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Digestive Tract

Food goes down the ​esophagus ​and then into the ​rumen ​where a microbial population
digests or ferments feed eaten by the animal.
The food next goes through the ​reticulum ​where heavy and foreign materials drop out
of the rest of the food being digested.
Next the filtered food goes into the ​omasum ​which absorbs water and other substances
from digestive contents.
Next to the ​Abomasum ​which breaks down feed using hydrochloric acid and digestive
enzymes then secreting them into the abomasum.
The food then goes through the ​small intestine​ which comprises of the duodenum,
jejunum, and ileum and receives the secretion of the pancreas and gallbladder aiding digestion.
Many nutrients are absorbed through the villi into the blood and lymphatic systems.
It then transfers into the ​cecum ​where where some undigested fiber may be broken
down. The exact importance of the cecum is not yet determined.
Lastly it is transferred into the​ Large intestine​ where undigested feedstuffs pass. Some
bacterial digestion occurs here, but absorption of water is the primary digestive activity occurring
in the large intestine.
Other Facts
● Rumination ​(the process of chewing cud) occurs 35-40 percent of each day. Mature
cattle spend little time chewing their food and then during rest periods cud is regurgitated
for rechewing into particle size and for re salivation.
● 50-80 quarts of ​saliva​ can be produced by salivary glands and added to the rumen per
day. It provides liquid for microbial population used to digest food, recirculates nitrogen
and minerals, and buffers the rumen.
Digestive Tract
Esophagus​ is a small hose-like tube that connects the moth and the stomach. The
muscles within create wave like contraction which continue to move food down. When there is
no food in the esophagus the walls collapse.
The ​stomach ​ is a sac-like structure designed to store large volumes of food and
continue the digestive process. Food enters the cardiac sphincter and then a series of gastric
folds help grint and digest food. Inner lining of the stomach secretes acids and enzymes to
break down food. Most food leaves the stomach within 12 hours of entering.
The ​small intestine​ extends between the stomach and large intestine and is the longest
portion of the intestinal tract and is about two and a half times the animal's body length. Has a
duodenum. Jejunum, and the ilium.
The ​large intestine ​connects the small intestine and the anus, it is about sixteen inches
long in a 40# dog and is larger in diameter that the small intestine. It absorbs water from fecal
matter keeping the hydration level normal. Also stores fecal matter awaiting passage from the
body. The ceum is a small projection near the junction with the small intestine.