You are on page 1of 30



( External 25 Internal 75)
1. Event Management- Concept, Conceptualising – creating and developing
events – Essentials of Conference/Convention/ trade fairs/ Expos/ Product
Launch/ Entertainment Shows/ Sports Events etc.
2. Event Planning
3. Event Marketing
4. Event Evaluation

Event Management- Concept, Conceptualising – creating and developing events

What are Events?
Something that takes place; an occurrence.A significant occurrence or happening.
A social gathering or activity.This is the meaning of events as given in a dictionary…..lets explore this
further. In today’s scenario, events are an organized business. It means putting all three points from the
meaning of an event together i.e. an occurrence that is significant that creates a social gathering and/or an
Marketing guru, Philip Kotler, defines event as occurrences designed to Communicate particular
messages to target audiences. Sures Pjllai,_Managing Director, Eventus Management,considers events as
an additional media whereby two-way (or active) communication is possible. Deepak
Gattani,Director,Unirapport Events, one of India’s foremost events agencies defines events as something
noteworthy which happens according to a set plan involving networking of a multimedia package, thereby
achieving the clients objectives and justifying their need for associating with events.

Event can refer to:

• A phenomenon, any observable occurrence, or an extraordinary occurrence

A type of gathering:

• A ceremony, for example, a marriage

• A competition, for example, a sports competition
• A convention (meeting)
• A happening, a performance or situation meant to be considered as art
• A festival, for example, a musical event
• A media event, a happening that attracts coverage by mass media
• A party
• A sporting event

In science, technology, and mathematics:

• Event (computing), a software message indicating that something has happened, such as a
keystroke or mouse click
• Event (probability theory), a set of outcomes to which a probability is assigned
• Event (UML), in Unified Modeling Language, a notable occurrence at a particular point
in time
• Event chain methodology, in project management
• Event horizon, a boundary in spacetime, typically surrounding a black hole, beyond
which events cannot effect an exterior observer
• Extinction event, a sharp decrease in the number of species in a short period of time
• Celestial event, an astronomical phenomenon of interest
• Event, in a particle collider, a collision producing detectable results

In philosophy:

• Event (philosophy), an object in time, or an instantiation of a property in an object

• Mental event, something that happens in the mind, such as a thought .

Events is all about generating excitement. Excitement that fires the mind and the imagination. Excitement
that lasts longer than the event itself. Excitement that generates interest and fires the need to “be there”
and be a part of something large or small but something exciting nonetheless.
Events have been a part of human society ever since mankind became a civilized lot. Events were a form
of breaking the tedium and monotony of everyday life. Events generally revolved around or emanated
from religious ceremonies and/or holy days.

Event management is the application of the management practice of project management to the creation
and development of festivals and events.

Event Management involves studying the intricacies of the brand, identifying the target audience,
devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually
executing the modalities of the proposed event.

The recent growth of festivals and events as an industry around the world means that the management can
no longer be ad hoc. Events and festivals, such as the Asian Games, have a large impact on their
communities and, in some cases, the whole country.

The industry now includes events of all sizes from the Olympics down to a breakfast meeting for ten
business people. Every industry, charity, society and group will hold events of some type/size in order to
market themselves, build business relationships, raise money or celebrate.

Event management, the most profound form of advertising and marketing, is a glamorous and thrilling
profession. It provides an opportunity for unleashing one's creative potential to a very high degree. It
demands a lot of hark work and effort but at the same time offers enormous scope.

Event management is a process of organizing a professional and focused event, for a particular target
audience. It involves visualising concepts, planning, budgeting, organizing and executing events such as
fashion shows, musical concerts, corporate seminars, exhibitions, wedding celebrations, theme parties,
product launching etc. It is a good career option which does not require much investment and offers a lot
of independence and flexibility. No formal degree or qualification is required, but the person should have
a genuine passion for conducting events, have very good organising ability and be flexible to work for
long hours.

Event management is considered one of the strategic marketing and communication tools by companies
of all sizes. From product launches to press conferences, companies create promotional events to help
them communicate with clients and potential clients. They might target their audience by using the news
media, hoping to generate media coverage which will reach thousands or millions of people. They can
also invite their audience to their events and reach them at the actual event..

Event Manager

The Event Manager is the person who plans and executes the event. Event managers and their teams are
often behind-the-scenes running the event. Event managers may also be involved in more than just the
planning and execution of the event, but also brand building, marketing and communication strategy. The
event manager is an expert at the creative, technical and logistical elements that help an event succeed.
This includes event design, audio-visual production, scriptwriting, logistics, budgeting, negotiation and,
of course, client service. It is a multi-dimensional profession.

The Event Manager may become involved at the early initiation stages of the event. If the Event Manager
has budget responsibilities at this early stage they maybe termed an Event or Production Executive. The
early stages include:

Site surveying, Client Service, Brief clarification, Budget drafting, Cash flow management, Supply chain
identification, Procurement, Scheduling, Site design, Technical design, Health & Safety,

An Event Manager who becomes involved closer to the event will often have a more limited brief. The
key disciplines closer to the event are:

Health & Safety including crowd management, Logistics, Rigging, Sound, Light, Video, Detailed
scheduling, Security,''

Event Management as an Industry

Event Management is a multi-million dollar industry, growing rapidly, with mega shows and events
hosted regularly. Surprisingly, there is no formalized research conducted to assess the growth of this
industry. The industry includes fields such as the MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Events),
exhibitions, conferences and seminars as well as live music and sporting events.

The logistics side of the industry is paid less than the sales/sponsorship side, though some may say that
these are two different industries.

Technology & Event Management

Software companies service event planners with a complete solution including Online Event Registration,
Event Marketing Tool, Hotel Booking Tool, Travel Booking Tool, Budgeting Tool etc


There are an increasing number of universities which offer Graduate Degree/Diploma in Event
Management, especially in the UK where they have been quick to catch on to the new interest and many
are now offering certificate, diploma, degree and masters degree coursework.

In addition to these academic courses, there are many associations and societies that provide courses on
the various aspects of the industry. These courses though not official, are still useful additions to your

Study includes organizational skills, technical knowledge, P.R., marketing, advertising, catering, logistics,
decor, glamor identity, human relations, study of law and licenses, risk management, budgeting, study of
allied industries like television, other media and several other areas.

In a first for the industry, a National Student Events Conference is being held in 2008 with the aim of
improving links between students and industry. Topics covered will include the Olympics, health &
safety, incentive travel and networking. The NSEC will take place on 18 April 2008 at the University of
Derby's Keddleston Road campus.

• Career opportunities are in the following Industries :

1. Event Management
2. Event Management Consultancy
3. Hotel, travel and hospitality Industries
4. Advertising Agencies
5. Public Relations Firms
6. Corporations
7. News Media
8. Non-profit organization
9. Integrated Marketing & Communications
10. Event Budgeting and Accounting

Categories of Events

Events can be classified into four broad categories based on their purpose and objective:

1. Leisure events e.g. leisure sport, music, recreation.

2. Cultural events e.g. ceremonial, religious, art, heritage, and folklore.
3. Personal events e.g. weddings, birthdays, anniversaries.
4. Organizational events e.g. commercial, political, charitable, sales, product launch.

Leisure Events
Simply put, these are events held purely for the fun of having an event. For recreation, like a party, a
sports competition, or a fair. Leisure events are held to involve the person taking part in the event without
actually expecting an immediate result.
Cultural Events
Events that bring out a cultural heritage or happening. Much like the Goan carnival talked about earlier.
These have an impact on society and people who are a part of it. These are high community involvement
events. A community can be a religion, a race, a cast or even a college. Lets define a community;
A group of people living in the same locality and under the same government, the district or locality in
which such a group lives.
A group of people having common interests: the scientific community; the international business
community.A group viewed as forming a distinct segment of society: the gay community; the community
of color.
So what do we have here? We have a set of people sharing similar interests and celebrating something
together, it could be their religion, could be their college festival etc.
Organizational Events
These are events that tend to be well organized and have implications and interests that are commercial,
political, sales driven etc. events of this nature are generally with a specific agenda.It is generally
informative or sales driven or has some commercial value in tangible or intangible terms.
Personal Events
These are generally events that are held on a very personal level,for family and friends etc. these are
generally by invitation and the number of people involved is high.
Event Characteristics
Events as all other services have some distinct characteristics,which make it as much a part of the
marketing function as communications.
These are:
· Uniqueness
· Intangibility
· Rituals
· Personal interactions

· Time scale
The event has to be unique and different in order to be remembered. Recall and remembering of an event
are the signs of a good event. Although an event may not always be a happy event, but in this case we
would refer to happy and pleasant events. One would safely assume that a wedding is a wedding is a
wedding. But truthfully we would be making a wrong assumption. Even if two weddings were to be held
on the same day at the same location, they would not be the same, they would differ in terms of timings,
number of people visiting,the way people interact etc. so the two events or in this case the two weddings
would be radically different. So an event must be unique.
Events in general are as intangible as any other service, which means that you can see the event, and even
experience it, but you cant touch it. Much like the toothpaste you buy, you can see and feel the toothpaste
therefore it is a tangible. But visiting a mall does not cost you anything yet you can sense the ambience
and get a “feel” of the place and the service provided, these are intangibles, can be felt and experienced.
Events are the same, they are intangible and cannot be felt. But what event managers do is, they have
what they classify as “give aways”. A cap, a wristband, a t-shirt, a prize etc. These make the event
tangible even the give away acts and works like a memorabilia, it’s a remembrance that whenever seen,
viewed or felt acts as a reminder of the event.
Oscars, a tradition started to award the best in a particular genre.The tradition has remained and become a
ritual. And the largest event in Hollywood. Started in 1929 for b/w films….moved into color in
1966….more hi-tech and more glamorous, more exciting, more thrilling and with worldwide coverage
remains a tradition and an event looked forward to every year by the best in the business.
Personal Interactions
In a sports tournament the spectators are part of the tournament as much as the players are. They also help
in building the atmosphere and ambience of the tournament with cheering and flags and face painting etc.
so while the viewers may not actually play the game they are certainly as involved with the event as the
players are.
Therefore the action and reaction of the people are a critical aspect and part of the event. It is necessary to
create the event based on the kind of people who are going to be a part of it. Because simply put, if the
people who will be a part of an event or are spectators do not enjoy the event, the event is considered a
flop or a failure. So it is naturally important for us to know who the target audience is or for whom the
event is intended. Imagine a situation where you create a party for people in the age group of 18-25 and
have a performance by a kathak dancer. The target audience least expected to enjoy the performance!!
So do you know how important the personal interaction is in order for the event to be a success.
Time Scale
Events do not go on forever, they do have a lifespan. Although,events could go on for some days or an
evening, an hour or even a yearly event. The timing of the event determines the kind of event that will be
held. If it is an evening event, the lighting, the stage, the colour of backdrop etc will be determined
separately as opposed to if the event were conducted during the day. Timing is also kept in mind when
planning an event, because preparation for the event, pre and post and wrap up etc are decide the
magnitude and size of the event. Timings also play a role in planning an event when we have to work out
the schedule of the event because we need to know how long an event will last, whether it will be an hour
or two and what will happen during the event and how much time each item will take. Timing is critical
in events. Imagine a launch where the product is revealed while the chairman is still introducing the
product, when the schedule specifies that the product reveal must happen after the speech!!
Weird and Wonderful
For clients who wish to turn their corporate event into something a little bit different it is worth looking at
some of the UK’s more unusual venues. From museums to historical buildings, tourist attractions and
stately homes, buildings that are out of the ordinary are becoming a popular choice for original and
engaging corporate events.

“Clients pick an unusual venue to create curiosity and momentum for an event,” says Rick Stainton,
creative events director at motivation and event management firm P&MM.
“When people receive their invitations they will wonder how on earth an event can be held in such a
venue. That kind of buzz creates fantastic appeal.”
Unusual venues are more suited to certain types of events. A small seminar or meeting does not need
excessive fanfare whereas a product launch, end-of-year corporate event or summer ball calls for much
more flair.
The Wow Factor
“A great advantage with unusual venues is that you can Customise and create a memorable experience
that emphasizes the wow factor,” argues Stainton. “The venue can also reflect the message or culture of
the company – a more futuristic building for a younger, trendy company and a more historic building for
a traditional firm, for instance.”
Two miles from Manchester city centre stands the Lowry, an art gallery with an ultra-modern design that
offers rooms for corporate hire in the day as well as in the evenings. The venue can cater for up to 1,730
people, with features including the circular Compass Room, which is made largely of glass.
In London, Dali Universe also boasts a contemporary style. The venue opened its White Space room six
months ago, with capacity for up to 250 people for a drinks reception. Unusually for a museum, guests are
permitted to smoke. Head of events Jo Steadman says the venue on London’s South Bank is more flexible
than many museums or galleries. Legoland Windsor’s appeal is across the board, according to the
Berkshire attraction’s corporate sales manager Penny Jenkins.
“We have a wide range of clients who use the venue for events such as Christmas parties, family fun
days, team-building events and product launches. Companies feel they can be creative here, and for many
it’s a licence to regress and chill out,” she says.
Some venues offer themed packages. Jorvik Viking Centre in York offers Viking-themed receptions with
Viking canapés and drinks, hosted by a man in authentic Viking dress, for example. Jorvik sales and
business development manager Jane Nichols says clients rarely ask for anything else.
“People want to go the whole hog,” she explains. “Our clients, which include Nestlé and the Institute of
Management, seem to enjoy this very different way of spending an evening.” The centre contains an
exhibition space for up to 50 people while dinners can be held in two nearby venues for up to 110 people.
Unbound by Convention One venue that claims to be far more flexible than most is The Hop Farm
Country Park in Kent. Corporate and events sales manager Sarah Browning says: “It is not bound by
convention like a hotel would be. Whatever you want is possible, as long as it’s safe and legal.
The site, set in 250 acres, can accommodate a wealth of activities including quad-biking, off-road driving,
archery, and clay pigeon shooting, along with more unusual activities such as tank driving, helicopter
rides, hot-air ballooning and parascending.
London has its fair share of unusual venues and The Roundhouse is one of its most historic. Built in 1846
as a steam engine repair shed, the north London venue was at the heart of the swinging 1960s scene with
The Rolling Stones, Jimi Hendrix and The Doors all playing there. More recently, the venue has hosted
product launches, video productions and awards ceremonies. It was the venue for the Music Week
Awards, the X-Men movie premiere and the launch of Virgin Atlantic’s Upper Class offering.

Virgin events and sponsorship executive Janet Lance says the company always looks for a unique venue
when planning an event. “The Roundhouse really worked for us because of its 360° layout with people
moving from one place to the next. It’s easily accessible and it has a lot of character,” she notes.
Whatever the style of venue, agencies and clients need to be aware of any restrictions that may be
imposed on corporate events. These will vary from venue to venue, but generally clients will have to
think about environmental matters such as noise and smoke.

Events can be classified into

1. Mega events like Olympics

2. Regional events like saarc
3. Minor events is very small
4. Major events like an election

The event team


Some years ago event management companies could have been counted on one hand. Times have
changed and the market has become far more dynamic than it used to be. Consumers are smarter and so
are the marketing companies.
What does this lead to? Companies trying desperately to get through to the consumer in all ways possible.
What are the ways that are possible? Advertising – Press and television; Inserts, pint of purchase material,
posters, hoardings,radio, cinema etc. Have you noticed that in all the possible ways we mentioned there is
only one way communication; which basically means that we as marketers and advertisers are talking to
the consumer but we don’t know if they can hear us and if they can hear us, do they act upon what they
hear, do they buy the product?
Which is why we have events, a sure shot way of speaking to the consumer on a personal level. Speaking
to him, trying to ensure that we get the desired result. We motivate the consumer to buy into the product
or the event may be used to induce trial of the product.
In a cluttered market where the everyone is yelling on top of their voices, not literally but through their
ads and their commercials and their posters etc. the event must be IMPACTFULL MEMORABLE AND
So When do we Need Events?
We have already established, that we need to have an event where we try to get across to the consumer in
a market that is cluttered. In a cluttered market we need to cut through noise,other products, competitive
products, induce need, create an aspiration to own, use or have the product. So much to be done and the
advertising as discussed earlier is a one-way communication.
We use an event to get to know the consumers, meet them, greet them, induce the need to use the product
and then bring the product and ourselves top of mind.The event can be used to have fun, inform, sell,
convey, express,induce trial and underlying to all these reasons is the basic reason…to make money for
the event management company and for the client.
Events are all about the business of thrill and excitement and having fun and making money while
Types of Events
· Event linked to Product Launch
· Company Market Entry
· Brand Extension
· Dealer Conference
· Anniversary celebrations
· Entertainment
· Religion
· Community Event

No event - can be successfully completed without interaction and inputs from the six key elements of
events, viz., event infrastructure, target audience, clients, event organizers, venue and the media. This
chapter carries an in-depth presentation of the issues involved in the interaction between these key
elements. Exhibit 3.1 and Exhibit 3.2, one in the Indian context and the other from the international
sporting scene,bring out the essence of this chapter in a concise manner. The Exhibits also show that the
difference in the national and international events is actually the same at the conceptual level,the factors
that are different depend almost entirely on the socioeconomic conditions and the technological advances
of the geographical area where the event takes place.
Figure 3.1 shows a graphical depiction of the event hexagon that is formed by the key elements. Event
organizers design and execute all activities concerning an event. Event infrastructure is the broad term
that encompasses core concept, people, talent and structure. The target audience is the ultimate experience

of the event and for whom the event organizer consciously designs the event. The client from the event
organizers’ viewpoint is the sponsor or financier of an event venture. The media is the vehicle used to
communicate details of the event to the target audience and venue is the location at which the event is to
be executed.

Event Infrastructure
As the name indicates, event infrastructure includes those essential elements without which there cannot
be any event. These essential elements are core concept, core people, core talent, and core structure. The
nature of this infrastructure varies with the event categories and variations in events.
Core Concept
Core concept is a term that can be used to define the fundamental underlying ethos and evolution of the
various major categories of events. That is, what differentiates the boundaries between the various
categories amongst themselves. The core concept of an event is like a root of a tree that generates the
energy and lays down the base for the type of tree that shall grow. The exact size and shape that the tree
takes varies from tree to tree in the same family. Thus, an entire event family can be built on each of the
event categories. These differences lead to innumerable variations in events as will be discussed in the
next chapter.
Core People
These are the people who are performing, acting or participating in the process of influencing the
audience to create a desired impact in terms of a favorable position for the clients’ brand in the audience’s
mind. When the event gets underway, these are the people who hold sway and take the center-stage. The
audience comes to experience the expertise, charisma or knowledge of such core people and to have an
opportunity to interact with them. The personality of the core people being used in an event should match
the brand personality.
Core Talent
With every event category, the core people are required to have a specific expertise, reputation, or
knowledge. It is the core talent that attracts and influences the audience. In a music concert, the types of
audience that are attracted to the event depend on the talent of the performer. The core talent, therefore,
helps in creating variations in any event category. For instance, in music whether the event is a classical
music concert or a pop music concert, depends on the type of instrument and the music being played.
Similarly in sports, each game has limited time,constraints in terms of boundary, number of participants,
etc.The physical manifestations of these constraints that act as a challenge or obstacle vary from game to
game and lead to the need for different talents required in playing each game. An example that can be
cited here is in a competitive event such as sports, core talent is game specific, i.e. talent required in
cricket differs from talent required to play basketball.
Core Structure
The presence of a formal or informal organisation to manage the event category as a whole is impbrtant to
make it lucrative from its marketing point of view. Depending upon the degree to which the event
category is structured the requirements of management and marketing of events may vary. The more
formal and structured it is, the mpre lucrative that event category becomes, since it becomes easier to
manage and market. By more formal and structured, we mean that, there is a proper organisational

structure in which roles and responsibilities are clearly assigned to different members of the organisation
along with proper delegation of authority to carry out these roles.
Depending on the stakes involved - not only of the monies but also of national pride and identification of
the event category by the ordinary citizens - each of the categories has become structured to certain
degrees. This organisation for efficient management has been denoted as the core structure. Traditionally,
across the world, competitive events have always been comprehensively administered right from the grass
root level,i.e. right from the schools with league matches at every level up to the international level. In
fact, competitive events are the only category among all categories of events that have a strong and
structured organisation. Among competitive events, sporting events are the most organised and structured
both nationally and internationally. Sports control bodies such as the BCCI (Board of Control for Cricket
in India) and the ICC (International Cricket Council) are examples of this. Such bodies not only carry out
managerial functions and other administrative activities involved with the event but also focus on the
members and players benefits during, and to an extent, after their playing tenure.

A formal structure is not available for the other event categories,though informal arrangements do exist.
Cause-based events are an example of events not having an organised structure since such events are
usually one-off in nature and there is no organised body involved in arranging events for fund raising or
creating awareness for the event category of the cause as a whole.


India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO) is synonymous with the country’s trade promotion
around the world all round the year. Indeed at ITPO, the promotion of trade is an exacting
mission, translating into a search for new frontiers and new horizons in the world of commercial
interactions, both at macro and micro levels. A mission that finds expression in the successful
organisation of trade exhibitions in India and abroad, buyer-seller meets, promotion through
department stores, contact promotion and product development programmes apart from
dissemination of information on products and markets.

As the premier trade promotion agency of the government of India, India Trade Promotion
Organisation provides a broad spectrum of services to trade and industry so as to catalyse the
growth of bilateral trade, particularly India’s exports, and technological upgradation and
modernisation of different industry segments. ITPOs programmes are carried out in close
cooperation with the Indian industry whose promotional needs it seeks to serve.

As an apex agency of the Government, ITPO accords approvals for holding of international trade
fairs in India in order to ensure and facilitate, inter alia, customs clearance of imported exhibits.
ITPO has been conferred the status of Mini Ratna by the Government of India. This honour is
bestowed on select Public Sector Enterprises which register profits for three years in a row.

ITPO has taken a lead in promoting the Fair Culture all over the country. Major initiatives have
been taken through negotiations and discussions with the State Governments for setting up of
exhibition complexes in West Bengal, Assam for the North- Eastern region. A significant
achievement has been the setting up of Regional Trade Promotion Centre in Chennai as a joint
venture between ITPO and the Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation. The centre has
been set up in Jan., 2001. This is in consonance with ITPO’s policy to provide an impetus to the
country’s overall export efforts. A similar centre is also nearing completion at Bangalore,

Pragati Maidan-Fair Worthy At All Times

ITPO manages India’s only world class exhibition complex which is being renovated,
modernised and upgraded from time to time to keep it in a high standard of fair-worthiness.
Spread over 149 acres of prime land in the very heart of India’s capital and bustling megapolis,
New Delhi, Pragati Maidan offers 62650 sq. meters of covered exhibition space in 17 halls
besides 10,000 sq. meters of open display area. New halls have been added recently. These state-
of-the-art exhibition halls have enhanced the appeal of Pragati Maidan as an ideal business
proposition for an increasing number of fair organizers and business visitors from different parts
of the world. In general, Pragati Maidan offers the kind of ambience that is conducive to an
increasing variety of exhibitions featuring gigantic machinery and equipment to delicate exhibits
like watches and jewellery having handle with care tags besides a whole range of precision
engineering products. Every year as many as 50 exhibitions are organised at Pragati Maidan by
ITPO and other agencies.

Exhibitions in India

ITPO’s exhibitions at New Delhi and in other parts of the country effectively mirror the latest
developments in various sectors of industry and cater to both export and import requirements.
The international events that have, over the years, developed an institutionalized character
include International Security Exhibition, Aahar (Food Expo), Printpack India, Delhi
International Shoe Fair, Tex-Styles India, the India International Trade Fair, Prakash (Lighting
Exhibition) at Pragati Maidan, the India International Leather Fair (at Cheenai) and International
Leather Goods Fair (at Calcutta).

These exhibitions enjoy tremendous industry support, both from the point of view of
participation and visitor turnout from India and abroad. ITPO’s magnum opus, the India
International Trade Fair continued to be a major business attraction in 2003 with a turnout of
100,000 business visitors from India and overseas.

Main Activities and Services of ITPO

 O rganising various trade fairs and exhibitions at its exhibition complex, Pragati Maidan, and
other centres in India.
Extending the use of Pragati Maidan for holding trade fairs and exhibitions by other fair
organisers both from India and abroad.
Identifying and nurturing specific export products with long range growth prospects.
Cultivating overseas buyers through timely and efficient services.
Establishing durable contacts between Indian suppliers and overseas buyers.
Assisting Indian companies in product development and adaptation to meet buyers

.Organising Buyer-Seller Meets and other exclusive India Shows in order to bring buyers and
sellers together.
· Organising India Promotions with Department Stores and Mail Order Houses abroad.
· Participating in overseas trade fairs and exhibitions.
· Arranging product displays for visiting overseas buyers.
· Inviting overseas buyers and organising their meetings with Indian suppliers.
· Providing assistance in locating suitable foreign collaborators for transfer of technology, joint
ventures, marketing tie-ups and investment promotion.
· Organising seminars/conferences/workshops.
· Encouraging and involving small and medium scale units in export promotion efforts.
· Conducting in-house and need-based research on trade and export promotion.
· Enlisting the involvement and support of the State Governments in India for promotion of
India’s foreign trade.
· Promoting establishment of facilities and infrastucture for holding trade fairs in State Capitals
or other suitable locations in India, in consultation with State Governments concerned.

Event Planning
Event planning is the process of planning a festival, ceremony, competition, party, or

Event planning includes budgeting, establishing dates and alternate dates, selecting and reserving
the event site, acquiring permits, and coordinating transportation and parking.

Event planning also includes some or all of the following, depending on the event: developing a
theme or motif for the event, arranging for speakers and alternate speakers, coordinating location
support (such as electricity and other utilities), arranging decor, tables, chairs, tents, event
support and security, catering, police, fire, portable toilets, parking, signage, emergency plans,
health care professionals, and cleanup.

Event Planning is a relatively new career field. There is now training that helps one trying to
break into the career field. There must be training for an event planner to handle all the pressure
and work efficiently. This career deals with a lot of communication and organization aspects.
There are many different names for an event planner such as a conference coordinator, a
convention planner, a special event coordinator, and a meeting manager.

Steps to Planning an Event

The first step to planning an event is determining its purpose, whether it is for a wedding,
company, birthday, festival, graduation or any other event requiring exstensive planning. From
this the event planner needs to choose entertainment, location, guest list, speakers, and content.
The location for events is endless, but with event planning they would likely be held at hotels,
convention centers, reception halls, or outdoors depending on the event. Once the location is set
the coordinator/planner needs to prepare the event with staff, set up the entertainment, and keep
contact with the client. After all this is set the event planner has all the smaller details to address
like set up of the event such as food, drinks, music, guest list, budget, advertising and marketing,
decorations, all this preparation is what is needed for an event to run smoothly.An event planner
needs to be able to manage their time wisely for the event, and the length of preparation needed
for each event so it is a success.

Working Conditions
Event planners work is considered either stressful or energizing. This line of work is also
considered fast paced and demanding. Planners face deadlines and communicating with multiple
people at one time. Planners spend most of their time in offices, but when meeting with clients
the work is usually on-site at the location where the event is taking place [1]. Some physical
activity is required such as carrying boxes of materials and decorations or supplies needed for the
event. Also, long working hours can be a part of the job. The day the event is taking place could
start as early as 5:00 a.m. and then work until midnight. Working on weekends is sometimes
required, which is when many events take place [2].

Publications and Resources
Many business-to-business trade publications exist to help event planning and production
professionals become educated about the issues and trends in their industry. Many are controlled
circulation publications available at no cost to qualified event professionals. Qualification is
based on multiple variables like job title, company type, industry segment or geographic region,
and is at the publisher's discretion.

Event is not a single activity. It is a collection of numerous sequential activities. An event follows or a
system. It may vary from event to event and situation but broadly the format remains the same. The key
elements of events are the active components of an event process. It is broadly as follows:-


Promotion in events, is required to get the desired reach that requires an adequately planned publicity
campaign by the event marketer. The event marketer has to network with other media for successful
publicity of an event.
Networking Components
The various networking components involved and their important features to be noted are:
Print Media
Print media is essential for pre-event publicity and it also aids in the post-event recall by reporting or
covering the event as in reporting the success (or failure) of an event. The pre-event publicity, which aids
in increasing reach is usually paid for or bartered with the media oWIJ.ers as the media sponsors. Pre-
event print media campaign is very essential since it can be used not only to inform about the exact details
of the event such as venue, date and time but also to distribute entry forms or feedback questionnaires.
Giveaways and contests are usually associated with such campaigns.
The post-event coverage falls under the purview of journalism and usually the event organiser has little
control over it and that’s precisely why even a failure can get reported.
Decision-making on using the print media essentially revolves around the variety of publications
available, their circulation, the frequency of publication, whether weekly/daily/morning/evening, and the
profile of readers. A decision to use a particular newspaper or magazine or a combination of the same will
normally depend on the objective to be achieved from the event. For regular festivals and other most
popular events most newspapers and magazines usually plan special supplements,pages or cutouts. Some
examples of event specific issues in the recent past are St. Valentines day, Boli, Diwali, the 50th year of
India’s Independence and the 1998 World Cup Soccer held in France. Such event specific issues are good
because of two reasons:
Special rates for advertising are charged for insertions in such issues.
The state of readiness of the audience is an added bonus since they are prepared and anticipate such
issues. And the fact that they look forward to such issues for more information provides more focused
reach for the event.
This is an electronic audio media and is mainly used for prevent publicity, though it can also have an
importance in terms of post-event coverage planned accordingly. The programme profile, listening
audience profile and time slots for airing the commercials are the major decision making criteria. The
need to create a jingle or put together an appealing audio promotion may be expensive and thus this
media needs to be understood better as to how and when it is beneficial to use it.

Special programmes with the event as focus and which are more than just a commercial are more helpful
in providing the reach that is desired for the event though they may be expensive. For example, the
winner of the recently held L’Oreal Femina Elite Model Look 1998 featured live on a programme
sponsored by L’Oreal on the FM channel. Though not a full-fledged programme on the event, the script
for the host was modified as to thread together an interview with the winner, Ms. Carol Gracias as part of
the fillers during the programme. Live telephone calls congratulating Carol were also aired on the
For events, the television media can be the single most potent media since it can provide pre-event, during
event and postevent coverage. Depending on the reach desired, either satellite channels or the government
controlled terrestrial channels can be used. The singularly most important feature that television as a
media offers is the ability to cover events live i.e., during the event itself. The immense popularity of
competitive events and especially sports are derived from this factor. Unlike the print media that comes
out with special supplements, satellite television offers dedicated channels for music, sports, news, etc.
This again provides an opportunity to narrow down the reach to focus on the audience for the particular
event category.

Timing and frequency of airing the promotions are very crucial. An event such as a multi-city (focusing
only on the metros) concert tour of a pop music band would not prefer DDI but prefer to promote and tie-
up with an exclusive music channel for all its promotions and event coverage. This provides a focused
approach to the event. Slotting the promotions after checking on the TRP rating of programmes and their
nature would help in positioning the event to the proper target audience. Music concerts invariably have
one of the numerous music channels as an exclusive media sponsor. The Coca-Cola Alisha Chinai
Concert Tour, organised by UNIRAPPORT events. used the television medium extensively to promote
the event. Slick promotions were aired on MTV.
The Internet
Multimedia in its generic form is a term that deals with more than one media at the same time. It offers
unlimited opportunities as it integrates the print, audio and video media. An Internet site can be anything
from a plain web page to a site that offers audio and video experience. Developments in technology on
the e-commerce front have added an entirely brand new angle to the concept of Internet and how it can be
used for leveraging an event.
The Internet is now extensively used in events for:
Online Registration for Events
Dispensing information - both pre and post-event, in the form of databases. Carrying out complex
analyses of information obtained providing e-commerce related opportunities Computer games or
simulations that evolve out of an event can be offered on sites to add to the experiences of the target
audience who surf the net for information on the event.
Sponsors’ advertisements with links to their sites are displayed on the site. An advantage of using Internet
sites for reaching out to the target audience is that it allows the recording of the number of hits i.e., people
visiting the site. Adding to this is the possibility of instantaneous information (as against data) collection
as well as instant merchandising through e-commerce helping in impulse buying. For example, the
official site of the 2000 Sydney Olympics ( carried banner ads from its sponsors. The
names of the sponsors have been listed in Exhibit 2.3. The home page of this site carried banner ads of
IBM for its e-business practice and identified IBM as the worldwide partner for the Olympics. The other
main pages also alternatively carried IBM and Sports Illustrated Kids offered 1 free issue for clicking.
The Olympic Travel and Traveland ads also were featured on the main pages in a smaller size. The kids
section also carried ads in a side column of Bank of Melbourne (Challenge Bank) supported by IBM and
The Sydney Morning Herald. The bottom banner advertised a speed-o-matic game inviting people to click
on the ad. The SI Kids (Sports Illustrated Kids) site popped up when one clicked on this enticing game.
The e-commerce shop on the Olympic web-site supported Visa transactions, and surfers were offered an
opportunity to shop for Olympic goodies, memorabilia and collectibles. For subscribing to the Olympic
Newsletter by providing their email addresses, surfers were offered a chance to win a free pin.
Hewlett Packard - the official computer and support system provider for the web-site and the information
systems for the 1998 World Cup soccer in France back in 1998, and the official host of the domain for the
World Cup Football-provided online coverage as well as history, statistics and a million statistical data on
World Cup matches as well as details on the players and their backgrounds at the fingertips of the web
surfer. All official publicity material for the World Cup carried the Internet site address and this site
played host to all the other official sponsors and was expected to generate 10 - 20 million hits per day
during the football mania. It was expected to provide accreditation and other facilities to 12000 staff,
players and officials. It was also expected to provide access to 10,000 journalists. The solution required
almost 75 different HP products to be used. The age of the mega-events, which can be handled without
any hassles, had arrived.
The numerous Internet sites that mushroomed to cover yet another extravaganza - the Cricket World Cup
’99 in England is also a testimony to the increasing popularity of the Internet to promote and at the same
time reap benefits from events.
Cable Network
The cable network is a medium and is most beneficial for a highly localised reach and coverage of events,
growing rapidly in popularity. The live as well as deferred coverage of the local Navratri Dandiya by the

various cable networks is one of the most popular shows during the Dandiya season. Similarly, coverage
of the processions during Ganeshotsav in Mumbai and Durga Puja in Calcutta are also very widely
watched. The low rates for advertising on this media is also an incentive for event organisers to use cable
networks extensively. Decision making involving networking with the cable channels is normally based
on the localities that the channel covers and number of cable connected homes.
Producing television promotions are a very costly proposition and given that the reach offered is
tremendous, there are greater chances of the reach losing its significance. For example, for an event to be
held locally in a metro with a limited capacity, there is no point in promoting the event on DDI since
these are channels that are accessible everywhere in India including the rural parts which is required.
Over and above the focused reach the cable networks provide, more sponsor friendly as in letting the
sponsor have a greater say in the. programming as well as giving more time and more time slots for
commercials. A ticker tape like ad-line that runs on the bottom of the television screen is just an example
of how cable operators do the balancing act between the sponsor and their customers. The customers do
not mind it so long as the service obtained is of a good quality.
Outdoor Media
Very essential for pre-event publicity, these are short time span networking elements located at prominent
sites usually earmarked for the same. Prime locations, size and number. Of hoardings, posters and banners
are the main decisions to be taken when planning outdoor media. Hoarding sites need to rent based on the
rates which are again dependent on the site location, dimensions of the hoarding and whether these are
lighted or not. Hoardings usually carry only broad event awareness messages and are designed for a
relatively larger reach than banners and posters. These are usually few in number and far apart from each
other. Best locations for hoardings are places where large masses of people are in transit i.e., locations
such as along the highways, railway stations and railway lines. The fact that the audience is in transit
ensures that the number of people who notice and are aware of the hoarding is large.
Banners are designed and put up in and around the localities or places where the target audience can be
found to either reside or gather in good numbers. Banners also carry general awareness information and
may actually be a smaller replica of the hoardings and are repeated at shorter distances. They are
therefore, more effective in catching the attention of the target audience. Posters are usually printed and
stuck in areas where the target audience population assembles and carries greater details on the event. An
advantage that posters offer is that they are not only easier to put up but also can be stuck or pinned up on
notice boards or in other prominent locations where people cannot miss them. Posters are directed at
small groups of around 2 to 5 people at a time depending on the dimensions of the poster. Further to
these, handouts are also printed and distributed lavishly to the target audience population directly either
by hand or by delivering the event pamphlet through the local newspaper vendor directly to the homes or
offices of the target audience. This becomes an almost one-to-one campaign. For example, Aptech
regularly organises events for 10th and 12th standard students after their board exams and uses a good
number of hoardings, banners and posters around schools all over Mumbai to publicise the same.


A closer look at the planning function that the overall coordinator,the project manager and the sales team
is dedicated to is warranted here. Planning tries to optimise resource utilization across the board. A cross-
functional team is a necessity here given the complexity in decision-making involved and the requirement
for phenomenal researched information. Beginning with understanding the client profile, the brief for the
event, the target audience and number expected, a major component of any event that follows is the
preparation of the event cash flow statement.

The planning function is involved in micro-level event coordination activities such as liaison with the
creative team discussing, facilitating and arranging for the technical specification viz., sound, light, stages
and sets. Short-listing artists and stand by artists in tune with the dictates of the creative guys/gals is one
of the most challenging tasks in the planning function. It also involves checking out alternative
arrangements for locating the event, the venue, the conditions for the event and gathering information to
assist in taking a decision on whether the event would be held indoors or outdoors. While at the last task,
understanding the requirements of licenses, clearances, etc. and arranging for the same as and when
required is a fundamentally responsible task that the event coordinator is burdened with. Deciding soft
issues such as whether the show is to be a ticketed, non-ticketed, fully or partially sponsored is also part
of the planning exercise. Planners then do a risk rating for the event. Defining arrangements for the
quality of hospitality and the dress code of the hostel hostesses depending on audience profile as well as
deciding the appropriate food and beverages to be served on the occasion also is a planning function. This
is especially so since the security and other arrangements will vary with the type of beverages served.
In the cash flow statement, inflows to the event company’s coffers are basically from a combination of
the revenues from sponsorships, ticket sales, commissions, event production charges, artist management
fees and infrastructure and equipment rental charges. At the same time, on the outflow front, one can
include headings as suppliers’ payments, venue hiring charges, payment to artists and performers, etc.
The major
outflows though are mainly on the event production front combined with the licensing and tax payments
liabilities. The mode of payment for events ranges from part payments to cash payments and is mutually
agreed upon between the parties involved and authenticated in the form of a contract after negotiations.
Penalty clauses may also be included for defaults in the payments. Depending on the nature of the project,
relationship with the clients and the objectives of both the client and the organiser, the actual plan of
payments can be worked out. This may involve a certain amount as part payment in advance, a certain
amount upon completion of specific milestones and finally payment of the balance amount either at the
beginning of the event or upon completion of the event. It is essential that a certain amount be taken as
advance to take care of the working capital needs.The planning function defines the limits of the creative
function as it provides the constraints that the creative team has to work with. It deals with hard practical
realities such as the logistics i.e., transportation of material, travel, stay, etc. and the networking viz.,
media plan, ad designs, banners printing, tickets I invites designing. and printing. It tries to create the
perfect picture of the event flow and tries to define and exercise control on the inflow and outflow of
money before, during and after the event. Therefore, it is imperative that the planning function plays an
important role in the preparation for any event. In addition, the time frame involved in decision making
being limited, planning assumes that much more importance as a function.
Some of the event planning services that need to be taken care of by the event organizers are listed as
follows: Travel Arrangements, Audio Visual Needs, Catering, China and Flatware,Convention services,
Decor, Decorations and Props, Entertainment, Exhibitor Needs, Floor Plan, Food and Beverage,Ground
Transportation, Invitations, Linen, Lodging, Logistics,Meeting Planning, National Entertainment, On-Site
Coordination,On-Site Registration, Photography, Pipe and Drape,Registration, Sanitation Facilities,
Security, Signage, Site Selection,Sound and Lights, Speakers, Stage Decor, Staging, Tables and Chairs,
Tenting, Tours, Union Labor, Valet, Video Production,Staff, Bartenders, Web Site Management.

Needs For Planning
As we saw in the beginning i.e. in Lesson 1, ‘management’ had begun as people started forming groups to
achieve their goals. They were quick to realize that managing is necessary to ensure proper coordination
of all the individuals in the group. If the group effort is to be successful then its every member must know
exactly what is expected of him. This is the fundamental function of planning. This is a basic function of
the manager. Planning is the most crucial part of the functions of the manager. The importance of
planning cannot be over emphasized.
It has been rightly said, “Failure to plan is planning to fail”. Most of the organizations very often fail due
to poor planning. Whatever be the resources one may have, without planning one cannot move ahead.
Planning is determining the objectives and formulating the methods to achieve them. It is more simply
said than done. A job well planned is half done. During planning one need to ask oneself the following:
· What am I trying to accomplish? i.e. What is my objective?
· What resources do I have and need to accomplish the same?
· What are the methods and means to achieve the objectives?
· Is this the optimal path?

Good and effective managers are positive in their approach and are optimistic and yet prepare themselves
for the worst. Though one cannot foresee the future but should learn anticipate. No one can wail till the
problems develop before preparing to tackle them. This is rather being proactive. And proaction is an
essential ingredient of planning. Planning needs choosing the best course of action among many
alternatives and decision making. If one is left with no alternatives then there is no scope for planning i.e.
choosing. It is essentially an intellectual process requiring knowledge, experience and intelligence.
Planning is needed to make things happen or to cope up with the changes, otherwise, one has to simply be
spectator and watch things happen.

Types of Planning
We have seen that planning is essential for the success and survival of any orgainisation. One should also
understand that there exist many different types of plans. One can plan effectively only if one understands
the different types of plans and its purposes. Plans can be classified as
a. purposes or missions,
b. objectives,
c. strategies,
d. policies,
e. procedures,
f. rules,
g. programs and
h. budgets.

Purpose or Mission of an organization is its basic function.Like the purpose of the university is teaching
and research, that of Courts is the interpretation of laws and their application and so on.
Objective is the ultimate goal towards which the activities of the organisation are directed at. Like, say
we take the University for example again, teaching, research and enlightening the students are the
objectives of the university, whereas, the objective of the Examination Department of the university is to
conduct the exam in a fair and reliable manner and declare the results in time. Though the objectives of
the departments are different they are consistent with the Purpose. One department alone is not capable of
accomplishment of the Purpose.
Strategy is, in George Steiner’s words, “the process of determining the major objectives of an
organisation and the policies and programmes that will govern the acquisition, use and disposition of
resources to achieve those objectives”. In other words strategy is the general program of action and
deployment of resources to attain comprehensive objectives.

Thus, an entrepreneur needs to decide what kind of business he is going to do? A strategy may also be
policy such as selling on cash only. Treatment of strategy as a type of plan is justified by its usefulness in
practice and importance in guiding.
Policy-Koontz et al define it as “general statement or understanding which guide or channel thinking in
decision making”. Policy defines an area within which a decision is to be made and ensures that the
decision will consistent with and contribute to the objective.
Procedure is a subdivision of policy. It states a series of related steps or tasks to be per formed in a
sequential way. In common parlance it is called ‘Standard Operating Procedure’ (SOP). Rule is also a
plan that prescribes a course of action and explicitly states what is to be done under a given set of
Take note to observe the differences in rules, procedures and policies. The policies are guide to decision
making and allow the managers to use their discretion, rules and procedures allow no such discretion.
Programme is a broad term. Terry and Franklin define it as a “comprehensive plan that includes future
use of different resources in an integrated pattern and establishes a sequence of required actions and time
schedules for each in order to achieve stated objectives”. Thus a programme includes objectives,policies,
procedures, methods, standards and budgets. Launching of a satellite is a programme.
Budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms. It is a quantitative expression of a
plan. It varies in accuracy, detail and purpose. Master budget contains the consolidated plan of action of
the whole enterprise and is in a way the translated version of the overall business plan of the organization.
Production budget is the plan of the production department and capital expenditure budget, raw, material
budget, labour budget etc are budgets of the production department. Some budgets vary according to the
organisation’s level of output; these are called variable or flexible budgets.
Government departments prepare programme Budgets in which the agency and the departments identifies
goal, develops detailed programmes to meet the goals etc. A combination of the variable and the
programme budget is the zero-base budget. In this approach the programmes are started as though from
scratch or zero base.

Principles of Planning
One should keep in mind the following principles while planning in order make it effective.
Take time to Plan
Plan in haste and repent in leisure? No. You may save some time in quickly developing a plan. But, in the
event of things going wrong, if you have not considered all the factors in a hurry, you are under pressure
of both the time and resources. This is sure recipe for trouble - not only for you, but also for the
Planning Can be Top to Down or Bottom to Top Generally, the top management of the organization
prepares plans. However, some times the plans are evolved from the information coming from the lower
levels. These are called bottom to top approach.
Involve and Communicate with all those Concerned
Such an exercise commits people concerned with the achievement of goals. Participation in the process of
planning gives a sense of pride and binds them to the objectives.

Plans must be Flexible and Dynamic

Vision is the art of seeing things invisible. So too are the plans.They should include the factors
unexpected or atleast should have enough scope for maneuvering in the event of an unforeseen change in
the environment.
Evaluate and Revise
Evaluate the plans at regular intervals to make sure that it is contributing to the objectives in the expected
Steps in Planning
There is no fixed formula or methods for planning. It is carried out as per the need of the organisation.
However one would broadly follow the following steps in planning.

The first step is detetmining the goals or objectives for the entire organisation. If one fails to set correct or
meaningful goals then one cannot make effective plans. Although goal setting is the first step in planning,
the real starting point is the identification of the opportunity or the problem itself. This is very important
because the manager should know where they are, what opportunities or problems they wish to handle
and why and what they expect to gain.

The second step is determining the planning premises Planning premises in simpler words is the
assumptions that are made about the various elements of the environment. It is important for all the
managers involved in planning to agree on the premises. Internal premises include sales forecasts and
policies of the organisation. External premises are those factors that are out side the orgainisation such as
technological changes, general economic conditions etc.

The third step would be to decide the planning period. While operational planning focus on the short
term, the strategic plans focus on the long term.

The fourth step in planning is to search for and examine alternative courses of actions. There is rarely a
need to plan for where there exist no alternatives and generally an alternative that is not obvious proves to
be the best.
The fifth step is evaluating the alternatives. After having identified the number of alternatives and
examining their strong and weak points it is logical to evaluate them against the planning premises and
The sixth step is the real point of decision making. Here, from the many alternatives available a one is
chosen i.e. the plan is adopted.

The seventh step is to make derivative plans. The plan chosen after a through analysis is seldom complete
without derivative plans. The plan, to make it operational, is split into departmental plans. Plans for the
various operational units within the departments have to be formulated. The plans thus developed for the
various levels down the organisation are called derivative plans. After the decisions are made and plans
are set and are rolling, in order to reach the desired goal the plan has to be reviewed periodically. Such a
review helps in taking corrective action, if necessary, when the plan is in force.

Event Evaluation

Evaluation is an activity that seeks to understand and measure the extent to which an event has succeeded
in achieving its purpose. The purpose of an event will differ with respect to the category and variation of
event. However, to provide reach and interaction would be a generic purpose that events satisfy.

There can be two attitudes with which evaluation can be put in its proper perspective. The concept of
evaluation stated above was a critical examination digging out what went wrong. A more constructive
focus for evaluation is to make recommendations about how an event might be improved to achieve its
aims more effectively.

To carry out an evaluation and measurement exercise it is essential that the predefined objectives of the
events have been properly understood. The brief should contain all the data to be communicated since if
an event has been organized without a clearly defined purpose, any evaluation would be rather pointless.

The Basic Evaluation Process

In events, the basic evaluation process involves three steps:
· Establishing tangible objectives and incorporating sensitivity in evaluation
· Measuring the performance before, during and after the event correcting deviations from plans

These are discussed in some detail in the following pages:

Establishing Tangible Objectives and Sensitivity in Evaluation
Setting objectives for an event is easier said than done. It is more difficult to set standards and declaring
an event successful after it meets them. To provide tangibility to the problem, the best approach is to
begin with definition of the target audience for whom the event has been organised. In the case of
commercial events, the audience could be end users who use the company’s products. An event might be
conceptualized to achieve different things for different audience. Once the audience has been defined, the
next step is to identify and put on paper what each of the audience is expected to think, feel and do having
been to the event, that it did not think, feel or do beforehand. This adds an element of tangibility to the
evaluation and measurement proceedings.

The number of mega-events has increased dramatically in the past few years and the costs of organising
events have also increased exponentially. The costs of production in major events can be enormous and
therefore, in the near future one can expect companies to start asking questions about the effectiveness of
their events to see whether their money is being spent prudently.

Creativity is derived from the Greek word enthousiasm which literally translates into ‘God, within’.
Setting out to evaluate such an effort that is considered to be the work of Gods themselves demands a
certain amount of sensitivity during evaluation. Objective evaluation should also take into consideration
the nature of the concept and the process of execution of the event in their entirety. However professional
the evaluation, there is scope for error and misjudgment if sensitivity is not adhered to. This is because it
takes a creative and sensitive mind to spot wrong questions or situations where asking questions might be
the wrong method and observation might be more appropriate. One of the ways of nurturing and
encouraging this sensitivity is to place evaluation within the context of a team approach all the way from
conceptualization to carrying out of the event.

From experience, it is known that people involved in an event are more open. minded and less committed
to any particular course of action before the event occurs. Yet another learning is that, if things are shown
to be wrong after a decision has been taken, the majority of people involved in the decision-making
process may try to wash their hands of the fault. Thus, adding sensitivity to the evaluation process is very

Measuring Performance
Although perfect measurement is not always practicable, the measurement of performance against the
objectives should ideally be done on a forward looking basis so that deviations may be detected in
advance of their occurrence and avoided by appropriate actions. The concept research is used to anticipate
the viability of a concept during the conceptualization process.
Formative and objective evaluations are carried out during the customization phase of an event.
Summative evaluation can be carried out to measure performance during the event.

Concept Research
At the conceptualization stage, if a concept team does not have a sound basis upon which to make a
decision ‘between various options, a commissioning of audience research to help in defining the strategic
approach to be adopted in the event is appropriate. It essentially involves presenting the various options to
a representative sample of the target audience in a story form and inviting their reactions. This provides
enough material for understanding the pros and cons of the various available alternatives. The downside
to this method is that it is speculative in nature since it deals with plans that nobody has as yet tried to
implement. This method is called concept research.

Formative Evaluation
Evaluation at this stage focuses on things that are actually happening. After the conceptualisation team
makes an attempt to customise and implement an agreed strategy, steps can be taken to evaluate the
success with which customisation is proceeding. These evaluations are aimed at shaping the form of the
final event. Mock-up displays and presentations of the event are used to carry out research to check
whether they are achieving the desired reactions from the audience. These evaluations are conducted
among small sample representative of the target audience in an open-ended and qualitative fashion since
the main emphasis is on discovering how the concept might be better represented. The outcome of these
formative evaluations lead to a discussion among the team in which proposals for rectifying any weak
points in the communications can be put forward.

A point, which should be safeguarded against whilst using this technique, is to interpret consumer
reactions with considerable sensitivity to stimulate the creative process further and also to ensure that
good ideas are not killed simply because they were not properly presented in mock-up form.

Objective Evaluation
This is the stage when approval from the client is sought before starting the execution related activities of
an event. The evaluation team has to provide the objective evidence that has been collected which
justifies the proposed concept solutions.
The team also provides reassurance on how and why the particular event will work among its intended
audience. Since taking the client into confidence requires certain amount of objectivity and
professionalism, this technique is called objective evaluation.

Summative Evaluation
After the event has started, the evaluation team should be concerned with measuring the impact of the
event upon its audience. Among other things, they should establish the extent to which the objectives or
aims of the event have been met and whether the event can be improved in any way and if so, how This
will not apply for short term events though. A major purpose of evaluating an event after it has opened to
the public is that it provides the team with the opportunity of learning from their mistakes. The team
should assimilate the information thus collected so that they can avoid making similar mistakes in the
Correcting Deviations

The fundamental reason why event evaluation is carried out is to navigate the event so as to ensure that
the event objectives are achieved in toto. And since deviations may occur during any stage in the event
designing phase, it is important that measurement is carried out at all possible stages. We have discussed
these in the preceding section.

Critical Evaluation Points

Events can be evaluated based on the critical success factors listed below. from both the clients’ and event
organisers’ viewpoints.

Critical Evaluation Points from Event Organisers’ Point of View

There are multiple criteria for evaluating the success of an event from the event organisers’ point of view.
These are over and above ensuring perfect reach and interaction for the client by networking on-time & at
lowest cost. The client event-target audience fit should match the clients’ brand/product/company image
and personality perfectly, keeping the target audience as the focal point. This is a very critical evaluation
point. Ensuring the profitability of an event such that there is maximum profitability with minimum mark
ups is another critical evaluation point. Since resources are also a major constraint for event organisers,
the resource management efficiency i.e., resources committed and span of time for which it stays
committed - financial, human, equipment and infrastructure should be a minimum. The number of staff
and volunteers involved should be appropriate to offer quality service.

Logistics and efficiency of event execution for ensuring smooth proceedings without unnecessary delays
and damages is another critical success factor. Creating avenues for lead generation & its proper
management during the event is a critical factor. Each and every completed event should generate more
inquiries and these should be responded to immediately. Opportunities for explanation of available
synergies and expansion of services
offered to client to keep strategic integration and diversification options open is also an important factor.
Since an event is essentially a one-off affair and any last moment problem can convert an exceptionally
well-planned event into a disaster, all care needs to be taken during the event execution. Yet, another
important critical success factor is the degree of localisation or customisation accommodated in the
concept to suit the demographic and other variables of various places where the event is to be carried out.

Critical Evaluation Points from Clients’ Point of View

We have discussed earlier that the impact an event has on its target audience is equivalent to the measure
of reach and interaction that occur during the event. Whereas reach is tangible, interaction to a certain
extent is intangible as well as not always quantifiable. Immediate and long-term benefits that accrue from
an event are important when evaluating an event from the clients’ point of view. A cost-benefit analysis
concerning the effectiveness of reach and interaction is a must as a pre-event activity. Post-event stock
taking activity should be done to confirm whether the event has occurred as per plans.
This analysis should consider the actual cost of the event that includes the non-budgeted expenditure as
well as the actual benefits that accrued to the client from the event. The accrual of benefits can be judged
by measuring the tangible parts of the objectives that have been achieved.
Measuring Reach
As discussed in the first chapter, reach is of two types – external and actual event reach. Since events
require massive external publicity-press, radio, television and other media are needed to ensure that the
event is noticed and the benefit of reach is provided to the client. Measurement of external reach is
possible by using the circulation figures of newspapers and promotions on television and the radio. The
DART and TRP ratings that rate the popularity of programmes on air and around which the promotion is
slotted, is a very tangible though approximate method for measuring the external reach of a promotion
campaign on television. Measurement of external reach should be tempered with the timing of the
promotions as effectiveness ofrecall and action initiated amongst the target audience is highly dependent
on this important variable. For example, releasing ads and promos one month ill advance should be

considered more as a.n awareness exercise for propagating the event concept, time, date and venue of
thesb.ow to the audience. The entry criteria - free, invited or ticketed showshould be clearly mentioned
here. The measurement of the actual reach of an event is relatively simple. The capacity ofthe venue is a
figure that provides the upper limit for the act:ual reach. Ticket sales or numbers of invitees are also direct
measurement tools. Registration of participants and requests for filling in questionnaires are also common
methods of measuring the actual reach of an event.

Concept of event quality and measuring quality of event

Exactly on the lines of the evaluation of effectiveness of an event comes the concept of event quality. In
essence, quality of an event exists in the clients’ perspective and thus varies from client to client. By
aiming for quality by maintaining standards, preventing mistakes, never cutting corners and using only
top quality infrastructure is looking at quality from a skewed angle.
Unless the target audience and the clients perceive the quality of the job in the same way as the event
organizers, the big picture of quality is not complete. Therefore, it is critical to match the clients’
expectations and experiences by including even the minutest details to arrive at the perceived quality of
event. In matters of dispute, it is value to the client that finally matters.

For the client, quality of an event is a bundle of attributes. A few of these critical attributes are quality and
reliability of equipment used, aesthetic appeal, appropriate cost and timely completion of the project.
Each client will care more about some attribute than others. Thus, it is important to find out how clients
would define quality event service. Competence in project management from conceptualization to
carryout, reliability and integrity as in the past performances of events that have been executed by the
event organizer is a very important quality criterion. Responsiveness to the clients’ requirements i.e.,
empathy, mutual confidence and trust are also criteria used by clients to size up the quality of event
organisers. In addition, an easy-to. Workwith manner, personal involvement and caring that the event
organiser exudes also helps. Delivery of promises and deals should be ensured.

Every client expects the event to provide the ideal audience to associate with; impress and entice. Thus,
the quality of an event can also be defined in terms of the audience quality. Clients should focus on three
major statistics that define audience quality:

Net buying influences which can be defined as the ratio of the number of audience that can recommend,
specify or approve purchase to the total population at the event. Total buying plans imply the percentage
of the audience planning to buy a product/service from the sponsors’ stables within the next 12 months
after the show.

Average audience interest is the percentage of audience that shows an interest in the sponsors’ products
or services during the event itself and immediately after. This may be measured by keeping track of the
number of visitors to the sponsors’ stall or exhibit area during the event.

Event Marketing

EVENT MARKETING IS Designing or developing a 'live' themed activity, occasion,

display, or exhibit (such as a sporting event, music festival, fair, or concert) to
promote a product, cause, or organization. Also called event creation.

While marketing an event, there are a few key tactics and methods that can be
employed to ensure that the event gains the maximum response and also that
event is managed in the minimum cost possible. Event marketing has been a
concept that has only recently been pioneered in India. But, though new, the
concept has taken off very well with the Indian consumers who are evolving rapidly.

Some of the tactics and methods are listed below. Following them can ensure a cost
effective implementation of the event marketing.

Event Marketing Hint 1: If the event is meant to market a certain product, then it
is necessary to ensure that the purchase decision-maker attends the event. It is
important to get the message across to the target audience and therefore enough
research about the profile of the attendees is important to be able to communicate
effectively to them about the product. It is important that least 50-60% of the
people attending the event are targets of the product to be promoted.

Event Marketing Hint 2: It is also important to evaluate the value-added benefits

that the venue or the trade show organizer makes available to your business. Make
sure you find out if they allow access to the attendee mailing list so you can
implement a pre-mailing process in order to promote your one-day trade show
special, as well as the location of your booth.

Make sure you get participant contact information before the event as well as after.
Other value-added benefits that can be expected from the show organizer include:
being included in participant email distributions promoting the event, as well as an
advertisement in the event show guide.

Event Marketing Hint 3: Before the event is undertaken, the cost effectiveness of
promoting the product through the event should be questioned by asking yourself
event qualifying questions around the “who" instead of the “how many”

Event Marketing Hint 4: The giveaways at the event should be relevant to the
business being promoted through the event. And make sure you don't give
something away for free just for the heck of it.

Event Marketing Hint 5: The location chosen for the event is perhaps the most
important aspect. Make sure you don't purchase a cheap booth at a popular
exhibition because there are strong chances that no one will be visiting you, since
your booth will be tucked away hidden from all eyes. The most ideal locations in
any exhibition areas are found at the entryway to the event and near the pathway
to the food stations and restrooms.

Event-based communication activities are a direct way to communicate a client's
message, or provide consumers with an opportunity to experience products first
hand. ThIS actively promotes and organizes public and corporate events,
exhibitions and conventions — everything from street events and exhibition booths
for consumer campaigns to internal events aimed at business partners.


Related Interests