling liquids. There are two generic types that work by both
expanding the size of the gas bubbles entrained in the mud (by pulling a vacuum on the
mud) and by increasing the surface area available to the mud so that bubbles escape
(through the use of various cascading baffle plates). Here at Mari Rig 3 baffle Plates Type
Degasser is used. Specifications are given below:

ITEM SPECIFICATION
Model FLO 1200
Height 74 inches (1880 mm)
Width 64 inches (1626 mm)
Length 88 inches (2235 mm)
Weight 2700 lbs (1225.5 kg)
Inlet & Outlet Connections
Mud Inlets 8” (203mm) Victaulic Groove
Discharge 8” ID (203mm) Flange
Vacuum Pump
Vacuum (Max.) 29” Hg
Drive Motor 5HP, 1750RPM, 3 Phase
Drive Belt
Length 88” (2235mm)
Width (Max.) 8” (202mm)
Venturi Dia. 5-3/64” (128mm)
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10.Desander/Desilter:
A centrifugal device for removing sand from the drilling fluid to prevent abrasion of the
pumps. It works on hydro cyclone principle. Desilter is also a centrifugal device for
removing free particles of silt from the drilling fluid to keep the amount of solids in the
fluid at the lowest possible point.

11.Centrifuge:
The centrifuge retrieves materials that are to be retained in the mud system. It consists
of a rotating cone-shaped drum that turns at a high rate of speed and a screw conveyor
within the drum that moves the coarse particles to the discharge port and back to the
active system.
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Rig Mari-3 have 10 tanks


1-Sand Trap
2-Intermediate
3-Suction Tank
4-Pre-Mixer
5-Reserve tank # 1
6-Reserve tank # 2
7-Reserve tank # 3
9-Reserve tank # 5
8-Reserve tank # 4
9-2 water Tanks
10-Trip Tank

Water and Mud Pits:


 They are used as water reserves in times of making slurry for the cementing job.
 They are used by the labor sometimes for various purposes.
 For a larger and greater capacity Rig more water is required in the water tanks
so water is drawn from these water pits.
 This water can also be used in times of emergency for the accommodation side
like when the water hose tankers cannot reach the rig site due to a number of
problems like weather issues, Road blockage and land sliding etc.
 The waste mud pit is used for the dumping of the unwanted solid materials.
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Mixing Hoppers
Powdered chemicals and materials, as well as solids, needed by the mud are added
using the mixing hopper. The JET HOPPER, initially developed for cementing
operations, is the most common hopper in use. Mud in the mud Tanks circulates
through the jet by a motor and a centrifugal pump and lowers the static pressure
creating a vacuum causing the material in the hopper to be sucked and mixed with
the mud. At Mari Rig 3 there are 3 hopper Pumps called as sand pumps. 2 sand
pumps one is shear pump.

Agitator:
Main functions of agitator is to make solid particles suspended in drilling fluid.
Agitator plays important roles in accelerating (e.g. bentonite, barite) speed,
reaction of chemical additives, solution and wetting.
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Function of drilling Fluid or Mud:

 To clean the bottom of the hole.


 Transport of cuttings and carvings.
 Suspension of particles when circulation is stopped.
 Control of subsurface pressures.
 Cooling and lubrication of the bit and drill string.
 Support to the walls of the hole.
 Transmission of hydraulic energy.
 To Cooling of Drill Bit.

Properties of the Drilling Fluid:

Density:
Density is equal to Mass per unit volume. The density of a drilling fluid is simply the
weight of a given volume of mud. It depends on the type of volumetric percentage of its
constituents.
Density is measured in pounds per gallon (ppg), pounds per cubic foot (pcf), specific
gravity (S.G.) or pressure gradient (psi/ ft).
The liquid phase density (water, oil, salt water mixtures) the mud products and
chemicals (bentonite, caustic, etc.), the native solids (drilled solids) and the weighting
materials (Calcium carbonate fine, barite) present together dictate the density of the
drilling fluid.

Viscosity:
The drilling fluid viscosity is very important property with respect to cleaning of the
hole and suspending particles in the mud (especially when the circulation is stopped).
Viscosity is generally defined as the internal resistance of a fluid to flow.
The plastic viscosity is due to mechanical friction of the solids in the mud as they come
in contact with each other and with the liquid phase of the mud. Plastic viscosity
depends on the concentration (number) and size of solids present.

Mud Balancer:
A device to measure density (weight) of mud, cement or other liquid or slurry. A mud
balance consists of a fixed-volume mud cup with a lid on one end of a graduated beam
and a counterweight on the other end. A slider-weight can be moved along the beam, and
a bubble indicates when the beam is level. Density is read at the point where the slider-
weight sits on the beam at level. Accuracy of mud weight should be within +/- 0.1 lbm/gal
(+/- 0.01 g/cm3). A mud balance can have calibrated with water or other liquid of known
density by adjusting the counter weight. Most balances are not pressurized, but a
pressurized mud balance operates in the same manner.
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Marsh Funnel:
A quart [946 cm3] of drilling fluid is poured in the Marsh funnel to determine the time
(in seconds) it takes to exit the funnel. This measurement is known as the funnel
viscosity. A quart of water exits the funnel in 26 seconds.
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Well Control System


The technology focused on maintaining pressure on open formations (that is, exposed
to the wellbore) to prevent or direct the flow of formation fluids into the wellbore. This
technology encompasses the estimation of formation fluid pressures, the strength of the
subsurface formations and the use of casing and mud density to offset those pressures
in a predictable fashion. Also included are operational procedures to safely stop a well
from flowing should an influx of formation fluid occur. To conduct well-control
procedures, large valves are installed at the top of the well to enable wellsite personnel
to close the well if necessary.
The well control system is designed to:
Detect a kick
Close-in the well at surface
Remove the formation fluid which has flowed into the well
Make the well safe
What is Kick:
A flow of formation fluids into the wellbore during drilling operations. The kick is
physically caused by the pressure in the wellbore being less than that of the formation
fluids, thus causing flow. This condition of lower wellbore pressure than the formation is
caused in two ways. First, if the mud weight is too low, then the hydrostatic pressure
exerted on the formation by the fluid column may be insufficient to hold the formation
fluid in the formation. This can happen if the mud density is suddenly lightened or is not
to specification to begin with, or if a drilled formation has a higher pressure than
anticipated. This type of kick might be called an underbalanced kick. The second way a
kick can occur is if dynamic and transient fluid pressure effects, usually due to motion of
the drill string or casing, effectively lower the pressure in the wellbore below that of the
formation. This second kick type could be called an induced kick.

Well Control Devices:


Blow out preventers (BOPs) must be installed to cope with any kicks that may occur.
BOPs are basically high pressure valves which seal off the top of the well. On land rigs or
fixed platforms the BOP stack is located directly beneath the rig floor.
There are two basic types of BOP.

Annular preventer:
Designed to seal off the annulus between the drill string and the side of hole (may also
seal off open hole if kick occurs while the pipe is out of the hole). These are made of
synthetic rubber which, when expanded, will seal off the cavity as shown in figure.
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Ram type preventer:


Designed to seal off the annulus by ramming large rubber faced blocks of steel together.
Different types are available: blind rams - seal off in open hole pipe rams - seal off around
drill pipe (shown in Figure) shear rams - sever drill pipe (used as last resort).
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Pipe Rams:
These have a rubber face molded to fit around a certain size of drill pipe. If more
than one size drill pipe is in use, there must be one set of pipe rams for each size of pipe.

Blind Rams:
These are hydraulic rams which will close and completely close off the
borehole. As such, they are used only when there is no drill pipe in the borehole.

Shear Rams:
These rams have specially designed cutting structures, which when closed on
drill pipe, will cut through the drill pipe and completely close off the borehole. The
hydraulic pressure used to close the blowout preventers is supplied by “accumulators”,
containing high pressure nitrogen. In an emergency, the ram preventers may be manually
closed.
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BOP Control Unit (Koomey Unit):


An accumulator or Koomey unit is a unit used to hydraulically operate Rams BOP,
Annular BOP, HCR and some hydraulic equipment. There are several of high pressure
cylinders that store gas (in bladders) and hydraulic fluid or water under pressure for
hydraulic activated systems. The primary purpose of this unit is to supply hydraulic
power to the BOP stack in order to close/open BOP stack for both normal operational and
emergency situations. Stored hydraulic in the system can provide hydraulic power to
close BOP’s in well control operation, therefore, kick volume will be minimized. The
accumulator should have sufficient volume to close/open all preventers and accumulator
pressure must be maintained all time. According to API RP53, your reservoir tank should
have a total volume at least 2 times of usable volume to close all BOP equipment.
BOP (annular and three types of rams) is hydraulically operated at a pressure of 3000
psi. In order to operate them a BOP control unit is equipped. BOP control unit has
following distinguished parts.

Two oil tank reservoir with 2600-liter capacity each.


Hydraulic flows into the suction inlet of the pump either by gravity or by
artificial pump suction mechanism.
3 electrically operated and 6 pneumatic pumps to pressurize the hydraulic up to
3000 psi.
Pressurized fluid is stored in accumulator for later use.
Accumulator is a cylinder with 24 nitrogen filled bladder in it. Nitrogen is filled at
1000 psi.
After accumulator a control valve assembly is being used to direct the flow and
control the pressure of the fluid being flowed to the equipment.
Technical Parameters of BOP Control Unit:
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The diagram below demonstrates how the accumulator is lined up for the surface stack.
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8 four-way valve is used in accumulator unit:


1. Annular preventer
2. Pipe Ram
3. Blind Ram/shear Ram
4. Pipe Ram
5. HCR (Choke Line)
6. HCR (Kill Line)
7 & 8 Valves spare
4Way Valve Operation in Blow Out Preventer Accumulator (Koomey) Unit:
4way valves in the accumulator (Koomey) unit are used to control the position of Blow
Out Preventer (BOP).
Four-Way Vale in Open Position:
When the valve is turned into the open position, it directs hydraulic pressure from the
manifold into the BOP opening port therefore the BOP is in the open position. The
hydraulic fluid in the ram closing chamber will return back to then reservoir tank. Figure
illustrates how the hydraulic pressure is lined up to open the BOP.
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Four-Way Vale in Closed Position:


The valve is turned into the close position. It means that the hydraulic pressure from the
manifold is transferred into the BOP close port. The hydraulic from the opening
chamber will return back to the reservoir tank. Figure 2 shows how the hydraulic
pressure is lined up to close the BOP.

Four-Way Vale in Block Position:


When the four-way valve is left in the
block position (central position –
Figure), there is no hydraulic pressure
going into either the “close” or “open”
port in the BOP. You might not know
exactly the position of the rams with
the block position.
In normal drilling operation, you
should never leave in the block
position. However, the valves can be
left in the block position during rig
move and repairing operation.
There is one special thing which
personnel must consider about the
handle of 4way valve used to operation
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the blind/shear rams. The control handle must be protected to mitigate unintentional
operation however it still allows to be remotely operated from the BOP remote control
panel.

There are three consoles (controls) provided for the BOP control system:
 Remote Console (BOP Control Unit) or koomey unit.
 Drillers Console (On the rig Floor).
 Auxiliary Drillers Console (In front of Tool Pusher Office).

Diverter:
The diverter is an annular preventer with a large piping system underneath. It is
utilized to divert the kick from the rig and it can be used when the conductor pipe is set.
It is not used if you drill riser less. The large diameter pipe typically has two directions
diverting the wellbore fluid out of the rig.

Circulating out a kick


To remove the formation fluids now trapped in the annulus a high pressure circulating
system is used. A choke manifold with an adjustable choke is used to control flow rates
during the circulation. Basically heavier mud must be pumped down the drill pipe to
control the formation pressure, and the fluids in the annulus circulated to surface. As
the kick starts moving up the hole the choke opening is restricted to hold enough back
pressure on the formation to prevent any further influx. The fluids are circulated out via
the choke line, through the choke manifold out to a gas/mud separator and a flare stack.
Once the heavier mud has reached surface the well should be dead.
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Kill Line:
A high-pressure pipe leading from an outlet on the BOP stack to the high
pressure rig pumps. During normal well control operations, kill fluid is pumped through
the drill string and annular fluid is taken out of the well through the choke line to the
choke, which drops the fluid pressure to atmospheric pressure. If the drillpipe is
inaccessible, it may be necessary to pump heavy drilling fluid in the top of the well, wait
for the fluid to fall under the force of gravity, and then remove fluid from theannulus. In
such an operation, while one high pressure line would suffice, it is more convenient to
have two. In addition, this provides a measure of redundancy for the operation.

Choke Line:
A high-pressure pipe leading from an outlet on the BOP stack to
the backpressure choke and associated manifold. During well-control operations, the
fluid under pressure in the wellbore flows out of the well through the choke line to the
choke, reducing the fluid pressure to atmospheric pressure.

Choke Line
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Choke manifold:
Choke manifold is a system of valves and chokes for controlling the flow from the well
usually has two flow paths, one adjustable choke used primarily for cleaning the well up
and facilities to install and change choke of fixed sizes for a more accurate flow control
during main well flow periods. Each flow path has two closing gate valves which are used
to direct the flow through either of the chokes or the chokes or the bypass and to provide
isolation from pressure when changing the fixed choke.

Poor Boy Degasser:


A device used to separate entrained gas from production liquids. Surface processing
facilities generally use gas separators to render the liquids safe for further processing or
disposal. Gas-separation equipment is also used in downhole applications, such as the
protection of pumping equipment against gas lock by separating and redirecting free gas
at the pump suction or inlet.
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Tubular and Tubular Handling Equipment


Drill pipe:
Tubular steel conduit fitted with special threaded ends called tool joints. The drill
pipe connects the rig surface equipment with the bottom hole assembly and the bit,
both to pump drilling fluid to the bit and to be able to raise, lower and rotate the bottom
hole assembly and bit. Drill pipes are flexible so it can run in directional hole.
If three drill pipes are joined, then it will be called stand pipe.

ITEM SPECIFICATION
Available pipe grades S and G
Available sizes 5”, 5 ½”
Connection type IF and REG

Drill String:
The combination of the drillpipe, the bottomhole assembly and any other tools used to
make the drill bit turn at the bottom of the wellbore.
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HWDP (Heavy weight drill pipe):


A type of drill pipe whose walls are thicker and collars are longer than conventional drill
pipe. HWDP tends to be stronger and has higher tensile strength than conventional drill
pipe, so it is placed near the top of a long drill string for additional support.
HWDP is used to absorb the stresses being transferred from the stiff drill collars to the
relatively flexible drillpipe. The major benefits of HWDP are:
Increased wall thickness
Longer tool joints
Uses more hard facing
May have a long central upset section
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Drill Colors:
A component of a drill string that provides weight on bit for drilling. Drill collars are
thick-walled tubular pieces machined from solid bars of steel, usually plain carbon steel.
The outside diameter of the steel bars may be machined slightly to ensure roundness,
and in some cases may be machined with helical grooves ("spiral collars").Gravity acts
on the large mass of the collars to provide the downward force needed for the bits to
efficiently break rock.

JAR OR JARING TOOL:


Jars are fitted into the drill string and are used in the event when the drill string is stuck.
They provide upward and downward hydraulic jarring pound that helps freeing the
string.
They get themselves activate and give a sudden jerk when activated so that the stuck
drillpipes can be retrieved.
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Bottom Hole Assembly:


The lower portion of the drill string, consisting of (from the bottom up in a vertical well)
the bit, bit sub, a mud motor (in certain cases), stabilizers, drill collar, heavy-weight drill
pipe, jarring devices ("jars") and crossovers for various thread forms. The bottom hole
assembly must provide force for the bit to break the rock (weight on bit), survive a hostile
mechanical environment and provide the driller with directional control of the well.
Oftentimes the assembly includes a mud motor, directional drilling and measuring
equipment, measurements-while-drilling tools, logging-while-drilling tools and other
specialized devices. A simple BHA consisting of a bit, various crossovers, and drill collars.

Stabilisers:
Stabilisers consist of a length of pipe with blades on the external surface. These blades
may be either straight or spiral and there are numerous designs of stabilisers. The
blades can either be fixed on to the body of the pipe, or mounted on a rubber sleeve
(sleeve stabiliser), which allows the drillstring to rotate within it. In vertical holes the
functions of stabilisers may be summarised as follows:
Reduce buckling and bending stresses on drill collars
Allow higher WOB since the string remains concentric even in compression.
Increase bit life by reducing wobble (i.e. all three cones loaded equally).
Help to prevent wall sticking.
Act as a key seat wiper when placed at top of collars.

Subs (substitutes):
Subs are short joints of pipe which act as crossovers (i.e. connect components which
cannot otherwise be screwed together because of differences in thread type or size).
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Tubular Handling Equipment:


Equipment used to move, make and break connection, suspend tubular on the rig.
These include the following:
1. Elevator Links 6. Slips
2. Elevator 7. Safety Clamp
3. Lifting Subs 8. Tongs
4. Lifting Plug 9. Drill pipe Spinner
5. Winches 10. Bit Breaker

Elevator Links:
Equipment attached onto the Traveling Block in order to suspend the Elevators.

Elevators:
Clamps that grip a stand of casing, tubing, drill pipe or drill collars so that the stand or
joint can be raised from or lowered into the opening of hole of the rotary table.

Safety Clamps:
They are used on tubular above the slips to prevent dropping the string should the slips
fail to hold.
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Pneumatic Winches:
A pneumatically operated drum with wire rope spooled onto it to move or lift heavy
objects on the rig floor. Lifting Capacity 50 kN.

Slips:
A wedge shape piece of metal with teeth or other gripping elements that are used to
prevent pipe from slipping down into hole or to hold the pipe in place.
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Tong:
Large wrenches used to make or break out tubular. It is f two types Power Tong and Cat
Tongs or manual Tongs.

Manual Tongs

Power Tong
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Drill Bits
A drilling bit is the cutting or boring tool which is made up on the end of the drill string.
The bit drills through the rock by scraping, chipping, gouging or grinding the rock at the
bottom of the hole. Drilling fluid is circulated through passageways in the bit to remove
the drilled cuttings.
TYPES OF DRILLING BIT
There are basically two types of drilling bit:
• Roller Cone Bits
• Diamond Bits
Roller cone bits:
Roller cone bits (or rock bits) are still the most common type of bit used world
Wide. The cutting action is provided by cones which have either steel teeth or
Tungsten carbide inserts. These cones rotate on the bottom of the hole and drill
Hole predominantly with a grinding and chipping action. Rock bits are classified as
Milled tooth bits or insert bits depending on the cutting surface on the cones.

PDC Bits:
Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters to shear rock with a continuous scraping
motion. These cutters are synthetic diamond disks about 1/8-in. thick and about 1/2 to 1
in. in diameter. PDC bits are effective at drilling shale formations, especially when used in
combination with oil-base muds.
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Measurement While Drilling(MWD)


The evaluation of physical properties, usually including pressure, temperature and
wellbore trajectory in three-dimensional space, while extending a wellbore. MWD is now
standard practice in offshore directional wells, where the tool cost is offset by rig time
and wellbore stability considerations if other tools are used. The measurements are made
downhole, stored in solid-state memory for some time and later transmitted to the
surface. Data transmission methods vary from company to company, but usually involve
digitally encoding data and transmitting to the surface as pressure pulses in
the mud system. These pressures may be positive, negative or continuous sine waves.
Some MWD tools have the ability to store the measurements for later retrieval
with wireline or when the tool is tripped out of the hole if the data transmission link fails.
MWD tools that measure formation parameters (resistivity, porosity, sonic velocity,
gamma ray) are referred to as logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. LWD tools use similar
data storage and transmission systems, with some having more solid-state memory to
provide higher resolution logs after the tool is tripped out than is possible with the
relatively low bandwidth, mud-pulse data transmission system.

Directional drilling:
Directional drilling is defined as the practice of controlling the direction and deviation of
a wellbore to a predetermined underground target or location. This section describes
why directional drilling is required, the sort of well paths that are used, and the tools and
methods employed to drill those wells.
Applications of directional drilling
Listed are some of the major applications of directional drilling
Multiple wells from a single location
Field developments, particularly offshore and in the Arctic, involve drilling an optimum
number of wells from a single platform or artificial island. Directional drilling has helped
by greatly reducing the costs and environmental impact of this application.
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Inaccessible surface locations


A well is directionally drilled to reach a producing zone that is otherwise inaccessible
with normal vertical-drilling practices. The location of a producing formation dictates the
remote rig location and directional-well profile. Applications like this are
where “extended-reach” wells are most commonly drilled.
Multiple target zones
A very cost-effective way of delivering high production rates involves intersecting
multiple targets with a single wellbore. There are certain cases in which the attitudes
(bed dips) of the producing formations are such that the most economical approach is a
directional well for a multiple completion. This is also applicable to multiple production
zones adjacent to a fault plane or beneath a salt dome.
Sidetrack
This technique may be employed either to drill around obstructions or to reposition the
bottom of the wellbore for geological reasons. Drilling around obstructions, such as a lost
string of pipe, is usually accomplished with a blind sidetrack. Oriented sidetrack is
required if a certain direction is critical in locating an anticipated producing formation.
Fault drilling
It is often difficult to drill a vertical well through a steeply inclined fault plane to reach an
underlying hydrocarbon-bearing formation. Instead, the wellbore may be deflected
perpendicular or parallel to the fault for better production. In unstable areas, a wellbore
drilled through a fault zone could be at risk because of the possibility of slippage or
movement along the fault. Formation pressures along fault planes may also affect hole
conditions.
Salt-dome exploration
Producing formations can be found under the hard, overhanging cap of salt domes.
Drilling a vertical well through a salt dome increases the possibility of drilling problems,
such as washouts, lost circulation, and corrosion.
Relief-well drilling
An uncontrolled (wild) well is intersected near its source. Mud and water are then
pumped into the relief well to kill the wild one. Directional control is extremely exacting
for this type of application.
River-crossing applications
Directional drilling is employed extensively for placing pipelines that cross beneath
rivers, and has even been used by telecommunication companies to install fiber-optic
cables.
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MWD Tool Data Display


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Sujawal deep 1 is directional well of 46o angle with vertical.

Schematic of Directional Drilling


Directional deviation tools
The most common deviation tools for directional drilling are steerable motor assemblies
(or so-called positive-displacement motors [PDMs]) and rotary steerable systems (RSSs).
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Conclusion:
The past 42 days of my internship had been very instructive for me. MPCL has offered
me opportunity to learn and develop myself in many areas. I gained a lot of experience
at Mari Rig 3. A lot of tasks and activities that I have worked on during my internship.
 Internships play an important role in strengthening a student’s concepts.

 It provides an opportunity to increase the radius of your studies.


 It helps the internee to decide his or her future plans regarding studies.
 It shows the students a glimpse of the practical field life and environment.

 It lets the internee compare theoretical and practical aspects of subjects.


 Interaction with the field crew helps in understanding the field life, improving
your communicating skills.

 It displays the merits and demerits of field, industry life and job.

Muhammad Younus