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Event Management- Concept, Conceptualising – creating and developing events – Essentials of Conference/Convention/ trade fairs/ Expos/ Product Launch/ Entertainment Shows/ Sports Events etc. 2. Event Planning 3. Event Marketing 4. Event Evaluation
Event Management- Concept, Conceptualising – creating and developing events
What are Events? Something that takes place; an occurrence.A significant occurrence or happening. A social gathering or activity.This is the meaning of events as given in a dictionary…..lets explore this further. In today’s scenario, events are an organized business. It means putting all three points from the meaning of an event together i.e. an occurrence that is significant that creates a social gathering and/or an activity. Marketing guru, Philip Kotler, defines event as occurrences designed to Communicate particular messages to target audiences. Sures Pjllai,_Managing Director, Eventus Management,considers events as an additional media whereby two-way (or active) communication is possible. Deepak Gattani,Director,Unirapport Events, one of India’s foremost events agencies defines events as something noteworthy which happens according to a set plan involving networking of a multimedia package, thereby achieving the clients objectives and justifying their need for associating with events.
Event can refer to:
A phenomenon, any observable occurrence, or an extraordinary occurrence
A type of gathering:
• • • • • • • •
A ceremony, for example, a marriage A competition, for example, a sports competition A convention (meeting) A happening, a performance or situation meant to be considered as art A festival, for example, a musical event A media event, a happening that attracts coverage by mass media A party A sporting event
In science, technology, and mathematics:
• • • • • • • •
Event (computing), a software message indicating that something has happened, such as a keystroke or mouse click Event (probability theory), a set of outcomes to which a probability is assigned Event (UML), in Unified Modeling Language, a notable occurrence at a particular point in time Event chain methodology, in project management Event horizon, a boundary in spacetime, typically surrounding a black hole, beyond which events cannot effect an exterior observer Extinction event, a sharp decrease in the number of species in a short period of time Celestial event, an astronomical phenomenon of interest Event, in a particle collider, a collision producing detectable results
Event (philosophy), an object in time, or an instantiation of a property in an object Mental event, something that happens in the mind, such as a thought .
Events is all about generating excitement. Excitement that fires the mind and the imagination. Excitement that lasts longer than the event itself. Excitement that generates interest and fires the need to “be there” and be a part of something large or small but something exciting nonetheless. Events have been a part of human society ever since mankind became a civilized lot. Events were a form of breaking the tedium and monotony of everyday life. Events generally revolved around or emanated from religious ceremonies and/or holy days. Event management is the application of the management practice of project management to the creation and development of festivals and events. Event Management involves studying the intricacies of the brand, identifying the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually executing the modalities of the proposed event. The recent growth of festivals and events as an industry around the world means that the management can no longer be ad hoc. Events and festivals, such as the Asian Games, have a large impact on their communities and, in some cases, the whole country. The industry now includes events of all sizes from the Olympics down to a breakfast meeting for ten business people. Every industry, charity, society and group will hold events of some type/size in order to market themselves, build business relationships, raise money or celebrate. Event management, the most profound form of advertising and marketing, is a glamorous and thrilling profession. It provides an opportunity for unleashing one's creative potential to a very high degree. It demands a lot of hark work and effort but at the same time offers enormous scope. Event management is a process of organizing a professional and focused event, for a particular target audience. It involves visualising concepts, planning, budgeting, organizing and executing events such as fashion shows, musical concerts, corporate seminars, exhibitions, wedding celebrations, theme parties, product launching etc. It is a good career option which does not require much investment and offers a lot of independence and flexibility. No formal degree or qualification is required, but the person should have a genuine passion for conducting events, have very good organising ability and be flexible to work for long hours. Event management is considered one of the strategic marketing and communication tools by companies of all sizes. From product launches to press conferences, companies create promotional events to help them communicate with clients and potential clients. They might target their audience by using the news media, hoping to generate media coverage which will reach thousands or millions of people. They can also invite their audience to their events and reach them at the actual event.. Event Manager The Event Manager is the person who plans and executes the event. Event managers and their teams are often behind-the-scenes running the event. Event managers may also be involved in more than just the planning and execution of the event, but also brand building, marketing and communication strategy. The event manager is an expert at the creative, technical and logistical elements that help an event succeed. This includes event design, audio-visual production, scriptwriting, logistics, budgeting, negotiation and, of course, client service. It is a multi-dimensional profession.
a National Student Events Conference is being held in 2008 with the aim of improving links between students and industry. Conventions and Events). Health & Safety. In a first for the industry. Site design.R. technical knowledge. If the Event Manager has budget responsibilities at this early stage they maybe termed an Event or Production Executive. though some may say that these are two different industries. with mega shows and events hosted regularly. Logistics. The logistics side of the industry is paid less than the sales/sponsorship side. Supply chain identification. Technology & Event Management Software companies service event planners with a complete solution including Online Event Registration. there are many associations and societies that provide courses on the various aspects of the industry. Scheduling. Security. Sound. Video. growing rapidly. Travel Booking Tool. Procurement. Rigging. Cash flow management. degree and masters degree coursework. catering. marketing. there is no formalized research conducted to assess the growth of this industry. Hotel Booking Tool. Technical design. The industry includes fields such as the MICE (Meetings. Topics covered will include the Olympics. study of law and licenses. Light. Incentives. conferences and seminars as well as live music and sporting events. diploma. Detailed scheduling. • Career opportunities are in the following Industries : 4 . risk management. human relations.The Event Manager may become involved at the early initiation stages of the event.. budgeting. P. decor. especially in the UK where they have been quick to catch on to the new interest and many are now offering certificate. An Event Manager who becomes involved closer to the event will often have a more limited brief. advertising. Budget drafting. Study includes organizational skills. other media and several other areas. The NSEC will take place on 18 April 2008 at the University of Derby's Keddleston Road campus. The key disciplines closer to the event are: Health & Safety including crowd management. exhibitions. In addition to these academic courses. health & safety. Budgeting Tool etc Education There are an increasing number of universities which offer Graduate Degree/Diploma in Event Management. The early stages include: Site surveying. Event Marketing Tool. These courses though not official. Brief clarification. Surprisingly. logistics. are still useful additions to your resume. Client Service. study of allied industries like television. glamor identity.'' Event Management as an Industry Event Management is a multi-million dollar industry. incentive travel and networking.
Cultural events e. Cultural Events Events that bring out a cultural heritage or happening. these are events held purely for the fun of having an event. events of this nature are generally with a specific agenda. product launch. 2. these are generally by invitation and the number of people involved is high. Personal Events These are generally events that are held on a very personal level. 3. a sports competition. 3. leisure sport. heritage. political. These have an impact on society and people who are a part of it.g.which make it as much a part of the marketing function as communications. 10.for family and friends etc.1. charitable. For recreation. the community of color. sales. and folklore. anniversaries. 4.g. A group of people having common interests: the scientific community. sales driven etc. commercial. Much like the Goan carnival talked about earlier. travel and hospitality Industries Advertising Agencies Public Relations Firms Corporations News Media Non-profit organization Integrated Marketing & Communications Event Budgeting and Accounting Categories of Events Events can be classified into four broad categories based on their purpose and objective: 1. the district or locality in which such a group lives. Leisure events e. it could be their religion. ceremonial. 9. a cast or even a college. political. These are: · Uniqueness · Intangibility · Rituals · Personal interactions 5 . A group of people living in the same locality and under the same government. Event Management Event Management Consultancy Hotel. the international business community. art. These are high community involvement events. A community can be a religion. 4. So what do we have here? We have a set of people sharing similar interests and celebrating something together. or a fair. 2. could be their college festival etc.It is generally informative or sales driven or has some commercial value in tangible or intangible terms. recreation. Leisure events are held to involve the person taking part in the event without actually expecting an immediate result. birthdays. music.g. a race.g. Lets define a community.A group viewed as forming a distinct segment of society: the gay community. Leisure Events Simply put. Organizational Events These are events that tend to be well organized and have implications and interests that are commercial. 8. 6. 5. Organizational events e. Personal events e. weddings. religious. Event Characteristics Events as all other services have some distinct characteristics. like a party. 7.
they do have a lifespan. Timing is critical in events. pre and post and wrap up etc are decide the magnitude and size of the event. if the people who will be a part of an event or are spectators do not enjoy the event. One would safely assume that a wedding is a wedding is a wedding. a prize etc. But truthfully we would be making a wrong assumption. because preparation for the event. they would differ in terms of timings. But what event managers do is. a t-shirt. They also help in building the atmosphere and ambience of the tournament with cheering and flags and face painting etc. a wristband. tourist attractions and stately homes. so while the viewers may not actually play the game they are certainly as involved with the event as the players are. So an event must be unique. Imagine a situation where you create a party for people in the age group of 18-25 and have a performance by a kathak dancer. These make the event tangible even the give away acts and works like a memorabilia. The target audience least expected to enjoy the performance!! So do you know how important the personal interaction is in order for the event to be a success. which means that you can see the event. the colour of backdrop etc will be determined separately as opposed to if the event were conducted during the day.moved into color in 1966…. Therefore the action and reaction of the people are a critical aspect and part of the event. you can see and feel the toothpaste therefore it is a tangible. number of people visiting. Started in 1929 for b/w films…. so the two events or in this case the two weddings would be radically different. when the schedule specifies that the product reveal must happen after the speech!! Weird and Wonderful For clients who wish to turn their corporate event into something a little bit different it is worth looking at some of the UK’s more unusual venues. and even experience it. From museums to historical buildings. Personal Interactions In a sports tournament the spectators are part of the tournament as much as the players are. Rituals Oscars. these are intangibles. Because simply put. Timings also play a role in planning an event when we have to work out the schedule of the event because we need to know how long an event will last. they are intangible and cannot be felt.The tradition has remained and become a ritual. viewed or felt acts as a reminder of the event. It is necessary to create the event based on the kind of people who are going to be a part of it. But visiting a mall does not cost you anything yet you can sense the ambience and get a “feel” of the place and the service provided. but you cant touch it. the event is considered a flop or a failure. a tradition started to award the best in a particular genre. they would not be the same. buildings that are out of the ordinary are becoming a popular choice for original and engaging corporate events. And the largest event in Hollywood. Recall and remembering of an event are the signs of a good event. Much like the toothpaste you buy.events could go on for some days or an evening. So it is naturally important for us to know who the target audience is or for whom the event is intended. If it is an evening event. but in this case we would refer to happy and pleasant events. Even if two weddings were to be held on the same day at the same location. the lighting. whether it will be an hour or two and what will happen during the event and how much time each item will take. 6 . Although an event may not always be a happy event.the way people interact etc. Timing is also kept in mind when planning an event. Time Scale Events do not go on forever. more thrilling and with worldwide coverage remains a tradition and an event looked forward to every year by the best in the business. Imagine a launch where the product is revealed while the chairman is still introducing the product. Intangibility Events in general are as intangible as any other service. Events are the same. it’s a remembrance that whenever seen. Although. A cap. they have what they classify as “give aways”. The timing of the event determines the kind of event that will be held.more hi-tech and more glamorous. more exciting. the stage.· Time scale Uniqueness The event has to be unique and different in order to be remembered. can be felt and experienced. an hour or even a yearly event.
the north London venue was at the heart of the swinging 1960s scene with The Rolling Stones. Legoland Windsor’s appeal is across the board. video productions and awards ceremonies. Built in 1846 as a steam engine repair shed. More recently. but generally clients will have to think about environmental matters such as noise and smoke. That kind of buzz creates fantastic appeal. Jimi Hendrix and The Doors all playing there. These will vary from venue to venue. Whatever the style of venue. hot-air ballooning and parascending. “When people receive their invitations they will wonder how on earth an event can be held in such a venue. an art gallery with an ultra-modern design that offers rooms for corporate hire in the day as well as in the evenings. It was the venue for the Music Week Awards. “The venue can also reflect the message or culture of the company – a more futuristic building for a younger. which is made largely of glass. The Wow Factor “A great advantage with unusual venues is that you can Customise and create a memorable experience that emphasizes the wow factor. Whatever you want is possible. The venue can cater for up to 1. creative events director at motivation and event management firm P&MM.” argues Stainton.“Clients pick an unusual venue to create curiosity and momentum for an event. and for many it’s a licence to regress and chill out. “People want to go the whole hog.” Unusual venues are more suited to certain types of events. London has its fair share of unusual venues and The Roundhouse is one of its most historic. guests are permitted to smoke. the venue has hosted product launches. and clay pigeon shooting. as long as it’s safe and legal. with capacity for up to 250 people for a drinks reception. which include Nestlé and the Institute of Management. the X-Men movie premiere and the launch of Virgin Atlantic’s Upper Class offering. along with more unusual activities such as tank driving. Head of events Jo Steadman says the venue on London’s South Bank is more flexible than many museums or galleries. “The Roundhouse really worked for us because of its 360° layout with people moving from one place to the next. off-road driving. agencies and clients need to be aware of any restrictions that may be imposed on corporate events. Corporate and events sales manager Sarah Browning says: “It is not bound by convention like a hotel would be.” says Rick Stainton. In London. A small seminar or meeting does not need excessive fanfare whereas a product launch. trendy company and a more historic building for a traditional firm. The venue opened its White Space room six months ago.” she notes. Companies feel they can be creative here. family fun days.” The centre contains an exhibition space for up to 50 people while dinners can be held in two nearby venues for up to 110 people.” she explains. Dali Universe also boasts a contemporary style. “We have a wide range of clients who use the venue for events such as Christmas parties. seem to enjoy this very different way of spending an evening. Jorvik sales and business development manager Jane Nichols says clients rarely ask for anything else. hosted by a man in authentic Viking dress. “Our clients. helicopter rides. Some venues offer themed packages. Jorvik Viking Centre in York offers Viking-themed receptions with Viking canapés and drinks. with features including the circular Compass Room. for example. end-of-year corporate event or summer ball calls for much more flair. Unbound by Convention One venue that claims to be far more flexible than most is The Hop Farm Country Park in Kent. team-building events and product launches. The site. for instance. Virgin events and sponsorship executive Janet Lance says the company always looks for a unique venue when planning an event. Unusually for a museum.” Two miles from Manchester city centre stands the Lowry. It’s easily accessible and it has a lot of character.” she says.730 people. according to the Berkshire attraction’s corporate sales manager Penny Jenkins. can accommodate a wealth of activities including quad-biking. 7 . set in 250 acres. archery.
2. 4.Events can be classified into 1. 3. Mega events like Olympics Regional events like saarc Minor events is very small Major events like an election The event team 8 .
induce need. greet them. event infrastructure. viz. event organizers.1 and Exhibit 3. use or have the product. Times have changed and the market has become far more dynamic than it used to be. express. posters. create an aspiration to own. a sure shot way of speaking to the consumer on a personal level.can be successfully completed without interaction and inputs from the six key elements of events. pint of purchase material. In a cluttered market we need to cut through noise. What are the ways that are possible? Advertising – Press and television.induce trial and underlying to all these reasons is the basic reason…to make money for the event management company and for the client. So When do we Need Events? We have already established. Have you noticed that in all the possible ways we mentioned there is only one way communication. Exhibit 3. We motivate the consumer to buy into the product or the event may be used to induce trial of the product.radio. Event organizers design and execute all activities concerning an event. What does this lead to? Companies trying desperately to get through to the consumer in all ways possible. The Exhibits also show that the difference in the national and international events is actually the same at the conceptual level. Types of Events · Event linked to Product Launch · Company Market Entry · Brand Extension · Dealer Conference · Anniversary celebrations · Entertainment · Religion · Community Event ELEMENTS OF EVENTS No event . So much to be done and the advertising as discussed earlier is a one-way communication. do they buy the product? Which is why we have events.. inform.other products. target audience. Speaking to him. which basically means that we as marketers and advertisers are talking to the consumer but we don’t know if they can hear us and if they can hear us. meet them. do they act upon what they hear. sell. the event must be IMPACTFULL MEMORABLE AND MUST LEAD TO SALE.1 shows a graphical depiction of the event hexagon that is formed by the key elements.2. The target audience is the ultimate experience 9 . Inserts. This chapter carries an in-depth presentation of the issues involved in the interaction between these key elements. one in the Indian context and the other from the international sporting scene. that we need to have an event where we try to get across to the consumer in a market that is cluttered. people. talent and structure. cinema etc. venue and the media. trying to ensure that we get the desired result. clients.the factors that are different depend almost entirely on the socioeconomic conditions and the technological advances of the geographical area where the event takes place. In a cluttered market where the everyone is yelling on top of their voices.bring out the essence of this chapter in a concise manner. induce the need to use the product and then bring the product and ourselves top of mind. Event infrastructure is the broad term that encompasses core concept. not literally but through their ads and their commercials and their posters etc. competitive products. hoardings.The event can be used to have fun. Consumers are smarter and so are the marketing companies. Figure 3. convey. Events are all about the business of thrill and excitement and having fun and making money while working.WHY EVENTS Some years ago event management companies could have been counted on one hand. We use an event to get to know the consumers.
reputation. in music whether the event is a classical music concert or a pop music concert. Thus. The nature of this infrastructure varies with the event categories and variations in events.constraints in terms of boundary. acting or participating in the process of influencing the audience to create a desired impact in terms of a favorable position for the clients’ brand in the audience’s mind. The media is the vehicle used to communicate details of the event to the target audience and venue is the location at which the event is to be executed. number of participants. what differentiates the boundaries between the various categories amongst themselves. Similarly in sports. and core structure. we mean that. These essential elements are core concept. The audience comes to experience the expertise. since it becomes easier to manage and market. core people. The personality of the core people being used in an event should match the brand personality. core talent is game specific. That is. Depending upon the degree to which the event category is structured the requirements of management and marketing of events may vary. charisma or knowledge of such core people and to have an opportunity to interact with them. The exact size and shape that the tree takes varies from tree to tree in the same family. event infrastructure includes those essential elements without which there cannot be any event. In a music concert. i. these are the people who hold sway and take the center-stage. Core People These are the people who are performing. or knowledge. the types of audience that are attracted to the event depend on the talent of the performer. therefore. The core concept of an event is like a root of a tree that generates the energy and lays down the base for the type of tree that shall grow. an entire event family can be built on each of the event categories. core talent. It is the core talent that attracts and influences the audience. For instance. Core Structure The presence of a formal or informal organisation to manage the event category as a whole is impbrtant to make it lucrative from its marketing point of view. etc. The more formal and structured it is. By more formal and structured.e. each game has limited time. When the event gets underway. there is a proper organisational 10 . the core people are required to have a specific expertise.of the event and for whom the event organizer consciously designs the event. Core Concept Core concept is a term that can be used to define the fundamental underlying ethos and evolution of the various major categories of events. Event Infrastructure As the name indicates. Core Talent With every event category. the mpre lucrative that event category becomes. An example that can be cited here is in a competitive event such as sports. depends on the type of instrument and the music being played. helps in creating variations in any event category.The physical manifestations of these constraints that act as a challenge or obstacle vary from game to game and lead to the need for different talents required in playing each game. The client from the event organizers’ viewpoint is the sponsor or financier of an event venture. The core talent. These differences lead to innumerable variations in events as will be discussed in the next chapter. talent required in cricket differs from talent required to play basketball.
though informal arrangements do exist. across the world.each of the categories has become structured to certain degrees. competitive events are the only category among all categories of events that have a strong and structured organisation. 11 . In fact.e.i. and to an extent. A formal structure is not available for the other event categories. Traditionally.not only of the monies but also of national pride and identification of the event category by the ordinary citizens . Depending on the stakes involved . right from the schools with league matches at every level up to the international level. Cause-based events are an example of events not having an organised structure since such events are usually one-off in nature and there is no organised body involved in arranging events for fund raising or creating awareness for the event category of the cause as a whole. after their playing tenure.structure in which roles and responsibilities are clearly assigned to different members of the organisation along with proper delegation of authority to carry out these roles. sporting events are the most organised and structured both nationally and internationally. Such bodies not only carry out managerial functions and other administrative activities involved with the event but also focus on the members and players benefits during. This organisation for efficient management has been denoted as the core structure. Among competitive events. Sports control bodies such as the BCCI (Board of Control for Cricket in India) and the ICC (International Cricket Council) are examples of this. competitive events have always been comprehensively administered right from the grass root level.
India Trade Promotion Organisation provides a broad spectrum of services to trade and industry so as to catalyse the growth of bilateral trade. This is in consonance with ITPO’s policy to provide an impetus to the country’s overall export efforts. promotion through department stores. the promotion of trade is an exacting mission. A mission that finds expression in the successful organisation of trade exhibitions in India and abroad.. ITPO has taken a lead in promoting the Fair Culture all over the country. Every year as many as 50 exhibitions are organised at Pragati Maidan by ITPO and other agencies. Karnataka. buyer-seller meets. Pragati Maidan-Fair Worthy At All Times ITPO manages India’s only world class exhibition complex which is being renovated. A similar centre is also nearing completion at Bangalore. translating into a search for new frontiers and new horizons in the world of commercial interactions. New halls have been added recently. particularly India’s exports. meters of open display area. ITPO accords approvals for holding of international trade fairs in India in order to ensure and facilitate. This honour is bestowed on select Public Sector Enterprises which register profits for three years in a row. Indeed at ITPO. Exhibitions in India 13 . As an apex agency of the Government. Assam for the North. ITPO has been conferred the status of Mini Ratna by the Government of India. and technological upgradation and modernisation of different industry segments. Pragati Maidan offers 62650 sq. The centre has been set up in Jan.000 sq. customs clearance of imported exhibits. both at macro and micro levels. modernised and upgraded from time to time to keep it in a high standard of fair-worthiness. As the premier trade promotion agency of the government of India. 2001. meters of covered exhibition space in 17 halls besides 10.Eastern region.ITPO INDIA TRADE PROMOTION ORGANISATION (ITPO) India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO) is synonymous with the country’s trade promotion around the world all round the year. These stateof-the-art exhibition halls have enhanced the appeal of Pragati Maidan as an ideal business proposition for an increasing number of fair organizers and business visitors from different parts of the world. Major initiatives have been taken through negotiations and discussions with the State Governments for setting up of exhibition complexes in West Bengal. Pragati Maidan offers the kind of ambience that is conducive to an increasing variety of exhibitions featuring gigantic machinery and equipment to delicate exhibits like watches and jewellery having handle with care tags besides a whole range of precision engineering products. contact promotion and product development programmes apart from dissemination of information on products and markets. Spread over 149 acres of prime land in the very heart of India’s capital and bustling megapolis. New Delhi. inter alia. In general. ITPOs programmes are carried out in close cooperation with the Indian industry whose promotional needs it seeks to serve. A significant achievement has been the setting up of Regional Trade Promotion Centre in Chennai as a joint venture between ITPO and the Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation.
Establishing durable contacts between Indian suppliers and overseas buyers. Prakash (Lighting Exhibition) at Pragati Maidan. · Promoting establishment of facilities and infrastucture for holding trade fairs in State Capitals or other suitable locations in India. and O other centres in India. · Arranging product displays for visiting overseas buyers. · Participating in overseas trade fairs and exhibitions. Cultivating overseas buyers through timely and efficient services. · Organising India Promotions with Department Stores and Mail Order Houses abroad. both from the point of view of participation and visitor turnout from India and abroad. Identifying and nurturing specific export products with long range growth prospects. Main Activities and Services of ITPO rganising various trade fairs and exhibitions at its exhibition complex. · Inviting overseas buyers and organising their meetings with Indian suppliers. joint ventures. the India International Leather Fair (at Cheenai) and International Leather Goods Fair (at Calcutta). marketing tie-ups and investment promotion. 14 .000 business visitors from India and overseas. Extending the use of Pragati Maidan for holding trade fairs and exhibitions by other fair organisers both from India and abroad. Aahar (Food Expo). the India International Trade Fair. · Organising seminars/conferences/workshops. in consultation with State Governments concerned. Printpack India. ITPO’s magnum opus. Tex-Styles India. over the years.Organising Buyer-Seller Meets and other exclusive India Shows in order to bring buyers and sellers together. · Conducting in-house and need-based research on trade and export promotion. The international events that have. Pragati Maidan. These exhibitions enjoy tremendous industry support. the India International Trade Fair continued to be a major business attraction in 2003 with a turnout of 100. · Providing assistance in locating suitable foreign collaborators for transfer of technology. · Enlisting the involvement and support of the State Governments in India for promotion of India’s foreign trade. Delhi International Shoe Fair. · Encouraging and involving small and medium scale units in export promotion efforts.ITPO’s exhibitions at New Delhi and in other parts of the country effectively mirror the latest developments in various sectors of industry and cater to both export and import requirements. developed an institutionalized character include International Security Exhibition. Assisting Indian companies in product development and adaptation to meet buyers requirements .
long working hours can be a part of the job. and the length of preparation needed for each event so it is a success.m. set up the entertainment. and content. The day the event is taking place could start as early as 5:00 a. a special event coordinator. and keep contact with the client. Event planning includes budgeting. Once the location is set the coordinator/planner needs to prepare the event with staff. selecting and reserving the event site.Event Planning Event planning is the process of planning a festival. event support and security. ceremony. location. Some physical activity is required such as carrying boxes of materials and decorations or supplies needed for the event. After all this is set the event planner has all the smaller details to address like set up of the event such as food. drinks. chairs. emergency plans.An event planner needs to be able to manage their time wisely for the event. arranging for speakers and alternate speakers. decorations. Planners face deadlines and communicating with multiple people at one time. 15 . party. portable toilets. festival. and cleanup. a convention planner. This line of work is also considered fast paced and demanding. or convention. but with event planning they would likely be held at hotels. Event Planning is a relatively new career field. tents. This career deals with a lot of communication and organization aspects. all this preparation is what is needed for an event to run smoothly. guest list. birthday. coordinating location support (such as electricity and other utilities). Also. From this the event planner needs to choose entertainment. acquiring permits. catering. and then work until midnight. and coordinating transportation and parking. There must be training for an event planner to handle all the pressure and work efficiently. but when meeting with clients the work is usually on-site at the location where the event is taking place . The location for events is endless. advertising and marketing. health care professionals. budget. establishing dates and alternate dates. police. which is when many events take place . guest list. graduation or any other event requiring exstensive planning. depending on the event: developing a theme or motif for the event. and a meeting manager. reception halls. fire. company. There are many different names for an event planner such as a conference coordinator. or outdoors depending on the event. Working on weekends is sometimes required. speakers. Planners spend most of their time in offices. convention centers. Event planning also includes some or all of the following. parking. Steps to Planning an Event The first step to planning an event is determining its purpose. tables. Working Conditions Event planners work is considered either stressful or energizing. music. competition. signage. whether it is for a wedding. There is now training that helps one trying to break into the career field. arranging decor.
It is a collection of numerous sequential activities. An event follows or a system. It is broadly as follows:- 16 .Publications and Resources Many business-to-business trade publications exist to help event planning and production professionals become educated about the issues and trends in their industry. Qualification is based on multiple variables like job title. EVENT PROCESS Event is not a single activity. It may vary from event to event and situation but broadly the format remains the same. and is at the publisher's discretion. The key elements of events are the active components of an event process. industry segment or geographic region. Many are controlled circulation publications available at no cost to qualified event professionals. company type.
Preevent print media campaign is very essential since it can be used not only to inform about the exact details of the event such as venue. news. whether weekly/daily/morning/evening. The need to create a jingle or put together an appealing audio promotion may be expensive and thus this media needs to be understood better as to how and when it is beneficial to use it. Ms. their circulation. is required to get the desired reach that requires an adequately planned publicity campaign by the event marketer. etc. The immense popularity of competitive events and especially sports are derived from this factor. which aids in increasing reach is usually paid for or bartered with the media oWIJ. Carol Gracias as part of the fillers during the programme. Some examples of event specific issues in the recent past are St. listening audience profile and time slots for airing the commercials are the major decision making criteria. the winner of the recently held L’Oreal Femina Elite Model Look 1998 featured live on a programme sponsored by L’Oreal on the FM channel. Unlike the print media that comes out with special supplements. Valentines day. Such event specific issues are good because of two reasons: Special rates for advertising are charged for insertions in such issues. Networking Components The various networking components involved and their important features to be noted are: Print Media Print media is essential for pre-event publicity and it also aids in the post-event recall by reporting or covering the event as in reporting the success (or failure) of an event. satellite television offers dedicated channels for music. though it can also have an importance in terms of post-event coverage planned accordingly. The event marketer has to network with other media for successful publicity of an event. The state of readiness of the audience is an added bonus since they are prepared and anticipate such issues. The post-event coverage falls under the purview of journalism and usually the event organiser has little control over it and that’s precisely why even a failure can get reported. and the profile of readers. Radio This is an electronic audio media and is mainly used for prevent publicity. the 50th year of India’s Independence and the 1998 World Cup Soccer held in France. Special programmes with the event as focus and which are more than just a commercial are more helpful in providing the reach that is desired for the event though they may be expensive. Depending on the reach desired. the frequency of publication. The programme profile. Giveaways and contests are usually associated with such campaigns. A decision to use a particular newspaper or magazine or a combination of the same will normally depend on the objective to be achieved from the event. Diwali. during event and postevent coverage.e.pages or cutouts. And the fact that they look forward to such issues for more information provides more focused reach for the event. the television media can be the single most potent media since it can provide pre-event. For example. during the event itself. Though not a full-fledged programme on the event. 17 . The pre-event publicity. Decision-making on using the print media essentially revolves around the variety of publications available. For regular festivals and other most popular events most newspapers and magazines usually plan special supplements. Boli. This again provides an opportunity to narrow down the reach to focus on the audience for the particular event category. the script for the host was modified as to thread together an interview with the winner. sports.CONCEPT OF PROMOTION IN EVENTS Promotion in events. Television For events. date and time but also to distribute entry forms or feedback questionnaires. Live telephone calls congratulating Carol were also aired on the programme. The singularly most important feature that television as a media offers is the ability to cover events live i. either satellite channels or the government controlled terrestrial channels can be used..ers as the media sponsors.
Developments in technology on the e-commerce front have added an entirely brand new angle to the concept of Internet and how it can be used for leveraging an event. Slick promotions were aired on MTV. The Coca-Cola Alisha Chinai Concert Tour. The SI Kids (Sports Illustrated Kids) site popped up when one clicked on this enticing game. The e-commerce shop on the Olympic web-site supported Visa transactions.com) carried banner ads from its sponsors.olympics. All official publicity material for the World Cup carried the Internet site address and this site played host to all the other official sponsors and was expected to generate 10 . organised by UNIRAPPORT events.Timing and frequency of airing the promotions are very crucial. It was also expected to provide access to 10. For subscribing to the Olympic Newsletter by providing their email addresses. It was expected to provide accreditation and other facilities to 12000 staff. The live as well as deferred coverage of the local Navratri Dandiya by the 18 . An event such as a multi-city (focusing only on the metros) concert tour of a pop music band would not prefer DDI but prefer to promote and tieup with an exclusive music channel for all its promotions and event coverage. growing rapidly in popularity.the official computer and support system provider for the web-site and the information systems for the 1998 World Cup soccer in France back in 1998. Cable Network The cable network is a medium and is most beneficial for a highly localised reach and coverage of events. people visiting the site. The names of the sponsors have been listed in Exhibit 2. memorabilia and collectibles. The solution required almost 75 different HP products to be used.3. audio and video media. It offers unlimited opportunities as it integrates the print. The bottom banner advertised a speed-o-matic game inviting people to click on the ad.. Hewlett Packard . Adding to this is the possibility of instantaneous information (as against data) collection as well as instant merchandising through e-commerce helping in impulse buying.both pre and post-event. The Olympic Travel and Traveland ads also were featured on the main pages in a smaller size. Music concerts invariably have one of the numerous music channels as an exclusive media sponsor. which can be handled without any hassles. The other main pages also alternatively carried IBM and Sports Illustrated Kids offered 1 free issue for clicking. surfers were offered a chance to win a free pin. This provides a focused approach to the event. in the form of databases. used the television medium extensively to promote the event. An Internet site can be anything from a plain web page to a site that offers audio and video experience. and surfers were offered an opportunity to shop for Olympic goodies. For example. players and officials. Carrying out complex analyses of information obtained providing e-commerce related opportunities Computer games or simulations that evolve out of an event can be offered on sites to add to the experiences of the target audience who surf the net for information on the event.000 journalists. The home page of this site carried banner ads of IBM for its e-business practice and identified IBM as the worldwide partner for the Olympics. had arrived. The kids section also carried ads in a side column of Bank of Melbourne (Challenge Bank) supported by IBM and The Sydney Morning Herald. The numerous Internet sites that mushroomed to cover yet another extravaganza .20 million hits per day during the football mania. the official site of the 2000 Sydney Olympics (www. Sponsors’ advertisements with links to their sites are displayed on the site. An advantage of using Internet sites for reaching out to the target audience is that it allows the recording of the number of hits i. The Internet Multimedia in its generic form is a term that deals with more than one media at the same time. The age of the mega-events. and the official host of the domain for the World Cup Football-provided online coverage as well as history.the Cricket World Cup ’99 in England is also a testimony to the increasing popularity of the Internet to promote and at the same time reap benefits from events. Slotting the promotions after checking on the TRP rating of programmes and their nature would help in positioning the event to the proper target audience. statistics and a million statistical data on World Cup matches as well as details on the players and their backgrounds at the fingertips of the web surfer. The Internet is now extensively used in events for: Online Registration for Events Dispensing information .e.
e. Posters are usually printed and stuck in areas where the target audience population assembles and carries greater details on the event. Aptech regularly organises events for 10th and 12th standard students after their board exams and uses a good number of hoardings. Hoarding sites need to rent based on the rates which are again dependent on the site location. banners and posters around schools all over Mumbai to publicise the same. The low rates for advertising on this media is also an incentive for event organisers to use cable networks extensively.various cable networks is one of the most popular shows during the Dandiya season. size and number. handouts are also printed and distributed lavishly to the target audience population directly either by hand or by delivering the event pamphlet through the local newspaper vendor directly to the homes or offices of the target audience. dimensions of the hoarding and whether these are lighted or not. A ticker tape like ad-line that runs on the bottom of the television screen is just an example of how cable operators do the balancing act between the sponsor and their customers. The fact that the audience is in transit ensures that the number of people who notice and are aware of the hoarding is large. Outdoor Media Very essential for pre-event publicity. Posters are directed at small groups of around 2 to 5 people at a time depending on the dimensions of the poster. posters and banners are the main decisions to be taken when planning outdoor media. more effective in catching the attention of the target audience. there is no point in promoting the event on DDI since these are channels that are accessible everywhere in India including the rural parts which is required. This becomes an almost one-to-one campaign. Banners also carry general awareness information and may actually be a smaller replica of the hoardings and are repeated at shorter distances. there are greater chances of the reach losing its significance.. These are usually few in number and far apart from each other. more sponsor friendly as in letting the sponsor have a greater say in the. Producing television promotions are a very costly proposition and given that the reach offered is tremendous. For example. An advantage that posters offer is that they are not only easier to put up but also can be stuck or pinned up on notice boards or in other prominent locations where people cannot miss them. Of hoardings. coverage of the processions during Ganeshotsav in Mumbai and Durga Puja in Calcutta are also very widely watched. They are therefore. Prime locations. Best locations for hoardings are places where large masses of people are in transit i. locations such as along the highways. programming as well as giving more time and more time slots for commercials. these are short time span networking elements located at prominent sites usually earmarked for the same. Further to these. Decision making involving networking with the cable channels is normally based on the localities that the channel covers and number of cable connected homes. for an event to be held locally in a metro with a limited capacity. Similarly. railway stations and railway lines. The customers do not mind it so long as the service obtained is of a good quality. Hoardings usually carry only broad event awareness messages and are designed for a relatively larger reach than banners and posters. Over and above the focused reach the cable networks provide. 19 . Banners are designed and put up in and around the localities or places where the target audience can be found to either reside or gather in good numbers. For example.
At the same time. Photography. transportation of material. stages and sets. It deals with hard practical realities such as the logistics i. the brief for the event. This is especially so since the security and other arrangements will vary with the type of beverages served. Signage. This may involve a certain amount as part payment in advance. the time frame involved in decision making being limited. ad designs. Therefore. the venue. The planning function is involved in micro-level event coordination activities such as liaison with the creative team discussing. 20 . and printing. Video Production. etc. payment to artists and performers. Penalty clauses may also be included for defaults in the payments.. Deciding soft issues such as whether the show is to be a ticketed.Ground Transportation. The major outflows though are mainly on the event production front combined with the licensing and tax payments liabilities. Invitations. Valet. Bartenders. planning assumes that much more importance as a function. understanding the requirements of licenses. ticket sales. Staging. While at the last task. venue hiring charges. Short-listing artists and stand by artists in tune with the dictates of the creative guys/gals is one of the most challenging tasks in the planning function. Decor. Tenting. It also involves checking out alternative arrangements for locating the event. during and after the event. the actual plan of payments can be worked out.Staff. Logistics. travel. clearances. etc. In addition. inflows to the event company’s coffers are basically from a combination of the revenues from sponsorships. On-Site Coordination.Sound and Lights. Tables and Chairs. Food and Beverage. the target audience and number expected. relationship with the clients and the objectives of both the client and the organiser. It tries to create the perfect picture of the event flow and tries to define and exercise control on the inflow and outflow of money before. Catering. a major component of any event that follows is the preparation of the event cash flow statement. Linen. Tours. Planners then do a risk rating for the event. Sanitation Facilities. In the cash flow statement. Decorations and Props. light. stay. Exhibitor Needs. Security.The planning function defines the limits of the creative function as it provides the constraints that the creative team has to work with. Union Labor. commissions.e.. it is imperative that the planning function plays an important role in the preparation for any event. banners printing. a certain amount upon completion of specific milestones and finally payment of the balance amount either at the beginning of the event or upon completion of the event. fully or partially sponsored is also part of the planning exercise. Entertainment. It is essential that a certain amount be taken as advance to take care of the working capital needs. Audio Visual Needs. on the outflow front. event production charges. The mode of payment for events ranges from part payments to cash payments and is mutually agreed upon between the parties involved and authenticated in the form of a contract after negotiations. China and Flatware.On-Site Registration. A crossfunctional team is a necessity here given the complexity in decision-making involved and the requirement for phenomenal researched information. Planning tries to optimise resource utilization across the board. Floor Plan.Convention services. Beginning with understanding the client profile. and the networking viz. Pipe and Drape. Stage Decor. Site Selection. tickets I invites designing. etc. facilitating and arranging for the technical specification viz.Registration. Speakers. Some of the event planning services that need to be taken care of by the event organizers are listed as follows: Travel Arrangements. Web Site Management. media plan.. and arranging for the same as and when required is a fundamentally responsible task that the event coordinator is burdened with. one can include headings as suppliers’ payments. sound.EVENT PLANNING A closer look at the planning function that the overall coordinator. Defining arrangements for the quality of hospitality and the dress code of the hostel hostesses depending on audience profile as well as deciding the appropriate food and beverages to be served on the occasion also is a planning function. National Entertainment.Meeting Planning.the project manager and the sales team is dedicated to is warranted here. Lodging. non-ticketed. Depending on the nature of the project. artist management fees and infrastructure and equipment rental charges. the conditions for the event and gathering information to assist in taking a decision on whether the event would be held indoors or outdoors.
e. programs and h. objectives. In other words strategy is the general program of action and deployment of resources to attain comprehensive objectives. 21 . Strategy is. experience and intelligence. without planning one cannot move ahead. The importance of planning cannot be over emphasized. policies. And proaction is an essential ingredient of planning. Most of the organizations very often fail due to poor planning. It has been rightly said. use and disposition of resources to achieve those objectives”. They were quick to realize that managing is necessary to ensure proper coordination of all the individuals in the group.e. No one can wail till the problems develop before preparing to tackle them. strategies. “the process of determining the major objectives of an organisation and the policies and programmes that will govern the acquisition. c. choosing. If the group effort is to be successful then its every member must know exactly what is expected of him. say we take the University for example again. otherwise. This is rather being proactive. whereas.e. purposes or missions. ‘management’ had begun as people started forming groups to achieve their goals. budgets. What is my objective? · What resources do I have and need to accomplish the same? · What are the methods and means to achieve the objectives? · Is this the optimal path? Good and effective managers are positive in their approach and are optimistic and yet prepare themselves for the worst. During planning one need to ask oneself the following: · What am I trying to accomplish? i. Planning is the most crucial part of the functions of the manager. Types of Planning We have seen that planning is essential for the success and survival of any orgainisation. in Lesson 1. Objective is the ultimate goal towards which the activities of the organisation are directed at. e. d. Whatever be the resources one may have. g. one has to simply be spectator and watch things happen.Like the purpose of the university is teaching and research. One should also understand that there exist many different types of plans. Though the objectives of the departments are different they are consistent with the Purpose. the objective of the Examination Department of the university is to conduct the exam in a fair and reliable manner and declare the results in time. that of Courts is the interpretation of laws and their application and so on. One can plan effectively only if one understands the different types of plans and its purposes. If one is left with no alternatives then there is no scope for planning i. Plans can be classified as a. Planning is needed to make things happen or to cope up with the changes. rules. Though one cannot foresee the future but should learn anticipate. in George Steiner’s words. Purpose or Mission of an organization is its basic function. Planning needs choosing the best course of action among many alternatives and decision making. Like. b. This is a basic function of the manager. It is more simply said than done. procedures. It is essentially an intellectual process requiring knowledge. research and enlightening the students are the objectives of the university. A job well planned is half done.Needs For Planning As we saw in the beginning i. “Failure to plan is planning to fail”. Planning is determining the objectives and formulating the methods to achieve them. f. teaching. This is the fundamental function of planning. One department alone is not capable of accomplishment of the Purpose.
In this approach the programmes are started as though from scratch or zero base. A combination of the variable and the programme budget is the zero-base budget. Rule is also a plan that prescribes a course of action and explicitly states what is to be done under a given set of circumstances. It is a quantitative expression of a plan. Programme is a broad term. in the event of things going wrong. Principles of Planning One should keep in mind the following principles while planning in order make it effective. Budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms.They should include the factors unexpected or atleast should have enough scope for maneuvering in the event of an unforeseen change in the environment. However. standards and budgets. procedures and policies. Some budgets vary according to the organisation’s level of output.policies. raw. procedures. Steps in Planning There is no fixed formula or methods for planning. Procedure is a subdivision of policy. Launching of a satellite is a programme. It varies in accuracy. So too are the plans. rules and procedures allow no such discretion. However one would broadly follow the following steps in planning. 22 . Take note to observe the differences in rules. but also for the organization. The policies are guide to decision making and allow the managers to use their discretion. Evaluate and Revise Evaluate the plans at regular intervals to make sure that it is contributing to the objectives in the expected manner. In common parlance it is called ‘Standard Operating Procedure’ (SOP). Master budget contains the consolidated plan of action of the whole enterprise and is in a way the translated version of the overall business plan of the organization. Government departments prepare programme Budgets in which the agency and the departments identifies goal. Thus a programme includes objectives. Involve and Communicate with all those Concerned Such an exercise commits people concerned with the achievement of goals. Treatment of strategy as a type of plan is justified by its usefulness in practice and importance in guiding. You may save some time in quickly developing a plan. these are called variable or flexible budgets. This is sure recipe for trouble . Planning Can be Top to Down or Bottom to Top Generally. you are under pressure of both the time and resources. develops detailed programmes to meet the goals etc. It is carried out as per the need of the organisation. some times the plans are evolved from the information coming from the lower levels.Thus. an entrepreneur needs to decide what kind of business he is going to do? A strategy may also be policy such as selling on cash only. Participation in the process of planning gives a sense of pride and binds them to the objectives. material budget. Production budget is the plan of the production department and capital expenditure budget. Take time to Plan Plan in haste and repent in leisure? No. detail and purpose. methods. These are called bottom to top approach. Policy-Koontz et al define it as “general statement or understanding which guide or channel thinking in decision making”. labour budget etc are budgets of the production department. Policy defines an area within which a decision is to be made and ensures that the decision will consistent with and contribute to the objective. It states a series of related steps or tasks to be per formed in a sequential way.not only for you. Terry and Franklin define it as a “comprehensive plan that includes future use of different resources in an integrated pattern and establishes a sequence of required actions and time schedules for each in order to achieve stated objectives”. Plans must be Flexible and Dynamic Vision is the art of seeing things invisible. if you have not considered all the factors in a hurry. the top management of the organization prepares plans. But.
The plan chosen after a through analysis is seldom complete without derivative plans. in order to reach the desired goal the plan has to be reviewed periodically. The second step is determining the planning premises Planning premises in simpler words is the assumptions that are made about the various elements of the environment. The seventh step is to make derivative plans. The sixth step is the real point of decision making. Internal premises include sales forecasts and policies of the organisation. After the decisions are made and plans are set and are rolling. the plan is adopted. Although goal setting is the first step in planning. the strategic plans focus on the long term. The third step would be to decide the planning period. Such a review helps in taking corrective action. The plan. the real starting point is the identification of the opportunity or the problem itself. The plans thus developed for the various levels down the organisation are called derivative plans. It is important for all the managers involved in planning to agree on the premises. Plans for the various operational units within the departments have to be formulated. to make it operational. If one fails to set correct or meaningful goals then one cannot make effective plans. The fourth step in planning is to search for and examine alternative courses of actions. from the many alternatives available a one is chosen i. After having identified the number of alternatives and examining their strong and weak points it is logical to evaluate them against the planning premises and objectives. general economic conditions etc. if necessary. This is very important because the manager should know where they are. External premises are those factors that are out side the orgainisation such as technological changes. Here. There is rarely a need to plan for where there exist no alternatives and generally an alternative that is not obvious proves to be the best.The first step is detetmining the goals or objectives for the entire organisation. The fifth step is evaluating the alternatives. While operational planning focus on the short term. is split into departmental plans. what opportunities or problems they wish to handle and why and what they expect to gain. 23 . when the plan is in force.e.
However. There can be two attitudes with which evaluation can be put in its proper perspective. In the case of commercial events. Thus. the basic evaluation process involves three steps: · Establishing tangible objectives and incorporating sensitivity in evaluation · Measuring the performance before. A more constructive focus for evaluation is to make recommendations about how an event might be improved to achieve its aims more effectively. Once the audience has been defined. The purpose of an event will differ with respect to the category and variation of event. it is known that people involved in an event are more open. The costs of production in major events can be enormous and therefore. during and after the event correcting deviations from plans These are discussed in some detail in the following pages: Establishing Tangible Objectives and Sensitivity in Evaluation Setting objectives for an event is easier said than done. This adds an element of tangibility to the evaluation and measurement proceedings. An event might be conceptualized to achieve different things for different audience. feel or do beforehand. there is scope for error and misjudgment if sensitivity is not adhered to. To provide tangibility to the problem. the best approach is to begin with definition of the target audience for whom the event has been organised. The concept of evaluation stated above was a critical examination digging out what went wrong. the audience could be end users who use the company’s products. minded and less committed to any particular course of action before the event occurs. The Basic Evaluation Process In events. if things are shown to be wrong after a decision has been taken.Event Evaluation Evaluation is an activity that seeks to understand and measure the extent to which an event has succeeded in achieving its purpose. Objective evaluation should also take into consideration the nature of the concept and the process of execution of the event in their entirety. Creativity is derived from the Greek word enthousiasm which literally translates into ‘God. The number of mega-events has increased dramatically in the past few years and the costs of organising events have also increased exponentially. Setting out to evaluate such an effort that is considered to be the work of Gods themselves demands a certain amount of sensitivity during evaluation. Yet another learning is that. The brief should contain all the data to be communicated since if an event has been organized without a clearly defined purpose. any evaluation would be rather pointless. the next step is to identify and put on paper what each of the audience is expected to think. From experience. in the near future one can expect companies to start asking questions about the effectiveness of their events to see whether their money is being spent prudently. It is more difficult to set standards and declaring an event successful after it meets them. within’. One of the ways of nurturing and encouraging this sensitivity is to place evaluation within the context of a team approach all the way from conceptualization to carrying out of the event. However professional the evaluation. to provide reach and interaction would be a generic purpose that events satisfy. the majority of people involved in the decision-making process may try to wash their hands of the fault. feel and do having been to the event. adding sensitivity to the evaluation process is very important. This is because it takes a creative and sensitive mind to spot wrong questions or situations where asking questions might be the wrong method and observation might be more appropriate. 24 . that it did not think. To carry out an evaluation and measurement exercise it is essential that the predefined objectives of the events have been properly understood.
The concept research is used to anticipate the viability of a concept during the conceptualization process. Since taking the client into confidence requires certain amount of objectivity and professionalism. These evaluations are conducted among small sample representative of the target audience in an open-ended and qualitative fashion since the main emphasis is on discovering how the concept might be better represented. The team also provides reassurance on how and why the particular event will work among its intended audience. The evaluation team has to provide the objective evidence that has been collected which justifies the proposed concept solutions. A point. which should be safeguarded against whilst using this technique. if a concept team does not have a sound basis upon which to make a decision ‘between various options. Formative Evaluation Evaluation at this stage focuses on things that are actually happening. Among other things. The outcome of these formative evaluations lead to a discussion among the team in which proposals for rectifying any weak points in the communications can be put forward. this technique is called objective evaluation. Formative and objective evaluations are carried out during the customization phase of an event. These evaluations are aimed at shaping the form of the final event. Summative Evaluation After the event has started. the evaluation team should be concerned with measuring the impact of the event upon its audience.Measuring Performance Although perfect measurement is not always practicable. a commissioning of audience research to help in defining the strategic approach to be adopted in the event is appropriate. This method is called concept research. After the conceptualisation team makes an attempt to customise and implement an agreed strategy. Summative evaluation can be carried out to measure performance during the event. Correcting Deviations 25 . the measurement of performance against the objectives should ideally be done on a forward looking basis so that deviations may be detected in advance of their occurrence and avoided by appropriate actions. Mock-up displays and presentations of the event are used to carry out research to check whether they are achieving the desired reactions from the audience. A major purpose of evaluating an event after it has opened to the public is that it provides the team with the opportunity of learning from their mistakes. The team should assimilate the information thus collected so that they can avoid making similar mistakes in the future. It essentially involves presenting the various options to a representative sample of the target audience in a story form and inviting their reactions. The downside to this method is that it is speculative in nature since it deals with plans that nobody has as yet tried to implement. Concept Research At the conceptualization stage. Objective Evaluation This is the stage when approval from the client is sought before starting the execution related activities of an event. This provides enough material for understanding the pros and cons of the various available alternatives. steps can be taken to evaluate the success with which customisation is proceeding. they should establish the extent to which the objectives or aims of the event have been met and whether the event can be improved in any way and if so. is to interpret consumer reactions with considerable sensitivity to stimulate the creative process further and also to ensure that good ideas are not killed simply because they were not properly presented in mock-up form. how This will not apply for short term events though.
is a very tangible though approximate method for measuring the external reach of a promotion campaign on television. Since events require massive external publicity-press.. another important critical success factor is the degree of localisation or customisation accommodated in the concept to suit the demographic and other variables of various places where the event is to be carried out. The client event-target audience fit should match the clients’ brand/product/company image and personality perfectly. from both the clients’ and event organisers’ viewpoints. reach is of two types – external and actual event reach. For example. These are over and above ensuring perfect reach and interaction for the client by networking on-time & at lowest cost. Measurement of external reach is possible by using the circulation figures of newspapers and promotions on television and the radio. This analysis should consider the actual cost of the event that includes the non-budgeted expenditure as well as the actual benefits that accrued to the client from the event. Critical Evaluation Points from Clients’ Point of View We have discussed earlier that the impact an event has on its target audience is equivalent to the measure of reach and interaction that occur during the event. A cost-benefit analysis concerning the effectiveness of reach and interaction is a must as a pre-event activity. Each and every completed event should generate more inquiries and these should be responded to immediately. Opportunities for explanation of available synergies and expansion of services offered to client to keep strategic integration and diversification options open is also an important factor. Whereas reach is tangible. Logistics and efficiency of event execution for ensuring smooth proceedings without unnecessary delays and damages is another critical success factor. the resource management efficiency i. releasing ads and promos one month ill advance should be 26 . Yet. Creating avenues for lead generation & its proper management during the event is a critical factor. keeping the target audience as the focal point. it is important that measurement is carried out at all possible stages. The number of staff and volunteers involved should be appropriate to offer quality service.The fundamental reason why event evaluation is carried out is to navigate the event so as to ensure that the event objectives are achieved in toto. all care needs to be taken during the event execution. And since deviations may occur during any stage in the event designing phase. television and other media are needed to ensure that the event is noticed and the benefit of reach is provided to the client. Immediate and long-term benefits that accrue from an event are important when evaluating an event from the clients’ point of view. Since an event is essentially a one-off affair and any last moment problem can convert an exceptionally well-planned event into a disaster. The accrual of benefits can be judged by measuring the tangible parts of the objectives that have been achieved. This is a very critical evaluation point.e. radio. human. Post-event stock taking activity should be done to confirm whether the event has occurred as per plans. Measurement of external reach should be tempered with the timing of the promotions as effectiveness ofrecall and action initiated amongst the target audience is highly dependent on this important variable. Since resources are also a major constraint for event organisers. resources committed and span of time for which it stays committed . Ensuring the profitability of an event such that there is maximum profitability with minimum mark ups is another critical evaluation point. equipment and infrastructure should be a minimum. Critical Evaluation Points Events can be evaluated based on the critical success factors listed below. interaction to a certain extent is intangible as well as not always quantifiable. We have discussed these in the preceding section. Measuring Reach As discussed in the first chapter. Critical Evaluation Points from Event Organisers’ Point of View There are multiple criteria for evaluating the success of an event from the event organisers’ point of view.financial. The DART and TRP ratings that rate the popularity of programmes on air and around which the promotion is slotted.
ow to the audience. The measurement of the actual reach of an event is relatively simple. an easy-to. Average audience interest is the percentage of audience that shows an interest in the sponsors’ products or services during the event itself and immediately after. mutual confidence and trust are also criteria used by clients to size up the quality of event organisers.free. it is critical to match the clients’ expectations and experiences by including even the minutest details to arrive at the perceived quality of event. The capacity ofthe venue is a figure that provides the upper limit for the act:ual reach. Every client expects the event to provide the ideal audience to associate with. The entry criteria . never cutting corners and using only top quality infrastructure is looking at quality from a skewed angle. Competence in project management from conceptualization to carryout. personal involvement and caring that the event organiser exudes also helps. appropriate cost and timely completion of the project. For the client. In addition. Responsiveness to the clients’ requirements i. Registration of participants and requests for filling in questionnaires are also common methods of measuring the actual reach of an event.n awareness exercise for propagating the event concept. quality of an event exists in the clients’ perspective and thus varies from client to client.. Workwith manner. In essence. invited or ticketed showshould be clearly mentioned here. it is value to the client that finally matters. Concept of event quality and measuring quality of event Exactly on the lines of the evaluation of effectiveness of an event comes the concept of event quality. specify or approve purchase to the total population at the event. Unless the target audience and the clients perceive the quality of the job in the same way as the event organizers. aesthetic appeal. Ticket sales or numbers of invitees are also direct measurement tools. the quality of an event can also be defined in terms of the audience quality. it is important to find out how clients would define quality event service. This may be measured by keeping track of the number of visitors to the sponsors’ stall or exhibit area during the event. Clients should focus on three major statistics that define audience quality: Net buying influences which can be defined as the ratio of the number of audience that can recommend.considered more as a. date and venue of thesb. time. quality of an event is a bundle of attributes. impress and entice. Thus. Therefore. In matters of dispute. the big picture of quality is not complete. Delivery of promises and deals should be ensured. empathy. reliability and integrity as in the past performances of events that have been executed by the event organizer is a very important quality criterion. Total buying plans imply the percentage of the audience planning to buy a product/service from the sponsors’ stables within the next 12 months after the show. Thus. A few of these critical attributes are quality and reliability of equipment used. 27 .e. preventing mistakes. Each client will care more about some attribute than others. By aiming for quality by maintaining standards.
display. since your booth will be tucked away hidden from all eyes. as well as the location of your booth. cause. Event Marketing Hint 2: It is also important to evaluate the value-added benefits that the venue or the trade show organizer makes available to your business. Other value-added benefits that can be expected from the show organizer include: being included in participant email distributions promoting the event.Event Marketing EVENT MARKETING IS Designing or developing a 'live' themed activity. or exhibit (such as a sporting event. It is important to get the message across to the target audience and therefore enough research about the profile of the attendees is important to be able to communicate effectively to them about the product. though new. And make sure you don't give something away for free just for the heck of it. there are a few key tactics and methods that can be employed to ensure that the event gains the maximum response and also that event is managed in the minimum cost possible. Event Marketing Hint 3: Before the event is undertaken. as well as an advertisement in the event show guide. Some of the tactics and methods are listed below. Event Marketing Hint 1: If the event is meant to market a certain product. the cost effectiveness of promoting the product through the event should be questioned by asking yourself event qualifying questions around the “who" instead of the “how many” Event Marketing Hint 4: The giveaways at the event should be relevant to the business being promoted through the event. While marketing an event. Make sure you don't purchase a cheap booth at a popular exhibition because there are strong chances that no one will be visiting you. then it is necessary to ensure that the purchase decision-maker attends the event. music festival. the concept has taken off very well with the Indian consumers who are evolving rapidly. or concert) to promote a product. occasion. fair. 29 . or organization. The most ideal locations in any exhibition areas are found at the entryway to the event and near the pathway to the food stations and restrooms. It is important that least 50-60% of the people attending the event are targets of the product to be promoted. Following them can ensure a cost effective implementation of the event marketing. Also called event creation. Make sure you find out if they allow access to the attendee mailing list so you can implement a pre-mailing process in order to promote your one-day trade show special. Event Marketing Hint 5: The location chosen for the event is perhaps the most important aspect. Event marketing has been a concept that has only recently been pioneered in India. Make sure you get participant contact information before the event as well as after. But.
or provide consumers with an opportunity to experience products first hand. ThIS actively promotes and organizes public and corporate events. exhibitions and conventions — everything from street events and exhibition booths for consumer campaigns to internal events aimed at business partners. 30 .Event-based communication activities are a direct way to communicate a client's message.
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