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Attitude Dynamics and control of launch Vehicle Of Saturn V. by DR. A.PECHEV

Attitude Dynamics and control of launch Vehicle Of Saturn V. by DR. A.PECHEV

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control

Measurements

Attitude control

Stabilising the pitch motion

0

Launch Vehicles Guidance Navigation and Control

1) position and velocity of the center of mass (six state variables plus rate of

change of mass)

Position and velocity describe the translational motion of the center of the mass

of the launch vehicle with respect to an inertial reference frame. In the previous

lectures we derived the equations describing this motion.

The attitude and the attitude motion describe the orientation of the rocket in

space. This is the subject of this lecture.

1

Motion of Center of Mass in Polar coordinates

v̇c = − ksin(γ)

r 2 − D

m + 1

m T cos(ϕ), D = 1

2 Cd Aρvc

2

γ̇ = − kcos(γ)

vc r 2 + L

vc m + vc cos(γ)

r + 1

vc m T sin(ϕ)

ν̇ = vc cos(γ)

r

ṙ ≡ ḣ = vcsin(γ)

ṁ = − ITsp

2

Inertial Motion in body coordinates

vx vy T cos(φ)

v˙x = − r + m0 −ṁt

2

vy µ T sin(φ)

v˙y =r − r 2 + m0 −ṁt

ṙ = vy

ẋ = vx

3

Launch Vehicle Thrust Vector Control

For attitude control we need to manipulate the direction of the thrust (Thrust

Vector Control, TVC). This is possible either by:

a) having three or four motors that can throttled to produce dierential thrust

4

In the gure above

Tx = (T1 − T3)l

Tz = (T2 − T4)l

(T1 − T3)l

T = R2(ϕ) 0

(T2 − T4)l

R2(ϕ) is the rotation matrix about the longitudinal axis. For a non-spinning

rocket, ϕ is maintained zero.

5

Thrust Vector Control: gimbaling

Gimbaling the booster provides another mechanism for determining the direction

of the thrust. Saturn V, for example, has ve motors, where the four outer motors

can be gimbaled by separate hydraulic actuators to get thrust components normal

to the longitudinal axis. All three degrees of freedom, pitch (θ), yaw (ψ) and

roll (ϕ), can be controlled by gimbaling the motors. Saturn V is aerodynamically

unstable.

The Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Booster also has mechanisms that allow gim-

baling the nozzle for thrust vector control.

6

Saturn V: Engine congurations

7

Launch vehicle measurements

Inertial Stabilised Platform: a device used for measuring acceleration and attitude

of launch vehicles.

8

Saturn V: measurements

• three gimbal mechanisms attached on gas bearings with servo motors and

resolvers (encoders).

• three integrating accelerometers for measuring the motion of the vehicle for

the purpose of the guidance.

• three-axis gyros for measuring attitude rates and angles; Angles are fed back

through control loops to the servo motors for maintaining zero attitude error.

The accumulated in the gimbal angles correspond to the attitude of the vehicle.

9

10

Launch vehicle Center of Mass and Pressure

11

Bending Modes

12

Bending Modes

13

Eects of wind

One of the most important tasks of the ght system design of a launch vehicle is

to reduce the aerodynamic lateral loads during atmospheric ght.

14

Launch vehicle Attitude

In the gure:

γ is the ight path (from local horizon to velocity)

α is the angle of attack (from local horizon to roll axis)

θ = γ + α is the rocket's pitch angle

All discussions below consider the pitch motion; The results however apply to yaw

motion.

15

Attitude Dynamics/Kinematics

16

The Euler's Equations

Euler's equations is the equivalent of Newton's second law of motion for rotation

about the center of mass

(i)

dh

dt =T

where T is the sum of all external torques. Remember this is a vector equation,

i.e. h = hxi + hy j + hz k and T = Txi + Ty j + Tz k

This representation is in an inertial frame. Using the fact that in body-xed frame

(b) rotating with an angular velocity ω

(i) (b)

dh dh

dt = dt +ω×h

Euler's equation becomes

(b)

dh

dt +ω×h=T

or using the fact that (h = Iω )

(b)

I dω

dt + ω × Iω = T, or equivalently Iω̇ + ω × Iω = T

17

The Euler's Equations

Using principal axes,

I1 0 0

I = 0 I2 0

0 0 I3

we can reduce

Iω̇ + ω × Iω = T

I1ω̇x + (I3 − I2)ωy ωz = Tx

I2ω̇y + (I1 − I3)ωxωz = Ty

I3ω̇z + (I2 − I1)ωxωy = Tz

and all disturbance torques.

For small angles

18

θ̇ = ωx

φ̇ = ωy

ψ̇ = ωz

For small angles and small angular velocities

θ̈ = I12 Tx

φ̈ = I11 Ty

ψ̈ = I13 Tz

19

Launch vehicle Pitch dynamics

For this description we can write the rotational equation of motion about center

of mass

I θ̈ = −T l1sinδ + N l2

pressure (as in gure)

I is the pitch moment of inertia,

20

Launch vehicle Attitude

For constant turn-over maneuver, a constant pitch angle is maintained, i.e.

θ̇ = const. Thus θ̈ = 0 and from pitch equation of motion

0 = −T l1sinδ + N l2

we can calculate the gimbal angle that is required to maintain this constant pitch,

turn-over maneuver.

N l2

δ = sin−1 T l1

In this equation, the aerodynamic force N , the thrust T , and l1,2 are functions

of time and their values have to be constantly updated during the maneuver in

order to calculate the gimbal oset δ .

21

Control of pitch motion

Start with

I θ̈ = −T l1sinδ + N l2

studying the feedback system). This reduces the dynamic equation to

I θ̈ = −T l1sinδ

Assigning a state vector x = [θ, θ̇] we can write the linear state-space equation

(with the assumption that sin(δ) ≈ δ )

ẋ = Ax + Bu

with

0 1 0

A= ,B =

0 0 −l1T /I

22

Control of pitch motion analysis of open-loop

response

To analyse the open-loop response, we calculate the poles of the system (eigen-

values of A)

1) Construct the characteristic equation

s 0 0 1

p(s) = det(sI − A) = det − =

0 s 0 0

s −1

= det = s2

0 s

This gives two poles at the origin, i.e. s1 = s2 = 0.

Since the poles are not in the left-hand side of the s-plane, the system is unstable

and requires feedback control.

23

Pole placement design

Given the state-space model of the system

ẋ = Ax + Bu

u = −Kx

ẋ = Ax + B(−Kx) = (A − BK)x

The stability of this closed-loop system is determined from the location of the

closed-loop poles or the eigenvalues of (A − BK). The closed-loop poles are the

solution to the following characteristic equation

p(s) = det(sI − (A − BK)) = 0, where s = σ + jω is the complex frequency

(Laplace variable).

For the design we specify a given desired closed-loop pole locations, i.e. we give

24

p̃ = sn + a1s(n−1) + a2s(n−2) + ... + an, where a1, a2,... are known!

˜

p(s) = p(s)

collecting equal in power terms coecients and solving for unknown controller

gains.

25

Pole placement design for pitch motion

0 1 0

Start with ẋ = Ax + Bu with A = ,B =

0 0 −1

For given

p̃ = (s − (−2 − j2))(s − (−2 + j2)) = s2 + 4s + 8

Using

K = [k1, k2], the closed-loop characteristic equation is

s 0 0 1

p(s) = det(sI − (A − BK)) = det( − ( −

0 s 0 0

0

[k1k2])) = s2 − k2s − k1

−1

k1 = −8 and k2 = −4.

26

Bending Modes

27

Modelling exibility

For modelling exibility in the rocket, one approach (for linear design) is to

consider that the rigid body is constructed by a series of rigid bodies coupled by

spring/damper links. A mass-damper system can be modelled by a second-order

transfer function

ki

F Mi(s) =

s2 + 2ζωi + ωi2

where ki is the modal gain, ζ is the damping coecient and ωi is the i-th exible

mode frequency.

28

Modelling exibility

!

−T l1 1 X ki

θ(s) = + 2 + 2ζω + ω 2

δ

I s2 i

s i i

The design of the controller can be performed using the simple model (double

integrator), but the analysis must be done for the full-order model.

Depending on the location of the exible modes with respect to the control-system

bandwidth, we can experience quite dierent behaviour.

29

30

31

32

Modelling slosh

nonlinear and dependent on tank geometry, construction, etc. For the purpose of

the control system design (as a part of the Thrust Vector Control task), we can

consider represent the motion of the liquid using a single slosh-pendulum.

33

Modelling slosh

By modelling the coupled system, rigid body plus the pendulum, it can be

identied that the overall closed-loop model (pitch axis) is

2

ωz2)

−T l1 1 (s +

θ(s) = δ

I s2 (s2 + ωp2)

where the zero and the pole of the slosh mode depend on the parameters of the

tank, the mass, etc

ωp2 = ωs2 1 m

+m + mb(b+l

I

1)

0

mb mb(b+l )

ωz2 = ωp2 − ωs2 l0 m0 + I

1

the slosh pendulum is pivoted below the centre of the mass of the rocket, the

interaction between the rigid body and the slosh mode is stable (the zero has a

lower frequency component than the pole).

34

35

36

37

Control of pitch motion

1. How is the inertial acceleration related to the body acceleration?

2. How many state variables are used to describe the attitude of the vehicle?

3. How are the inertial accelerations measured in a ying launch vehicle?

4. What principles can be used to manipulate the direction of the thrust ?

5. What is the signicance of the location of the Centre Of Pressure in respect to

the Centre of Mass?

6. How is lift related to the angle of attack?

7. Use the diagram on p. 15 to construct the equation describing the motion

about x (pitch, θ)

8. Design a control system for the problem dened in (7) to deliver stable motion

with settling time around 1 second.

38

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