Claudio Ca~nizares
November 11, 1997
Chapter 1
Review
+
v
v(t) = R i(t)
1
1.3 Capacitor
C [F] changes with the physical characteristics of the device.
C
i
+
v
i(t) = C dvd(tt)
WC = 12 C v2 [J]
INDUCTOR: L [H] changes with the number of turns of the coil N and the
physical characteristics of the device, and is dened in terms of the magnetic
ux linkage ():
L = i
L (N)
i
+
v
v(t) = L did(tt)
WL = 12 L i2 [J]
Saturation phenomena: the value of L changes with the current, i.e.,
2
λ [Wbturn]
L2
L1
io i [A]
(
LL12 ii for i < i0
for i i0
When i(t) is not constant, then the iron core losses (heat) are due to
Hysteresis and Eddy currents, which can be reduced by lamination of the
core.
3
i
+ A
v N l
4
1.5 Wire in a Magnetic Field
When a wire of length l is submerged in a magnetic eld, the following
phenomena can be observed:
Motor principle: If the wire is carrying a current i, a force
F~ = i(~l B~ )
is exerted on the wire (Lorentz's law). The direction of ~l is the same
as the current i.
Generator principle: If the wire moves at a speed ~v, the voltage
eind = (~v B~ ) ~l
is induced on the wire (Faraday's law). The direction of ~l is arbitrary,
from , to + of eind .
1.6 AC Circuits
The voltages and currents are sinusoidal functions of time, i.e.,
p
v(t) = p2 V sin(!t + V )
i(t) = 2 I sin(!t + I )
) p(t) = P + A cos(2!t + P )
where ! = 2f , V and I are the RMS values, and the average power
P = V I cos(V , I ) = V I cos
To study these circuits in steady state one uses phasor analysis, i.e.,
d=dt ! j!. Thus, all variables and parameters become complex numbers:
L ! jXL = j!L [
]
C ! ,jXC = ,j !C 1 [
]
v(t) ! Ve = V 6 V
i(t) ! Ie = I 6 I
5
The circuit equation in this case is:
Ve = (R + jX )Ie = Ze Ie
And the complex or apparent power is:
Se = Ve Ie = V I 6 [VA]
= P + jQ
where Q [VAR] is the reactive power: an imaginary number representing the
+ power absorbed by L (cos lagging), or the , power injected by C (cos
leading).
~ L
Vab ~
b Ib O
G A
~ D
Va ~
c Ic
~
In
neutral
1. Linetoneutral voltages:
(
Vea = V 6 V = ZeY Iea
e , 120o Vea
) VVeb == 1166 120
c o Vea
2. Line voltages:
(
p , 120o Veab
) VVebc == 116 6 120
e
Veab = 36 30o Vea = Ze Ieab o Veab
ca
6
3. Line currents:
(
Iea = I 6 I ) IIeb =
e 16 , 120o Iea
c = 16 120o Iea
Notice that
Vea + Veb + Vec = 0
,Ien = Iea + Ieb + Iec = 0
and similarly for the other variables.
The powers in this case are:
p(t) = Pp3 = 3 P1
= 3 Vll Il cos
= constant value
p
Se3 = 3 Vll Il 6
= P3 + jQ3
where Vll is the linetoline (line) voltage, and Il is the line current.
7
i1
i2
+
+
v N1 φl φl
N2 v
2
1 1 2
φm
The is used to indicate the polarity, i.e., how the coils are wound around
the iron core. This symbol marks the entrance point for the winding current
ow and the positive polarity of the respective voltage. Usually the number
of turns of each coil are N1 > N2, i.e., the primary side 1 corresponds to the
\high voltage" or h.v. side, whereas the secondary side 2 corresponds to the
\low voltage" or l.v. side.
The dierential equations that describe this device are
v1 = R1i1 + (L1 + Lm) ddit1 + Lam ddit2
v2 = R2i2 + L2 + Lam2 ddit2 + Lam ddit1
where a = N 1=N 2 is the turn ratio, L1 and L2 represent the air leakage
uxes
1 and 2, respectively, and Lm stands for the magnetizing or coupling
ux
m. The core losses and saturation are neglected in this case. However, the
saturation can be included by allowing Lm to change with im = i1 + i2=a; the
core loses can be represented as a constant power loss Pc. These equations
can be used to simulate transient phenomena in the transformer.
8
i 1
i 2
a:1
+ +
v1 v2
p1 p2
1.10 AC Transformer
For ac (sinusoidal) voltages and currents, the transformer variables and equa
tions can be converted into phasors, i.e.,
Ve = (R + jX )Ie + jX Ie + 1 Ie
1 1 1 1 m 1 a 2
Ve2 = (R2 + jX2)Ie2 + j Xm Ie1 + 1 Ie
a a 2
9
Zeq
~ ~
I1 ~ Req j Xeq 1/a I ~
Im 2 I 2
a:1
+ + +
~ ~ ~
V1 Rc a V2 V2
j Xm
Zm
where Rc represents the core losses Pc, and
Req = R1 + a2R2
Xeq = X1 + a2X2
Remarks:
1. jZeq j jZmj ) Zm is usually neglected.
2. R1 a2R2 ) R1 Req =2
3. X1 a2X2 ) X1 Xeq =2
Sepu = SS
e
N
10
Ve1pu = VV1 Ve2pu = VV2
e e
1N 2N
Ie1pu = VS1N I1 Ie2pu = VS2N I2
e e
N N
S
Z1pu = V 2 N Z1 S
Z2pu = V 2 N Z2
1N 2N
These eliminate the ideal transformer in the pu equivalent circuit. For 3
phase variables one uses the same perphase bases as in the singlephase
transformer, with similar results in the perphase equivalent circuit; however,
one has to be careful with the kind of connections of the system 3phase
transformers.
A
ON ( vG >0)
id
+
vd Vo
iG vd
G
+ OFF ( vG =0)

vG id

K
11
id
C
ON ( i B >0)
iC
+
vCE Vo
iB vd
B
+ OFF ( i B =0)

vBE iC

E
The advantage of this device over the thyristor is that it can be turned
o trough a \gat" (base) signal, as long as the load current can be
given an alternative path. However, the reverse blocking voltage Vo is
signicantly smaller as compared to the Vo in a thyristor.
12
q
Fn = a2n + b2n
n = tan,1 ab n
n
Typically, as n ! 1, an ! 0 and bn ! 0.
Also, the RMS value for f (t) can be dened as:
" #
FRMS = 1 Z T f 2(t) dt 1=2 = 1 Z 2 f 2() d1=2
T 0 2 0
2 !1=231=2
1
= 2 +X
4Fav pF1 5
n=1 2
13
Chapter 2
DC Mahines
14
+
a
Ea = e ab = K φ ω m
ARMATURE
STATOR
ROTOR
FIELD S
N
I I
f b f

ωm
I
f
1. Armature ! a set of coils wrapped around the rotor forming the ar
mature winding, plus a mechanical rectier or commutator (collector
with carbon brushes). The currents in the windings are ac currents,
but these are externally transformed into a dc quantity Ia by the com
mutator. The electrical representation and equations of this element
are: Ra Ra
Ia Ia
+ +
+ +
φ AR Va Va φ AR
Ea Ea
ωm − − ωm
Tm
Tm
 
GENERATOR MOTOR
15
(
Ea = K!m = VVaa + IaRa Generator
, IaRa Motor
Tm = KIa
where
K is a constant of the machine, i.e., a given value that depends
on the number of conductor Z , the number of poles P , and the
number of parallel paths a:
K = 2ZPa
The number a depends on whether the windings are lapwound
(a = P , for high current but low voltage) or wavewound (a = 2,
for high voltage but low current).
The eective magnetic
ux in the armature is represented by ,
and is aected by the current Ia
owing trough the armature (Ar
mature Reaction)
= f , AR
where the magnetic
ux f is produced by the led winding and
its current If .
Tm is the mechanical torque in the shaft, and !m is the mechanical
speed.
The resistance Ra represents the armature winding resistance plus
the brushes resistance.
The armature current Ia changes direction depending on whether
the machine is working as a generator or as a motor.
2. Shunt eld ! is the set of coils wrapped around the stator poles to
form an electromagnet, with dc current If going through them. The
electrical representation and equations of this element are:
16
R fc
If
Rf
φf Vf
Nf
Vf = (Rf + Rfc)If
where Rf stands for the shunt eld winding resistance and Rfc is an
external variable resistance used for controlling the led current If , and
hence the eld
ux f .
3. Series eld ! is an additional set of coils wrapped around the stator
poles to produce a
ux s to change the total
ux for Ea and Tm,
i.e., (
= f + s , AR cumulative
f , , dierential
s AR
φs
Is
Ns Rs
 Vs +
Vs = RsIs
The armature reaction
ux AR is usually neglected, unless otherwise
specied in terms of the armature reaction m.m.f. FAR, then the net
eld current needed to produce the total
ux is
If = If NNs Is , FNAR
f f
17
2.3 Connections
The following are the possible connections of the three basic dc machine
windings:
1. Separately excited ! the shunt eld winding voltage is independent
from the armature voltage.
2. Shunt or self excited ! the shunt eld winding and armature are
connected in parallel. It shows similar behavior as the separately ex
cited connection.
3. Series ! the series eld winding is connected in series with the arma
ture.
4. Compound short ! the series eld winding is connected in series
with the parallel connection of the armature and the shunt eld wind
ing. This connection can be dierential or cumulative.
5. Compound long ! the shunt eld winding is connected in parallel
with the series connection of the armature and the series eld winding.
This connection can be also dierential or cumulative, and presents
somewhat similar behavior as the short compound.
18
SEPARATELY EXCITED SHUNT (SELF EXCITED)
+ + +
F F
I I
Vf E ARM. Vt E ARM. Vt
L L
D D
COMPOUND SHORT
SERIES
SERIES
SERIES +
+
F
I ARM. Vt
ARM. Vt E
L
D
COMPOUND LONG
S +
E
R
I
F E
I S
E Vt
L
D
ARM.
19
EFFICIENCY:
= PPout
in
Pin = Pout + Plosses
where
Plosses = Pcore + Pmech: + PI 2 R + Pstray
For a generator
Pout = Pelec: = Vt It
Pin = Pmech: = Tm !m
For a motor exactly the opposite applies.
2.4 Generator
The dc machine is generating terminal voltage Vt and current It to feed a
resistive load. Hence, the idea is to \graphically" obtain the Vt It (voltage
current) characteristic from the electrical connection equations plus the ar
mature voltage Ea = f (If) generated at speed !m :
Ea
Field
ω mo
ω m1 < ω mo
I *
f
Cumulative Compound
It
Remarks:
Shunt generators need of the remnant
ux to generate voltage.
The terminal voltage is typically controlled trough the eld current
If (). Speed could also be used for changing the terminal voltage
(unusual).
Control is typically done through controlled rectiers or choppers.
2.5 Motor
The dc machine is moving a mechanical load by drawing current It from
a Vt voltage source. Thus, the idea in this case is to obtain the !m Tm
(speedtorque) characteristic from the electrical connection equations plus
the armature voltage Ea and torque Tm equations. The following illustrates
some examples of speedtorque characteristics:
21
ωm
Load
Characteristic
Cumulative Compound
Series
Tm
Remarks:
Motors have large startup currents due to Ea = 0 (!m = 0). A
variable resistance is introduced in series with the armature to reduce
the startup current, which is equivalent to start up the machine at a
low terminal voltage.
Speedtorque control is usually done through the eld current If ().
Control is typically done through controlled rectiers or choppers.
Protection is needed against speedup due to shunt eld loss.
For a series motor, the machine needs protection against speedup due
to loss of mechanical load. These types of motors must be started with
a mechanical load with relatively high initial torque.
22
Chapter 3
Synchronous Machines
c b ωs
θ
Bs( θ)
b’ c’
ib ic
p
ia = p2 I sin(!e t)
ib = p2 I sin(!e t , 120)
ia = 2 I sin(!e t + 120 )
23
with the 3 windings connected in Y or , and sinusoidally distributed on the
stator slots, e.g.,
Na() = ,N sin()
These 3 windings, fed with balanced 3phase sinusoidal currents, yield a
rotating magnetic eld in the airgap (the air space between the rotor and
stator cores):
Bs() = Bsmax cos()
This eld rotates at synchronous speed !s (ns in rpm). For a P poles machine,
this speed is equal to
! = 2 ! ) n = 120 f
s
P e s
P e
24
3.3 Induced Torque
Assuming that a sinusoidally distributed dc winding is embedded in the rotor
to generate a constant magnetic eld B~ r , and that the stator windings have
3phase sinusoidal currents that yield a synchronously rotating magnetic eld
B~ s,
a’
ia
c b
f’ ωs
θ
If
f Bs( θ)
γ
b’ c’
ib ic
a
δ
θ
ωs
Bnet
Br( θ)
ωs
B~ net = B~ s + B~ r
The torque
Tind = kB~ r B~ s = kBr Bs sin(
)
= kB~ r B~ net = kBr Bnet sin()
is then produced by the interaction of these two magnetic elds, i.e., the rotor
eld follows the stator eld. This torque moves the rotor at the synchronous
speed !s .
25
3.4 Equivalent Circuit
Each phase of the machine can be represented by the following equivalent
circuit:
P+jQ
~
RA j XS I A
I F
+ P conv +
RF
~ + ~
EA  Vφ
VF
LF φ
_ _
26
~
EA
δ
~
~ j XS I A
θ Vφ ~
RA I A
~
I A
V:R: = EAV, V
whereas for motor operation one has that~
Vφ
δ
θ ~
EA ~
j XS I A
~
~ RA I A
I A
3.6 Tests
The following characteristics are obtained from the opencircuit and short
circuit tests:
airgap line
Vφ = E A IAsc
oc O.C.C.
S.C.C.
IFsat
I F
XS XS
unsat sat
29
1. DC Test: The value of RA is estimated by exciting the armature with
dc currents.
2. Opencircuit Test: The opencircuit terminal voltage, i.e., Voc =
EA, is measured for several values of IF , obtaining the opencircuit
characteristic (o.c.c.).
3. Shortcircuit Test: The shortcircuit terminal current, i.e., IAsc , is
measured for several values of IF , obtaining the shortcircuit charac
teristic (s.c.c.).
From these tests, the value of XS is computed
v
u !
XS =
u
t Voc 2 , R2
IAsc A
VI oc
Asc
This value changes with saturation of the iron core.
The shortcircuit ratio (SCR) of the machine may be approximated by
SCR 1 XSpu
3.7 Generator Controls
The frequency or shaft speed of the generator is controlled by the governor,
which controls the input power of the prime mover (PM) by measuring the
speed of the shaft. The terminal voltage, on the other hand, is controlled by
the automatic voltage regulator (AVR), which controls the eld current by
measuring the terminal voltage. Typically, one considers that the generator
output powers P and Q are proportional to Pin and IF , respectively; hence,
the governor and AVR may be used to control the power delivered by the
generator.
The droops sP and sQ for the governor and AVR, respectively, are used to
make the generator more or less sensitive to frequency and voltage variations,
so that dierent generators can be assigned the control of frequency and
voltage in a network. Also, these droops plus the set points fo and VTo allow
to control the power sharing among generators connected in parallel.
30
P+jQ
a
f
P in P.M. G b VT
Governor
+ VF _
AVR
fo
f
VT
o
fo
SP VT
VT
P o SQ
Governor Control
Q
AVR Control
The eld voltage VF is typically controlled through a threephase con
trolled rectier fed from the stator terminals.
31
Q
Operating
Region
Smax F Smax A
Pmin Pmax PM
2 PM
Vφ
3
Xs
SmaxF = 3 VEXAmax
S
SmaxA = 3VIAmax
32
Tm
MOTOR
T max
Mech. load
Operating condition
nS nm
 T max GENERATOR
Tmax 3 V!X
EA = 90
s S
n s , nm
S:R: = n = 0
m
Typically, to startup a synchronous motor, the synchronous speed must
be reached with the help of a prime mover or by other means, so that torque
can be generated. One way of accomplishing this is by using a \small" squirrel
cage embedded in the rotor, which is known as the damper or amortisseur
windings. Thus, the motor starts as an induction motor, with the eld short
circuited to avoid large induced voltages that may damage the insulation.
Once the rotor reaches a speed close to ns, the eld is connected to a dc
source.
The damper or amortisseur windings oppose any transient variations of
speed, for motor or generation operation, as currents are induced on these
windings only when the rotor speed is dierent from the synchronous speed.
Thus, a torque that opposes speed variations is produced, i.e., if the shaft
slows down, the damper torque accelerates the rotor, and vice versa.
33
Chapter 4
Induction Machines
a’ ωs
c b θ
B ( θ)
b’ c’
ωm
34
p
eaa = p2 E2 sin(!er t)
0
where
E2 = 4:44fer Nr
Nr stands for the number of turns of each phase winding, and fer (!er =
2fer ) represents the frequency of the rotor voltages and currents, so that
fer = sfes
Here, the slip s is dened as
s = !s ,
!
!m = ns , nm
n
s s
ns = 120
P fes =
60 w
2 s
Notice that the rotor frequencies change due to the rotational speed !m.
Typically fer << fes , i.e., s ! 0.
~ Rm j Xm R 2 (1s)/s
V1
Pm = Pag , PCur
= Pag , I22R2
= Tind !m
= Pag (1 , s)
Pin = 3 V1 I1 cos(V , I )
Eff = PPout
in
1 , s ! neglecting all losses but PCur
where Pout is the power available on the rotor shaft, Pm is the total mechanical
power produced by the motor, i.e.,
Pm = 3 I22R2 1 ,s s
) Tind = !3 I22R2 1 ,s s (4.1)
m
and Pag is the airgap power, which is the total power transferred to the
rotor.
37
The following approximate or Thevenin equivalent circuits can be used
to compute I2, and hence the induced torque Tind from (4.1):
~ ~ ~
I1 Im R eq j X eq I 2
~ Rm j Xm R 2 (1s)/s
V1
Req = R1 + R2
Xeq = X1 + X2
Stator Thevenin Equivalent
~
R Th j X Th j X2 I 2
+
~  R 2 /s
VTh
Tmax
Tload
Tst
operating
point
 ns s ns nm
Tmax
Tmax
Tm = Tind Tapp
Notice that there is a maximum value of torque Tmax, and a startup
torque Tst < Tmax. Tmax occurs at a value of slip sTmax such that dTm=ds =
0, and is independent of the rotor resistance R2. On the other hand, Tst
corresponds to a slip s = 1 (nm = 0), and it changes with R2.
Changing the stator feeding voltage V1 or frequency fe , changes the
torquespeed characteristic.
41
D
300
Percentage of fullload Tm A
250
C
B
200
150
100
50
0 20 40 60 80 100
Percentage of n S
42