Designing a LQR Controller for an Electro-Hydraulic-Actuated-Clutch Model

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Designing a LQR Controller for an Electro-Hydraulic-Actuated-Clutch Model

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School of Science & Engineering Mechatronic Engineering

Sharif University of Technology-International Campus University of Tehran–International Campus

Kish, Iran Kish, Iran

e-mail: Majid_Pourebrahim@kish.sharif.edu, e-mail: Ma.Pourebrahim@ut.ac.ir

a.selkghafari@sharif.edu

Abstract—During the past decade, Electro-Hydraulic system pulse, induction and the resistance of the solenoid, and the

has performed a significant role in industrial engineering as an magnetic force exerted to the valve plunger. The operation of

actuator for high performance and precision positioning the system under investigation contains two phases: charging

applications. In this case, many control methods have been and discharging. During charging phase the clutch is

developed for an electro-hydraulic actuated clutch. In this partially connected with the line pressure while during

paper a Linear Quadratic Regulators (LQR) is proposed to discharging phase the connection between the clutch and the

trajectory control of a wet clutch actuated by a hydraulic servo tank is partially opened.

valve mechanism. Simulation study was performed using

linearized mathematical model of the system implemented in

MATLAB software. Based on the simulation results

performance of the proposed controller was evaluated and

discussed.

precision positioning

I. INTRODUCTION

Recently, different types of control systems for an

automated clutch and transmission actuation have been

proposed such as: self-energizing clutch actuator system [1],

Sliding mode control of an electro-pneumatic clutch actuator

[2], improved clutch-to-clutch control in a dual clutch

transmission [3], robust feedback tracking controller design

for self-energizing clutch actuator of automated manual

transmission [4]. Linear-Quadratic-Regulator (LQR) is

proposed as the control system in this research. The linear

quadratic regulator is a well-known design technique that

provides practical feedback gains. As this method has

adopted either feedback or forward controller so it’s able to

provide a perfect tracking optimal control for an

electrohydraulic system [5]. For this purpose the LQR

method is used to control a wet clutch actuator model

presented in [6]. Simulation study was performed utilizing

block oriented MATLAB Software to illustrate the

performance of the proposed controller. In this case,

linearized mathematical model of the system under

investigation was used. Simulation results show very good

performance of the proposed controller during tracking of the

reference input signal.

II. ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC ACTUATED CLUTCH MODEL

The schematic representation of the electro-hydraulic

actuator wet clutch is depicted in Fig. 1. In the proposed

mechanism, line pressure is produced by a pump. Clutch side Figure 1. The Schematic of the Actuator and clutch mechanism [6].

pressure is provided by a pressure reducing valve. This valve

In addition, during the charging phase, the positive

is controlled by magnetic force generated by a pulse-width

displacement is resulted due to the positive difference

modulated voltage u, applied to a solenoid. The solenoid

between the magnetic force and the feedback force. In this

current, i, dependent to many parameters such as the electric

case, the valve plunger moves to the left. While during the where, C, Pc, D, PD, Mm, Ke represent the area and the

discharge phase, the negative displacement is resulted due to pressure of the left sensed chamber, the area and the pressure

the positive difference between the feedback force and the of the right sensed chamber, the plunger mass, and flow

magnetic force. force spring rate, respectively.

When the solenoid is excited, the clutch moves towards The dynamics of the sensed pressure chambers was

the clutch plates and compresses them. The resulted friction derived using linearized continuity equations as follows:

between the plates, which rotates with different velocities,

will allow torque transmission. ܸ

The dynamic model of the system under investigation ܳ ൌ ܭଵ ሺܲோ െ ܲ ሻ ൌ ܲݏെ ݔݏܥ

ߚ (4)

was presented discussed in details in [6].

The wet clutch actuator model presented in [6] includes ܸ

two nonlinear parts: magnetic force equation ܨ and the ܳ ൌ ܭଶ ሺܲோ െ ܲ ሻ ൌ ܲݏെ ݔݏܥ (5)

ߚ

switch. Magnetic force is presented as a function of the valve

position (x) and solenoid actuation current (i) and presented where K1, K2, VC, VD, and βe are the flow pressure

by the following equation: coefficients of restrictors, the sensed chambers volumes and

the effective bulk modulus, respectively.

ܭ ݅ ଶ The governing equations for the controlled pressure

ܨ ൌ (1)

ʹሺܭ ݔሻଶ chamber is derived using the linearized continuity equation

considering the flow through the left and right sensed

where ܭ and ܭ are constants and ܭ and ݅ is related to the chambers, main orifice and the clutch flow and presented by:

actuation voltage (u), which can be presented by:

ܸ௧

ௗ ܭ ሺܲௌ െ ܲோ ሻ െ ܳ െ ܭଵ ܲோ െ ܲோ ሺܲோ െ ܲ ሻ ܭଶ ܺ ൌ ܲݏ

ܮ

ௗ௧

ܴ݅ ൌ ݑ (2) ߚ ோ

(6)

where L and R are solenoid inductance and resistance,

respectively. It should be note that a two-dimensional look- where ܳ , ܭ , ݍܭ, ܭଵ and are the clutch flow, the flow-

up table from manufacturer data was proposed to present the pressure coefficient of main orifice, the flow gain of main

relationship between magnetic force, displacement, and orifice, the leakage coefficient and the total volume where

current in [6]. In this case, for the sake of simplicity, the pressure is being controlled, respectively.

magnetic force is considered as control signal, assuming that The governing equation for the actuator dynamics is

the solenoid is powerful enough to provide the controller presented by combining Eqs. (4), (5) and (6) and assuming

demanding force. Consequently, utilizing this assumption that ܸ Ȁܸ௧ ͳ اǡ ܸ Ȁܸ௧ ͳ اǤA and presented as:

makes it possible to calculate required current and voltage

ݏ ݏ

presented by Eq. (1) and (2) respectively, to apply into the ሺܭ ܲௌ െ ܳ ሻ ൬ ͳ൰ ൬ ͳ൰ ܭ ܺሾͳ

solenoid. ߱ଵ ߱ଶ

To model the operation of the switch properly, two cases ͳ ͳ ܥ ܦ

ቆ െ ቇݏ

is considered, i.e. ݔ൏ ߙ and the other ݔ ߙ. In this case, ߱ଵ ߱ଶ ܭ ܭ

two different controllers for each case are proposed. The ͳ ܥ ܦ

ቆ െ ቇ ܵଶሿ

details of the block diagram representation of the switching ߱ଵ ߱ଶ ܭ ߱ଶ ܭ ߱ଵ

process are depicted in Fig. 2. To provide the proper control ݏ ݏ ݏ

ൌ ܲோ ܭ ൬ ͳ൰ ൬ ͳ൰ ൬ ͳ൰

implementation a switching block in proposed to switch ߱ଵ ߱ଶ ߱ଷ

between controllers whenever ݔcrosses the threshold, ߙ. (7)

ఉ భ ఉ మ

where ߱ଵ ൌ ǡ ߱ଶ ൌ are the break frequency of the

ವ

ఉ

left and right sensed chambers, ߱ଷ ൌ is the break

frequency of the main volume and ܭ ൌ ߚ ܭଵ

represents the equivalent flow-pressure coefficient. The

linearized continuity equations at the sensed pressure

chambers for the discharging phase of the valve, are similar

Figure 2. Two different model and controller corresponding to ݔ ߙ (H1) to the Eqs. With (4) and (5) with negative sign and presented

and ݔ൏ ߙ (H2). as:

To describe the positive and negative plunger motion a ܳ ܭଵ ሺܲ െ ܲோ ሻ ܭଶ ሺܲ െ ܲோ ሻ െ ܭ ሺܲோ െ ்ܲ ሻ െ

force balance between the magnetic and the feedback forces ܭଵ ܲோ ܭ ݔൌ ܲݏோ (8)

ఉ

utilized and presented by:

where KD and TP are the flow-pressure coefficient of main

ܨ െ ܲܥ ܲܦ ൌ ܯ௩ ݏଶ ܭ ݔ (3) orifice and the tank pressure, respectively.

83

The final governing equations of the valve in the (10). Applying Newton’s second law to the forces on the

discharging phase was obtained making assumptions that piston it is possible to derive the governing equation for the

ͳ اǡ ವ ͳ اǤAnd ܭ െ ܭ ǡand presented as follows: clutch as:

ܵ ܵ ܣ ܲ ൌ ܯ ݏଶ ݔ ܤ ݔݏ ݔܭ (11)

ሺܭ ்ܲ ܳ ሻ ൬ ͳ൰ ൬ ͳ൰

ݓଵ ݓଶ where ܣ , ܲ , ݔ , ܯ , K, and ܤ are the area of piston, the

ͳ ͳ ܥ ܦ pressure from the piston chamber, the piston displacement,

ܭ ݔቈͳ ቆ െ ቇܵ

ݓଵ ݓଶ ܭ ܭ total mass of the piston, load spring gradient and the viscous

ͳ ܥ ܦ damping coefficient of the piston, respectively.

ቆ െ ቇ ܵଶ

ݓଵ ݓଶ ܭ ݓଶ ܭ ݓଵ Utilizing the continuity equation for the piston chamber

ܵ ܵ ܵ we have:

ൌ ܲோ ܭ ൬ ͳ൰ ൬ ͳ൰ ൬ ͳ൰

ݓଵ ݓଶ ݓଷ

(9) ܳ ൌ ܭଷ ሺܲோ െ ܲ ሻ ൌ

ఉ

ܲ ܣ ݔݏ (12)

The actuator model can be presented by combining Eqs. where ܭଷ , ܸ are the flow-pressure coefficient of pipe from

(3), (4) and (5) as: valve actuator to the clutch, the piston chamber volume,

మ ವమ

respectively.

಼భ ಼మ ௦మ The block diagram representation of the system under

ܨଵ െ ݔݏ ൩ ൌ ܭݔ ቀ ͳቁ (10)

ೞ

ቀ ାଵቁ

ೢభ

ೞ

ቀ ାଵቁ

ೢమ

మ

௪ investigation is constructed using block oriented capabilities

Simulink and MATLAB and depicted in Fig. 3. The detailed

ܭ transfer functions of the block diagram are given in Table 1.

where, ݓ ൌ ට ൗ ܯis the mechanical natural frequency In this block diagram, a switch block was used to select

௩

of the actuator plunger. appropriate charging or discharging phases of the actuator.

The electro-hydraulic actuator dynamic model can be The numerical parameters of the model needed for

presented as Eqs. (3), (4), (5), (6), and (7), for the charging simulation study is extracted from [6] and given in Table 2.

phase of the actuator, and by Eqs. (3), (4), (5), (8), and (9)

for the actuator together with the plunger dynamics given by

DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM ILLUSTRATED IN FIG.3 ܩ ൌ ܩൌ

ݏܮ ܴ ܯ ݏଶ ܤ ݏ ݇

ܦ ܥ ͳ

ܩଵ ൌ ݏ ܩହ ൌ ݏ ܩൌ

ͳ ͳ ܸ

ݓଶ ݓଵ ͳ

ͳ ܤ ܭଷ

ͳ

݇ ܭ

ܩଶ ൌ ଶ ܩସ ൌ ܪଵ

ݏ ݏ

ଶ ͳ

ͳ ܩܩଶ ܩ ܩ

ݓ ݓଷ ൌ

ܿଶ ܦଶ ܣ ͳ ܩଶ ܩଷ ܩ ܩଷ ܭଷ ܩସ ܭଷ ܩସ ܩ ܩܩଵ ܩଶ െ ܩܩଶ ܩଷ

Ǥݏ ݏ ݏ

݇ଵ ݇ଶ ݇ଷ

ܩଷ ൌ ଼ܩൌ ܪଶ

ݏ ݏ ܸ

ͳ

ݓଵ

ͳ

ݓଶ ͳ ܩܩଶ ܩ ܩ

ܤ ܭଷ ൌ

ͳ ܩଶ ܩଷ ܩ ܩଷ െ ܭଷ ܩସ െ ܭଷ ܩସ ܩ ܩܩଵ ܩଶ െ ܩܩଶ ܩଷ

84

TABLE II. THE NUMERICAL PARAMETERS OF THE MODEL NEEDED ܺ ൌ ܺܥ (17)

FOR SIMULATION STUDY IS EXTRACTED FROM [6]

ܭand ܭூ are the position of the clutch’s piston, the reference

piston position, the added state, the controller gains and the

first element of the controller gain matrix. In this case, the

main goal is to find a controller gains which provides

appropriate tracking of the reference input in addition to

guarantee the stability of the closed loop system. Rewriting

state equations into matrix form, the close-loop state

equations for the closed loop system can be present as:

൬ ሶ൰ ൌ ቀ ቁ ൬ ൰ ቀ ቁ ݎ (18)

ߦ െܥ Ͳ ߦ ͳ

ܺ

ݔ ൌ ሾܥ Ͳሿ ൬ ߦ ൰ (19)

the quadratic cost function of ܬ. It should be noted that

regardless of the values of ܳ and ܴ, the appropriate value of

the cost function can be obtained by solving the Algebraic

Riccati Equation. An algebraic Riccati equation is a type of

nonlinear equation that arises in the context of infinite-

horizon optimal control problems in continuous time or

discrete time domains. Infinite-horizon, continuous-time

LQR for a continuous-time linear system described by ܺǫ

with a cost functional defined as ܬthe feedback control law

that minimizes the value of the cost function is ܷ where ܭis

given by Eq. (22) and ܲ is found by solving the continuous

time algebraic Riccati equation Eq. (24).

III. CONTROLLER DESIGN AND SIMULATION Riccati equation can be presented by:

The proposed algorithm to control the system under

investigation is linear quadratic regulator (LQR). The ݔሶ ൌ ݔܣ ݑܤ (20)

complete procedure for designing this controller is described ஶ

briefly in [7], here the procedure is given succinctly for the ܬൌ ሺ ݔܳ ் ݔ ݑܴ ்ݑ ʹݑܰ ் ݔሻ݀ݐ (21)

sake of brevity. To design the LQR controller it is necessary

to present the system model in observable form. The ݑൌ െݔܭ (22)

complete process is performed using MATLAB codes. In

additions, since the proposed system model doesn’t contain ܭൌ ܴ ିଵ ( ܲ ்ܤ ܰ ் ሻ (23)

integrator, an integrator should be added to provide tracking

the reference input properly. This issue is illustrated in Fig. 4. ܲ ்ܣ ܲ ܣെ ሺܲ ܤ ܰሻܴିଵ ሺ ܲ ்ܤ ܰ ் ሻ ܳ ൌ Ͳ (24)

The states of the system are increased by one when an

integrator is added. Accordingly, the state equations of the

closed loop system can be presented by:

Or

ܺሶ ൌ ሺ ܣെ ܭܤሻܺ ܭܤூ ߦ (15) Figure 4. The proposed control algorithm to control the system under

investigation [7].

Refer to the configuration of the closed loop system

illustrated in Fig. 4. We can write: The performance of the designed controller from the

stability point of view and tracking ability are evaluated by

ߦሶ ൌ ݎ െ ܺܥ (16) simulation results. In this case, a trapezoidal reference signal

85

served as the input signal to evaluate the tracking issue. The Figs. 7, and 8, for x<a, and xta, respectively. Simulation

performance of the system for during tracking is simulated results illustrate that the proposed controller can attenuate the

and illustrated in Figs. 5, and 6, for x<a, and xta, effect of the input disturbance and accurately track the

respectively. The simulation results illustrated in these reference input.

figures indicate very good performance of the proposed

controller for each case.

4

Reference signal (mm)

3.5 Clutch displacement (mm)

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 0.5 1 1.5

t(s)

Figure 5. Tracking results for system 1: ݔ ߙ Figure 7. Tracking results for system 1 by adding disturbance: ݔ ߙ.

3.5

Reference signal (mm)

3 Clutch displacement (mm)

2.5

1.5

0.5

-0.5

0 0.5 1 1.5

t(s)

Figure 6. Tracking results for system 2: ݔ൏ ߙ

problem, Eqs. (14), (15) and (18) are modified and presented In this research, LQR control of a wet clutch actuated by

as follows: a hydraulic servo valve mechanism is studied. The governing

equations of motion of the system were constructed

ݑൌ ܨ ൌ െ ܺܭ ܭூ ߦ ݀ (26) employing MATLAB and Simulink. A trapezoidal reference

signal in presence of a unit step disturbance served as the

Or input signals to evaluate the tracking issue. Simulation

ܺሶ ൌ ሺ ܣെ ܭܤሻܺ ܭܤூ ߦ ݀ܤ (27) results show that there is a slight delay between the clutch

positions and the reference input in the closed loop system.

This delay may be resulted due to the linearization and state

ܺሶ ܣെ ܭܤ ܭܤூ ܺ Ͳ ܤ (28)

൬ ሶ൰ ൌ ቀ ቁ൬ ൰ ቀ ቁ൫ ൯ reduction of the model. Since the time delay is small

ߦ െܥ Ͳ ߦ ͳ Ͳ ௗ compared to the frequency of gear changes in the vehicles

(average delay of 0.2s compared to 10s or higher intervals

In this case, a step disturbance input is employed and the for gear change), LQR proves to be a simple, fast and

performance of the controller is evaluated and illustrated in

86

reasonable controller for electro-hydraulically actuated wet Automated Manual Transmission,” No. 2013-01-2587. SAE

clutch. Technical Paper, 2013

[5] Ghazali, Rozaimi, Y. M. Sam, Mohd Fua'ad Rahmat, Zulfatman

REFRENCES Zulfatman, and A. W. I. M. Hashim, "Simulation and experimental

studies on perfect tracking optimal control of an electrohydraulic

[1] Kim, Jinsung, and Seibum B. Choi,"Self-energizing clutch actuator actuator system," Journal of Control Science and Engineering ,2012,

system: Basic concept and design," Proc. FISITA2010 World PP: 10-1155.

Automotive Congress, 2010.

[6] Lazar, Corneliu, Constantin Florin Caruntu, and Andreea Elena Balau,

[2] Helgeland, Erlend, "Sliding mode control of an electro-pneumatic "Modelling and predictive control of an electro-hydraulic actuated

clutch actuator," Institutt for teknisk kybernetikk, 2008. wet clutch for automatic transmission," In Industrial Electronics

[3] Zhe Wang,”Improved clutch-to-clutch control in a dual clutch (ISIE), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on, 2010, pp. 256-261.

transmission,” University of Florida, 2014. [7] Ogata, Katsuhiko, "Modern control engineering," 1996.

[4] Oh, Jiwon, Jinsung Kim, and Seibum Choi, “Robust Feedback

Tracking Controller Design for Self-Energizing Clutch Actuator of

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