You are on page 1of 25


ATOM: An atom is the smallest particle of matter consisting of a
positively charged nucleus and
negatively charged electrons.
DALTON’S ATOMIC MODEL: This model suggest that atoms are
J.J. THOMSON’S MODEL: An atom is a solid sphere of positively
charged particles in which electrons
are embedded like seeds in watermelon fruit.
RUTHERFORD’S MODEL. The protons and neutrons are present in a
small dense positively charged
core called nucleus and all the electrons revolve around the nucleus in
circular paths like planetary model.
BOHR’S MODEL. The protons and neutrons are present in the nucleus
and all the electrons revolve
around the nucleus in definite orbits.
SOMMERFIELD MODEL: According to this, the electron moving
around the nucleus must describe an
elliptical orbit in addition to circular orbits as suggested by Bohr.
electrons are considered as
three dimensional wave in electric field of the positively charged
ELECTRON: It is a negatively charged particle which occupies the
space outside the nucleus in an atom.
PROTON: It is a positively charged particles present in the nucleus of
an atom.
NEUTRON: It is a neutral particle of mass equal to the mass of proton.
ORBIT: It is a definite circular path in which the electron is supposed
to revolve around the nucleus.
ORBITAL: It is the three dimensional region around the nucleus in
which the probability of finding the
electron is maximum.
ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION: Distribution of electron in different
orbitals of the atom of an
s-ORBITAL: s orbital is spherically symmetric around the nucleus.
p-OTBITAL: p orbital is dumb-bell shaped and consists of two lobes of
electron cloud.
PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBER (n): It describes the energy of the
energy level in which the
electron revolving around the nucleus. It also describes the distance
between the nucleus and the electron.
sub energy level which is
present in main energy level.
MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER (m): It gives how many orientations
are possible for a sub energy
level in space, when an electron present in a sub shell.
SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER (s): It describes the direction of the spin of
the electron (either clock wise
or anticlock wise).
HUND’S RULE: “Among the orbitals of same energy, electrons do not
start pairing, until all these orbitals
are singly occupied”. Hund’s rule is also called as the principle of
minimum pairing and the principle of
maximum multiplicity.
AUFBAU’S PRINCIPLE: “Electrons are filled in the increasing order of
energy level” According to this
principle first the electrons occupy the orbitals with lowest energy. This
is decided by the sum of the
principle quantum number and azimuthal quantum number. This is
called (n + l) rule.
PAULI PRINCIPLE: “In an atom no two electrons can have the same set of
four quantum numbers”.
OXIDATION: Removal of one or more electron from an atom or
molecule or ion is called oxidation
REDUCTION: Addition of one or more electrons to an atom or
molecule or ion is called reduction.
REDUCING AGENT: A substance which gives one or more electrons to
the other is called a reducing
OXIDISING AGENT: A substance which accepts one or more electrons
from the other is called an
oxidizing agent.
Avogadro number (N): It is defined as the number of atoms present in
exactly 12 grams of 6C12 isotope. It is
denoted by N. It has a value of 6.023 × 1023.
Atomicity. The number of atoms contained in one molecule of the element
is called its atomicity.
Avogadro’s hypothesis. Equal volumes of all gases at the same
temperature and pressure contain the same
number of molecules.
Vapour density. Vapour Density is defined as the ratio of the mass of a
certain volume of the gas or vapour to
the mass of the same volume of hydrogen at the same temperature and
Atomic weight. The relative atomic mass of an element is the mass of one
atom of the element compared with
the mass of one atom of hydrogen taken as one unit.
Gram atomic weight of an atom. The atomic weight of an element
expressed in grams is known as the gram
atomic weight (or gram atom) of the element.
For example, Gram atomic weight of carbon = 12 g
Gram atomic weight of oxygen = 16 g.
Molecular mass. The relative molecular mass of an element or a compound
is the mass of one molecule of the
element or compound compared with the mass of one atom of hydrogen
taken as one unit.
Mole concept.
Definition 1: The mole is the amount of substance, which contains as many
particles (atoms, molecules, ions,
etc.) as there are carbon atoms in 12 grams of the 6C12 isotope.
Definition 2: A mole is defined as the amount of substance which contains
Avogadro number (6.023x1023) of
Gram molecular weight. The molecular weight of a substance expressed in
grams is known as gram molecular
weight of the substance. The gram molecular weight of oxygen is 32g and
that of sulphuric acid is 98g.
Molar volume. Volume occupied by one mole of any gas is called molar
volume or gram molecular volume. It
is 22.4L (or) 2.24 × 10-2 m3at S.T.P. It contains 6.023 × 1023 molecules.
Equivalent mass of an element. Equivalent mass of an element is defined
as the number of parts by mass of
that element which can displace or combine with 1.008 parts by mass of
hydrogen or 8 parts by mass of oxygen
or 35.46 parts by mass of chlorine or one equivalent mass of any other
element. It is only a relative number and
hence it does not have any units. When equivalent mass is expressed in
gram, it is called gram equivalent mass.
Equivalent mass of an acid. Equivalent mass of an acid is the number of
parts by mass of the acids which
contains 1.008 parts by mass of replaceable hydrogen.
Basicity: Basicity of mineral acid is defined as the number of Replaceable
hydrogen atoms present in one mole
of the acid. Basicity of organic acid is defined as the number of carboxylic
groups present in the acid.
Equivalent weight of base. Equivalent mass of the base is the number of
parts by mass of the base required to
neutralize one equivalent mass of an acid.
Acidity of a base. Acidity of hydroxide base is defined as the number of
replaceable hydroxyl ions present in
one mole of the base.
Equivalent mass of salt. Equivalent mass of a salt is the number of parts
by mass of salt which reacts with one
equivalent of mass of any other substance.
Equivalent weight of an oxidising agent. Equivalent weight of oxidizing
agent is the number of parts by mass
of it, which contains 8 parts by mass of available oxygen. Available oxygen
means, oxygen capable of being
utilised for oxidation.
Equivalent mass of a reducing agent. Equivalent weight of reducing
agent is the number of parts by mass of it,
which can be oxidized by 8 parts by mass of oxygen.
Normality of a solution. Normal solution is a solution, which contains one
gram equivalent mass of the
substance dissolved in one litre of the solution.
Law of volumetric analysis: When two solutions completely react with
each other, the product of volume and
normality of one solution will be equal to the product of volume and normality
of the other solution.
Standard solution. In a titration, concentration of either the solution in the
burette or in the conical flask should
be exactly known. The solution whose concentration is exactly known is
called the standard solution. A standard
solution can be prepared by dissolving a known mass of the substance in a
known volume of the solution.

Law of mass action: “The total mass of substances taking part in a

chemical reaction remains the same
throughout the change.”
Law of multiple proportion: “When two elements A and B combine to form
two or more compounds, then
different weights of B which combine with a fixed weight of A bears a simple
numerical ratio to one another”.
Law of conservation of mass: When two elements combine separately
with a definite mass of a third element,
then the ratio of their masses in which they do so is either the same or some
whole number multiple of the ratio
in which they combine with each other.
Limitations of Law multiple proportion: The law is valid till an element is
present in one particular isotopic
form in all its compounds. When an element exists in the form of different
isotopes in its compounds, the law
does not hold good.
Stoichiometry a branch of chemistry in which quantitative relationship
between masses of reactants and
products are established. The study of these laws led to the development of a
theory concerning the nature of

Instantaneous (or) fast reactions: These reaction occur at once, for

example, ionic reactions such as acid-base
neutralization reaction and precipitation reaction NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O
Reactions of this type proceed so quickly and their rates cannot be
determined by common methods.
Rate of reaction: Rate or velocity of a chemical reaction is defined as
“change in molar concentration of one of
the reactants or products in unit time”.
dx Change in molar concentration
Rate = ---- = -------------------------------------
dt Time
dx mol / dm3
Unit: Rate = ---- = -------------
dt second
Rate of the reaction is expressed in mol /dm3 /s or mol dm–3 s–1.
Law of mass action: At constant temperature, the rate of a chemical
reaction is directly proportional to the
product of ‘active masses’ of the reactants.

No of moles
Atomic mass = -------------------------------------
Volume of the containing vessel
Photochemical reaction: A few chemical reactions take place only when
the reacting substances after mixing is
exposed to light.
Chemical equilibrium: When the rate of forward reaction becomes equal to
the rate of backward reaction. This
state is called chemical equilibrium.
Thermo chemistry is a branch of chemistry which deals with the study of
heat change during various physical
and chemical transformations.
Endothermic reaction: A reaction which takes place with the absorption of
heat is called endothermic reaction.
For an endothermic reaction, Hp > HR. Hence ∆ H = +ve.
‘Active mass’ means effective molar concentration and in a dilute
solution, it can be considered to be
equal to molar concentration expressed in mol/dm3 or partial pressure
expressed in (N/m2) in the case
of gases.
Exothermic reaction: A reaction which takes place with the evolution of
heat is known as exothermic reaction.
For an exothermic reaction, Hp < HR. Hence, ∆ H = – ve. eg. (i) C(s) + O2
(g) CO2
(g); ∆ H = – 393.5 kJ
Reasons for difference in rates: A chemical reaction involves the breaking
and making of bonds. A strong
bond requires more energy to break, than a weak bond. A reaction which
involves breaking of strong bonds, will
be slow or impossible to occur at room temperature. On the other hand, a
reaction which involves breaking of
only weak bonds will be fast under similar conditions.
Irreversible reaction: A reaction in which the products formed do not
recombine to produce the original
reactants is called an irreversible reaction.
Reactions involving liberation of a gas or those in which a precipitate is
formed are generally irreversible
reactions. eg.: Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2 ↑
Conditions for reversible reaction: 1. The reaction should be done in a
closed vessel. 2.None of the products
should be removed from the vessel. 3. Temperature and pressure should be
kept constant.
Reversible reaction: A reaction in which the products formed react to give
back the original substances is
called a reversible reaction. Example: N2 + 3H2 2NH3 .In a reversible reaction,
the reaction proceeding
from left to right is called a forward reaction. The reaction proceeding from
right to left is called a backward
reaction or reverse reaction.
Factors influencing the rate of a reaction: 1. Concentration of the
reactants 2. Temperature: 3. Presence of a
Catalyst 4. Nature of reactants 5. Nature of the solvent 6. Exposure to
radiations 7. Surface area
Classification of the reactions:
(a) Instantaneous (or) fast reactions: These reaction occur at once, for
example, ionic reactions such as acidbase
neutralization reaction and precipitation reaction NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O
Reactions of this type proceed so quickly and their rates cannot be
determined by common methods.
(b) Extremely slow reactions: Some reactions proceed at extremely slow
rates. For example, rusting of iron,
combination of hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature etc., are few such
reactions, which takes months, or
even years before any observable change occur.
(c) Reactions with moderate speeds: In between the two extremes
discussed above, there are a large number of
reactions, which proceeds at moderate rates. A few examples of this type are
given below.
(i) Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide 2H2O2 (liq) → 2H2O(liq) + O2

Metallic lustre: The property of metals due to which they shine is

called metallic lustre. The
bright lustre of metals is due to their ability to reflect the incident light
from their face and the
surface acquires a shining appearance, which is known as metallic
2. Metals are solids: Most of the metals are generally solids at room
temperature except mercury,
which is liquid at room temperature.
3. Metals are hard: Due to strong forces of attraction between the
metal atoms, they are generally
hard except sodium and potassium which are soft metals .The
hardness varies from metal to metal.
The metals like magnesium (Mg), lead (Pb), aluminium (Al), Iron (Fe),
copper (Cu), etc. cannot be
cut with a knife, so these are not soft metals.
4. Metals are malleable and ductile: Metals can be beaten into
sheets (malleability) and drawn into
wires (ductility).
5. Thermal conductivity: Metals are good conductors of heat. For
example iron, silver, gold,
aluminium , etc. conduct heat.
6. Electrical conductivity: Metals are good conductors of electricity.
7. Sonorous: Most of the metals produce ringing sound when they are
8. Tensile strength: Metals resist breaking when stretched. This is a
measure of their tensile strength.
Metals like tungsten have very high tensile strength.
9. Density: Metals generally have high densities, e.g., density of gold,
mercury and iron is 19.3,
13.6 and 7.6 g/cc. respectively.
Minerals: The various compounds of metals, which occur in nature
and are obtained by mining, are
called minerals.
Ores: These are minerals from which metals can be conveniently and
economically extracted.
Matrix or gangue: The unwanted impurities such as mud, stones,
sand etc. which are present in the
ore are called matrix or gangue.
Metallurgy: The process of extraction of pure metals from their ores
is called metallurgy. The method
of extraction of metal depends on the nature of the metal and the
nature of its ore.
Refining of metals: The process of purification of impure metals by
removing metallic and
nonmetallic impurities is known as refining of metals.
Poling: The impure metal is melted and the molten metal is stirred
with logs of green wood. The
impurities are removed either as gases or they get oxidised forming
scum over the molten metal
Liquation: This method is used for refining those metals, which have
low melting point such as tin,
lead etc., The impure metal is placed on the sloping hearth of a
furnace and gently heated. The metal
melts and drain away leaving behind the infusible materials on the
Distillation: This process is employed for purification of volatile
metals like mercury, zinc and
cadmium. The impure metal is heated in a retort and its vapours are
separately condensed in a receiver.
While the pure metal distills over, the non-volatile impurities are left
behind in the retort.
Zone refining: Ultra pure metals and non-metals are obtained by
zone refining process. It is also
called fractional crystallisation method because this refining is based
on the principle that when an
impure metal is melted and allowed to solidify, the impurities move
away from the solid region and
prefer to be distributed in the molten region.
Electrolytic refining: This method is most widely used for refining
impure metals. Metals such as
copper, zinc, tin, nickel etc., are refined electrolytically.
Oxidation: This method is generally employed in the purification of
metals, when the impurities get
oxidised more readily than the metal itself.

The important minerals of aluminium are: 1.Bauxite (Al2O3. 2H2O )

2.Cryolite (Na3AlF6 )
3. Corundum (Al2O3 )
The extraction of aluminium requires three stages:
(a) Purification of bauxite (b) Electrolytic reduction (c) Refining of
Aluminium is a self-protecting metal because the oxide film on
aluminium protects it from further
attack of air.
The minerals of copper are:
1. Copper pyrites (CuFeS2 ) 2. Copper glance ( Cu2S.) 3. Cuprite (Cu2O.)
4. Malachite (Cu(OH)2 . CuCO3.) 5. Azurite ( 2CuCO3 . Cu(OH)2.)
Concentration of Ore: Copper pyrites being a sulphide ore, is
concentrated (dressed or enriched) by
the froth- floatation process.
Roasting: The concentrated copper pyrites ore is roasted in air in a
blast furnace.
Conversion to Metal: When a good amount of copper sulphide has
been converted into copper oxide,
then after some time, the supply of air for roasting is stopped. In the
absence of air, Copper oxide
formed above reacts with the remaining copper sulphide to form
copper metal:
Bessemerization: The Process in which copper oxide reacts with
copper sulphide to form copper
metal is called “ bessemerization”.
Electrolytic refining: Impure copper metal is refined by electrolysis
method called electrolytic
The minerals of iron are: 1.Haematite( Fe2O3 ) 2.Magnetite (Fe3O4 )
3.Siderite(FeCO3 )
4.Limonite( 2Fe2O3. 3H2O )
Concentration (levigation): The powdered ore is washed with a
stream of water whereby the lighter
sand particles and other impurities are washed away and the heavier
ore particles settle down.
Calcination: The Concentrated ore is strongly heated in a limited
supply of air in a reverberatory
furnace. During roasting (a) moisture is driven out and (b) impurities
like sulphur, arsenic, phosphorus
etc are oxidised off.
Smelting: The roasted ore is mixed with limestone and coke and
heated in a blast furnace in order to
reduce the iron oxide to the metal.
Tuyers: These are small pipes (tuyers) through which a blast of hot air
is admitted and a slaghole
through which slag can be withdrawn.
Types of zones: The various types of temperature zones are (a)
combustion zone (b) fusion zone
(c) slag formation zone (d) reduction zone
Three commercial forms of iron: (a) Cast iron (b) Wrought iron
and (c) steel.
Cast iron: It is the most impure form of iron containing 2-4.5% of
carbon. It is very hard and brittle.
Wrought iron: It is the purest form of iron obtained by the removal of
carbon almost completely. It
contains less than 0.25% carbon.
Steel: Steel is an alloy of iron with 0.25% to 2% carbon. The
percentage of carbon in steel is
intermediate between that in wrought iron and in cast iron.
Different types of steel: Based on carbon content, there are three
types of steel.
Mild steel: It has the least carbon content; 0.1 to 0.15%. It is used for
making wires and sheets.
Medium steel: It contains 0.2 to 0.5% carbon. It is harder than mild
steel and is used for constructing
rails, wheels etc.
Hard steel: This type of steel contains 0.5 to 1.5% carbon. It is very
hard and used for making
machine parts.
Special steels or alloy steels: Steel mixed with small amount of
nickel, cobalt, chromium, tungsten,
molybdenum, manganese, etc., acquires special properties. Such
products are called special steels or
alloy steels. Some important alloy steels are described.
Corrosion: It may be defined as the slow and steady destruction of a
metal or alloy by the environment.
In case of iron, corrosion is called rusting. Rust is a hydrated
ferric oxide represented as
Methods Of Preventing Corrosion
Coating with paints: Metal surfaces coated with paint which keep it
out of contact with air, moisture,
etc., till the paint layer develops cracks.
Coating with oils and greases: By applying film of oil and grease on
the surface of the iron tools and
machinery, the rusting of iron can be prevented since it keeps the
metal surface away from moisture,
oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Alloying: Some metals, when mixed with other metals, become
resistant to corrosion. Stainless steel
is an alloy of iron, which does not undergo corrosion easily.
Galvanisation: This process involves the coating of zinc on iron
sheets to prevent rusting. Galvanised
iron is used to make buckets, boxes, utensiles etc., and other
commonly used articles.
Tinning: This process involves the coating of tin (with molten tin) on
cooking vessels made of copper
and brass.
Anodizing: In this process metals like aluminium, copper, etc. are
coated electrically with a thin and
strong film of their oxides which protects them from rusting. Articles
such as soap cases, handles,
doorknobs, etc., are commonly anodized aluminium articles.
Electroplating: It is a process of depositing stable metal (gold, silver)
over a base metal (copper, iron)
Iron can be coated with copper by electro deposition from a solution of
copper sulphate.

Non-Metals: Non –metals are the elements which form negative ions
by gaining electrons. Hydrogen,
oxygen, carbon, Sulphur, silicon and phosphorus are some of the
common non –metals.
Inert Gases: Helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon are the
inert gases which are also non –
Position in the periodic table: The most metallic elements are on
the extreme left side of the periodic
table whereas non –metallic elements are on the extreme right side in
the periodic table.
Electronic configuration: Non –metals have usually 4 to 8 electrons
in the outermost shells of their
Physical Properties of Non Metals
Nature: Non –metals are brittle and bas conductor of heat and
electricity (except graphite).
Melting and Boiling points: Non – metals have low melting and
boiling points except graphite and
Silicon: It is the second most abundant element occurring in the
earth’s crust; the first being oxygen.
Silica: The simplest compound of silicon and oxygen is silicon dioxide.
Types of silica: Sand, quartz and opal.
Ferrosilicon: It is an alloy of silicon. It is used in the manufacture of
apparatus for redistilling nitric
Silico Bronze: It is used in the manufacture of telegraph and
telephone wires.
Sodium Silicate: It is used for preserving eggs and for making
chemical garden.
Silicones: They are polymeric organo silicon compounds having C –Si
and Si –O – Si bonds.
Position in the periodic table: Silicon is an element of group IV (14
in modern periodic table) and
occurs below the carbon in the periodic table.
Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration of phosphorus
is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p3.
Position in the periodic table: Phosphorus is placed in group V of
the periodic table below nitrogen.
Allotropic forms of phosphorus: White P, red P, scarlet p, metallic
black P, violet P.
Phosphorescence: The property of glowing of white phosphorous in
the dark.
Allotropy: Allotropy is a phenomenon in which the same element can
exist in more than one
crystalline or structural modification with change in physical
Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration of Sulphur is
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p4.
Position in the periodic table: Sulphur is placed in-group VI (16 in
modern periodic table) below
Allotropes of Sulphur: (i) Rhombic Sulphur, (ii) Monoclinic or
Prismatic Sulphur, (iii) Plastic or
Amorphous Sulphur.
Alcohols: Alcohols are organic compounds with general formula R –
OH where R is an alkyl group.
Hydroxy derivatives: Alcohols may be considered as hydroxy
derivatives of hydrocarbons in which
one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by hydroxyl (-OH) group.
Aliphatic alcohols: The open chain alcohols are called aliphatic
alcohols where R is an alkyl group.
Classification: Alcohols are classified as mono, di, tri and polyhydric
Nomenclature: There are two methods for naming alcohols. (a)
Common Name (b) IUPAC name
Fermentation: It is a slow anaerobic decomposition of big organic
molecules into simpler ones under
the catalytic influence of non-living complex substances called
ferments. In many causes enzymes acts
as ferments.
Molasses: It is the mother liquor left over after the crystallization of
sugar from the sugarcane juice. It
is a dark colored syrupy liquid containing 50 – 55 % total sugars (such
as sucrose, glucose and
Wash: The filtrate collected in fermentation contains almost 10% of
ethyl alcohol, called wash.
Azeotropic mixture: It is a mixture, which boils at a constant
temperature and distills over completely
at the same temperature without change in composition.
Denatured alcohol: Rectified spirit is made unfit for drinking
purpose, by adding 5% methyl alcohol
(poison), 0.5% pyridine (unpleasant odour) and some colouring matter
(methyl violet dye). It is called
denatured alcohol or methylated spirit.
Power alcohol: Rectified spirit does not mix properly with petrol.
Hence, it is mixed with ether or
benzene. One part of this mixture is added to four parts of petrol. This
is called power alcohol or
Esterification: The process of the formation of an ester (ethyl
ethanoate) by the combination of ethanol
with ethanoic acid is known as esterification.
Detection of Alcohol: Alcohol can be detected by the following tests.
Sodium metal test: when a small piece of sodium is added to an
alcohol, hydrogen gas is evolved
with effervescence.
Phosphorous pentachloride test: On treatment with phosphorous
pentachloride, alcohols become
warm and hydrogen chloride gas is evolved.
Ethers: They are organic compounds with the general formula (R-O-R1)
where R and R1 are alkyl or aryl
groups. The groups R and R1 may be either the same or different.
Types of Ethers: There are two types of ethers:(i) Simple ethers
or symmetrical ethers, (ii) Mixed
ethers or unsymmetrical ethers. If Rand R1 are the same the ethers are
called ‘simple ethers’. and if R
and R1 are different these are called ‘mixed ethers’.
Nomenclature: (a) Common name (b) IUPAC name
(a) Common system: In the Common system the ethers are named
according to the alkyl group
bonded to the oxygen atoms. The two-alkyl groups bonded to the
functional group
(-O-) are written alphabetically followed by the word ether For
example CH3 - O - C2H5
i.e. Ethyl methyl ether ( arranged alphabetically)
If both the groups are similar prefix like ‘–di’ is attached.
For example CH3 - O - CH3 i.e Dimethyl ether
(b) IUPAC System: In IUPAC System, the ethers are named as alkoxy
alkanes. The oxygen atom is
takes with the smaller alkyl group while the larger alkyl group forms
the parent chain
For example CH3 - O - C2H5 CH3 - O - CH2-CH2-CH3
i.e.1- Methoxy ethane i.e. Methoxy propane
Williamson’s ether synthesis: When an alkyl halide is heated with
sodium or potassium alkoxide, an
ether is obtained. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical ethers can be
prepared by this method.
1. Physical state: Dimethyl ether and ethyl methyl ether are gases at
room temperatures. Other lower
members are colourless liquids, which are highly volatile.
2. Boiling points: Ethers have much lower boiling points compared to
isomeric alcohols as they are
not associated with hydrogen bonds. Their boiling points are
comparable to the corresponding
3.Volatility and flammability: Due to low boiling points, the lower
members are highly volatile and
thus catch fire immediately. So lower ethers are highly inflammable.
4.Solubility: Ethers are soluble in hydrocarbons and other non-polar
solvents. Ethers are generally
insoluble in water, but their solubility in water is not negligible.
5. Inertness: Owing to the absence of active groups and multiple
bonds, ethers are comparatively inert
substances. They are not easily attacked by alkalies, dilute acids, PCl5.
metallic sodium etc.
They undergo chemical reactions under specific conditions. Some of
the reactions of ethers are
due to:

Carbonyl Compounds: Organic compounds containing carbonyl ( C =

O) group are known as
carbonyl compounds.
Nomenclature of Aldehydes
Common system: Aldehydes are named after the carboxylic acids
they form on oxidation. The name
is obtained by replacing the terminal ‘ic acid’ in the name of the acid
by the suffix aldehyde.
IUPAC system: The ending of the name (suffix) of aldehyde is ‘al’.
The names of aliphatic aldehydes
are derived from the name of the corresponding alkane by replacing
the terminal ‘e’ by the suffix ‘al’.
Name of aldehyde = Name of corresponding alkane -e + al.
Nomenclature of Ketones
Common system: The names of ketones are obtained by naming the
two alkyl groups attached to the
keto group (alphabetically) and adding the suffix ‘ketone’
IUPAC system: The characteristic ending for ketones is -‘one’. The
names of individual aliphatic
ketones are derived by replacing the terminal ‘e’ in the name of the
corresponding alkane by the suffix
Carboxylic acids: Organic compounds which contain the carboxyl
functional group (-COOH) are
called the carboxylic acids. Their general formula is R - C -OH or
R -COOH where R is an alkyl
group. | |
Fatty acids: The long chain monocarboxylic acids are commonly
called Fatty acids because many of
them are obtained by the hydrolysis of animal fats or vegetable oils.
Eg. Stearic acid, Palmitic acid.
Nomenclature of Monocarboxylic Acids
Common system: The common names are usually derived from the
Latin or Greek word that indicates
the original source of the acid. For example: Formic acid is present in
ants (Latin formica = ants) and
acetic acid is present in vinegar (acetum = vinegar).
IUPAC System: The names of the carboxylic acids are derived from
the names of the parent
hydrocarbons by replacing the terminal ‘e’ by ‘oic acid’.
Test For Carboxylic acid: 1. When ethanoic acid (acetic acid) is
warmed with ethanol in the presence
of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, a sweet smelling ester
called ethyl ethanoate is formed.
2. Acetic acid produces red colour when a neutral solution of ferric
chloride is added to it.
Glacial acetic acid: Acetic acid, when cooled sufficiently it forms ‘ice
like’ crystals which melts at
16.7oC. Hence the pure anhydrous acid is usually called glacial acetic
Soda – lime: It is a mixture of caustic soda (NaOH) and quick lime
Decarboxylation: The removal of carbon dioxide from a carboxylic
acid is known as decarboxylation.
Vinegar: Dilute aqueous solution (5 –8%) of ethanoic acid is called
vinegar, which is used to preserve
Quick vinegar process: Vinegar is prepared by the fermentation of
ethyl alcohol with the bacteria
acetobacter in the presence of air.
Pyroligneous acid: It is a mixture containing 10% acetic acid, 4%
methyl alcohol and 0.5% acetone.

Pollution: It is defined as an addition or excessive addition of

undesirable materials to the physical
environment (air, water, and land), making it less fit or unfit for life.
Basic Cause of Pollution: - There are two main causes of pollution
(1) Human activities and (2) Natural phenomena.
Pollutant: A substance released into the environment due to natural
or human activity and effect
adversely the environment is called as pollutant, eg : sulphur dioxide,
carbon monoxide, lead, mercury
Receptor: The medium which is effected by the pollutant is called
Eg: When many vehicles stop at the traffic signal during peak hours,
our eyes become red with burning
sensation due to the smoke released from the automobiles. The eyes
here are the receptors.
Sink: The medium which reacts with pollutants is called sink. Eg:
Micro-organisms which eat the dead
animals or which convert the dried leaves and garbage into fertilizers.
Thus, the pollutant is removed
by micro -organisms. Similarly, seawater is a big sink for carbon
Quantitative pollutants
These are the substances, which normally occur in nature but are also
added in large qualities by
man. For instance: carbon dioxide. It is always present in the air, and is
also released by fires,
industries and automobiles.
Qualitative pollutants
These are the substances which do not occur in nature but are added
by man. The insecticides and
herbicides, for example, are qualitative pollutants.
Biodegradable pollutants
These are quickly degraded by natural means. Sewage and heat are
pollutants of this category.
These pollutants are disposed of by microbial action and radiation.
Non degradable pollutants
These are not degraded or are degraded very slowly in nature. D.D.T.,
arsenic salts of heavy
metals, glass or tin containers, radioactive materials, and plastic are
the pollutants of this category.
These pollutants accumulate and may get biologically magnified as
they pass through the food chains.
Primary pollutants
These persist in the form in which they added to the environment.
Plastic ware are primary
Secondary pollutants
These are formed by interaction among the primary pollutants. For
example, two primary
pollutants, namely, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, from motor
vehicles, react in the presence of
sunlight to form two secondary pollutants, viz., peroxyacyl nitrate
(PAN) and ozone. These are more
toxic than the primary pollutants. This phenomenon of increased
toxicity by reaction among the
pollutants is called synergism.
Types of pollution: (i) Air pollution (ii) Water pollution. (iii) Soil or
land pollution
Air pollution: It refers to the release into the atmosphere, of
materials that are harmful to man, other
animals, plants and buildings or other objects.
Causes of air pollution: There are two main causes of air pollution:
human activities and natural
(a) Human Activities
Water Pollution: It is defined as the addition of some foreign
substance (organic, inorganic, biological
or radiological) to water, or change in its physical property (heat) that
constitutes a health hazard or
otherwise make it less fit or unfit for use.
Soil Pollution: Alteration in soil by addition and removal of materials
leading to reduce productivity is
called soil pollution.
Soil Pollutant: Substances which reduce productivity of the soil are
regarded soil pollutants.
Type of soil pollution: Soil Pollution is of two main types: Positive
and negative.
Green chemistry: It is defined as the design of chemical products and
processes that reduce or
eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The
ultimate aim of green chemistry or
environment friendly chemistry is to prevent pollution at the source.

P,V,T and mass are the measurable properties of gas. They obey
Boyle's and Charle's law. The equation of state for an ideal gas in PV =
• Different units of R :0.0821 it atm K-1mol-1;
8.314 x 107 erg K-1 mol-1;
8.314 joule K-1 mol-1;
1.987 cal K-1 mol-1.
• Equation of state of gaseous mixture is PV = (nA + nB + nC) RT.
• By Graham's law, (diffusion rate1/diffusion rate2) = (M2/M1)½ (or)
(effusion rate1/ effusion rate2) = (M2/M1)½
• Real gases deviate from Videal and Pideal. The equation of state of real gas
= Vanderwaal equation
P + __ (V-b) = RT for n = 1.
• Critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume represent the
critical state of the gas. Andrew's isotherm describes critical
temperature of carbondioxide. Thomson's experiment describes
continuity of state.
Pc, Vc, Tc are related to Vanderwaal's constants a and b as Vc = 3b;
a 8a
Pc = ____; Tc = ____
27b2 27Rb
• Joule Thomson effect predicts adiabatic expansion of a compressed gas
through an orifice to cause a fall in temperature. Inversion temperature
= 2a/Rb is the temperature below which Joule Thomson effect is
• Liquefaction of gases is carried out by Linde's and Claude's processes
adopting Joule-Thomson effect. Liquefaction of Helium and zero
kelvin are achieved by adopting adiabatic demagnetisation.
Solids form an important part of the world around us, providing
materials with a definite shape and predictable properties.
Crystalline solids are made of ordered arrays of atoms, ions or
Amorphous solids have no long-range ordering in their structures.
The unit cell is the basic repeating unit of the arrangement of atoms,
ions or molecules in a crystalline solid.
Lattice refers to the three dimensional array of particles in a
crystalline solid. Each particle occupies a lattice point in the array.
A simple cubic unit cell has lattice points only at the eight corners of
a cube.
A body-centred cubic unit cell has lattice points at the eight corners
of a cube and at the centre of the cube.
A face-centred cubic unit cell has the same kind of particles (lattice
paints) at the eight corners of a cube and at the centre of each face.
The geometry of the crystal may be completely defined with the help
of coordinate axes meeting at a point.
The miller indices of a face of a crystal are inversely proportional to
the intercepts of that face on the various axes.
The study of crystal is known as crystallography.

Groups 13 to 18 of the periodic table are known as p-block elements.

The lower oxidation states of these elements are stabilised by inert pair
Group 13 is known as Boron group. The element boron is extracted
from its ore borax and colemanite. It reacts to give many compounds. Most
important of them is borax, which is used to identify the metallic radicals in
the qualitative analysis.
Group 14 is known as carbon group. Carbon exists in different
allotropic forms such as diamond, graphite, fullerenes and other amorphous
form. The elements of this group form various hydrides, oxides, halides and
Group 15 is known as nitrogen group. The element nitrogen is essential
for plant life. It plays a vital role in fixation of nitrogen and the importance
can be studied by the nitrogen cycle.
Nitric acid is the important oxyacid of nitrogen. It is prepared by
Ostwald process. It oxidises metals, non-metals, compounds, etc.
Group 16 is known as oxygen group. Oxygen is the essential element
for life. Dioxygen or molecular oxygen plays an important role in
functioning of haemoglobin and myoglobin. The study about ozone and the
depletion of ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is very essential. The
causes of ozone depletion must be considered seriously and steps should be
taken to stop the depletion.

Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table. It exists in 3

isotopes. Protium, deuterium and tritium. The preparation properties of
deuterium are dealt in detail.
Depending on the spins of the nucleus of hydrogen atom in a molecule,
two types ortho and para hydrogen are known. It can be converted from one
to another form.
One of the important compound of deuterium is heavy water, which is
isolated from ordinary water. It reacts with metals, metallic oxides, acid
anhydrides etc. It also undergo exchange reaction.
In 1813, L.J. Thenard prepared hydrogen peroxide by the action of
dilute acid on barium peroxide. Traces of it are found in atmosphere. Pure
H2O2 is unstable. It acts as a powerful oxidizing agent.
The use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel is explained in this chapter.
Group 1 elements are known as alkalimetals. There is mostly regular
gradation in properties like density, atomic volume, melting and boiling
point, ionization energy etc. along the group.
The extraction of lithium and sodium and its properties are explained in
The model of the nuclear atom developed by Thomson, Rutherford
and their defects are explained.
• Niel's Bohr model and sommerfield's extension were mentioned with
diagrammatic representation.
• The location of electron in an atom through four quantum numbers
are explained including their significance.
• Occupancy of electrons following Hund's rule Aufbau principle,
Pauli's exclusion principle are explained with represnetation.

Chemical bonding is defined and Kossel-Lewis approach to understand

chemical bonding by using the octet rule is studied. Except helium,
atoms share or transfer valence electrons to attain the stable octet shell
as the electronic configuration.
• Ionic bonding results due to complete electron transfer from
electropositive elements to electronegative elements forming cation and
anion. Electrostatic force of attraction between ions describe the ionic
bonding. Mutual sharing of electrons between the two atoms result in
covalent bonding. The directional character, partial ionic character by
the pure orbital overlaps are also studied with suitable examples.
• The geometry of simple molecules are predicted using the postulates of
VSEPR model BeCl2 : linear; CH4 : Tetrahedral; BCl3 : trigonal; PCl5 :
trigonal bipyramidal; SF6 : Octahedral.
• The concept of hybridisation of C, N, O are learnt. σ and π bonds are
studied and differentiated. Resonance in benzene, carbonate ion,
molecules are understood.
• Formation of coordinate covalent (dative) bonding between Lewis acids
and electron donors are studied. Al2 Cl6 is covalent but in water, it is
ionic. Coordinate-covalent bonding in Ni(CO)4 is also understood.

Thermodynamically a system is defined as any portion of matter under
consideration which is separated from the rest of the universe by real or
imaginary boundaries.
Everything in the universe that is not the part of system and can interact
with it is called as surroundings.
Anything (fixed or moving) which separates the system from its
surroundings is called boundary.
For example, if the reaction between A and B substances are studied,
the mixture A and B, forms the system. All the rest, that includes beaker, its
walls, air, room etc. form the surroundings. The boundaries may be
considered as part of the system or surroundings depending upon
convenience. The surroundings can affect the system by the exchange of
matter or energy across the boundaries.
Types of systems
In thermodynamics different types of systems are considered, which
depends on the different kinds of interactions between the system and
Isolated system
A system which can exchange neither energy nor matter with its
surroundings is called an isolated system. For example, a sample in a sealed
thermos flask with walls made of insulating materials represents an isolated
Closed system
A system which permits the exchange of energy but not mass, across
the boundary with its surroundings is called a closed system.
For example: A liquid in equilibrium with its vapours in a sealed tube
represents a closed system since the sealed container may be heated or
cooled to add or remove energy from its contents while no matter (liquid or
vapour) can be added or removed.
Open system
A system is said to be open if it can exchange both energy and matter
with its surroundings.
For eg. a open beaker containing an aqueous salt solution represents
open system. Here, matter and heat can be added or removed
simultaneously or separately from the system to its surroundings.
All living things (or systems) are open systems because they
continuously exchange matter and energy with the surroundings.

(a) isolated (thermos flask)

(b) closed (closed beaker)
(c) open (open beaker) systems
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous systems
A system is said to be homogeneous if the physical states of all its
matter are uniform. For eg. mixture of gases, completely miscible mixture
of liquids etc.
A system is said to be heterogeneous, if its contents does not possess
the same physical state. For eg: immiscible liquids, solid in contact with an
immiscible liquid, solid in contact with a gas, etc.
Macroscopic properties of system
The properties which are associated with bulk or macroscopic state of
the system such as pressure, volume, temperature, concentration, density,
viscosity, surface tension, refractive index, colour, etc. are called as
macroscopic properties.
Types of macroscopic properties of system
Measurable properties of a system can be divided into two types.
Extensive properties
The properties that depend on the mass or size of the system are called
as extensive properties. Examples: volume, number of moles, mass, energy,
internal energy etc. The value of the extensive property is equal to the sum
of extensive properties of smaller parts into which the system is divided.
Suppose x1 ml, x2 ml,x3 ml of 1,2,3 gases are mixed in a system, the total
volume of the system equals to (x1 + x2 + x3) ml. Thus volume is an
extensive property.
Intensive properties
The properties that are independent of the mass or size of the system are
known as intensive properties. For eg. refractive index, surface tension,
density, temperature, boiling point, freezing point, etc., of the system.
These properties do not depend on the number of moles of the substance in
the system.
If any extensive property is expressed per mole or per gram or per ml, it
becomes an intensive property. For eg: mass, volume, heat capacity are
extensive properties while density, specific volume, specific heat are
intensive properties.
_ 68
12.2.1 State functions
State of a system
A system is said to be in a particular physical state when specific values
of the macroscopic properties of the system are known. For eg. The gaseous
state of matter can be described by parameters like Pressure (P), Volume
(V), Temperature (T) etc. The values of these parameters change when the
matter is in liquid state. Thus, the state of a system is defined by specific
measurable macroscopic properties of the system.
The initial state of system refers to the starting state of the system
before any kind of interaction with its surroundings.
The final state of system refers to the state after the interaction of
system with its surroundings. A system can interact with its surroundings
by means of exchange of matter or heat or energy or all.
The variables like P,V,T, composition (no. of moles) `n' that are used to
describe the state of a system are called as state variables or state
functions. When the state of the system changes, the values of the state
variables of the system also change. Thus, state functions depend only on
the initial and final states of system and not on how the changes occur.
Also, if the values of state functions of a system are known, all other
properties like mass, viscosity, density etc. of the system become specified.
For specifying a state of the system, it is not necessary to know all the
state variables, since they are interdependent and only a few of them (state
variables) are sufficient. A system which satisfies the conditions of thermal,
mechanical and chemical equilibria and contains the macroscopic
properties which are independent of time is said to be in thermodynamic
Thermodynamic equilibrium sets the condition that there should be
no flow of heat from one portion or part of the system to another portion or
part of the same system. ie. temperature of the system remaining constant at
every point of the system.
Mechanical equilibrium implies that there is no work done by one
portion or part of the system over another portion or part of the same
system. ie. Pressure of the system being constant at all its points.
_ 69
Chemical equilibrium demands that the composition of one or more
phases of chemicals present in the system should remain constant.
12.2.2 Thermodyanamic processes
A thermodynamic (physical or chemical) process may be defined as the
pathway of series of intermediate changes that occur when a system is
changed from initial to final state. Processes starting with the same initial
state and ending at different final states correspond to different
thermodynamic processes.
Different types of processes are commonly used in the study of
Isothermal process is defined as one in which the temperature of the
system remains constant during the change from its initial to final states.
During the isothermal process, the system exchanges heat with its
surroundings and the temperature of system remains constant.
Adiabatic process is defined as that one which does not exchange heat
with its surroundings during the change from initial to final states of the
A thermally and completely insulated system with its surroundings can
have changes in temperature during transformation from initial to final
states in an adiabatic process. This is because, the system cannot exchange
heat with its surroundings.
Isobaric process is that process in which the pressure of the system
remains constant during its change from the initial to final state.
Isochoric process shows no change in volume of system during its
change from initial to final state of the process.
Cyclic process: The process which brings back the system to its
original or initial state after a series of changes is called as cyclic process.
Spontaneous process are those that occur on their own accord. For
example heat flowing from a hotter end of a metal rod to a colder end. In
these processes, the transformation of the system from initial, to final state
is favourable in a particular direction only. Many of the spontaneous
processes are natural processes and are also, irreversible processes.
Non-spontaneous process are those that does not occur on their own
accord. For example, although carbon burns in air evolving heat to form
carbon dioxide, on its own carbon does not catch fire and an initial heat
supply is required. Since many of the non-spontaneous processes are slow
processes, they also exist as equilibrium processes.
Reversible process. In a reversible process the series of changes
carried out on the system during its transformation from initial to final state
may be possibly reversed in an exact manner.
This is possible when the changes are carried out very slowly in many
smaller steps on the system during its change from initial to final state. By
doing so, each of its intermediate state will be in equilibrium with its
surroundings. Under such conditions the initial and final states of the
system become reversible completely.
For example, when ice melts a certain amount of heat is absorbed. The
water formed can be converted back to ice if the same amount of heat is
removed from it. This indicates that many reversible processes are nonspontaneous
processes also.
Irreversible Process
An irreversible process is one which cannot be retraced to the initial
state without making a permanent change in the surroundings. Many of the
spontaneous processes are irreversible in nature.
For eg. Biological ageing is an irreversible process. Water flowing
down a hill on its own accord is an irreversible process.
Some of the characteristics of thermodynamically reversible and
irreversible processes are compared as below:

When the products of a chemical reaction do not react back to give the
reactants, then the reaction is called as irreversible reaction.
• In reversible reactions in a closed system, when the rate of forward
reaction equals the backward reaction, equilibrium state is reached. The
equilibrium concentrations do not change with time.
• For a general equilibrium reaction,
aA + bB cC + dD,
the equilibrium content, Keq is given by [C]c [D]d / [A]a [B]b.
• For gaseous reaction Keq can be expressed in partial pressures also
which is `Kp' value.
• Keq value depend on Temperature, pressure, and equilibria
concentrations and does not depend on catalyst and initial
• Concepts of chemical equilibrium also applies to physical equilibria
like solid to liquid, liquid to vapour and solid to solid physical state
transformations which take place at constant temperature.
• When the places of the reactants and products in the equilibrium
reaction are different like in solid (or) in liquid state then heterogeneous
equilibrium is formed. In the equilibrium constant expression, the
activities of pure solid and pure liquid form of reactants (or) products
are taken as unity.

Basic concepts of chemical kinetics used in writing the rate law of a

general reaction along with order and rate constant units and various
expressions are understood.
• Identification of rate determining step examples of reactions with
measurable rates are studied. Decomposition of N2O5 reaction with
various forms of rate expressions are studied.
• Order and molecularity are differentiated and various experimental
methods of determination of order of the reaction was understood.
• Classification of rates based on the order of the reaction are understood
with suitable examples each of the zero, first, second, pseudo first, third
and fractional order reactions.
Order Unit of k
Zero mol litre-1 time-1
I time-1
II litre mol-1 time-1
III litre2 mol-2 time-1
nth litre(n-1) mol(1-n) s-1