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Elements of poetry

 Poetry

Literary work in which special intensity is given to the expression of feelings and ideas by the use of
distinctive style and rhythm; poems collectively or as a genre of literature.

 Poem

A piece of writing that partakes of the nature of both speech and song that is nearly always rhythmical,
usually metaphorical, and often exhibits such formal elements as meter, rhyme, and stanzaic structure.


This is the music made by the statements of the poem, which includes the syllables in the lines.


Smaller unit or group of lines or a paragraph in a poem.


The similar sounding words in a poem.


This is what the poem is all about.


The use of an object to represent something abstract.

This device is used by poet for readers to create an image in their imagination.


The one who is giving the message in a poem.


Something or someone the persona is referring or talking to.

 Denotative Meaning

Real meaning


 Connotative Meaning

Meaning in the poem or literary text


These were used to make the poem more creative and interesting.
Figures of Speech

 Simile

 Like

 As

The truth is like a bad taste on his tongue.

Alan’s joke is like a flat soda to children, surprisingly unpleasant.

The clouds were like ice cream castles in the sky.

Then I knew those tiny voices, clear as drops of dew.

I like pizza.

I like you.

Rina as Amihan.

 Metaphor

 Directly comparing two unlike things.

Love is…

Conscience is a man’s compass. –Vincent Van Gogh

You are the apple of my eye.

Blanket of stars.

Broken heart.

Cloudy memory.

Cold heart.

Life is a journey.

You are the light of my life.

 Assonance

 Vowel Sound

The light of a fire is sight.

Go slower over the road.

A - For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels named Lenore (Poe)

Tongue twisters often use a combination of Alliteration

 Anaphora

Carrying back

often used in poems

Complete the phrase Now is the time to…

Now is the time to

Now is the time to

Now is the time to

I came, I saw, I conquered - Julius Caesar

We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. - Winston Churchill

We are…

 Onomatopoeia

 Pronunciation imitates the sound of a thing action or animals









 Oxymoron

 Oxy- sharp or keen

 Moron- foolish

There is a real love hate relationship developing between both of you.

Suddenly the room is filled with deafening silence.

2 contradicting words

 Euphemism

 word or phrase that replaces a word or phrase to make it more polite or pleasant.

A little thin on top instead of


Passed away instead of


Put to sleep instead of



uses exaggeration for emphasis or effect

I’ve told you a hundred times

It cost a billion dollars

I could do this forever

Everybody knows that

 Irony

 using words where the meaning is the opposite of their usual meaning

The Titanic was said to be unsinkable.

A plumber spends all day working on leaky faucets and comes home to find a pipe had burst in his

Looking at her sons messy room, Mom says, “Wow, you could win an award for cleanliness.

 Personification

 giving human qualities to non-living things or ideas

The flowers nodded.

The wind howled.

Time and tide waits for none.

The fire swallowed the the entire forest.

 Synecdoche

 when a part represents the whole or the whole is represented by a part.


- a car

Boots on the ground

- soldiers
 Tautology

 Stand up
 Sit down
 Lift up


 Narrative Poetry

Form of poetry that describes important events in life either real or imaginary.

 Narrative Poetry

 Epic – long, about heroic deeds and events that are significant to the culture of the poet.


 Ilocano: Biag ni Lam-ang

Tagalog: Buhay ni Lam-ang

 BIAG NI LAM-ANG (Life of Lam-ang) is a pre-Hispanic epic poem of the Ilocano people of the
Philippines. The story was handed down orally for generations before it was written down
around 1640

 Metrical Tale –written in verse that relates to real or imaginary events in simple, straight
forward language from a wide range of subjects,characters, life experiences and emotional

 Ballad- a song originally transmitted orally, which tells a story.

 Lyric Poetry

Form of poetry meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre.

 Lyric Poetry

 Folksongs (Awiting Bayan)

 Sonnets – 14 lines written in iambic pentameter

 Elegy- six and five foot line, dead

 Ode –longer, positive topic

 Psalms (Dalit)

 Awit (Song)

 Corridos (Kuridos)

 Dramatic poetry
Any drama that is written in verse that is meant to be recited. It usually tells a story or refers to a
situation. This would include closet drama, dramatic monologues, and rhyme verse.

 Dramatic poetry

 Comedy

 The word comedy is derived from the Greek term KOMOS meaning festivity or revelry.

 Melodrama

 Tragedy

 Farce

 Social Poems


Philippine Literature burned

by the Spanish Friars

Works of the


The first Filipino alphabet called ALIBATA was replaced by the Roman alphabet.

The teaching of the Christian Doctrine became the basis of religious practices.

The Spanish language which became the literary language during this time lent many of its words to
our language.

Many grammar books were printed in Filipino, like Tagalog, Ilocano and Visayan

Antonio Luna was a pharmacist who was banished by the Spaniards to Spain. He joined the
Propaganda Movement and contributed his writings to LA SOLIDARIDAD.

LIWANAG AT DILIM (Light and Darkness). Is a collection of essays on different subjects like freedom,
work, faith, government, love of country.

The Filipinos did not get the reforms demanded by the propagandists on the time of Active

Literature started to flourish during the time of Miguel Lopez De Legazpi

Noli Me tangere is a novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the
revolution against Spain.

Philippine literature

A Southeast Asian country located in Western Pacific that is composed of 7,000 island.

 Literature

Body of works especially those with lasting merit.

Latin word “Litera”




Characteristics of Literature:



 Philippine Literature

Philippine Literature

Body of works that Filipinos whether native, naturalized or foreign born have created
about the experiences of people living in or relating the Philippine society.

Folk Speeches

Bugtong and salawikain

Folk Songs

Atin Cu Pung Singsing

. During the ancient times, oral tradition in literature was preserved by the people who performed them.

 Colonization of spain

DID NOT stop the Philippine Literature

Because they fought for freedom and liberty through writing

Pre spanish poetry

 Sawikain

Sayings with no hidden message.

A Pre-Spanish Philippine Poetry which is often used in teasing or to comment on a person’s actuations.

“Alilang-Kanin” is an example.

 chant
Used in witchcraft or enchantment.

“Tabi-tabi po” is an example.

 maxims

Rhyming couplets with verses of 5,6 or 8 syllables, each line having the same number of syllables.

 Riddle

Also called palaisipan.

“Nagbibigay na’y, sinasakal pa.” is an example.

 salawikain

“Ang matapat na kaibigan, tunay na maaasahan.” is an example.

 saying

“Huwag kang magtiwala sa ‘di mo kakilala.” is an example.