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An American National Standard

Designation: D 86 – 04b

Standard Test Method for
Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 86; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original
adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript
epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope* 2.2 ASTM Standards: 2
1.1 This test method covers the atmospheric distillation of D 97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
petroleum products using a laboratory batch distillation unit to D 323 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Prod-
determine quantitatively the boiling range characteristics of ucts (Reid Method)
such products as natural gasolines, light and middle distillates, D 2892 Test Method for Distillation of Crude Petroleum
automotive spark-ignition engine fuels, aviation gasolines, (15-Theoretical Plate Column)
aviation turbine fuels, 1-D and 2-D regular and low sulfur D 4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and
diesel fuels, special petroleum spirits, naphthas, white spirits, Petroleum Products
kerosines, and Grades 1 and 2 burner fuels. D 4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and
1.2 The test method is designed for the analysis of distillate Petroleum Products
fuels; it is not applicable to products containing appreciable D 4953 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and
quantities of residual material. Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method)
1.3 This test method covers both manual and automated D 5190 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Prod-
instruments. ucts (Automatic Method)
D 5191 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Prod-
NOTE 1—Interlaboratory consensus test data have been obtained in the ucts (Mini Method)
last few years under the CS92 program. The statistical equivalency
between the manual and the automated procedure is currently under study,
D 5482 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Prod-
based on data from this program obtained between 1994 and 1998. ucts (Mini Method-Atmospheric)
D 5949 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
1.4 Unless otherwise noted, the values stated in SI units are (Automatic Pressure Pulsing Method)
to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses D 5950 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
are provided for information only. (Automatic Tilt Method)
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the D 5985 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the (Rotational Method)
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- E 1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- E 77 Test Method for Inspection and Verification of Ther-
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. mometers
2. Referenced Documents E 1272 Specification for Laboratory Glass Graduated Cyl-
inders
2.1 All standards are subject to revision, and parties to
E 1405 Specification for Laboratory Glass Distillation
agreement on this test method are to apply the most recent
Flasks
edition of the standards indicated below, unless otherwise
2.3 Energy Institute Standards:3
specified, such as in contractual agreements or regulatory rules IP 69 Determination of Vapour Pressure—Reid Method
where earlier versions of the method(s) identified may be IP 123 Petroleum Products—Determination of Distillation
required. Characteristics
IP 394 Determination of Air Saturated Vapour Pressure
1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D02 on
Petroleum Products and Lubricants and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee 2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
D02.08 on Volatility. contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
In the IP, the equivalent test method is published under the designation IP 123. Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
It is under the jurisdiction of the Standardization Committee. the ASTM website.
Current edition approved May 1, 2004. Published June 2004. Originally 3
Available from the Energy Institute, 61 New Cavendish St., London, W1G
approved in 1921. Last previous edition approved in 2004 as D 86-04a. 7AR, UK.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

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D 86 – 04b
IP Standard Methods for Analysis and Testing of Petroleum a lower temperature than the immersed portion, resulting in a
and Related Products 1996—Appendix A shrinkage of the mercury thread and a lower temperature
reading.
3. Terminology 3.1.7 end point (EP) or final boiling point (FBP), n—the
3.1 Definitions: maximum corrected thermometer reading obtained during the
3.1.1 charge volume, n—the volume of the specimen, 100 test.
mL, charged to the distillation flask at the temperature speci- 3.1.7.1 Discussion—This usually occurs after the evapora-
fied in Table 1. tion of all liquid from the bottom of the flask. The term
3.1.2 decomposition, n—of a hydrocarbon, the pyrolysis or maximum temperature is a frequently used synonym.
cracking of a molecule yielding smaller molecules with lower 3.1.8 front end loss, n—loss due to evaporation during
boiling points than the original molecule. transfer from receiving cylinder to distillation flask, vapor loss
3.1.2.1 Discussion—Characteristic indications of thermal during the distillation, and uncondensed vapor in the flask at
decomposition are evolution of fumes and erratic temperature the end of the distillation.
readings that usually decrease after any attempt is made to 3.1.9 initial boiling point (IBP), n—the corrected thermom-
adjust the heat. eter reading that is observed at the instant the first drop of
3.1.3 decomposition point, n—the corrected thermometer condensate falls from the lower end of the condenser tube.
reading that coincides with the first indications of thermal 3.1.10 percent evaporated, n—the sum of the percent re-
decomposition of the liquid in the flask. covered and the percent loss.
3.1.3.1 Discussion—The decomposition point, as deter- 3.1.11 percent loss (or observed loss), n—one hundred
mined under the conditions of this test method, does not minus the percent total recovery.
necessarily correspond to the decomposition temperature in 3.1.11.1 corrected loss, n—percent loss corrected for baro-
other applications. metric pressure.
3.1.4 dry point, n—the corrected thermometer reading that 3.1.12 percent recovered, n—the volume of condensate
is observed at the instant the last drop of liquid (exclusive of observed in the receiving cylinder, expressed as a percentage of
any drops or film of liquid on the side of the flask or on the the charge volume, associated with a simultaneous temperature
temperature sensor), evaporates from the lowest point in the reading.
distillation flask. 3.1.13 percent recovery, n—the maximum percent recov-
3.1.4.1 Discussion—The end point (final boiling point), ered, as observed in accordance with 10.18.
rather than the dry point, is intended for general use. The dry 3.1.13.1 corrected percent recovery, n—the percent recov-
point can be reported in connection with special purpose ery, adjusted for the difference between the observed loss and
naphthas, such as those used in the paint industry. Also, it is the corrected loss, as described in Eq 8.
substituted for the end point (final boiling point) whenever the 3.1.13.2 percent total recovery, n—the combined percent
sample is of such a nature that the precision of the end point recovery and residue in the flask, as determined in accordance
(final boiling point) cannot consistently meet the requirements with 11.1.
given in the precision section. 3.1.14 percent residue, n—the volume of residue in the
3.1.5 dynamic holdup, n—the amount of material present in flask, measured in accordance with 10.19, and expressed as a
the neck of the flask, in the sidearm of the flask, and in the percentage of the charge volume.
condenser tube during the distillation. 3.1.15 rate of change (or slope), n—the change in tempera-
3.1.6 emergent stem effect, n—the offset in temperature ture reading per percent evaporated or recovered, as described
reading caused by the use of total immersion mercury-in-glass in 13.2.
thermometers in the partial immersion mode. 3.1.16 temperature lag, n—the offset between the tempera-
3.1.6.1 Discussion—In the partial immersion mode, a por- ture reading obtained by a temperature sensing device and the
tion of the mercury thread, that is, the emergent portion, is at true temperature at that time.

TABLE 1 Preparation of Apparatus
Group 0 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4
Flask, mL 100 125 125 125 125
ASTM distillation thermometer 7C (7F) 7C (7F) 7C (7F) 7C (7F) 8C (8F)
IP distillation thermometer range low low low low high
Flask support board A B B C C
diameter of hole, mm 32 38 38 50 50
Temperature at start of test
Flask °C 0–5 13–18 13–18 13–18 not above
°F 32–40 55–65 55–65 55–65 ambient
Flask support and shield not above not above not above not above
ambient ambient ambient ambient
Receiving cylinder and 100 mL
charge
°C 0–5 13–18 13–18 13–18A 13–ambientA
°F 32–40 55–65 55–65 55–65A 55–ambientA
A
See 10.3.1.1 for exceptions.

2

1.19. affecting starting. shall be filled 4. ture. It is one of the oldest test methods under the jurisdic- tion of ASTM Committee D02. particularly 3. the properties. eter reading.1. n—the temperature obtained by temperature or at high altitude.1 Based on its composition. as described in for both automotive and aviation gasolines. and for compliance to regulatory 3. Apparatus 6. FIG. 6. rules. The volume of the residue and the losses are also 6.1 corrected temperature reading. n—a thermometer.1. prescribed conditions for the group in which the sample falls. 6.1.19.18 temperature reading. and the behavior of the fuel during storage and use. the flask support. corrected for barometric pressure. vapor pressure. 5. corrected for barometric 5. as it affects rate of evaporation. process thermometer under the conditions of the test.1. or combination thereof. Significance and Use 5.19 thermometer reading (or thermometer result).1.3 At the conclusion of the distillation. graduated on the stem and enamel backed. condenser tempera. which the sample falls. dating from the time when it was still referred to as the Engler distillation. 6.19. especially in the case of fuels and solvents. 1 and 2 and are examples of manual distillation 4. the condenser and associated cooling bath. 5. 6.18. either in a table or graphically. 4.18. the heat one of five groups.3. The boiling range gives information on the composition. source. as determined by the prescribed uct specifications. The distillation is performed in a laboratory batch distillation automated units also are equipped with a system to measure unit at ambient pressure under conditions that are designed to and automatically record the temperature and the associated provide approximately one theoretical plate fractionation. as described in 3.1. n—the those used in paints.3 In addition to the basic components described in 6.1 Basic Components of the Apparatus: 4. temperatures can be corrected for barometric pressure and the data are examined for conformance to procedural require- ments. n—the temperature deposits.2 The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocar- bons have an important effect on their safety and performance.1. The presence of high a temperature measuring device or system that is equal to the boiling point components in these and other fuels can signifi- thermometer reading described in 3.3. the sample is placed in metal shield or enclosure for the distillation flask. a or expected EP. n—the thermom. temperature of the saturated vapor measured in the neck of the 5. or a temperature sensor. the temperature measuring device.1. and other operational variables are defined by the group in and the receiving cylinder to collect the distillate.2 Figs.1. is an impor- pressure.4 Test results are commonly expressed as percent evapo- rated or percent recovered versus corresponding temperature.17 temperature measurement device. in commercial contract agreements.2. as described in 3. Volatility is the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon mixture to produce potentially explosive vapors. cantly affect the degree of formation of solid combustion 3. reading.5 Distillation limits are often included in petroleum prod- flask below the vapor tube. if used.1. such as distillation rates. depending on the needs of the user of the A2. 5. The test is repeated if any specified condition has not been met.3 Temperature Measuring Device: recorded. recovered volume in the receiving cylinder.1 Mercury-in-glass thermometers.1 The basic test method of determining the boiling range of a petroleum product by performing a simple batch distilla- tion has been in use as long as the petroleum industry has existed.1 corrected thermometer reading.4 Volatility. 6. tematic observations of temperature readings and volumes of 6. expected IBP distillation flask. as a plot of the distillation curve. or both. Summary of Test Method 6. Sys. D 86 – 04b 3.1. refinery/control applications. the observed vapor with an inert gas.3 The distillation characteristics are critically important as described in 6. warm-up. and tendency to vapor lock at high operating 3. tant factor in the application of many solvents.1. Apparatus arrangement.1 The basic components of the distillation unit are the 4.1.2 A 100-mL specimen of the sample is distilled under units.2 A detailed description of the apparatus is given in Annex condensate are made. data.3. 1 Apparatus Assembly Using Gas Burner 3 . a tremendous number of historical data bases exist for estimating end-use sensitivity on products and processes. Since the test method has been in use for such an extended period.

or both. and Methods for Analysis and Testing of Petroleum and Related ASTM 8C/IP 6C and ASTM 8F for the high range thermom- Products 1996. D 86 – 04b 1–Condenser bath 11–Distillation flask 2–Bath cover 12–Temperature sensor 3–Bath temperature sensor 13–Flask support board 4–Bath overflow 14–Flask support platform 5–Bath drain 15–Ground connection 6–Condenser tube 16–Electric heater 7–Shield 17–Knob for adjusting level 8–Viewing window of support platform 9a–Voltage regulator 18–Power source cord 9b–Voltmeter or ammeter 19–Receiver cylinder 9c–Power switch 20–Receiver cooling bath 9d–Power light indicator 21–Receiver cover 10–Vent FIG. 2 Apparatus Assembly Using Electric Heater They shall conform to Specification E 1 or IP Standard 7C/IP 5C and ASTM 7F for the low range thermometers. 4 . for thermometers ASTM eters. Appendix A.

5 Position of Thermometer in Distillation Flask NOTE 5—When running the test by the manual method. D 86 – 04b 6.2 Temperature measurement systems other than those described in 6.5. Examples of acceptable centering devices are shown in Figs. FIG.1.6 Barometer—A pressure measuring device capable of measuring local station pressure with an accuracy of 0. and accuracy as the equivalent mercury-in-glass thermometer.4.2 Alternatively.1.1 The temperature sensor shall be mounted through a snug-fitting device designed for mechanically centering the sensor in the neck of the flask without vapor leakage. 6. since these are precorrected to give sea level readings. products with a low IBP may have one or more readings obscured by the centering power to the unit and to spray an inert gas or vapor in the device. Where the procedure is dependent upon the group. 5 and described in 10.3. because of its adjusted thermal mass and conductivity.) 7. and foaming and spilling of liquid sample through the top opening of the flask. 6.1 are satisfactory for this test method.1 The electronic circuitry or the algorithms.3. chamber where the distillation flask is mounted in the event of 6. See also 10.3.3.2. emergent stem effect. Sampling. 6.4 Temperature Sensor Centering Device: 6. used shall include the capability to simulate the temperature lag of a mercury-in-glass thermometer.4. the section headings will be so FIG. has a temperature lag time similar to that of a mercury-in-glass thermometer. (Warning—The use of a plain stopper with a hole drilled through the center is not acceptable for the purpose described in 6. pro- vided that they exhibit the same temperature lag.1.1 kPa (1 mm Hg) or better. at the same elevation relative to sea level as the apparatus in the laboratory. as shown in Fig. and Sample Conditioning 7.2.) NOTE 4—Other centering devices are also acceptable. (Warning—Do not take readings from ordinary aneroid barometers. or both.14. the tempera- ture of the bulb is approaching a critical range in the glass and the thermometer may lose its calibration. NOTE 2—At an observed thermometer reading of 370°C.1 Thermometers that have been exposed for an ex- tended period above an observed temperature of 370°C shall not be reused without a verification of the ice point or checked as prescribed in Specification E 1 and Test Method E 77. 4 Example of Centering Device Designs for Straight-Bore seconds. the temperature lag of a thermometer can be as much as 3 FIG. 5 . as long as they position and hold the temperature sensing device in the proper position in the neck of the distillation column. Neck Flasks 6. such as those used at weather stations and airports. 6.1 Determine the Group characteristics that correspond to the sample to be tested (see Table 2). Storage. 3 and 4. shall be equipped with a device to automatically shut down NOTE 6—Some causes of fires are breakage of the distillation flask.5 Automated equipment manufactured in 1999 and later fire. electrical shorts. the referee test method shall be carried out with the specified mercury-in-glass thermometer.3 In case of dispute.3. the sensor can also be placed in a casing with the tip of the sensor covered so that the assembly.4.3. 3 PTFE Centering Device for Ground Glass Joint marked. NOTE 3—In a region where the temperature is changing rapidly during the distillation. 6.

or Close the bottle immediately with a tight-fitting closure.3.1 Group 0—Samples shall be conditioned to a tem- below 5°C. D 86 – 04b TABLE 2 Group Characteristics 7.4. Close the bottle immediately with a tight-fitting container.1 Samples of materials that visibly contain water are not assumed to have been so sampled.5. 7. Dry sample in accordance with 7. and Sample Conditioning Group 0 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Temperature of sample bottle °C <5 <10 °F <40 <50 Temperature of stored sample °C <5 <10A <10 ambient ambient °F <40 <50A <50 ambient ambient Temperature of sample after °C <5 <10 <10 Ambient or Ambient or conditioning prior to analysis 9 to 21°C above pour pointB °F <40 <50 <50 Ambient or Ambient or 48 to 70°F above pour pointB If sample is wet resample resample resample dry in accordance with 7.5 7.3.2.4 Group 2—Store the sample at a temperature below °F #482 #482 >482 >482 10°C.5 <9. °F #212 >212 EP °C #250 #250 >250 >250 7.1. see also 10. D 5985) prior to analysis.5.3.4.4 Sample Conditioning Prior to Analysis: and discarding the first sample. After sampling.1 temperature of less than 10°C (50°F) before opening the at a temperature below 10°C. D 4953. or inadequate. temperature ranges shown in Table 3 for the flask and for the 7. resampling may be omitted. the product to be sampled is at ambient tempera. or inadequate. Distillate type natural gasoline 7. prechilled to 7.2.2 Sampling: and leak-free.2. TABLE 3 Sampling.2.3. ture. 7. All samples shall be stored away from direct sunlight or characteristics sources of direct heat.3. psi $9. it shall be vigorously of sample because of the likelihood of breakage on warming. instance.1 Group 0—Condition the sample container to below temperature.4.5.1. 7. IP 69 or 10°C. close the sample bottle immedi. 7.1.2.5 <65. in such a manner that agitation is kept at a minimum.2.1. in such a manner that agitation is kept at a perature of less than 5°C (40°F) before opening the sample minimum.1 If testing is not to start immediately after collection. C If sample is known to be wet.4. NOTE 7—If there are no. If this is not possible because. the ately with a tight-fitting closure.1. temperature.3 Sample Storage: sample that is free from suspended water.2.3. If this is not possible because. 7.2 Groups 1 and 2—Samples shall be conditioned to a 7.1.1 Sampling shall be done in accordance with Practice D 4057 or D 4177 and as described in Table 3.3 Group 1—Store the sample at a temperature below 100°F.3. the product to be sampled is at ambient temperature.3 If resample is still wetC dry in accordance with 7. Storage.5 <65. and Table Sample 3. NOTE 8—If there are no. for sample container. If the sample has partially or (Warning—Do not completely fill and tightly seal a cold bottle completely solidified during storage.2 and 7. If the sample is not dry.5 <65.5 <9.1.4. the sample shall be drawn into a bottle.3 Groups 3 and 4—If the sample is not fluid at the sample shall be drawn into a bottle prechilled to below ambient temperature. been sampled by others and it is not known whether sampling 7.8°C. facilities for storage below 10°C.4.2 A Under certain circumstances.1. 7. B If sample is (semi)-solid at ambient temperature.3 and 7. 37.3.1. it is to be heated to a temperature of 9 to 10°C. samples can also be stored at temperatures below 20°C (68°F).5 <9. facilities for storage below D 5482.3. kPa $65.4 If the sample is not fluid at room temperature. shown in Table 3 before opening the sample container.3.) shaken after melting prior to opening the sample container to 7.3.5 Groups 3 and 4—Store the sample at ambient or lower 7. See also 7. the sample may also be stored at a temperature below 20°C. the sample may also be stored at a temperature below 20°C. preferably by filling the bottle with the cold liquid sample 7. D 5191. suitable for testing.2 Group 1—Collect the sample as described in 7. D 5190.1. 5°C. IP 394) provided the operator ensures that the sample container is tightly closed Distillation. closure and place the sample in an ice bath or refrigerator. obtain another 7.4.5 (Test Methods 10°C.3. provided the operator ensures that the sample container is tightly closed 7. 7. and 4—Collect the sample at ambient ensure homogeneity. IBP °C #100 >100 and leak-free. Group 0 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 store the samples as indicated in 7. 7.3.5 Wet Samples: has been performed as described in 7.2.1. 6 . the sample shall be 7.2 Group 0—Samples shall be stored in a refrigerator Vapor pressure at below a temperature of 5°C. D 323.3 Groups 2. 3.5.4 If the sample received by the testing laboratory has sample do not apply.5. 21°C above its pour point (Test Method D 97.1 Samples shall be conditioned to the temperature for instance. D 5949.

but are not limited to.1 Temperature Measurement System—Temperature mea.2 Reagent grade toluene. American Chemical Society Specifications.2 Automated Method: replaced or repaired. no algorithms shall be used to correct a desiccant. the tions of the Committee on Analytical Reagents of the American flask.1. NOTE 12—Because of the high melting point of n-hexadecane.K. not more than six months.2°C suitable drying agent and separating it from the drying agent by from the expected temperature (see Note 11 and Table 4).6 6 1. U.3 Remove any residual liquid in the condenser tube by 9. (229.3 kPa.1. a tem- surement systems using other than the specified mercury-in. and after the system has been 9. 7F 8C. and the United States Pharmacopeia 4 Supporting data have been filed at ASTM International Headquarters and may and National Formulary. conforming to the specifica- group.3°C (228. for the analysis. cold water. Calibration and Standardization temperatures. and 3—Suitable media for low sion. removed by the addition of anhydrous sodium sulfate and separating the 9. Inc. the decanting. maintained between 1 and 10°C. Once the sample Toluene 110. be obtained by requesting Research Report RR: D02-1455. Preparation of Apparatus NOTE 10—Toluene is used as a verification fluid for bias. and refrigerated ethylene glycol.5. the temperature for lag and the emergent stem effect (see NOTE 9—Suspended water in hazy samples in Groups 1 and 2 can be manufacturer’s instructions).2. use cetane (n-hexadecane).. or wire. Note in the report that the sample has been dried by temperature measurement system shall be considered defective the addition of a desiccant.2. shaking the sample with anhydrous sodium sulfate or other 9.4 A procedure to emulate the emergent stem effect is swabbing with a piece of soft. it will yield almost no information on how well an electronic measurement system 8.1 If the temperature reading differs more than 0. and flask support board. the accuracy of the determination. 7 . Washington. When per. U.5. Note in the report that the sample has been dried by the addition of forming this verification.0°C under Group 4 distillation conditions.2 Groups 0. adding approximately 10 g of IP 5C 6C Compound true boiling D 86 boiling bias D 86 boiling bias anhydrous sodium sulfate per 100 mL of sample. refrigerated brine. measurement system shall indicate at.3 A procedure to determine the magnitude of the tem- water. The estimated figures are temperature baths include. MD. hot 9. surrounded by an air circulation chamber. 50% distilled. and then allowing the °C °C °C mixture to settle for approximately 15 min.6 109. Dorset. Because this test method uses thermometers calibrated for total immer- 8.2 Make any necessary provisions so that the temperature grades may also be used. Confirmation of the calibration of these verification distillations will have to be carried out with condenser temperature measuring systems shall be made at intervals of temperatures >20°C. tions and 278. Pharmacopeial Convention. 8F the sample at 0 to 10°C.1 The accuracy and the calibration of the electronic circuitry or computer algorithms. and shall not be used for the test.7 shows no visible signs of water. may be different for each thermometer. 1.1.6°C when measured using a partial immersion thermometer. (USPC).0°C under Group 3 distillation condi- glass thermometers shall exhibit the same temperature lag.2.1. other 8.1 Groups 0. and accuracy as the equivalent mercury. 8. For suggestions on the testing of reagents not listed by the American Chemical Society. American the use of a standard precision resistance bench. 2. shaking the point point point mixture for approximately 2 min. the appropriate distillation flask. 8. the suspended water can be removed by carrying out a manual test under the same conditions.S. Bring the temperature of the receiving cylinder.1. and the condenser bath to the indicated temperature.3 109. Group 3 in-glass thermometer.1 Refer to Table 1 and prepare the apparatus by choosing simulates the temperature lag of a mercury-in-glass thermometer.5 shall be used for this test. Rockville. BDH Ltd. but are not limited to. shall be verified by 5 Reagent Chemicals. the suspended water can be removed by maintaining Thermometer ASTM 7C. Chemical Society. provided it is first ascertained that the of the condenser bath and the receiving cylinder will be reagent is of sufficient purity to permit its use without lessening maintained at the required temperatures.. and 2—If such a sample cannot be TABLE 4 True and D 86 Boiling Points of Toluene obtained.3 Groups 3 and 4—In cases in which a water-free the above mentioned mercury-in-glass thermometers when sample is not practical. D 86 – 04b 7. 1.9°C and water.2 Group 4—Suitable media for ambient and higher bath temperatures include. and heated ethylene glycol.1. 9.4 comparing the 50 % recovered temperature with that shown by 7. see Annual Standards for Laboratory Chemicals. perature lag is described in Annex A3. Chemical Society.7°F) when using the low range thermometer and 109. lint-free cloth attached to a cord described in Appendix X4. Poole. The temperature 9. temperature measuring de- vice.2. emergent stem effect. The receiving cylin.8°F) when using the high range thermometer.9 -0.1. However. der shall be in a bath such that either the liquid level is at least NOTE 11—At 101. as directed for the indicated 9. the results will be lower and. toluene is shown in reference manuals as as high as the 100-mL mark or the entire receiving cylinder is boiling at 110.3 6 1. or both. 9. use a decanted portion of the sample. depending on the thermometer and the situation. DC.3 -1.5 To verify the ability of the temperature measurement system to emulate mercury-in-glass thermometer at elevated 9. 8.2 The magnitude of the bias shall be verified by distill- liquid sample from the drying agent by decanting without statistically ing pure toluene in accordance with this test method and affecting the results of the test. perature of 275. chopped ice 109.

contribute to the observed recovery volume at the time of the IBP.3 Groups 0. Adjust the flask in a six months. 5). In the case of a thermometer. If a receiver deflector is not used. into its 10. NOTE 13—The typical calibration procedure involves verifying the 10. D 86 – 04b 9. 10. in thermodynamic equilibrium.1 mL or better with a maximum vapor tube (see Fig. it shall be flask and contents with the tip of the receiver deflector just vigorously shaken after melting. The distillation rate will con- tribute to the loss. the level follower/recording mechanism of the apparatus with the highest point on the bottom of the inner wall of the shall have a resolution of 0. Apply heat to the distillation completely solidified in the intervening period.1 Record the prevailing barometric pressure. provided with a snug-fitting output with the receiver containing 5 and 100 mL of material respectively. The addition of a few boiling chips is acceptable NOTE 17—When testing gasoline samples. ensuring that none of the distillation with the tip of the deflector just touching the wall of liquid flows into the vapor tube. without drying the inside of the cylinder. Raise and against a barometer. vapor temperature of around 160°C. heat the 5. and 2—Fit a low range thermometer temperature-controlled bath under the lower end of the con- provided with a snug-fitting cork or stopper of silicone rubber. the neck of the flask. 1.3. If the sample has partially or manufacturer for this purpose. immediately move the receiving cylinder so that the tip of the condenser touches its inner wall. A difference of 5°C can make a IBP to the nearest 0. denser tube. centering device.6 Fit the flask vapor tube.10 Regulate the heating so that the time from IBP to 5 or the sample. tightly into the neck of the the receiving cylinder and shall extend therein for a distance of sample container and bring the temperature of the sample to the at least 25 mm. follow the manufacturer’s instructions calibration of the assembly shall be verified in accordance with as to placement. manufacturer’s instructions at intervals of not more than three NOTE 16—If vacuum grease is used on the mating surface of the months and after the system has been replaced or repaired. 10. the bulb is The phenomenon. In the case of a thermocouple or error of 0. ensuring that none of the liquid flows into the vapor residue in the flask is 4 to 5 mL per min. the receiving cylinder. Prior to analysis.5°C (1. and after the system has been replaced or repaired. 3.) boiling behavior. be kept as constant as 10. tightly into the condenser tube.6. or similar material. If a receiver deflector is being used. 2. vertical position so that the vapor tube extends into the the barometric reading of the instrument shall be verified condenser tube for a distance from 25 to 50 mm. The end of the condenser tube shall be centered in or equivalent polymeric material. Note the start time. 1. bumping. the temperature measuring device and in the neck of the boiling flask at a 10. Observe and record the is as small as practically possible. ensure homogeneity. use the device provided by the instrument or D 5985) prior to analysis. to mechanically center the sensor in (about 3°C) dip in the vapor temperature and a drop in the recovery rate. it is to be heated to a temperature between 9 and 10.2 Automated Method—To reduce evaporation loss of 21°C above its pour point (Test Method D 97. and transfer the contents of the 10. that has been cut to fit the condenser transfer the contents of the receiving cylinder as completely as tube snugly. to touching the wall of the receiving cylinder.1 Groups 3 and 4—If the sample is not fluid at ambient temperature.5 Fit the temperature sensor through a snug-fitting de. which may be due to the presence of trace water in the 8 . that is. add a few boiling chips to the specimen.1 Manual Method—To reduce evaporation loss of the of the sample is as shown in Table 3.7 Place the receiving cylinder that was used to measure 10. it is not uncommon to see the condensate suddenly form non-miscible liquid phases and bead up on for any distillation. and prior to sampling.3. the specimen. mark of the receiving cylinder. receiving cylinder to approximately the same temperature as 10. any material that remains in the receiving cylinder will sequently have an effect on the measured vapor temperature. therefore.1 If the sample is not fluid at ambient temperatures.8 Initial Boiling Point: 10. (Warning—Due to tube.2.3 mL between the 5 and 100 mL points. being used. the vapor and liquid around the temperature sensor are not NOTE 15—Any material that evaporates during the transfer will con.11 Continue to regulate the heating so that the uniform receiving cylinder as completely as practical into the distilla.9 Regulate the heating so that the time interval between disregard the temperature range shown in Table 1 for the the first application of heat and the IBP is as specified in Table receiving cylinder and sample.4. the distillate. and paper. cork or rubber stopper of silicone. Pour the heated specimen precisely to the 100-mL 10 % recovered is as indicated in Table 5. but not below the 100-mL mark. temperature indicated in Table 3. 10. and 4—Check that the temperature 10. The distillation rate shall. as described in 6.8. or equivalent polymeric 9. This may be accompanied by a sharp vice.1 Level Follower—For an automated distillation appa.2 Barometric Pressure—At intervals of not more than material. 10. 10. keep the drip tip of the condenser away from the wall of the NOTE 14—It is important that the difference between the temperature of the specimen and the temperature of the bath around the receiving cylinder receiving cylinder. Note the start time.7 mL.8.2. centered in the neck and the lower end of the capillary is level ratus. If a receiver deflector is not difference of 0.0°F). The resistance thermometer. start the practical into the distillation flask. D 5949. Pour the specimen distillate.2 Groups 0.1°C (0. adjust the flask support board to fit it snugly against the bottom of the flask. cover the receiving cylinder with a piece of blotting precisely to the 100-mL mark of the receiving cylinder. Procedure 10. as described in 6. Record the IBP to the nearest 0. average rate of condensation from 5 or 10 % recovered to 5 mL tion flask.4 If the sample can be expected to demonstrate irregular possible throughout the test. the configuration of the boiling flask and the conditions of the test.1.2°F). use the minimum amount of grease that is practical. D 5950.

10. In general. or both. ~C2 2 C1!/~V2 2 V1! 2 ~C3 2 C2!/~V3 2 V2! ages recovered at prescribed temperature readings. perform a second V2 = volume % recorded at the volume % in question.14. in question. obscured high range thermometer readings. quirements have been indicated.1. used in testing aviation turbine fuels and similar products.10.11. and all temperature Change of Slope ~F! 5 readings to the nearest 0. reading V3 = volume % recorded following the volume % in from a low range thermometer can be reported in place of the question.2 Automated Method—Record all volumes in the (2) receiving cylinder to the nearest 0. The test is generally performed using one single condenser temperature. 85.1°C (0. In such cases. it may be necessary to hold the condenser bath temperature in the 38 to 60°C range. s 60–100 60–100 to 10 % recovered. min 2–5 5–10 5–10 5–10 5–15 Time from initial boiling point to 5 % recovered. and 4—In cases in which no specific volume % in question. °C. may last for 10 to 30 s before the temperature recovers and the shall so indicate. 15. The slope is considered rapidly changing if the 10.0) as calculated by Eq 1 (Eq 2). data requirements have been indicated. Wax formation in the condenser can be deduced from (a) the presence of wax particles in the distillate coming off the drip tip. F3 = temperature at the volume % recorded following the 10. °F.1 Group 4—When a high range thermometer is volume % in question.3).4. °C.14. 3.5 When it is required to report the temperature 10. (c) an erratic recovery rate and (d) the presence of wax particles during the removal of residual liquid by swabbing with a lint-free cloth (see 8. 1 fuel oil and Grade No. reading at a prescribed percent evaporated or recovered for a ments described in 10. Grade No.14. record the IBP.1 mL.13 If a decomposition point. 5. a bath temperature in the 0 to 4°C range is suitable for kerosine. °F.14. and all temperature where: readings to the nearest 0. sample that has a rapidly changing slope of the distillation 10. record temperature readings at every 1 % 10.14. °F. C1 = temperature at the volume % recorded one reading 10. and the test report 9 . If these readings are required. as described in 3. min 5 max 5 max 5 max 5 max 5 max A the proper condenser bath temperature will depend upon the wax content of the sample and of its distillation fractions. by agreement. and distillation in accordance with Group 3. In some cases involving Grade No. mL/min 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 Time recorded from 5 mL residue to end point.0°F).2 in distillation. and at each 10 % multiple of F2 = temperature at the volume % recorded in question. and 10. 10. C2 = temperature at the volume % recorded in question.5°C (1. ~F2 2 F1!/~V2 2 V1! 2 ~F3 2 F2!/~V3 2 V2! 10. gas oils and similar distillates. and temperature readings at prior to the volume % in question.17. This point is sometimes waived. If.9. 2-D diesel fuel oil.2°F). min 3–4 Uniform average rate of condensation from 5 % recovered to 5 mL in flask. 2 fuel oil. the EP (FBP). D 86 – 04b TABLE 5 Conditions During Test Procedure Group 0 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Temperature of cooling bathA °C 0–1 0–1 0–5 0–5 0–60 °F 32–34 32–34 32–40 32–40 32–140 Temperature of bath around °C 0–4 13–18 13–18 13–18 63 receiving cylinder °F 32–40 55–65 55–65 55–65 65 of charge temperature Time from first application of heat to initial boiling point. inclusive. colloquially referred to as the Hesitation Point.14. volume recovered from 10 to 90. is curve in the region of the prescribed percent evaporated or observed. and 95 % recovered. (1) 10.5 mL. (b) a higher distillation loss than what would be expected based on the initial boiling point of the specimen. or as previously established for the greater than 1. and temperature readings at each 10 % multiple of volume °C. inclusive. These observed data can include tempera.14. recovered from 10 to 90. recovered. the obscured readings are condensate starts flowing smoothly again. discontinue the heating and proceed as directed in recovered reading.12 Repeat any distillation that did not meet the require. 1-D diesel fuel oil.6 (change of slope (F) is specification involved. or both. C3 = temperature at the volume % recorded following the 10. observe and record data necessary for the calcula- tion and reporting of the results of the test as required by the that particular area is greater than 0.4 Group 1. Grade No. The minimum temperature that permits satisfactory operation shall be used.3 Group 0—In cases in which no specific data re. record the IBP and the F1 = temperature at the volume % recorded one reading EP (FBP) or the dry point. the test report shall so indicate.14 In the interval between the IBP and the end of the change in slope (C) of the data points described in 10. Change of Slope ~C! 5 ture readings at prescribed percentages recovered or percent. 2. prior to the volume % in question.1 Manual Method—Record all volumes in the gradu- ated cylinder to the nearest 0.3. sample. ing device. V1 = volume % recorded one reading prior to the volume % pertinent thermometer readings can be obscured by the center. sample under test.

4 290–310 554–590 0.2 Group 0—Cool the 5-mL graduated cylinder to 390–410 734–770 0.9–1.1 If the actual front end loss differs more than 2 mL recovery (see 10. and 110–130 230–266 0.41 10. repeat test. the amount of 5 mL in the flask can be assumed to correspond with an amount of 93. make a final adjustment of the heat.17.85 130–150 266–302 0.33 fuels containing appreciable quantities of residual material (see 1. to the A Values to be added when barometric pressure is below 101. If found.19.81 10. Measure the volume same sample between laboratories at two different locations in the world in the receiving cylinder accurately. respectively. and 1. 310–330 590–626 0.24 volume %.47 0. For Celsius temperatures: ued under the conditions of a decomposition point.3 Groups 1. in general.1 mL in 2 min. to the nearest 0.15. or by the use percent recovery.78 1. modify the procedure to con- NOTE 18—Since it is difficult to determine when there is 5 mL of form to the instructions described in Annex A4.00012 ~760 2 P! ~273 1 tc! (4) in 10.19.3 kPa (760 mm by no more than 0.42 0.20 If the intent of the distillation is to determine the satisfied. Record the volume in the graduated cylinder. this time is determined by observing the 10. and 4—Record the volume in the 5 mL. at sea level. 2.18) and the percent residue (see 10.50 0.59 1. Hg) and to be subtracted when barometric pressure is above 101.2 Automated Method—The apparatus shall continu.1 mL. This 11. corrected temperature reading. Almost all data obtained 0.19). boiling liquid left in the flask. and do not adjust the pressure to what it would be der. 10 .5 mL. 150–170 302–338 0.19.5 mL at 2 min intervals performing these corrections.62 1. Even without volume of condensate to the nearest 0.15 NOTE 19—Test Method D 86 distillation residues for gasoline.76 1.20 sine.81 1.1 mL.71 1. from the estimated value. as percent 5 mL of liquid residue in the flask to the EP (FBP) shall be residue. after heating has been discontinued. the corrected temperature readings for the until two successive observations agree.0–1. 11.35 0. 3.1 If the 5-mL graduated cylinder does not have 10–30 50–86 0.3. Record the volume in the Hg) pressure.89 the distillation was not purposely terminated before the EP.1. If not.3 Correct temperature readings to 101.28 NOTE 20—The test method is not designed for the analysis of distillate 330–350 626–662 0.76 better estimate of the volume of the material recovered.40 0. 11. disconnect the flask from the condenser. kero.57 1.5 mL in the receiving cylinder. 90–110 194–230 0.15 When the residual liquid in the flask is approximately 10.11 250–270 482–518 0.1°C at 100°C. allow the flask to drain until no TABLE 6 Approximate Thermometer Reading Correction appreciable increase in the volume of liquid in the cylinder is Temperature Range CorrectionA per 1. temperature reading by means of the Sydney Young equation 10. If this condition is not 10.46 below 5°C. observe and note the corrected to a standard temperature and to standard gravity.2). or Eq 5. and omit the procedure given Cc 5 0. prefill the cylinder with 1 mL of a heavy oil to allow a 70–90 158–194 0. and discontinue the heating. If there are making adjustments described in Footnote A of Table 5.07 formed to those specified in Table 5. D 86 – 04b 10. differ less than 0.63 graduations below 1 mL and the volume of liquid is less than 30–50 86–122 0. °C °F °C °F 10. pour its For Fahrenheit temperatures: contents into a 5-mL graduated cylinder.5 mL at this point. Eq 4. both.19 After the flask has cooled and no more vapor is observed.74 1. Deduct the percent total recovery from 100 to obtain the 10. 10. Calculations amount has to be adjusted for the estimated amount of front end loss. and record it to the nearest will. as appropriate. or percent loss. repeat the test with appropriate modification of the percent evaporated or percent recovered at a predetermined final heat adjustment.3 kPa (10 mm Hg) observed. 0.69 1.72 1 mL.54 0.17 Allow the distillate to drain into the receiving cylin. repeat the test after has been determined to be approximately 1. corrected to standard temperature and to standard gravity.02 210–230 410–446 0.21 Examine the condenser tube and the side arm of the amount of liquid recovered in the receiving cylinder. within the limits prescribed in Table 5.1 mL. the test shall be rerun.94 check whether adequate heat was applied towards the end of 170–190 338–374 0. and record as percent residue.1 If a residue greater than expected is obtained. Obtain the correction to be applied to each receiving cylinder accurately to the nearest 0.16 Observe and record the EP (FBP) or the dry point.3.1 Manual Method—While the condenser tube contin- NOTE 21—The observed barometric reading does not have to be ues to drain into the graduated cylinder. 270–290 518–554 0. If the distillation was previously discontin. as required. 230–250 446–482 0. as percent residue. 10.3 2 Pk! ~273 1 tc! (3) percent recovered from 100.52 0.66 1.3 kPa (760 mm nearest 0. 190–210 374–410 0.37 370–390 698–734 0. Measure the volume in the graduated cylinder to the Difference in Pressure nearest 0.18 Record the volume in the receiving cylinder as as given in Eq 3. depression. earlier have been reported at barometric pressures that have not been 10. The dynamic holdup flask for waxy or solid deposits.17.19. no front end losses. deduct the Cc 5 0.2 Do not correct the barometric pressure for meniscus 10.45 0. 350–370 662–698 0.3 kPa. and distillate diesel are typically 0.98 the distillation and whether conditions during the test con. and with the flask suspended over the cylinder. The time from the 5-mL graduated cylinder. ally monitor the recovered volume until this volume changes 11.1 The percent total recovery is the sum of the percent 10.0009 ~101.19.38 0.1 mL.68 50–70 122–158 0.64 1.9–1. report this difference as the sum of percent residue and percent loss. of Table 6.

5 To obtain the percent evaporated at a prescribed 11.2 Graphical Procedure—Using graph paper with uni- which the table and equations in the Test Method D 86 – 95 and earlier form subdivisions.6. mm Hg. NOTE 22—Temperature readings are not corrected to 101. if required (see 11. Pk = barometric pressure. Values obtained by the arithmetical procedure are affected by Pk = pressure.0°F) or 0. Pe 5 P r 1 L (9) tf = the observed temperature reading in °F. It is case shall a calculation be made that involves extrapolation. and arithmetical procedure. and location of the test. kPa. plot each temperature reading corrected for versions were derived.3). Cc and Cf = corrections to be added algebraically to the where: observed temperature readings. 11.1 Arithmetical Procedure—Deduct the observed loss mm Hg) when product definitions.1°C (0. P = pressure. temperature-volume temperature reading.00% (6) percent evaporated. ture reading as follows: 11. or can be read from the tables presented as where: Fig. mm Hg. and indicate on the apparatus being used.2°F). that is: where: tc = the observed temperature reading in °C.1 or Fig. specifically. X3. Lc 5 0. prevailing at the time and Pe = percent evaporated. Rc = corrected percent recovery.18. RH = percent recovered adjacent to. deduct the distillation loss to Rc 5 R 1 ~ L 2 L c ! (8) obtain the corresponding percent recovered and take from the graph the temperature reading that this percent recovered where: indicates. Calculate each required tempera- required or that correction shall be made to some other base pressure. and report these results as the respective percent evaporated. Lc. against its corre- 11. In no NOTE 23—Eq 6 and 7 above have been derived from the data in Table 7 and Eqs 5 and 6 in Test Method D 86 – 95 and earlier versions.6. The corrected loss. is calculated from Eq 6 or Eq 7. where: TH = temperature reading recorded at RH. P = barometric pressure. specifications.5!/$1 1 ~760 2 P!/60. use the corrected temperature readings in report whether the arithmetical procedure or the graphical all further calculations and reporting. Intervals between successive data points can.3 2 Pk!/8. add the percent loss to each of the data are collected at 0. and if no recorded temperature data is available After applying the corrections and rounding each result to within 0.5°C (1. Values obtained by graphical interpolation proce- L = percent loss or observed loss.3 kPa (760 11.4 Correct the actual loss to 101.3 kPa pressure. ery in accordance with the following equation: Draw a smooth curve connecting the points. barometric pressure. NOTE 24—See Appendix X1 for numerical examples illustrating the R = percent recovery. For each pre- scribed percent evaporated.0% (7) T = temperature reading at the prescribed percent evapo- rated.3 In most automated instruments.00012 ~760 2 P! ~460 1 tf! (5) observed percent recovered at the prescribed temperature readings. procedure has been used.5!/$1 1 ~101. at any stage of the test.5 1 ~L 2 0. and L = observed loss. dures are affected by the care with which the plot is made. Plot the IBP at 0 % recovered. as appropriate to the either of the two following procedures. kPa.6 To obtain temperature readings at prescribed percent location of the test. evaporated. and the extent to which the distillation graphs are nonlinear.5 1 ~L 2 0. Lc = corrected loss. probable that Eq 6 and 7 shown were the original empirical equations from 11. and higher than R.1 Calculate the corresponding corrected percent recov.2. prevailing at the time and 11. R = percent recovered corresponding to the prescribed Lc 5 0. X3.1 volume % intervals or less and stored TABLE 7 Data Points for Determining Slope. L = observed loss. TL = temperature reading recorded at RL.3 kPa (760 mm Hg) T 5 TL 1 ~TH 2 TL! ~R 2 RL!/~RH 2 RL! (10) pressure when temperature readings are corrected to 101. RL = percent recovered adjacent to.VL 5 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 10 5 VEP−95 11 . be no wider than the intervals indicated in 10. and Pr = percent recovered. Lc = corrected loss. and lower than R. or agreements between from each prescribed percent evaporated to obtain the corre- the parties involved indicate. that such correction is not sponding percent recovered. D 86 – 04b Cf 5 0.6. use the nearest 0. SC or SF Slope at % IBP 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 EP TL at % 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 TU at % 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 90 95 VEP VU. sponding percent recovered.4. as appropriate.1 volume % of the prescribed percent evaporated.

these terms will depend upon whether the calculations were carried out in °C or °F.5. 12.7 It is advisable to base the report on relationships between temperature readings and percent evaporated when the 13. and 4.6 Do not use the corrected loss in the calculation of sponding to TL. SC ~or SF! 5 0. data. 11. report the percent VU = is the volume % recovered or evaporated corre- residue and percent loss as observed in accordance with 10.19 sponding to TU. the 0. following equations.4 After barometric corrections of the temperature read. and temperature scales.4.2.4. the corrected loss. the slope at the end point is calculated as Group 0 or 1. and all pairs of corresponding values where: involving percent recovered and temperature readings. and the percent evaporated not shown in Table 7. either 80 % of 90 %.2.2.6.2 or 7.1 In the manual method. rected to 101.9 Fig. temperature at that particular point.1 The report shall state if the temperature readings SF = is the slope. it is generally 12.2 have to be used. 12. the precision data results obtained by 26 laboratories on 14 gasolines. procedure.1 The subscripts in Eq 12 refer to: 12. in the automated method. the report can be based on relationships between SC ~or SF! 5 ~TEP 2 THR! / ~VEP 2 VHR! (12) temperature readings and percent evaporated or percent recov. °F/volume %. if results are given in percent VEP or VHR is the volume % recovered.3 kPa (760 mm Hg) pressure. either in °C or 12.7 For samples in Group 2.05 ~T ~V110! 2 T ~V210!! (13) 13. X1. The value of any of within 0.1 volume % of the prescribed percent evaporated. the nearest 0. prior to the end percent recovered versus the corresponding temperature read. the slope is calculated as follows: versus the corrected temperature reading.2. respectively. Precision and Bias 13. follows: Otherwise.5. SC or SF.2°F) or less.3. 12. volume recovered indicated by the subscript. sponding to the end point. °C (or °F). °C/volume %. 3 laboratories on 6 samples of kerosine by the automated 13.0. using the values shown in Table 7: ings have been made.1. by 4 reported (Table 8) are based on slope values calculated from laboratories on 8 samples of kerosine by the manual procedure. Report 13.3 Report all volumetric readings in percentages.1 kPa (1 necessary to determine the slope or rate of change of the mm Hg). the following data require no further SC ~or SF! 5 ~TU 2 TL! / ~VU 2 VL! (11) calculation prior to reporting: IBP. and 11. slope at any point during the distillation is calculated from the 12.1.2 The following terms are used in this section: (1) r = ture directly from the database as the temperature closest to and repeatability and (2) R = reproducibility.2.3. It also shows 13. 12. per percent recovered or evaporated.1 Manual Method—Report volumetric readings to the in °F.0°F).2. was used.5.6. It shows the HR = highest reading.1.1 and 11.5 For points between 10 to 85 % recovered which are the percent loss. when results are reported 12 . have not been corrected for barometric pressure. and VEP = is the volume % recovered or evaporated corre- percent evaporated. 13. 13.7.1 Report the following information: 13. denoted as 12.2.2. mined by the statistical examination of interlaboratory test 13.2 Automated Method—Report volumetric readings to not require any slope calculation. EP (FBP). decomposition point. VL = is the volume % recovered or evaporated corre- 12. Obtain the desired tempera.3 With the exception stated in 13.1 is an example of a tabular report. This variable. 3. evaporated versus temperature readings.1 lists mined from percent recovered data. dry point. nearest 0. °C (or °F). TU = is the upper temperature. and all temperature readings to the nearest 13.6).5 When the temperature readings have not been cor. D 86 – 04b in memory. report if the arithmeti- cal or the graphical procedure was used (see 11. Every report must indicate clearly which basis has been TEP or THR is the temperature.2 and in 13. percent recovered data.2. Table A1. or in which the percent loss is greater than 2.1 To determine the precision of a result. 12. neither of the procedures described in groups.2.8 Report if a drying agent. or any other product classified under to the 95 % point.2. and 5 laboratories on 10 samples of diesel fuel by slope values for the calculation of precision are to be deter- both the manual and automated procedures.3.2 For Group 1 in the manual method and for all groups (1.1°C (0.6 For samples in Group 1. ing and versus the corrected temperature reading. in °C or °F at the percent used.2 Report the barometric pressure to the nearest 0.4 In the event that the distillation end point occurs prior sample is a gasoline.4. respectively. as described in 7. the precision data reported 13.1 Precision: are based on slope values calculated from percent evaporated 13.2 Slope or Rate of Change of Temperature: 12.1 The precision of this test method has been deter. where: ered.5°C 13. SC = is the slope. point. To report a temperature reading at a prescribed which tables and figures are to be used for the different fuel percent evaporated. TL = is the lower temperature. distillation methods.8 When results are reported as volume % recovered. and all temperature readings to the nearest 0. is equal to the change in temperature. the precision of the IBP and EP does 12.1. EP = end point 12.

0SF 95 1.2+0.9 7 7.0SF 80 1.5°C described in Annex A5.2+0.86SC 2.67SC 2.1.2 Reproducibility: apparatus under constant operating conditions on identical test 13. independent results obtained by different operators working in 13.9 7 7.3. in the long run. (6°F) in one case in twenty.3.7+0.9+0.74SF 1.74SC 5.7+0. exceed the values calculated 13.1+0.67SF 3.4.67SF 0. 3 and 4 (Manual Method) RepeatabilityA ReproducibilityA °C °F °C °F IBP 1.1+1.3 Manual Method: working in different laboratories on identical test material 13. D 86–97.42SC 5.67SC 3.86SF 1. in the long run.6 10 3.86SC 2.1.3 GROUPS 2.2 GROUP 1—The difference between successive only one case in twenty.8+1. in the normal and correct operation of this test method.2.0SC 7. as volume % evaporated slope values are to be determined 13.1 GROUP 0—Duplicate results obtained for the EP exceed the values calculated from the data in Table 9 in only shall not differ from each other by more than 3.0+2.2.4.7+2.1.3+2. The calculation of this maximum difference would.3+2.6+1. in the normal and correct only one case in twenty.3.2.0SF 20 1.74SF 1.86SF 2. 3.6 6 7 Precision data obtained from RR study on both manual and automated D 86 Table 9 has been derived from the nomographs in Figs.74SF 1.86SF 0.86SC 2.2+0.0+0.2.1.7+2. and 4—The difference between from the values in Table 9 in only one case in twenty.0+0.2+0.0+0.9+1.86SF 2.6+2.2 13 4.67SF 2.1+0.4.4.67SF 3.5°C (6°F) in one case in twenty.93SF 5—95 % 1.0+0.6+1.7+2.3.4 Automated Method: readings for each prescribed percentage point shall not exceed 13.8+1.0+1.2 GROUP 1—The difference between successive ture readings for each prescribed percentage point shall not results obtained by the same operator with the same apparatus exceed the amounts equivalent to 2 mL of distillate at each under constant operating conditions on identical test material point in question.74SF 2.67SC 2. Differences in duplicate temperature 13.2+0.0+0. 3.9+2.1+1.8+0. single and independent results obtained by different operators 13. 13 .42SF % volume at 0.6+1.67SC 3.86SF 2.2 13 5 1.0SC 4.0+2. in the 13.7+2.86SC 3.1 GROUP 0—The reproducibility of the test method material would.2. and 4—The difference between two from % evaporated data.1 Repeatability: would.0+1.0+0. TABLE 9 Repeatability and Reproducibility for Groups 2.86SC 2. in the normal and correct for this group has not been determined.0SF FBP 3.67SF 4.74SF 1.2+0.7+0.36SF 3.0+1. 6 and 7 in ASTM units by North American and IP Laboratories.2.74SC 3.3.1+0.86SF 3.74SC 3.93SC 5.6+2.67SF 1. operation of this test method.1. in the long run.2+0.3.33SF FBP 0.2 GROUP 1—The difference between two single and from Table 10 in only one case in twenty.86SF 2.2+2.0SC 6.1+0.9 16 A SC or SF is the average slope (or rate of change) calculated in accordance with 13.74SC 3.78/SC 1.4.0SF 30–70 1.1 GROUP 0—Duplicate results obtained for the question.0+1.5+0.3. this test method. in the normal and correct operation of is described in Annex A5.0+0.67SC 4. in the long run.0+0. calculated from Table 9 in only one case in twenty. in the normal and correct operation of apparatus under constant operating conditions on identical test this test method.1+0.3.35SC 1.1 GROUP 0—The reproducibility of the test method normal and correct operation of this method.20/SF temperature reading A Calculate SC or SF from 13.4 8 8.5+1.86SC 2. results obtained by the same operator with the same apparatus 13.33SC 3.4+2. operation of this test method. and 4—The difference between under constant operating conditions on identical test material successive results obtained by the same operator with the same would. The calculation of this maximum difference is endpoint shall not differ from each other by more than 3.4+1.1+0. exceed the values for this group has not been determined.4.2+0.3+0.4+0.67SC 2. % °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F IBP 3.2+0.0SC 4.3 GROUPS 2.74SC 1.74SF 2.0SF 90 1.9+0.8+0.7+1.1 Repeatability: the amounts equivalent to 2 mL of distillate at each point in 13.74SF 1.7+0.53+3.66/SF 1.0SC 1.86SC 2.3 GROUPS 2. exceed the values calculated from Table 9 in 13.2+0. exceed the values calculated from Table 8 in material would.67SF 2.0SC 6.36SC 1.74SC 3.35SF 2.0+2.6+1. 13. 3.0SC 3.8+0.5+0. exceed the values calculated 13. D 86 – 04b TABLE 8 Repeatability and Reproducibility for Group 1 Manual Manual Automated Automated Evaporated RepeatabilityA ReproducibilityA RepeatabilityA ReproducibilityA Point.74SC 1.7 one case in twenty.6+1.92/SC 0. Differences in duplicate tempera- 13.2 Reproducibility: different laboratories on identical test material would.2+0.41SF 1.41SC 1.67SC 2. successive results obtained by the same operator with the same 13.0SF 10 1.2+0.3+1.3 6 5.1.

2. distillation.42SF 3. Keywords 13.08SC 2.5.0 + 2. and how it different laboratories on identical test material would.5 15. has not been rigorously studied. 14 .92SF 5% 1.53SC 3.2 + 1.0 + 2.5 18.5 Bias: 14.2 + 3.0 + 2. 3.5 6.53SC 3.97SF 80 % 1. eter used.2 + 1.3 10. in the relates to test precision. petroleum products ANNEXES (Mandatory Information) A1.2 + 1.53SF FBP 3.1 + 1.6 + 1.42SF 2. The bias due to the emergent stem has been exceed the values calculated from Table 10 in only one case in determined for toluene and is shown in Table 4. is to be used.2 GROUP 1—The difference between two single and method and the true boiling point distillation curve obtained by independent results obtained by different operators working in Test Method D 2892.5 6.4.1 Table A1. normal and correct operation of this test method. the distillation temperatures in this test method are single and independent results obtained by different operators somewhat lower than the true temperatures. The amount of working in different laboratories on identical test material bias depends on the product being distilled and the thermom- would. 3 and 4 (Automated) RepeatabilityA ReproducibilityA Collected.6 eters.0 + 1.9 + 3.64SF 20–70 % 1. laboratory empirical results of distillation properties obtained by this test distillation. and 4—The difference between two them.08SF 2.3 2% 3. in the normal and correct operation of this test method.2 + 1.6 + 2.1 Relative Bias—There exists a bias between the 14.2 + 1.5.0 + 2. distillates.64SC 5.4 + 2. exceed the 13.42SC 2.42SF 3.5. or temperature sensing systems designed to emulate 13.9 A SC or SF is the average slope (or rate of change) calculated in accordance with 13.4.64SC 5. twenty.2. 13. % °C °F °C °F IBP 3.42SC 2.08SC 2.1 batch distillation.08SF 2.7 + 1.3 8.2 Bias—Due to the use of total immersion thermom- values calculated from Table 8 in only one case in twenty.3 2.2 + 1.5 6. D 86 – 04b TABLE 10 Repeatability and Reproducibility for Groups 2.64SF 90–95 % 1.1 is an aid for determining which repeat- ability and reproducibility table or section.6 + 2.97SC 5.4 + 2.92SC 4.0 + 1.1 + 1. 13.42SC 2. REPEATABILITY AND REPRODUCIBILITY DEFINITION AIDS A1. The magnitude of this bias.3 GROUPS 2.53SF 10 % 1.

The portion of the tube projecting at structed with a ground glass joint. A2.1 The condenser shall be made of seamless noncorro. 125 mL 15 . constructed to the dimensions and tolerances shown in tube is in contact with the cooling medium. and with 114 6 3 mm Specification E 1405.3. with an outside Provisions shall be made to enable the flow of the distillate to diameter of 14 mm and a wall thickness of 0. The projecting lower portion of the condenser and condenser baths are illustrated in Figs.4.2.2—Brass or stainless steel has been found to be a suitable accomplished by using a drip-deflector. This can be NOTE A2.2. condenser tube shall be curved downward for a length of 76 A2. mm and the lower end shall be cut off at an acute angle.1 1 Manual °C Table 8 Table 8 °F Table 8 Table 8 1 Automated °C Table 8 Table 8 °F Table 8 Table 8 2. the lower portion of the FIG.1—For tests specifying dry point. vertical. with no 10-cm section having a gradient outside A2. outlet of the tube. The average gradient shall be 15 6 1° with respect to the horizontal.1 Distillation Flasks—Flasks shall be of heat resistant A2.1.8 to 0.1.3. outside at the lower end.1 and shall otherwise comply with the requirements of outside the cooling bath at the upper end. Flask A (100 mL) may also be con. with 50 6 3 mm Fig.9 mm. 100 mL.1 Flask A.1 Automated °C or °F 13. A2.1 13. 125 mL.4 Automated °C Table 10 Table 10 °F Table 10 Table 10 A2. and Flask B with Ground Glass Joint. which is attached to the material for this purpose.1 Summary of Aids for Definition of Repeatability and Reproducibility Table or Section to Use Group Method Temperature Scale Repeatability Reproducibility 0 Manual °C or °F 13. in which case the diameter the upper end shall be set at an angle of 75 6 3° with the of the neck shall be the same as the 125-mL flask.3.1 13.4. run down the side of the receiving cylinder. D 86 – 04b TABLE A1. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS A2. The portion of the tube inside the condenser bath shall NOTE A2.3. curve.4 Manual °C Table 9 Table 9 °F Table 9 Table 9 2.2 Condenser and Condenser Bath—Typical types of of the 15 6 3° range. Flask B. 1 and 2.2 The condenser shall be set so that 393 6 3 mm of the glass. Alternatively.2.2. 560 6 5 mm in length. specially selected flasks be either straight or bent in any suitable continuous smooth with bottoms and walls of uniform thickness are desirable. sive metal tubing.

1)—The purpose of drawing of an acceptable configuration of the lower end of the this shield is to provide protection for the operator and yet condenser tube.3 Metal Shield or Enclosure for Flask. (Manual units contact with the wall of the receiving cylinder at a point 25 to only).3 The volume and the design of the bath will depend during operation. 32 mm below the top of the receiving cylinder. The shield shall be provided with the desired condenser performance.1 Shield for Gas Burner (see Fig. Fig. A typical shield would be 480-mm high. 16 . allow easy access to the burner and to the distillation flask A2.8-mm thickness (22 gage).3.2 Detail of Upper Neck Section condenser tube can be curved slightly backward to ensure A2. made of sheet metal of bath shall be adequate to maintain the required temperature for 0. D 86 – 04b FIG. on the cooling medium employed. A2.2. The cooling capacity of the 280-mm long and 200-mm wide. A2. A single condenser bath at least one window to observe the dry point at the end of the may be used for several condenser tubes.3 is a A2. distillation.

4. D 86 – 04b is mounted with provision for placement of a flask support board (see A2.1 Type 1—Use a Type 1 flask support with a gas A2.3 Lower End of Condenser Tube A2.1 Manual Method—The cylinder shall be graduated at the first drop from a cold start within the time specified and of intervals of 1 mL and have a graduation at the 100-mL mark. On this ring or receiving cylinder may be placed in a thermostated bath air platform is mounted a hard board made of ceramic or other circulation chamber. have been found to graduations below the 100-mL mark are permitted.2 Shield for Electric Heater (see Fig. The assembly is moved down to allow for easy shield would be 440-mm high. 1). The shape of at the end of the distillation. except that NOTE A2.5. continuing the distillation at the specified rate. The flask support board shall be of sufficient dimension to ensure that thermal heat to the flask only comes from the central opening and that extraneous heat to the flask other than through the central opening is minimized. 17 . Receiving cylinders for use in automated units may also have A2. and 200-mm mounting and removal of the distillation flask from the unit. with graduations into 0. 2).4.3 If required. The whole assembly is adjustable from the outside of the shield. the base shall be such that the receiver does not topple when placed empty on a surface inclined at an angle of 13° from the A2.9. complete control of heating shall be provided.9.3. capable of bringing over A2. 2)—A typical distillation.) A2.1 mL A2. they do not interfere with the operation of the level follower.4 Heat Source: horizontal.3—Heaters. Flask support boards are classified as A.4. A2. beginning at 0. A2. A2. the receiving cylinder shall be immersed burner (see Fig.5.9 Receiving Cylinders—The receiving cylinder shall be provided with at least one window to observe the dry point have a capacity to measure and collect 100 mL.4. A2. 3 to 6 mm in thickness. made of sheet metal of approximately 0. A2. the other properties shall conform to Specification consists of an adjustable system onto which the electric heater E 1272. Alternatively.8 Provision shall be made for moving the flask support assembly vertically so that the flask support board is in direct contact with the bottom of the distillation flask during the A2. the position of the flask is set by adjusting the length of the side-arm inserted into the condenser. 3 to 6 mm in thickness. A sensitive Construction details and tolerances for the graduated cylinder manual control valve and gas pressure regulator to give are shown in Fig.10 Residue Cylinder—The graduated cylinder shall slightly smaller than the inside boundaries of the shield. 2 as one example). or C. wide. (Warning—Asbestos-containing mate- rials shall not be used in the construction of the flask support board. 200-mm long. FIG. Usually. based on the size of the centrally located opening. The assembly be flared.6 Flask Support Board—The flask support board shall be constructed of ceramic or other heat-resistant material.8-mm thickness (22 gage) and with a window in the front side. B. as long as be suitable for this purpose. the adjustable from the outside of the shield. heat-resistant material.1 Gas Burner (see Fig. The top of the cylinder may electric heating (see Fig. the physical specifications described in Fig. A2. 100 mm or larger in a cooling liquid contained in a cooling bath. the dimension of which is shown in Table 1. A2. such as a tall-form diameter. 1). adjustable from 0 to 1000 W.9. with a central opening 76 to 100 mm in diameter.2 Automated Method—The cylinder shall conform to A2. and outside line dimensions A2.2 Type 2—Use a Type 2 flask support assembly with subdivisions. The shield shall A2. have a capacity of 5 or 10 mL. supported on a stand inside the shield.1 mL. or a platform beaker of clear glass or transparent plastic. of low heat retention. This support consists of either a ring during the distillation to above the 100-mL graduation line in support of the ordinary laboratory type.6) above the electric heater.2 Electric Heater (see Fig.5 Flask Support: a metal base.7 The flask support board can be moved slightly in different directions on the horizontal plane to position the distillation flask so that direct heat is applied to the flask only through the opening in this board.

or less than.2.14. consisting of the sensor and its 100°C. The temperature measuring full-range mixture with a 5 to 95 % boiling range of at least device assembly in general use. FIG.1 The response time of an electronic temperature A3.6 Compare the test data obtained using these two temperature measuring devices. a very narrow at that point. tolerance 6 1.2 To determine the difference in lag time between such manually record the temperature at the various percent recov- a temperature measuring system and a mercury-in-glass ther. shall be equal to. is so designed that the temperature measuring system will with a low range or a high range mercury-in-glass thermom- simulate the temperature lag of the mercury-in-glass thermom. or an electronic system and its associated software. A3. ment system in place and in accordance with the procedures described in this test method. A3. jet fuel.5 Calculate the values for the repeatability for the or light diesel fuel with the electronic temperature measure. or A3.4 Repeat the distillation with this thermometer. casing.2. eter.2 Best results are obtained with a sample that is typical measuring device is inherently more rapid than that of a of the sample load of the laboratory. In most cases this is the standard A3. DETERMINATION OF THE DIFFERENCE IN LAG TIME BETWEEN AN ELECTRONIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM AND A MERCURY-IN-GLASS THERMOMETER A3.1 Do not use a single pure compound. Alternatively. A2. mometer. replace the electronic boiling range product. depending on the boiling range of the sample.3 Replace the electronic temperature measuring device both.4 100 mL Graduated Cylinder A3. kerosine. use a mercury-in-glass thermometer. or a synthetic blend of less than six temperature measuring device or adjust the electronics in- compounds for this test. observed slope (DT/DV) for the different readings in the test. eter. and A3.0 mL. ered as described in 10. analyze a sample such as gasoline. The difference at any point distillation step performed with an automated unit. D 86 – 04b NOTE—1 to 100 mL in 1 mL graduations. the repeatability of the method A3. volved. 18 . or both. If this difference is larger.

5.2 and as described in Eq A4.5 mL at 2 min intervals until two successive observations agree.1 As prescribed in 12.2 Continue the distillation.2) volume of product in the receiving graduate to the nearest 0. where xxx is the desired temperature.1) the contents of the flask to cool to below approximately 40°C R and then drain its contents into the receiving graduate.5°C (1°F).3 Calculate the repeatability. If the barometric pressure is below 101.3 Determine the expected temperature reading to yield 9.5.2.2 The amount recovered in the receiving graduate is r volume % = repeatability of the volume % evaporated or the percent recovery. is permitted. where R 200. SC (or SF).1.1 Many specifications require specific percentages A4. 0. and calculate the The percent recovered is equal to Rxxx. and R 350 are the percent recovered fuel at 200°C. respectively. where: A4. It can be shown that the precision of the volume % evaporated while taking into account A4.4 Perform the distillation.1—Regulatory standards on the certification of reformulated gasoline under the complex model procedure require the determination of E 200 and E 300.7. volatility characteristics. or recovered at a prescribed temperature is equivalent to the precision of the temperature measurement at that point divided A4. Table 9. E 158.1. as described in 11.3.3 A4.1 The statistical determination of the precision of the from the desired temperature.0.2.8. as described in Section 10. as described in 11. do not use the corrected expected value. as described in 11.4 Determine the repeatability or reproducibility.7 Calculations: and 148. above the desired expected temperature reading determined in either as maxima.7.6.3. the percent evaporated at a A4. of the volume % evaporated or recovered at a prescribed value of Exxx and the distillation was terminated after about 2 temperature from the following formulas: mL of distillate was collected beyond the desired temperature. Other typical temperatures are R 200 for kero.6. Exxx or Rxxx.3°C (200°F) A4.3.7. respectively.1 In the region between about 10°C below and 10°C evaporated or recovered at prescribed temperature readings. and determine the percent loss. as determined in A4. add the absolute value of the calculated loss.6.3 Manual and Automated Methods—To determine the 0.3 kPa.8. as described in 11.2 Automated Method—Report the observed volume to or Eq 5 for t = xxx°C (or tf = xxx°F). R volume % = reproducibility of the volume % evaporated A4.2 Calculate the slope or rate of change in temperature %. subtract the absolute value of the calculated correction A4. as described in 13.1 In the region between about 10°C below and 10°C evaporated or recovered. collect temperature-volume data at 0. A4. from the slope. Either the linear. value of Exxx. and the data in Table 8. add the observed loss to the percent recovered. continue the distillation. defined as the percent evaporated fuel at 93. Determine the amount of observed loss recovered. or the graphical procedure.1 If the intent of the distillation is to determine the both. A4.6.7.8 Precision: kPa.6. A4. by subtracting the percent recovery from 100.2. A4.9°C (300°F). xxx°C (or xxx°F) after the barometric correction.2 Determine the barometric pressure.2.1 Manual Method—If a volume % recovered reading distillation temperature of 70°C (158°F).1 volume % inter- determine these values are frequently designated by the terms vals or less. correction to the desired temperature reading using Eq 3. Rxxx.6. determine the percent recovered by interpolation between the sines and R 250 and R 350 for gas oils.1°C (0. correction to the desired temperature if the barometric pressure is above 101. 19 . D 86 – 04b A4.7. The procedures to A4. minima. Eq 4. two adjacent readings. SC(or SF).5 and A4. determine the observed loss. A4.2°F). discontinue the distillation after at A4. r.2 Automated Method—Determine this correction to A4. and or Table 10. R 250. or the reproducibility. least another 2 mL of distillate have been collected. PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE THE PERCENT EVAPORATED OR PERCENT RECOVERED AT A PRESCRIBED TEMPERATURE READING A4. Otherwise.2 If the intent of the distillation is to solely determine temperature values bracketing the desired temperature. or A4.5.5 Manual Distillation: by the rate of change of temperature versus volume % A4. Rxxx.1 Manual Method—Determine this correction to expected temperature reading.8. To obtain the A4.6 Automated Distillation: or recovered.2.5.7. as described in Section 10. Note the volume % 5 R/SC ~SF! (A4. R.1 volume % corresponding to the temperature closest to the A4. A4. Allow volume % 5 r/SC ~SF! (A4. volume % evaporated or recovered at a prescribed temperature has not been directly measured in an interlaboratory program. the value of Exxx or Rxxx. or ranges.3 record the temperature reading in intervals of 1 volume A4. r allow the distillate to drain into the receiving graduate.2 and Eq 11 and using A4.1 or A4. is also used in describing fuel is not available at the exact temperature calculated in A4. as described in Section 10. The estimation of precision becomes above the desired expected temperature reading determined in less precise at high slope values. A4. reading. NOTE A4. or 0. 250°C. This is the percent recovered.1.8. and 350°C.

2.7 % observed loss = 5.4) X1.1) of the examples below are shown in the first three columns of correction ~°F! 5 0.3 2 98. The data for the examples are taken from Fig.1 Differences in duplicate temperature readings for each where: prescribed percentage point should not exceed the amounts Tx (V) = temperature reading of sample x at volume equivalent to 2 mL of distillate at each point in question. ered.3 2 98.1.7! (X1.3) are as follows: corrected loss 5 ~0.6.4) | T1 ~V! 2 T2 ~V! | # dmin (A5.4) are as X1.2.3) $1 1 ~101.5) ~5. V.0% 5 3. and ings 2 mL apart for Determination 1 at Volume V is either: Tx (V − 2) = temperature reading of sample x at volume V − 2 mL. A5.3 Duplicate temperature readings are deemed to be within the repeatability criterion if d4 5 | T2 ~V 1 2! 2 T2~V! | (A5. SC(SF) = rate of change in temperature reading in °C scribed temperature at the observed percent (°F) per the volume % evaporated or recov- distilled.5 1 ~4.1. R = reproducibility of the temperature at the A4. d.1 Temperature reading at 10 % evaporated (4. X1. X1.9 1 [~108. d2.2.2 To be conservative. REPEATABILITY FOR GROUP 0 SAMPLES A5.0009 ~101.9 2 93.2 Temperature Readings at Prescribed Percent Evapo- rated: X1.3 2 5!/~10 2 5!# 5 34.1.2 Temperature reading at 50 % evaporated (45.7 1 [~40.6!/8.1) A5. we now choose the smallest of d2 5 | T1 ~V 1 2! 2 T1~V! | (A5. Tx (V + 2) = temperature reading of sample x at volume A5.1.1 The observed distillation data used for the calculation correction ~°C! 5 0. cent distilled.2 1 ~4.2. the two values of d are dmin 5 lowest value of d1.1) are as follows: corrected recovery 5 94.3) A5. that is.6) APPENDIXES (Nonmandatory Information) X1. D 86 – 04b r = repeatability of the temperature at the pre.7 1 [~104.6.2.5 2 92.9! (X1.7 2 0. the reproducibility are shown in Appendix X2.3 2 40!/~50 2 40!# 5 101.3 kPa (see 11.8.1°C T10E ~°F! 5 92.3 2 33.1°F X1.5) d3 5 | T2 ~V 2 2! 2 T2~V! | or (A5.1 Temperature readings corrected to 101.2 Loss correction to 101.7) FIG.3 (X1.2 The difference.1. and A5. d1 5 | T1 ~V 2 2! 2 T1~V! | or (A5. X1.3 % recovered) (see 11.2) these four values.6) ~5.6! 5 95. or d4 (A5.1 For Determination 2.00012 ~760 2 740! ~460 1 tf! (X1.4. mm Hg) pressure (see 11. V + 2 mL.9°C 20 . d3.1) are as follows: T10E ~°C! 5 33. X1.1) are as follows: T50E ~°C! 5 93.3 Recovery correction to 101.2) Fig.3 kPa (see 11.6 X1. in temperature between two read.7 2 3.1 Example of Test Report ~45.6! ~273 1 tc! (X1. EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING CALCULATIONS FOR REPORTING OF DATA X1.7! (X1.3 2 5!/~10 2 5!# 5 93.5 Examples on how to calculate the repeatability and prescribed temperature at the observed per.3 kPa (760 follows.3 % recovered) (see 11.5!/ (X1.

Rvolume %.5 Volume (mL) Distillation Point R 5 6.8) T90E ~°C! 5 180.1 18.2 can be used to determine the corrected loss from the measured loss and the determine the corrected loss from the measured loss and the barometric pressure in kPa.1 ~201 2 182! X2.1 Distillation Data from a Group 1 Sample Automated 5 3.1) are as follows: ~85.4 2 180. 5 0. the repro- 93.3 2 85!/~90 2 85!# 5 361.0 3 1.0 ~SF! Temperature° C Temperature °F Recovered at Recovered.3 2 85!/~90 2 85! ] 5 182.1 Some specifications require the reporting of the SC % 5 0.3 kPa pressure (see 11.1 can be used to X3.12) recovered) (see 11.1) volume % evaporated or recovered at a prescribed temperature.8 2 358.1 For a Group 1 sample exhibiting distillation charac- 5 1.2 The table presented as Fig.7°C X1.6.3 1 2.3°C (200°F) 5 6.3) Temperature° C Temperature° F Evaporated at Evaporated.3 % recovered) not corrected to 101.1 ~94 2 83! Table X2.1. X3. the reproducibility of the volume evaporated.1—Results calculated from °C data may not correspond ~85.3 % T90E ~°F! 5 357 1 [~392 2 357! (X1.11) ~45. Distillation Point Volume (mL0 R volume % 5 R/~SC! (X2.1.0 1 2.0 3 1.1 ~T ~20! 2 T ~10!! X2. mL 93.1 X3. TABLES OF CORRECTED LOSS FROM MEASURED LOSS AND BAROMETRIC PRESSURE X3.2 Example Calculation: 5 0.8.6 2 181.3 From the calculated value of R. barometric pressure in mm Hg. D 86 – 04b T50E ~°F! 5 201 1 [~228 2 201! (X1.0 10 83 182 20 94 201 R volume % 5 R/~SF! 30 103 217 5 9.3 Temperature reading at 90 % evaporated (85.2.1) are as follows: X2.9! (X1.2.5! (X1.9 18.1°F T90E ~°C! 5 181.1 ~T ~20! 2 T ~10!! (X2.9 1 [~394. SF % 5 0.1 The table presented as Fig. determine the value 30 103 217 40 112 233 of volume.6! (X1. T90E ~°F! 5 358.2.0 5 9.10) ~85. observed percentage distilled is 18 % and ture: R 5 3.8°C exactly to results calculated from °F data because of errors in rounding.3°C (200°F) is determined as follows: ducibility at the observed percentage distilled.3 2 40!/~50 2 40!# 5 215. as determined by an automated unit.9 40 111 232 5 5. determine the value of R.1 obtained by an automated unit.1 Determine first the slope at the desired tempera.3 2 85!/~90 2 85!# 5 181.4 Temperature reading at 90 % evaporated (85.0°F X1. X3.3 1 2. mL 93. 21 .6. the X2.2) TABLE X2.2.3°F ~85.1 shows the distillation data of a Group 1 sample as 5 1.8 10 84 183 20 94 202 X2.4 5 5.5 1 [~200.0 ~SC! (X2.3 2 85!/~90 2 85!# 5 359.4.2. In this case.3°C (200°F) 5 5.6 1 [~201.5/1.8/1. EXAMPLES OF CALCULATION OF REPEATABILITY AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF VOLUME % (RECOVERED OR EVAPORATED) AT A PRESCRIBED TEMPERATURE READING X2.9) NOTE X1.2.9 teristics as per Table X2. as described in A4.0 1 2.1 Distillation 5 5.2 From Table 9. at X2.

1 Corrected Loss from Observed Loss and Barometric Pressure kPa FIG. D 86 – 04b FIG. X3. X3.2 Corrected Loss from Observed Loss and Barometric Pressure mm Hg 22 .

ing formula: X4.1 and added Note 19.1.2 and X4.08 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (D 86–04) that may impact the use of this standard (approved April 1.2.08 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (D 86–03) that may impact the use of this standard (approved Feb. D 86 – 04b X4.13. ing formula: SUMMARY OF CHANGES Subcommittee D02. and this temperature. (2) Corrected table references in 10. ASTM 8C Tehr 5 Tt 2 0. (1) Replaced dimensions in Fig. Subcommittee D02. 2004). PROCEDURE TO EMULATE THE EMERGENT STEM ERROR OF A MERCURY-IN-GLASS THERMOMETER X4.3 When a high range thermometer would have been manufacturers of automated Test Method D 86 equipment. Above averaged equations shown in X4. (1) Revised Fig. 1. Above mometers. A2.1. (1) Revised 10. no stem correction is to be applied below 20°C. (1) Corrected section cross-reference in 3. 2004). Subcommittee D02. 23 . Telr = emulated temperature in °C for low range thermom- eters. Subcommittee D02.08 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (D 86–04a) that may impact the use of this standard (approved May 1. Tt = true temperature in °C.2 have limited applica. Based on information supplied by four X4. A2. 2003).1.19.3.2) bility and are shown for information purposes only. the electronic sensor and associated data system will also have to emulate the lag in where: response time observed for mercury-in-glass thermometers.3 have been this temperature the correction is calculated using the follow- reported to be in use. the output of this sensor or the associated data system should emulate the output of a mercury- in-glass thermometer. the used.1 and added Fig. no stem correction is to be applied below 35°C.1 When an electronic or other sensor without an ASTM 7C Telr 5 Tt 2 0. the correction is calculated using the follow.2 When a low range thermometer would have been Tehr = emulated temperature in °C for high range ther- used.000131 3 ~Tt 2 35°C! 2 (X4.000162 3 ~Tt 2 20°C! 2 (X4.2 and 10.1 The equations shown in X4.1.1) emergent stem error is used.08 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (D 86-02) that may impact the use of this standard (approved June 10. In addition to the correction for the emergent stem. X1. X4. 2004).

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