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University of Waterloo

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering


E&CE 362: Energy Systems and Components 2
SUMMARIES

Claudio Ca~nizares
November 11, 1997
Chapter 1
Review

1.1 Voltage, Curent And Power


Voltage v(t) [V] is similar to a \potential energy height", whereas i(t) [A]
represents a \ ow." The instantaneous power is then de ned as:
p(t) = v(t) i(t) [W]
with average power: ZT
P = T1 0
p(t) dt [W]
The energy is then: Zt
W (t) = 0
v(t) i(t) dt [J]

1.2 Resistor (Ohm's Law)


R [
] changes with temperature and physical characteristics of the device.
R
i

+
v

v(t) = R i(t)

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1.3 Capacitor
C [F] changes with the physical characteristics of the device.
C
i

+
v

i(t) = C dvd(tt)
WC = 12 C v2 [J]

INDUCTOR: L [H] changes with the number of turns of the coil N and the
physical characteristics of the device, and is de ned in terms of the magnetic
ux linkage ():
L = i
L (N)
i

+
v

v(t) = L did(tt)
WL = 12 L i2 [J]
Saturation phenomena: the value of L changes with the current, i.e.,

2
λ [Wb-turn]

L2

L1

io i [A]

(
  LL12 ii for i < i0
for i  i0
When i(t) is not constant, then the iron core losses (heat) are due to
Hysteresis and Eddy currents, which can be reduced by lamination of the
core.

1.4 Magnetic Circuit


For the following electromagnetic device (inductor):

3
i

+ A

v N l

 Ampere's law: De nes the magnetic eld.


I
H~  d~l = N i = MMF ) H = Nl i [A-turn/m]
 Magnetic ux density (B ): If no saturation in the iron core,
B~ =  H~ ) B =  Nl i [T]
where  is the magnetic permeability of the iron core (constant). The
relation between B and H is nonlinear when saturation is considered.
 Magnetic ux ():
Z  
 = A B~  dA~ )  = (N i) lA [Wb]

 Faraday's law (induced voltages): Based on the ux linkage  = N ,


v = ddt ) v = L ddti
where 2A

L= lN

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1.5 Wire in a Magnetic Field
When a wire of length l is submerged in a magnetic eld, the following
phenomena can be observed:
 Motor principle: If the wire is carrying a current i, a force
F~ = i(~l  B~ )
is exerted on the wire (Lorentz's law). The direction of ~l is the same
as the current i.
 Generator principle: If the wire moves at a speed ~v, the voltage
eind = (~v  B~ )  ~l
is induced on the wire (Faraday's law). The direction of ~l is arbitrary,
from , to + of eind .

1.6 AC Circuits
The voltages and currents are sinusoidal functions of time, i.e.,
p
v(t) = p2 V sin(!t + V )
i(t) = 2 I sin(!t + I )
) p(t) = P + A cos(2!t + P )
where ! = 2f , V and I are the RMS values, and the average power
P = V I cos(V , I ) = V I cos 
To study these circuits in steady state one uses phasor analysis, i.e.,
d=dt ! j!. Thus, all variables and parameters become complex numbers:
L ! jXL = j!L [
]
C ! ,jXC = ,j !C 1 [
]
v(t) ! Ve = V 6 V
i(t) ! Ie = I 6 I
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The circuit equation in this case is:
Ve = (R + jX )Ie = Ze Ie
And the complex or apparent power is:
Se = Ve Ie = V I 6  [VA]
= P + jQ
where Q [VAR] is the reactive power: an imaginary number representing the
+ power absorbed by L (cos  lagging), or the , power injected by C (cos 
leading).

1.7 3-phase AC Circuits


These balanced circuits can be seen as the addition of 3 single-phase circuits,
with 120o angle phase shifts in the voltages and currents. Thus, for the
positive sequence circuit ~
a Ia

~ L
Vab ~
b Ib O
G A
~ D
Va ~
c Ic

~
In

neutral

1. Line-to-neutral voltages:
(
Vea = V 6 V = ZeY Iea
e , 120o Vea
) VVeb == 1166 120
c o Vea

2. Line voltages:
(
p , 120o Veab
) VVebc == 116 6 120
e
Veab = 36 30o Vea = Ze Ieab o Veab
ca

6
3. Line currents:
(
Iea = I 6 I ) IIeb =
e 16 , 120o Iea
c = 16 120o Iea

4. Delta currents (Ze = 3ZeY ):


(
6 , 120o Ieab
Ieab = p1 6 30o Iea ) IIebc == 116 120
e
3 ca o Ieab

Notice that
Vea + Veb + Vec = 0
,Ien = Iea + Ieb + Iec = 0
and similarly for the other variables.
The powers in this case are:
p(t) = Pp3 = 3 P1
= 3 Vll Il cos 
= constant value
p
Se3 = 3 Vll Il 6 
= P3 + jQ3
where Vll is the line-to-line (line) voltage, and Il is the line current.

1.8 Two-winding Transformer


The following gure depicts a physical transformer made up of two Cu coils
or windings, and a laminated iron core (to reduce core losses):

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i1
i2

+
+

v N1 φl φl
N2 v
2
1 1 2

φm

The  is used to indicate the polarity, i.e., how the coils are wound around
the iron core. This symbol marks the entrance point for the winding current
ow and the positive polarity of the respective voltage. Usually the number
of turns of each coil are N1 > N2, i.e., the primary side 1 corresponds to the
\high voltage" or h.v. side, whereas the secondary side 2 corresponds to the
\low voltage" or l.v. side.
The di erential equations that describe this device are
v1 = R1i1 + (L1 + Lm) ddit1 + Lam ddit2
 
v2 = R2i2 + L2 + Lam2 ddit2 + Lam ddit1
where a = N 1=N 2 is the turn ratio, L1 and L2 represent the air leakage uxes
1 and 2, respectively, and Lm stands for the magnetizing or coupling ux
m. The core losses and saturation are neglected in this case. However, the
saturation can be included by allowing Lm to change with im = i1 + i2=a; the
core loses can be represented as a constant power loss Pc. These equations
can be used to simulate transient phenomena in the transformer.

1.9 Ideal Tranformer


In this device all the transformer losses are neglected, i.e., Pc = 0, R1 = R2 =
0, and L1 = L2 = 0 in the equations above. Hence,

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i 1
i 2
a:1

+ +

v1 v2

p1 p2

p1 = ,p2 (no losses)


v1 = a
v2
i1 = , 1
i2 a
In other words, for a 6= 1, the magnitudes of voltages and currents are
changed by the transformer.

1.10 AC Transformer
For ac (sinusoidal) voltages and currents, the transformer variables and equa-
tions can be converted into phasors, i.e.,
 
Ve = (R + jX )Ie + jX Ie + 1 Ie
1 1 1 1 m 1 a 2

Ve2 = (R2 + jX2)Ie2 + j Xm Ie1 + 1 Ie 
a a 2

Which in turn can be approximated to the following equivalent circuit:

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Zeq
~ ~
I1 ~ Req j Xeq -1/a I ~
Im 2 I 2
a:1

+ + +

~ ~ ~
V1 Rc a V2 V2
j Xm

Zm
where Rc represents the core losses Pc, and
Req = R1 + a2R2
Xeq = X1 + a2X2
Remarks:
1. jZeq j  jZmj ) Zm is usually neglected.
2. R1  a2R2 ) R1  Req =2
3. X1  a2X2 ) X1  Xeq =2

1.11 Per Unit Quantities


De nition of a per unit (pu) variable:
V ariablepu = V Variable
ariable
base
where the base is de ned in terms of the name-plate or nominal data of the
transformer. Thus, choose the bases V1N for the primary voltages, V2N =
1=a V1N for the secondary voltages, and SN for the powers on both sides.
The bases for the currents and impedances can be represented in terms of
these magnitudes. Then, the pu quantities are

Sepu = SS
e
N
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Ve1pu = VV1 Ve2pu = VV2
e e
1N 2N
Ie1pu = VS1N I1 Ie2pu = VS2N I2
e e
N N
S
Z1pu = V 2 N Z1 S
Z2pu = V 2 N Z2
1N 2N
These eliminate the ideal transformer in the pu equivalent circuit. For 3-
phase variables one uses the same per-phase bases as in the single-phase
transformer, with similar results in the per-phase equivalent circuit; however,
one has to be careful with the kind of connections of the system 3-phase
transformers.

1.12 Ideal Switches


1. Thyristor: This semiconductor device is basically a diode with control
turn-on through a gate signal, i.e., is a directional switch that is turned
ON with vd = 0+ (diode condition) and vG > 0, and it turns OFF when
id = 0, (same as the diode). This is depicted in the following ideal v-i
characteristic: i d

A
ON ( vG >0)
id
+

vd -Vo
iG vd
G
+ OFF ( vG =0)

-
vG id
-
K

2. Transistor: Operating in the saturation region, this semiconductor


device works like a directional switch. Its operation can be summarized
by the following ideal v-i characteristic:

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id

C
ON ( i B >0)
iC
+

vCE -Vo
iB vd
B
+ OFF ( i B =0)

-
vBE iC
-
E

The advantage of this device over the thyristor is that it can be turned
o trough a \gat" (base) signal, as long as the load current can be
given an alternative path. However, the reverse blocking voltage Vo is
signi cantly smaller as compared to the Vo in a thyristor.

1.13 Fourier Analysis


For a periodic signal f (t) of frequency w = 2=T , representing v(t) or i(t),
the corresponding Fourier series is:
1
X
f (t) = Fav + Fn sin(w t + n)
n=1
1
= 12 ao + [an cos(n w t) + bn sin(n w t)]
X
n=1
where, for  = wt,
Fav = Fdc = 12 ao
1 ZT 1 Z 2
= T 0 f (t) dt = 2 0 f () d
2 ZT 1 Z 2
an = T 0 f (t) cos(n w t) dt =  0 f () cos(n ) d
ZT Z 2
b = 2 f (t) sin(n w t) dt = 1 f () sin(n ) d
n
T 0  0

12
q
Fn = a2n + b2n
 
n = tan,1 ab n
n
Typically, as n ! 1, an ! 0 and bn ! 0.
Also, the RMS value for f (t) can be de ned as:
" #
FRMS = 1 Z T f 2(t) dt 1=2 =  1 Z 2 f 2() d1=2
T 0 2 0
2 !1=231=2
1
= 2 +X
4Fav pF1 5
n=1 2

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Chapter 2
DC Mahines

2.1 Electromechanical Energy Conversion


Basic principle of machine operation: an electromagnetic energy is trans-
formed into mechanical energy (motor) or vice versa (generator). Thus, the
electromagnetic energy stored in an inductor L ( ux in the core due to cur-
rent i) is transformed into force F that produces a linear movement at a
speed v, or torque T that yields rotational movement at a speed !. The
movement in turn produces an induced voltage in the wires embedded in the
magnetic eld. From Summary No. 1, these two phenomena are based on
Lorentz's law:
F~ = i(~`  B~ )
and Faraday's law:
eind = (~v  B~ )  ~`

2.2 DC Machine Elements


The basic components of the dc machine are:

14
+
a
Ea = e ab = K φ ω m

ARMATURE
STATOR
ROTOR
FIELD S
N

I I
f b f
-
ωm

I
f

1. Armature ! a set of coils wrapped around the rotor forming the ar-
mature winding, plus a mechanical recti er or commutator (collector
with carbon brushes). The currents in the windings are ac currents,
but these are externally transformed into a dc quantity Ia by the com-
mutator. The electrical representation and equations of this element
are: Ra Ra
Ia Ia

+ +

+ +
φ AR Va Va φ AR
Ea Ea
ωm − − ωm
Tm
Tm
- -

GENERATOR MOTOR

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(
Ea = K!m = VVaa + IaRa Generator
, IaRa Motor
Tm = KIa
where
 K is a constant of the machine, i.e., a given value that depends
on the number of conductor Z , the number of poles P , and the
number of parallel paths a:
K = 2ZPa
 The number a depends on whether the windings are lap-wound
(a = P , for high current but low voltage) or wave-wound (a = 2,
for high voltage but low current).
 The e ective magnetic ux in the armature is represented by ,
and is a ected by the current Ia owing trough the armature (Ar-
mature Reaction)
 = f , AR
where the magnetic ux f is produced by the led winding and
its current If .
 Tm is the mechanical torque in the shaft, and !m is the mechanical
speed.
 The resistance Ra represents the armature winding resistance plus
the brushes resistance.
 The armature current Ia changes direction depending on whether
the machine is working as a generator or as a motor.
2. Shunt eld ! is the set of coils wrapped around the stator poles to
form an electromagnet, with dc current If going through them. The
electrical representation and equations of this element are:

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R fc
If

Rf

φf Vf
Nf

Vf = (Rf + Rfc)If
where Rf stands for the shunt eld winding resistance and Rfc is an
external variable resistance used for controlling the led current If , and
hence the eld ux f .
3. Series eld ! is an additional set of coils wrapped around the stator
poles to produce a ux s to change the total ux  for Ea and Tm,
i.e., (
 = f + s , AR cumulative
f ,  ,  di erential
s AR
φs

Is

Ns Rs
- Vs +

Vs = RsIs
The armature reaction ux AR is usually neglected, unless otherwise
speci ed in terms of the armature reaction m.m.f. FAR, then the net
eld current needed to produce the total ux  is
If = If  NNs Is , FNAR
f f

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2.3 Connections
The following are the possible connections of the three basic dc machine
windings:
1. Separately excited ! the shunt eld winding voltage is independent
from the armature voltage.
2. Shunt or self excited ! the shunt eld winding and armature are
connected in parallel. It shows similar behavior as the separately ex-
cited connection.
3. Series ! the series eld winding is connected in series with the arma-
ture.
4. Compound short ! the series eld winding is connected in series
with the parallel connection of the armature and the shunt eld wind-
ing. This connection can be di erential or cumulative.
5. Compound long ! the shunt eld winding is connected in parallel
with the series connection of the armature and the series eld winding.
This connection can be also di erential or cumulative, and presents
somewhat similar behavior as the short compound.

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SEPARATELY EXCITED SHUNT (SELF EXCITED)

+ + +

F F
I I
Vf E ARM. Vt E ARM. Vt
L L
D D

COMPOUND SHORT
SERIES
SERIES
SERIES +
+

F
I ARM. Vt
ARM. Vt E
L
D

COMPOUND LONG

S +
E
R
I
F E
I S
E Vt
L
D

ARM.

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EFFICIENCY:
 = PPout
in
Pin = Pout + Plosses
where
Plosses = Pcore + Pmech: + PI 2 R + Pstray
For a generator
Pout = Pelec: = Vt It
Pin = Pmech: = Tm !m
For a motor exactly the opposite applies.

2.4 Generator
The dc machine is generating terminal voltage Vt and current It to feed a
resistive load. Hence, the idea is to \graphically" obtain the Vt -It (voltage-
current) characteristic from the electrical connection equations plus the ar-
mature voltage Ea = f (If) generated at speed !m :
Ea

Field

ω mo

ω m1 < ω mo

I *
f

Examples of voltage-current characteristics are:


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Vt Load
Characteristic

Cumulative Compound

Differential Shunt and Separately Excited


Compound

It
Remarks:
 Shunt generators need of the remnant ux to generate voltage.
 The terminal voltage is typically controlled trough the eld current
If (). Speed could also be used for changing the terminal voltage
(unusual).
 Control is typically done through controlled recti ers or choppers.

2.5 Motor
The dc machine is moving a mechanical load by drawing current It from
a Vt voltage source. Thus, the idea in this case is to obtain the !m -Tm
(speed-torque) characteristic from the electrical connection equations plus
the armature voltage Ea and torque Tm equations. The following illustrates
some examples of speed-torque characteristics:

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ωm
Load
Characteristic

Shunt and Separately Excited

Cumulative Compound

Series

Tm
Remarks:
 Motors have large start-up currents due to Ea = 0 (!m = 0). A
variable resistance is introduced in series with the armature to reduce
the start-up current, which is equivalent to start up the machine at a
low terminal voltage.
 Speed-torque control is usually done through the eld current If ().
 Control is typically done through controlled recti ers or choppers.
 Protection is needed against speed-up due to shunt eld loss.
 For a series motor, the machine needs protection against speed-up due
to loss of mechanical load. These types of motors must be started with
a mechanical load with relatively high initial torque.

22
Chapter 3
Synchronous Machines

3.1 Rotating Magnetic Field


The general structure of the stator of any 3-phase ac machine is
a’
ia

c b ωs
θ

Bs( θ)

b’ c’
ib ic

p
ia = p2 I sin(!e t)
ib = p2 I sin(!e t , 120)
ia = 2 I sin(!e t + 120 )

23
with the 3 windings connected in Y or , and sinusoidally distributed on the
stator slots, e.g.,
Na() = ,N sin()
These 3 windings, fed with balanced 3-phase sinusoidal currents, yield a
rotating magnetic eld in the air-gap (the air space between the rotor and
stator cores):
Bs() = Bsmax cos()
This eld rotates at synchronous speed !s (ns in rpm). For a P poles machine,
this speed is equal to
! = 2 ! ) n = 120 f
s
P e s
P e

where !e = 2fe represents the electrical frequency


To change the direction of rotation of Bs(), two phases must be inter-
changed.

3.2 Induced Voltages


A rotating magnetic ux B () in the air-gap induces 3-phase balanced volt-
ages in the open circuited stator windings (synchronous generator operation
principle)
p
eaa = p2 EA sin(!e t)
0

ebb = p2 EA sin(!e t , 120 )


0

ecc = 2 EA sin(!e t + 120 )


0

where the RMS generated voltage is


EA = 4:44 kw Ns  fe = kA  !e
Here,  represents the total ux per pole in each phase, Ns is the number of
turns in each phase winding, and fe = !e =(2). The constant kw (0:9 < kw <
1) is used to represent the e ect of non-ideal (practical) winding distributions
and pitch.

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3.3 Induced Torque
Assuming that a sinusoidally distributed dc winding is embedded in the rotor
to generate a constant magnetic eld B~ r , and that the stator windings have
3-phase sinusoidal currents that yield a synchronously rotating magnetic eld
B~ s,
a’
ia

c b
f’ ωs
θ
If
f Bs( θ)

γ
b’ c’
ib ic

a
δ

θ
ωs
Bnet
Br( θ)
ωs

B~ net = B~ s + B~ r
The torque
Tind = kB~ r  B~ s = kBr Bs sin( )
= kB~ r  B~ net = kBr Bnet sin()
is then produced by the interaction of these two magnetic elds, i.e., the rotor
eld follows the stator eld. This torque moves the rotor at the synchronous
speed !s .

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3.4 Equivalent Circuit
Each phase of the machine can be represented by the following equivalent
circuit:
P+jQ

~
RA j XS I A
I F

+ P conv +
RF
~ + ~
EA - Vφ
VF
LF φ
_ _

 EA is the RMS voltage induced in the armature (stator) by the eld


(rotor) ux . This voltage changes with IF based on the open-circuit
characteristic (o.c.c.) obtained in the open circuit test.
 RF and LF stand for the resistance and self inductance of the dc eld
winding, respectively.
 RA represents the resistance of the armature winding.
 XS is the synchronous reactance, which represents the self inductance
of the armature winding plus the armature reaction, and is calculated
from the open circuit and short circuit tests.
From this equivalent circuit, the phasor equations for generator operation
are

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~
EA

δ
~
~ j XS I A
θ Vφ ~
RA I A

~
I A

V = EA6  , (RA + jZS )IA6 , 


Se = P + jQ
= 3VIA6 

V:R: = EAV, V

whereas for motor operation one has that~

δ
θ ~
EA ~
j XS I A
~
~ RA I A
I A

V = EA6  + (RA + jZS )IA6 , 


Se = P + jQ
= 3V IA6 
Depending on the type of connection of the stator 3-phase windings, one
has that for a Y connection
p
Vline = 3 V
Iline = IA
27
whereas for a  connection
Vline = Vp
Iline = 3 IA

3.5 Power and Torque


The power balance equation for a synchronous machine is
Pout = Pin , PCu , Pcore , Prot
where Pcore represents the core losses, Prot stands for the rotational (mechan-
ical) losses, and the cooper losses in the armature correspond to
PCu = 3IA2 RA
For a generator,
Pout = 3V IA cos()
Pin = Tapp !s
Pconv = Pin , Pcore , Prot
= Pout + PCu
= Tind !s
and for a motor
Pout = Tapp !s
Pin = 3V IA cos()
Pconv = Pin , PCu
= Pout + Pcore + Prot
= Tind !s
If RA is small, which is usually the case, it follows that
Pconv  3 VX
 EA
sin()
S
 3V IA cos()
28
Hence, from the induced torque equation
Tind = kBr Bnet sin()
 3 V!XEA sin()
s S
the angle  is known as the synchronous machine torque angle.
For a constant power output Pout , the reactive power in the machine
Q = 3V IA sin()
and hence the power factor cos(), can be controlled directly by the eld
current IF . Thus, the machine is able to consume or deliver reactive power
depending on the value of IF .

3.6 Tests
The following characteristics are obtained from the open-circuit and short-
circuit tests:
air-gap line

Vφ = E A IAsc
oc O.C.C.

S.C.C.

IFsat
I F

XS XS
unsat sat

29
1. DC Test: The value of RA is estimated by exciting the armature with
dc currents.
2. Open-circuit Test: The open-circuit terminal voltage, i.e., Voc =
EA, is measured for several values of IF , obtaining the open-circuit
characteristic (o.c.c.).
3. Short-circuit Test: The short-circuit terminal current, i.e., IAsc , is
measured for several values of IF , obtaining the short-circuit charac-
teristic (s.c.c.).
From these tests, the value of XS is computed
v
u !
XS =
u
t Voc 2 , R2
IAsc A

 VI oc
Asc
This value changes with saturation of the iron core.
The short-circuit ratio (SCR) of the machine may be approximated by
SCR  1 XSpu
3.7 Generator Controls
The frequency or shaft speed of the generator is controlled by the governor,
which controls the input power of the prime mover (PM) by measuring the
speed of the shaft. The terminal voltage, on the other hand, is controlled by
the automatic voltage regulator (AVR), which controls the eld current by
measuring the terminal voltage. Typically, one considers that the generator
output powers P and Q are proportional to Pin and IF , respectively; hence,
the governor and AVR may be used to control the power delivered by the
generator.
The droops sP and sQ for the governor and AVR, respectively, are used to
make the generator more or less sensitive to frequency and voltage variations,
so that di erent generators can be assigned the control of frequency and
voltage in a network. Also, these droops plus the set points fo and VTo allow
to control the power sharing among generators connected in parallel.
30
P+jQ

a
f
P in P.M. G b VT

Governor
+ VF _
AVR
fo
f
VT
o
fo
SP VT

VT
P o SQ
Governor Control

Q
AVR Control
The eld voltage VF is typically controlled through a three-phase con-
trolled recti er fed from the stator terminals.

3.8 Generator Capability Curves


The generator windings have current limitations that vary with the duration
of application of these currents. Thus, the armature is able to support a max-
imum current IAmax , whereas the eld winding can support a maximum led
current IFmax , which de nes a maximum EAmax from the o.c.c. Furthermore,
the prime mover (PM) has limitations on the minimum and maximum power
that this device can deliver. Based on these limits, the following capability
curves can be de ned:

31
Q

Operating
Region

Smax F Smax A

Pmin Pmax PM
2 PM

-3
Xs

SmaxF = 3 VEXAmax
S
SmaxA = 3VIAmax

3.9 Motor Start-Up


The synchronous machine only has a torque when the rotor is moving at the
synchronous speed. Hence, the motor has no start-up torque as depicted in
the following steady-state torque-speed characteristic:

32
Tm

MOTOR
T max

Mech. load
Operating condition

nS nm

- T max GENERATOR

Tmax  3 V!X
EA  = 90
s S
n s , nm
S:R: = n = 0
m
Typically, to start-up a synchronous motor, the synchronous speed must
be reached with the help of a prime mover or by other means, so that torque
can be generated. One way of accomplishing this is by using a \small" squirrel
cage embedded in the rotor, which is known as the damper or amortisseur
windings. Thus, the motor starts as an induction motor, with the eld short-
circuited to avoid large induced voltages that may damage the insulation.
Once the rotor reaches a speed close to ns, the eld is connected to a dc
source.
The damper or amortisseur windings oppose any transient variations of
speed, for motor or generation operation, as currents are induced on these
windings only when the rotor speed is di erent from the synchronous speed.
Thus, a torque that opposes speed variations is produced, i.e., if the shaft
slows down, the damper torque accelerates the rotor, and vice versa.

33
Chapter 4
Induction Machines

4.1 Rotor Induced Voltages


A rotating magnetic ux
B () = Bmax cos()
in the air-gap induces 3-phase balanced voltages in the open circuited rotor
windings (synchronous generator operation principle).

a’ ωs
c b θ

B ( θ)
b’ c’

ωm

34
p
eaa = p2 E2 sin(!er t)
0

ebb = p2 E2 sin(!er t , 120 )


0

ecc = 2 E2 sin(!er t + 120)


0

where
E2 = 4:44fer Nr 
Nr stands for the number of turns of each phase winding, and fer (!er =
2fer ) represents the frequency of the rotor voltages and currents, so that
fer = sfes
Here, the slip s is de ned as
s = !s ,
!
!m = ns , nm
n
s s

ns = 120
P fes =
60 w
2 s
Notice that the rotor frequencies change due to the rotational speed !m.
Typically fer << fes , i.e., s ! 0.

4.2 Induced Torque


The basic principle of operation of an induction motor consists on having
three-phase currents in the stator, i.e.,
p
ias = p2 I1 sin(!es t)
ibs = p2 I1 sin(!es t , 120 )
ics = 2 I1 sin(!es t + 120 )
which yield a magnetic eld B~ s in the air-gap rotating at synchronous speed
!s . This magnetic eld induces voltages at frequency fer = sfes in the rotor
windings. Hence, if theses windings are short-circuited, the following three-
phase currents are \induced" in the rotor
p
iar = p2 I2 sin(!er t)
ibr = p2 I2 sin(!er t , 120 )
icr = 2 I2 sin(!er t + 120 )
35
which in turn create a synchronously rotating magnetic eld B~ r in the air-
gap. Hence, the torque
Tind = kB~ r  B~ s
is produced, as one magnetic eld follows the other, and the rotor starts
moving at speed !m.

4.3 Equivalent Circuit


The induction motor can be viewed as a 3-phase transformer, with a short-
circuited secondary (rotor) rotating at a speed !m. This analogy is partic-
ularly true when the rotor is standing still (!m = 0). Hence, each phase of
the 3-phase machine can be represented by the following equivalent circuit
as seen from the primary (stator) side
~ ~ ~
I1 R1 j X1 Im R2 j X2 I 2

~ Rm j Xm R 2 (1-s)/s
V1

 R1 and R2 represent Cu losses in the stator and rotor, respectively.


 Rm stands for the core losses.
 X1 and X2 represent the leakage uxes in the stator and rotor, respec-
tively.
 Xm stands for the magnetization ux (air-gap ux).
 The resistive load R2(1 , s)=s represents the mechanical load of the
motor.

4.4 Power and Torque


The machine losses are:
36
1. Copper losses in the stator PCus and the rotor PCur .
2. Core losses in the stator Pc. Core losses in the rotor are negligible due
to low rotor frequencies.
3. Rotational or mechanical losses Prot, which represent windage and fric-
tion losses.
Thus, the power balances and eciency of the motor are de ned as:
Pout = Pm , Prot
= Tapp !m

Pm = Pag , PCur
= Pag , I22R2
= Tind !m
= Pag (1 , s)

Pag = Pin , Pc , PCus


= Pin , Pc , I12R1

Pin = 3 V1 I1 cos(V , I )

Eff = PPout
in
 1 , s ! neglecting all losses but PCur
where Pout is the power available on the rotor shaft, Pm is the total mechanical
power produced by the motor, i.e.,
Pm = 3 I22R2 1 ,s s
) Tind = !3 I22R2 1 ,s s (4.1)
m
and Pag is the air-gap power, which is the total power transferred to the
rotor.

37
The following approximate or Thevenin equivalent circuits can be used
to compute I2, and hence the induced torque Tind from (4.1):
~ ~ ~
I1 Im R eq j X eq I 2

~ Rm j Xm R 2 (1-s)/s
V1

Req = R1 + R2
Xeq = X1 + X2
Stator Thevenin Equivalent
~
R Th j X Th j X2 I 2

+
~ - R 2 /s
VTh

VeTh  R +(jX m )Ve1


! Rm >> Xm
1 j (X1 + Xm )
ZeTh = RTh + jXTh
 (RR1++jjX 1 )(jXm ) ! R >> X
m m
1 (X1 + Xm )
38
Repeating this calculation for several values of slip s or speed nm , the
following torque-speed characteristic can be obtained:
Tm

Tmax

Tload
Tst

operating
point

- ns s ns nm
Tmax

-Tmax

Brake Motor Generator

Tm = Tind  Tapp
Notice that there is a maximum value of torque Tmax, and a start-up
torque Tst < Tmax. Tmax occurs at a value of slip sTmax such that dTm=ds =
0, and is independent of the rotor resistance R2. On the other hand, Tst
corresponds to a slip s = 1 (nm = 0), and it changes with R2.
Changing the stator feeding voltage V1 or frequency fe , changes the
torque-speed characteristic.

4.5 Circuit Tests


The following tests allow to determine the circuit parameters R1, X1, Xm,
R2, and X2 :
1. DC measurement: R1 is approximated by the dc measurement of
the stator windings resistances.
39
2. No-load test: When the motor is unloaded, i.e., no mechanical load
on the rotor shaft, yields a Tm  0, which implies that nm  ns (s  0).
Observe that s  0 means that R2=s ! 1, i.e., the secondary side of
the equivalent circuit is an open circuit. Thus, from the approximate
equivalent circuit
2
Rm  (P V,1NLP )=3
inNL rot
V 2
Xm  r 1 NL
 2
(V1NL I1NL )2 , PinNL3,Prot
 VI 1NL ! Rm >> Xm
1NL
where
 V1NL is the phase nominal or rated voltage.
 I1NL is a relatively small phase current as compared to the rated
value.
 The measured input 3-phase power PinNL represents the core losses
Pc plus the mechanical losses Prot.
 Xm changes with saturation of the iron core.
3. Blocked-rotor test: By blocking the rotor, i.e., nm = 0 (s = 1), from
the approximate equivalent circuit
R  PinBL =3
BL
I1BL2
v
u !2
XBL  t V1BL , R2
u
I BL
1BL
where
 I1BL is the stator rated phase current.
 V1BL is a relatively small stator phase voltage as compared to the
rated value.
 PinBL approximates the cooper looses in the stator PCus and the
rotor PCur .
40
These equations can then be used to create additional equations to
calculate the desired circuit parameters, assuming that X1 = X2. Thus,
R2  RBL , R1
X1 = X2  X2BL

4.6 Rotor Types


Instead of having a wound rotor, similar to the stator but short-circuited so
that the machine operates as a motor, one could replace the rotor windings
with a \squirrel-cage" with similar operational results at much reduced costs.
The types of cage rotors de ne the machine type according to NEMA:
1. NEMA A: Normal cage with bars near the surface.
2. NEMA B: Normal cage with bars deep in the rotor.
3. NEMA C: Double cage rotor. Large start-up torque.
4. NEMA D: Thin cage with bars near the surface. For intermittent op-
eration.

41
D
300

Percentage of full-load Tm A
250
C
B
200

150

100

50

0 20 40 60 80 100

Percentage of n S

4.7 Machine Start-up And Control


Induction motors are usually started at low stator voltages to reduce the
start-up currents, which tend to be signi cantly large due to the blocked-
rotor condition at the start.
The terminal voltages are typically reduced by controlling the feeding
voltage. If the motor is designed to operate normally in  connection, start-
ing it in a Y connection can decrease the start-up currents by as much as 67
%.
Speed and/or torques are typically controlled by varying the stator volt-
age and/or frequency. All of this is usually accomplished by ac/dc/ac con-
trolled converters: a recti er for ac/dc conversion, and an inverter for dc/ac
operating with amplitude and pulse width modulation (PWM).

42