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Guerrilla Marketing in Switzerland

An Analysis of Success Factors for Lifestyle Brands

Bachelor Thesis
Yannic Egli
Spitzliweg 25, 8703 Erlenbach

School of Management and Law,

ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences

Petronella Vervoort-Isler

24th of May 2017

Guerrilla Marketing in Switzerland

Management Summary
In a century of sensory overload, attention has become a scarce resource. Traditional
marketing communication instruments are not able to reach the target group anymore due
to their incapability of circumventing people’s perceptual screens. In order to attract the
attention of prospective customers, creative forms of advertising are crucial. Guerrilla
marketing, an umbrella term for unconventional marketing activities, being one of them.

Guerrilla marketing is not a new concept, however, not many campaigns have been
successfully orchestrated beyond the borders of its country of origin, the United States.
The cultural environment in the United States is widely perceived as very open-minded,
which raises the question of whether such a campaign likewise has potential for success
in a national context which is perceived to be more traditional and conservative, such as
in Switzerland. Hence, this research aims to assess the potential of guerrilla marketing
within the context of the Swiss culture. It further investigates factors of success for
lifestyle brands which plan to orchestrate a guerrilla marketing activity within the Swiss

The findings are based on a review of relevant literature, an analysis of two case studies
as well as nine in-depth interviews conducted with two culture experts and seven
marketing specialists from different fields of expertise. The results contribute toward a
better understanding of the coherence between guerrilla marketing, Swiss culture and
lifestyle brands. The empirical research revealed that Swiss people generally are
perceived as risk-averse, serious and critical toward advertisements and hence, do not
offer ideal preconditions for unconventional, creative and surprising guerrilla marketing
activities. On the other hand, Swiss value concise, informative and creative ways of
advertising which implies that guerrilla marketing has potential for success if
appropriately executed. Accordingly, twelve success factors, ranging from creative
human capital to a concise message design, were identified and incorporated into a newly
developed model.

Another interesting aspect which arose during the qualitative analysis was the question
of whether guerrilla marketing might even be independent of the national culture and has
the potential to be successful everywhere – presupposing an adapted execution.

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According to some experts, other factors, such as the underlying values of the company,
are more important and outweigh the significance of the country culture.

Based on the above findings, guerrilla marketing has unused potential in Switzerland and
maybe also in other countries. If thoroughly planned and judiciously executed, lifestyle
brands should consider this instrument when aiming to circumvent the perceptual filters
of the Swiss target market. However, the results of this empirical study are based on
individual opinions and hence are not representative. Further, systematic research has to
be conducted to verify and extend these findings.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.......................................................................................... 1
1.1 Relevance of Guerrilla Marketing ............................................................................ 2
1.2 Problem Discussion..................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Objective and Structure ............................................................................................. 5

2. Literature Review ................................................................................ 7

2.1 Marketing .................................................................................................................... 7
2.1.1 The Marketing Process ............................................................................................. 7
2.1.2 Marketing Communication ...................................................................................... 9 Communication Process ............................................................................................ 10
2.2 Guerrilla Marketing ................................................................................................. 13
2.2.1 History .................................................................................................................... 13
2.2.2 Principles ................................................................................................................ 14
2.2.3 Instruments ............................................................................................................. 17
2.2.4 Critical Assessment ................................................................................................ 19
2.3 Lifestyle Brands ........................................................................................................ 21
2.3.1 Definition ............................................................................................................... 21
2.3.2 Symbol Intensive Brands ....................................................................................... 21 Brand Map ................................................................................................................. 22
2.3.3 Lifestyle Brands ..................................................................................................... 24 Lifestyle Definition ................................................................................................... 24
2.4 Culture ....................................................................................................................... 26
2.4.1 Definition ............................................................................................................... 26
2.4.2 Swiss Culture ......................................................................................................... 28 Swiss Characteristics ................................................................................................. 28 Swiss Communication ............................................................................................... 29 Negotiating International Business in Switzerland ................................................... 30 Advertising Styles ..................................................................................................... 32
2.5 Connecting Concepts ................................................................................................ 33
2.5.1 Marketing and Culture ........................................................................................... 33
2.5.2 Marketing and Lifestyle Brands ............................................................................. 34
2.5.3 Model Context Effects on Guerilla Marketing ....................................................... 37

3. Methodology ....................................................................................... 39
3.1 Literature .................................................................................................................. 41
3.2. Interviews .................................................................................................................. 41

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3.3. Methodological Approach........................................................................................ 43

3.3.1 Qualitative Content Analysis: Content Structuring ................................................ 43 Implementation of the Method .................................................................................. 44
3.4. Case Studies............................................................................................................... 45
3.4.1 Lotus “Faceless People” ......................................................................................... 45 Backgorund ............................................................................................................... 45 Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 46 Key Take-Aways ....................................................................................................... 48
3.4.2 Siroop “Doormats” ................................................................................................. 48 Background ............................................................................................................... 48 Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 49 Key Take-Aways ....................................................................................................... 50

4. Findings and Discussion .................................................................... 52

4.1 Culture ....................................................................................................................... 52
4.1.1 Swiss Attitude toward Marketing ........................................................................... 52 Theory Recapitulation ............................................................................................... 52 Findings ..................................................................................................................... 53
4.1.2 Favorable Preconditions ......................................................................................... 54 Theory Recapitulation ...................................................................................................... 54 Findings ..................................................................................................................... 54
4.1.3 Swiss Characterization ........................................................................................... 55 Theory Recapitulation ...................................................................................................... 55 Findings ..................................................................................................................... 56
4.1.4 Discussion .............................................................................................................. 57
4.2 Lifestyle Brands ........................................................................................................ 60
4.2.1 Definition ............................................................................................................... 60 Theory Recapitulation ............................................................................................... 60 Findings ..................................................................................................................... 60
4.2.2 Marketing instruments ........................................................................................... 61 Theory Recapitulation ............................................................................................... 61 Findings ..................................................................................................................... 61
4.2.3 Discussion .............................................................................................................. 62
4.3 Guerrilla Marketing ................................................................................................. 63
4.3.1 Company Size ........................................................................................................ 63 Theory Recapitulation ............................................................................................... 63 Findings ..................................................................................................................... 63
4.3.2 Instruments ............................................................................................................. 64 Theory Recapitulation ............................................................................................... 64

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4.3.3 Discussion .............................................................................................................. 66
4.4 Success Factors ......................................................................................................... 67
4.5 Additional Findings .................................................................................................. 72

5. Conclusion .......................................................................................... 75

6. Reflection ............................................................................................ 78
6.1 Critical Appraisal ..................................................................................................... 78
6.2 Suggestions for Further Research ........................................................................... 79

7. Reference List..................................................................................... 81

8. Appendix ............................................................................................. 93
8.1 Common Communication Platforms ...................................................................... 93
8.2 Controversial Benetton Campaign.......................................................................... 94
8.3 Features and Characteristics of Symbol Intensive Brands ................................... 95
8.4 Cultural Dimensions of Switzerland in Comparison with the United States ...... 96
8.5 Adaptation vs. Standardization in International Marketing ............................... 96
8.5.1 Advantages of Standardization .............................................................................. 96
8.6 Derivation of Questionnaire .................................................................................... 98
8.6.1 Questionnaire Version 1 ......................................................................................... 98
8.6.2 Questionnaire Underlying Thoughts ...................................................................... 99
8.6.3 Questionnaire Version 2 ....................................................................................... 102
8.6.4 Questionnaire Final Version ............................................................................... 104
8.6.5 Questionnaire German Version ........................................................................... 106
8.6.6 Instruments of Guerilla Marketing Examples ...................................................... 108 Ambush Marketing .................................................................................................. 108 Ambient Marketing ................................................................................................. 109 Sensation Marketing ................................................................................................ 110 Viral Marketing ....................................................................................................... 111
8.7 Transcription System ............................................................................................. 112
8.8 Interview Protocols ................................................................................................. 113
8.8.1 Expert Interview Protocol C1 ............................................................................... 113
8.8.2 Expert Interview Protocol C2 ............................................................................... 119
8.8.3 Expert Interview Protocol MA1 ........................................................................... 128
8.8.4 Expert Interview Protocol MA2 ........................................................................... 139
8.8.5 Expert Interview Protocol MA3 ........................................................................... 149
8.8.6 Expert Interview Protocol MA4 ........................................................................... 157

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8.8.7 Expert Interview Protocol MP1 ........................................................................... 166

8.8.8 Expert Interview Protocol MP2 ........................................................................... 179
8.8.9 Expert Interview Protocol MP3 ........................................................................... 194
8.9 Structuring Content Analysis ................................................................................ 203
8.10 Category System ..................................................................................................... 204
8.10.1 Swiss Attitude toward Marketing .................................................................... 204
8.10.2 Favorable Preconditions for Guerilla Marketing ............................................. 205
8.10.3 Swiss Characterization ..................................................................................... 206
8.10.4 The Potential of Guerilla Marketing in Switzerland ........................................ 207
8.10.5 Definition Lifestyle Brand ............................................................................... 207
8.10.6 Marketing Instruments of Lifestyle Brands ..................................................... 208
8.10.7 The Influence of Company Size on Guerilla Marketing.................................. 209
8.10.8 Marketing Instruments ..................................................................................... 209
8.11 Success Factors and Limitations ........................................................................... 211
8.11.1 Success Factors ................................................................................................ 211
8.11.2 Limitations ....................................................................................................... 215

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List of Figures
Figure 1 - The Marketing Process .................................................................................... 8
Figure 2 - Hierarchy of Effects Theory .......................................................................... 12
Figure 3 - Symbol Intensive Brands Map ....................................................................... 23
Figure 4 - Theories of Culture ........................................................................................ 26
Figure 5 - Specific versus Diffuse Cultures.................................................................... 30
Figure 6 - The Marketing Process (Focus) ..................................................................... 37
Figure 7 - Context Effects on Guerrilla Marketing ........................................................ 38
Figure 8 - Lotus' Faceless People Campaign .................................................................. 46
Figure 9 - Siroop's Doormats in Basel ............................................................................ 49
Figure 10 - Context Effects on Guerilla Marketing (including Success Factors) .......... 71
Figure 11 - Cross-sectional Comparison of Culture and Marketing .............................. 73

List of Abbreviations
AMA American Marketing Association
AIO Activities, interests and opinions
ATL Above the line marketing instruments
BTL Below the line marketing instruments
EDA Eidgenössisches Departement für auswärtige Angelegenheiten
FMCG Fast-moving consumer goods
IOC International Olympic Committee
PR Public relations
SME Small and medium-sized enterprises
VALS Values and lifestyles
WoM Word-of-mouth marketing

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1. Introduction
“Marketing is …, unquestionably an art form because writing is an art, drawing is an
art, photography is an art, dancing is an art, music is an art, editing is an art, and acting
is an art. Put them all together, and they spell marketing – probably the most eclectic art
form the world has ever known” – Jay Conrad Levinson (2007, p. 4).

In today’s globalized world, products on a qualitatively high level have become

functionally interchangeable and the fight for the scarce resource attention has become
intense (Huber, Meyer & Nachtigall, 2009). Consumers are surrounded by advertisements
and daily confronted with more than 1’500 advertising messages in various forms;
therefore, buyers have established mental filters aiming to avoid exposure and block
influence of advertisements (Armstrong, Adam, Denize & Kotler, 2014; Huber et al.,
2009; Patalas, 2006; Zerr, 2005). Moreover, through the recurring confrontation with
identical kinds of advertisements, consumers have become familiar with these methods
causing a wearout effect 1; and as a consequence, the effectiveness of traditional
communication tools 2 is decreasing (Bass, Bruce, Majumdar & Murthi, 2007). Lee (2012)
even suggested that traditional marketing, which among others includes standardized
print and broadcast advertisements, is deceased. To counter this change, new marketing
approaches, which often involve modern technology and range from creative websites
and social media to applications on smartphones, have been developed (Armstrong et al.,
2014). However, the use of modern channels is not enough to penetrate the mental
advertising filters of consumers (Huber et al., 2009). Marketing activities have to be
creative, distinct and unconventional in order to differentiate themselves and attract
attention (Armstrong et al., 2014; Bass et al., 2007). An instrument which is defined by
these characteristics is guerrilla marketing, a hypernym for unconventional marketing
activities and the focal point of this research (Huber et al., 2009).

1 Repetition and copy are the two main sources that can let an advertising message appear “worn
out” which is negatively impacting the effectiveness of the advertisment in the sense that consumers
are irritated, bored or do not pay attention at all (Bass et al., 2007, p. 179).
2 Traditional marketing methods include advertising through newspapers and magazines, television,

radio, billboards and product displays in shelves and windows (Armstrong et al., 2014).

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1.1 Relevance of Guerrilla Marketing

As preliminary revealed, the exponential growth of media contents has pushed traditional
marketing toward its limits (Zerr, 2005). Due to the overwhelming surfeit of
communication channels and mediums, consumers have established perceptual filters,
determining which messages will be adopted (Bass et al., 2007; Jäckel, 2007). These
filters have made it very challenging for companies to attract attention of their target
segment, which is the first and a crucial step of the communication process (refer to
section (Armstrong et al., 2014; Huber et al., 2009; Kačániová, 2013). In order
to raise from the shadow existence of the wide mass and to receive specific attention, a
creative marketing concept is crucial (Armstrong et al., 2014). Marketing efforts have to
be distinctive and unconventional – two characteristics of guerrilla marketing (refer to
section 2.2).

Zerr (2005) approached this issue from another direction and stated that contemporary
communication tools have to be increasingly individualized, more efficient and eye-
catching. Armstrong et al. (2014, p. 4) added that by directly and personally reaching
consumers, “marketers want to become part of your life”. Such modern marketing
instruments are called below the line (BTL) measures and are characterized by
personalized customer approaches as well as high adaptability to the target audience
(Reinhard, 2012). Besides well-established examples that include direct marketing, event
marketing and product placements, also guerrilla marketing belongs to the BTL
instruments (Kimmel, 2005).

In a nutshell, the capability to innovate and attract attention has become key in today’s
overloaded, dynamic marketing environment. Accordingly, guerrilla marketing is a
powerful instrument which has the potential to elevate a company’s marketing efforts
from the mass (Huber et al., 2009). The relevance of this subject is twofold. On the one
hand, there is a practical relevance; especially, for companies with a limited marketing
budget that have to attract attention of potential customers. Such businesses have to rely
on affordable alternative marketing techniques in order to be perceived. On the other
hand, the existing theory and current state of research will be verified and extended
through findings from academic and practical expert interviews which will enrich the
understanding of guerrilla marketing. This mirrors the theoretical relevance.

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1.2 Problem Discussion

In an age of visual overstimulation, effective marketing and advertising has become
increasingly challenging for companies worldwide. As outlined in the previous section,
creative marketing activities, such as guerrilla marketing, are indispensable to attract
attention. While guerrilla marketing cannot substitute for traditional marketing, it can
complement and sometimes even be ahead of it (Patalas, 2006).

Easily defined, guerrilla marketing is a nontraditional way to market a company by the

means of unconventional advertising instruments which aim at achieving the greatest
possible impact with a limited budget (Huber et al., 2009; Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011).
Despite the unmistakable potential has the concept only been insufficiently examined in
depth. There is a limited amount of research with practical relevance, especially within
the European environment. On top of that, many researches merely are scrutinizing and
characterizing the phenomena itself and are neglecting other, external factors that might
affect the effectiveness of guerrilla marketing activities. Such a factor could be the
lifecycle of an organization because a new company, in the beginning of its operations,
might have different marketing objectives than a well-established company in its maturity
phase (Patalas, 2006). Another sphere of influence might be the characteristics of the
company’s target segment; comparing to conventional marketing, a company may even
has to concentrate more on demographical, behavioral and psychological aspects of its
target segment as well as the context in which it is operating in to be successful with its
guerrilla undertakings (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016). Hence, although numerous scholars
have investigated guerrilla marketing as a concept, there are still several external factors
which might influence the feasibility of guerrilla marketing instruments and could serve
as a basis for new studies. Taking into consideration several of them would go beyond
the scope of this research which is focusing on two main elements: culture and lifestyle

Many academics agree that the primary objective of guerrilla marketing is to raise
awareness (Huber et al., 2009; Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011; Patalas, 2006; Schulte, 2007).
This can be an objective at any time of the business life cycle, hence, the company age is
not further relevant for the course of this study. Of more interest is the environment in
which a company operates and the attitude people have toward such unconventional
marketing methods (Schulte, 2007). Culture deeply shapes the target group and

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fundamentally influences marketing communication; campaigns which have been

successful in one country might not be in another (De Mooij, 2010). While guerrilla
marketing has its origins in the United States, a culture of openness to technology and
change, does it also work in a seemingly more conservative, reserved culture like
Switzerland (Bilton, 2013; Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011)? This will be a leading question
throughout this examination.

Switzerland is widely known for its four language areas and according to academics as
Hofstede (1984), the culture differs between these regions. With about 63%, most Swiss
people speak German and form the main pillar of the Swiss economy (the second most
spoken language is French with 23%) (Bilton, 2013; SWI, 2016). Despite cultural
differences among the language regions, there is still a national identity which is like an
overarching layer connecting all the language regions to one entity (Bilton, 2013). Hence,
instead of only focusing on one language region, this study considers the country in its

For a more precise and relevant outcome, the additional element of lifestyle brands is
introduced. Guerrilla marketing does not have any application limits in terms of
industries; however, it shares many similarities with the concept of lifestyle brands (Orth,
McDaniel, Shellhammer & Lopetcharat, 2004). Guerrilla marketing and lifestyle brands
both want to personally engage the consumer and “help you live their brands” (Armstrong
et al., 2014, p. 4; Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). According to Saviolo & Marazza (2013, p.
48) a lifestyle brand is

“… a company that markets its products or services to embody the interests, attitudes and
opinions of a group or a culture. Lifestyle brands seek to inspire, guide, and motivate
people, with the goal of their products contributing to the definition of the consumer's
way of life”.

In other words, a lifestyle brand represents attitudes, values and identities of its consumers
and helps to articulate who they are and to which group they want to belong. Consumers
can express their social identity3, for instance, by wearing Nike sportswear, drinking a

3 “A perception of oneness with a group of persons” (Ashforth & Mael, 1989, p. 20).

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Coca Cola or using an iPhone in public. Lifestyle brands serve as vehicles of self-
expression and are present in various industries. Consumers of lifestyle brands are
commonly segmented according to psychographic characteristics which also have a
central role for the concepts of culture and guerrilla marketing activities. Moreover,
instruments of guerrilla marketing have been successfully implemented by lifestyle
brands, especially in the United States, which is another main reason why they are defined
as a second sphere of this study (Cătălin & Andreea, 2014; Saviolo & Marazza, 2013).

1.3 Objective and Structure

In today’s business world, cultural differences are often underestimated which can have
far-reaching consequences; however, sometimes concepts can also be universally
applicable (De Mooij, 2010). What is the case for guerrilla marketing? Is its success
closely related to values, attitudes and norms of a culture or can the same instruments be
applied across boarders?

The present study is examining the effectiveness of guerrilla marketing taking into
consideration industry and country aspects. Specifically, it aims to analyze guerrilla
marketing in the context of the Swiss culture, planned and executed by a lifestyle brand.
The objective is twofold. Firstly, the general potential of guerrilla marketing in
Switzerland is determined. Secondly, success factors for lifestyle brands to effectively
apply guerrilla marketing within the given environment are identified. Hence, the
research question is derived as following:

What are the success factors for a guerrilla marketing campaign orchestrated by a
lifestyle brand within the context of the Swiss culture?

In pursuance of answering this question, the study is divided into three main categories:
guerrilla marketing, lifestyle brands and Swiss culture. To simplify the research question,
a pool of supporting key questions will lead through this research. It is important to
understand the characteristics of the Swiss culture and lifestyle brands as well as to know
marketing instruments that are appropriate in these contexts. Consequently, the following
five key questions are derived:

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- What differentiates lifestyle brands from normal brands?

- Which marketing strategies are successfully applied by lifestyle brands?
- What distinguishes the Swiss culture from other cultures in terms of attitude toward
- How do companies brand themselves in Switzerland and what are typical
advertising instruments that are used?
- Does the way of advertising in Switzerland substantially vary with the company

To gain a full picture of all important aspects a 360° angle approach is taken. Firstly,
literature about marketing, guerrilla marketing, lifestyle brands, culture as well as more
specifically Swiss culture is analyzed and builds the theoretical framework of this study.
Secondly, the methodology describes the structure of the empirical research and the type
of analysis that was applied. The research is of qualitative nature and includes nine
interviews with academic and practical marketing experts in addition to Swiss society and
culture specialists. In the second part of this section, two topic-relevant case studies are
evaluated and interpreted on the basis of the theoretical framework and aspects of the
interviews. In a third step, the findings of literature, qualitative research and the case
studies are contrasted, evaluated and discussed. The results draw a line from the
theoretical knowledge to the reality and allow to establish a list of success factors for
lifestyle brands which consider a guerrilla marketing action within the context of the
Swiss culture. Fourthly, an overarching conclusion is drawn to connect the findings. The
last chapter serves for reflection; it states the limitations of the study in order to prevent
decision-making processes that are not backed by actualities and highlights areas for
further research.

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2. Literature Review
The purpose of this chapter is to establish a theoretical outline of the three main concepts
of this research: Guerrilla marketing, lifestyle brands and Swiss culture. The literature
presented in the first part of this chapter aims to develop a thorough understanding about
the theory and the current state of research of the guerrilla marketing concept. Therefore,
firstly theories relating to marketing in a wider sense are examined and subsequently more
specific theories about guerrilla marketing. Furthermore, this chapter includes literature
research findings about lifestyle brands as well as Swiss culture in order to build a
complete theoretical background for this study. Also, the examination of these concepts
starts with a broad view and as it proceeds it becomes more specific and nuanced.

2.1 Marketing
Marketing is the valuable business function of every organization, if for-profit or
nonprofit, that connects the company with the public and most importantly its customers
(Armstrong et al., 2014; Kotler & Levy, 1969; Patalas, 2006). Basically, it serves to locate
potential customers and stimulate them for the company’s products and/or services
(Kotler & Levy, 1969). Armstrong et al. (2014, p. 4) defined the term as “managing
profitable customer relationships” with the dual objective of increasing the number of
customers and the retention of existing customers. To reach customer satisfaction and
hence customer value, a company does not only have to offer superior value but also to
honor and deliver it (Armstrong et al., 2014).

2.1.1 The Marketing Process

The marketing process is the basic concept underlying the creation of customer value
(Kotler & Armstrong, 2016). Firstly, a company needs to understand the human needs 4,
culturally and individually shaped wants 5 as well as demands6 (Blythe, 2005; Kotler &
Armstrong, 2016; Kotler & Keller, 2009). Accordingly, a market offering which is a
combination of products, services, information and experiences is offered to satisfy
customer needs and wants (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016). Secondly, once a company
understands the consumers and the marketplace, a customer value driven marketing

4 “States of felt deprivation” (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016, p. 30).

5 As soon as needs are shaped by the environment, specifically culture, as well as the individual
personality, wants are created (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016). A want can also be seen as a “specific
satisfier for a need” (Blythe, 2005, p. 11).
6 If actual buying power supports wants they become demands (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016).

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strategy can be designed (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016). Therefore, a company needs to
answer the two questions of who to serve (target market) and how to serve them (value
proposition) (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016; Kotler & Keller, 2009). Thirdly, an integrated
marketing program determines how the intended value will actually be delivered to the
target segment (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016).

For the purpose of implementing the marketing strategy and eventually build customer
relationships, a set of marketing tools is applied – also called the marketing mix. A firm’s
marketing mix, further known as the four Ps, consist of four spheres: product, price, place
as well as promotion. The market offering (product) has to satisfy human needs in order
to meet the value proposition. Price and place determine how much will be charged and
through which distribution channels the offering will reach the target segment. The last
step of the marketing mix is to spread the word about the offering and convince the target
group to purchase it. This is the promotion or also called communication part which will
be more closely discussed in section 2.1.2 (Blythe, 2005; Kerin, Hartley & Rudelius,
2011; Kotler & Armstrong, 2016; Kotler & Keller, 2009; Kotler & Levy, 1969).

Back to the marketing process, once it is determined how superior customer value and
satisfaction can be generated and communicated, profitable customer relationships have
to be build and maintained (Grönroos, 2004). Customer relationship management is a
crucial step and a decisive factor for success (Grönroos, 2004; Kotler & Armstrong,
2016,). Finally, after having established relationships with customers, the value has to be
captured and translated into numbers which can be sales, market share and/or profits
(Kotler & Armstrong, 2016). Hence, value is captured from customers and not built
anymore for customers, as in the previous steps (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016). Customer
loyalty and retention are vital for long-term and profitable relationships (Kotler &
Armstrong, 2016). All five steps of the marketing process are depicted in the chart below.

Integrated Profitable Capture

Understand Marketing
marketing customer customer
customers strategy
program relationships value

Figure 1 - The Marketing Process

(Based on Kotler & Armstrong, 2016)

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2.1.2 Marketing Communication

Analyzing the marketing process, it is not only important to create customer value but
also to persuasively communicate it. Common communication tools are displayed in
Appendix 8.1 and a selection of wide-spread instruments subsequently presented:

- Advertising: Attract consumer attention and arouse interest through a paid message that
promotes ideas, goods or services and is transmitted by a mass-medium such as
newspaper, magazines, television or billboards (Blythe, 2005; Kotler & Armstrong,

- Sales Promotion: Short-term incentives that are designed to temporarily increase sales
of a product or a service. Widely used sales promotion tools include discounts, coupons
and displays (Blythe, 2005; Kotler & Armstrong, 2016).

- Personal Selling: A salesperson of a firm directly interacts with the customers trying to
match the benefits of the product or service with the customer’s needs. Personal selling
is a very effective but also one of the most expensive communication tools for a firm
(Blythe, 2005; Kotler & Armstrong, 2016).

- Public Relations (PR): PR is all about public7 interactions and building a positive
company image in the public eye. Events and stories are commonly used approaches to
build such a favorable corporate image (Blythe, 2005; Kotler & Armstrong, 2016).

In the 1980’s, Levitt (1983, p. 92) identified the trend toward a “globalization of markets”
with consumers becoming more alike. According to Levitt, technology was the driving
force behind this trend leading to an increased knowledge of international offerings and
merging the world to a single entity with converging needs (Levitt, 1983). Hence, for
homogenous products that are sold on a global scale, traditional communication tools
such as standardized print and broadcast advertisements promise a high effectivity.
However, not all academics agree to Levitt’s proposed homogenization of products and
contrariwise talk about diverging consumer tastes and behavior in the modern world (De
Mooij, 2010). According to this theory, the marketing landscape has experienced major

7A public can be defined as any party, with a potential or actual interest in a company, that might be
able to have an impact on the company’s ability to attain its goals (Kotler & Keller, 2009).

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changes which influenced marketing communication (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016). There
is a shift from traditional mass marketing, for instance through television, radio or
magazines, to more targeted communication models which is supported by the explosive
development of the internet and social media (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016). The internet
has created new possibilities of interaction and individualization, hence, direct and digital
marketing – the direct interaction with targeted customers – has been on the rise (Kotler
& Armstrong, 2016; Kotler & Keller, 2009). Digital media led to an age of better
informed consumers, new and faster ways of communication and an increased need for
customized product offerings – which induces companies to closer mange its customers
in more specifically defined segments (micromarkets) (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016; Kotler
& Keller, 2009).

There is an endless list of new communication techniques, however, many of them fall
under the umbrella term word-of-mouth marketing (WoM) which will be discussed in
section 2.2.3. This is also the point where guerrilla marketing, which will be discussed in
section 2.2, becomes important. Another modern technique that has frequently been
discussed and is worth mentioning is the concept of influencer marketing (Agrawal, 2017;
Hall, 2016; Isch, 2017; Maspoli, 2016). The idea of using famous personalities to promote
a brand or product offerings is not new, however, social media has opened the door for
new influencers (Agrawal, 2017; Isch, 2017). Instead of common celebrities, brands are
now collaborating with opinion leaders which are active on social media platforms such
as Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat and/or have their own blogs or YouTube channels
(Agrawal, 2017; Maspoli, 2016). Most successful influencers come from the United
States (US), such as Kylie Jenner; however, also in Switzerland the concept is on the rise
and has an enormous potential (Agrawal, 2017; Maspoli, 2016; Isch, 2017). Communication Process

Before the concept of guerrilla marketing is examined in more detail, the reason for the
emergence of modern communication methods is disclosed. According to the classic
communication model, advertising is a communication process, transmitting a message
from a sender to a receiver aiming to influence the behavior – often consumerism – of the
recipient (Mayer, Däumer & Rühle, 1982; Von Rosenstiel, 1973).

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One of the oldest and most influential models in advertising research is the AIDA-Model
that was developed in 1898 by Elmo Lewis, an American advertising advocate (Bruhn,
2005; Mayer, 2000). Lewis stated that a successful communication consists of the
following steps: the advertising message has to raise A-ttention, it has to be relevant and
of I-nterest for the recipients, has to be able to satisfy their D-esire and finally lead to an
A-ction meaning a purchase (Moser, 2002). A more recent model that was developed on
the basis of the AIDA-model and also aims to measure the effectiveness of advertising,
is the hierarchy of effects model, or as Kottler and Armstrong (2016, p. 45) called it buyer-
readiness stages, firstly presented by Robert J. Lavidge and Gary A. Steiner in 1961
(Palda, 1966, p. 13, Blythe, 2005). This model is introduced because it is building on the
AIDA-Model, representative for many other advertising research models and widely
spread in the marketing world (Huber, et al., 2009). According to this model, the
perception of an advertisement is decisive to advance a consumer from awareness to a
purchasing behavior (Blythe, 2005; Lavidge & Steiner, 1961; Palda, 1966,). Marketers
have to tailor their marketing tools to their target segment and use an integrated
communication and promotion program in order to pass all six stages and turn potential
buyers into loyal customers (Kottler & Armstrong, 2016).

Firstly, a company needs to attract the customers’ attention – which is one of the most
difficult but crucial steps as described in the problem discussion (Blythe, 2005; Foscht &
Swoboda, 2011). Raising brand awareness is traditionally achieved through mass
advertising; however, this method has lost its effectivity due to diverging needs and
perceptual filters, which are described in the next paragraph (Huber et al., 2009). This is
also where guerrilla marketing becomes relevant and therefore this stage will be in focus
for the further course of this paper. For the sake of completeness, the other steps are
briefly described and depicted in Figure 2. Once marketers successfully raised awareness,
they have to provide information about the offering and the value of it to create customer
knowledge (Blythe, 2005). Convincing advertising, positive media coverage (PR) or trials
should then lead to the stage of liking and if the offering matches the customers’
expectations and is able to withstand competitive offerings it will reach the stage of
preference (Blythe, 2005). Finally, the consumer has to be convinced through several
trials or discussions with sales people to integrate the offering into his or her daily life
and become a loyal purchaser (Blythe, 2005).

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Figure 2 - Hierarchy of Effects Theory

(Based on Palda, 1966)

There are numerous other models that describe the communication process; however, the
aim of communication, to turn potential consumers that are completely unaware of the
product into loyal purchasers, does not change – and neither does the problem of
information overload (Blythe, 2005; Foscht & Swoboda, 2011). According to Patalas
(2006) and Zerr (2005), in today’s variety of media consumers are daily confronted with
1’500 advertising messages; other academics even argued that the range is up to 5’000
(Armstrong et al., 2014; Huber et al., 2009; Kačániová, 2013). Facing a constant exposure
to attempts of persuasion, consumers try to avoid being influenced by marketing
messages and have established mental filters (Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011; Kačániová,
2013). Scientists assume that only two percent of the information which is communicated
through mass media are perceived and processed by human beings (Foscht & Swoboda,
2011). This implies that marketing has become a fight for the scarce resource attention
(Foscht & Swoboda, 2011; Huber et al., 2009). The author and blogger Haque (2005)
introduced the term “attention economy” and described attention as the scarcest and
strategically most vital resource in a firm’s value chain. Traditional methods of
advertising often are not able to reach consumers anymore and are perceived as boring,
annoying, non-credible and hence cause a wearout effect (Bass et al., 2007; Zerr, 2005).
Due to the mental limited capacity, innovative forms of advertising are needed to reach
consumers – among them guerrilla marketing with its fundamental principle of surprise
(Zerr, 2005).

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2.2 Guerrilla Marketing

2.2.1 History
The term guerrilla first emerged in the Spanish war of independence in the beginning of
the 19th century and was revolutionized by the Argentine Ernesto Che Guevara, a major
figure of the Cuban revolution in the 1950’s (Huber et al., 2009). Guevara (1986) himself
described the guerrilla tactics as following: the ultimate objective is the victory against
the enemy through variable means and methods of fast, surprising, flexible and agile
ambush attacks. In the 1960’s, the term was transferred to the field of marketing as
resource-poor small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the US faced the challenge
of successfully positioning themselves next to larger, financially sound organizations
(Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011). At that time, guerrilla marketing sought to equalize the
limited financial capability and inferiority in size by means of marketing activities that
were characterized by unconventionality, flexibility and adaptability to changing market
conditions (Schulte, 2007). However, it was not until the 1980’s that the concept of
guerrilla marketing drew widespread attention which mainly can be accredited to Jay
Conrad Levinson, an American marketing expert that published the first academic book
on guerrilla marketing (Jäckel, 2007). Levinson (1984) complemented the definition of
guerrilla marketing with emphasizing the importance of creativity, individuality and
proximity to customers (Welling, 2005). He believed in the possibility for SME, which
were experiencing a corporate crisis in these years, to reach traditional marketing
objectives by means of unconventional marketing instruments (Levinson, 1984). With his
new strategy “small budget, big results” Levinson had the finger on the pulse at the right
time (Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011, p. 40).

Over the years, many different definitions of guerrilla marketing have appeared. The
marketing experts Philip Kotler and Friedhelm Bliemel as well as Al Ries and Jack Trout
are also considered to be godfathers of guerrilla marketing; however, they differently
described the term (Huber, et al., 2009). Kotler and Bliemel summarized the concept as
an offensive, competition-oriented strategy to protect and enhance the market position of
small enterprises with limited budgets (Huber et al., 2009); whereas Ries and Trout (1986)
understood it as an agile and innovative strategic option suitable for companies operating
in a market niche. The varying descriptions illustrate that in the course of time academics
have been focusing on different characteristics of the traditional guerrilla tactics and
hence there is not an universal definition for the guerrilla marketing terminology (Huber

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et al., 2009). However, academics nowadays agree that successful guerrilla marketing
activities have not only to be cost-effective and unconventional but also surprising,
creative and have the potential to virally spread (Huber et al., 2009). Consequently, the
primary objective is to attract attention and to generate diffusion of the word (Schulte,
2007). Additionally, once designed for resource-poor SME, these days also global
multinational companies, as for example Red Bull or BMW, benefit from guerrilla
marketing instruments (Huber et al. 2009). Therefore, for the further course of this
research a contemporary definition of Hutter & Hoffmann (2011, p. 41) is used:

“Guerrilla marketing is an umbrella term for unconventional advertisement campaigns

which aim at drawing the attention of a large number of recipients to the advertising
message at comparatively little costs by evoking a surprise effect and a diffusion effect”.

2.2.2 Principles
Guerrilla marketing reflects the situation of guerrilla fighters in wartime (Guevara, 1986).
Their ultimate objective was to ensure victory with limited available resources (Levinson,
2016). Consequently, Ries and Trout (1986) described guerrilla marketing as a type of
marketing warfare which is the confrontation of marketing problems by means of military
philosophies. According to them, a fundamental principle of guerrilla warfare is “no
matter how successful, never act like the leader” (Ries & Trout, 1986, p. 80). This idea
still lies at the heart of guerrilla marketing, even though, many variations have emerged
over time.

The history of guerrilla marketing illustrated that there has not been a mutual consent
about the basic principles of guerrilla marketing, however, there are interferences.
Levinson (1984) described the elemental principles as creativity, endurance,
customization as well as proximity to customers. He later underlined the importance of
creativity with the statement that guerrilla marketers rely on their “vivid imagination”
instead of an “outsized marketing budget” (Levinson, 2007, p. 5). Zerr (2005) suggested
that guerrilla marketing has to be surprising, question established values and virally
spread. According to Patalas (2006) the most important factors are imaginativeness,
surprise, cost-efficiency and flexibility; whereas, Hutter and Hoffmann (2011) identified
the three basic elements as surprise, diffusion and low cost effects. Nufer (2013)
underpinned concepts like unconventionality, surprise, creativity, cost-effectiveness,

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flexibility and added some additional descriptions such as provocative, atypical and
spectacular. From the existing literature, four of the most agreed principles have been
summarized and will serve as a basis for the further sections of this paper.

Creativity: Proctor (1999) described creativity as a substantial part of business success

and so did Levinson (2007), the father of guerrilla marketing, in terms of marketing
success. Psychologist have a long history of discussions about the definition of creativity.
A description which is suitable for the purpose of this paper explains the term as creating
ideas and products that are new and useful with the aim that consumers buy, use and
appreciate them (Zeng, Proctor & Salvendy, 2011). The use of new, unconventional and
imaginative marketing increases the probability of being perceived by the target group
(Schulte, 2007). Guerrilla marketing activities only are effective as long as the appeal of
the extraordinary upholds, as soon as the action is replicated it suffers from a wearout
effect and will not surprise anymore – surprise being the main element to attract attention
(Bass et al., 2007; Kanbach, 2007; Toedter, 2006; Zerr, 2005).

Surprise: Surprise is a short-lived emotion arising trough an unexpected event causing a

“schema discrepancy” 8 (Debraix & Vanhamme, 2003, p. 100). According to the schema
congruity theory, unexpected events that occur outside existing schemas of people result
in the emotional reaction surprise and are more deeply processed (Meyer, Niepel,
Rudolph & Schutzwohl, 1991; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Martini & Reisenzein, 1995;
Vanhamme, 2000). A positively surprising event leads individuals to interrupt ongoing
activities, attracts their attention and induces positive word-of-mouth9 (WoM) (Debraix
& Vanhamme, 2003). This implies that the more the marketing activity diverges from
existing schemas about a specific product category, or in the words of Zerr (2005),
questions the established values, the higher the possibility that the recipient will process
the advertising message which leads to a better retention in the memory and attracts
mindshare (Huber et al., 2009).

8 A schema is an individual, unconscious truth about the nature of the surrounding environment,
namely the personal theory about objects, events or situations (Debraix & Vanhamme, 2003).
Word-of-mouth is defined as the self-initiated proliferation of information about goods, services,
sellers, and/or advertising messages from one consumer to other consumers (Debraix & Vanhamme,
2003; Huber et al., 2009).

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Viral: WoM enables companies to increase the number of people being exposed to the
marketing message through communication between consumers (Debraix & Vanhamme,
2003). It is characterized by physical communication with messages flowing two ways
(between sender and receiver), a higher credibility than commercial sources because the
information is from known and trustworthy people. Moreover, WoM conveys a
description of the experience that is to be expected (Debraix & Vanhamme, 2003). Here
a connection to the principle surprise can be drawn: Rimé, Philippot, Boca & Mesquita
(1992) suggested that consumers which are emotionally aroused have a higher urge to
share their experiences. This implies that the stronger the emotion surprise, which is
explicitly targeted by guerrilla marketing, the more likely people talk about the
experience (Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011). In today’s digital age, this diffusion of
information mostly happens through social media networks which is known as viral
marketing (Leskovec, Adamic & Hubermann, 2007). However, WoM as well as the
modern form viral marketing are two-edged swords: not only positive but also negative
experiences are spread which can end in a shitstorm10 and create unfavorable attitudes
toward products or even entire brands (Folger & Röttger, 2015; Leskovec et al., 2007;
Pfeffer, Zorbach & Carley, 2014).

Cost-effectiveness: A sphere that flows through many other elements of guerrilla

marketing is the cost pressure. Being cost efficient means to create the largest possible
outcome with small financial investments (Levinson, 1984). Guerrilla marketing
campaigns do not rely on great financial assets but rather on the viral diffusion of the
advertising message through WoM or the media (PR) which induces little costs (Hutter
& Hoffmann, 2011). Greathouse (2012) highlighted that guerrilla marketing activities
should be economical; however, must not appear to be cheap, so the execution has to be
carefully planned.

These are the underlying principles of guerrilla marketing activities. The next section is
devoted to guerrilla marketing instruments which are based on these principles.

A shitstorm, also called firestorm, can be defined as a sudden discharge of large quantities of
negative comments on social media against a person, group or brand (Folger & Röttger, 2015;
Pfeffer, Zorbach & Carley, 2014).

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2.2.3 Instruments
Guerrilla marketing is an umbrella term for various marketing instruments. Besides direct
marketing, event marketing, product placements and many other examples, also guerrilla
marketing is a non-traditional, highly adaptable and personalized form of communication
and therefore belongs to the BTL activities (Kimmel, 2005; Nufer, 2013; Reinhard, 2012).
Guerrilla marketing used to be seen as a business philosophy with an equal influence on
all four elements of the marketing mix, consisting of the product, price, distribution and
communication (Adeniyi & Ige, 2013; Huber et al., 2009). Over the years, the focus has
been shifting toward single campaigns and, therefore, most guerrilla marketing activities
fall into the category of communication (Adeniyi & Ige, 2013; Levinson, 2007; Schulte,
2007). Consequently, four guerrilla marketing instruments, which are commonly applied
in in practice campaigns and frequently are reviewed in marketing publications are
introduced: Viral marketing, ambush marketing, ambient marketing and sensation
marketing (Huber et al., 2009).

Viral Marketing: As described in the previous section, the viral distribution of

information is a fundamental principle of guerrilla marketing. Viral marketing, also
referred to as electronic WoM marketing, targets the exponential diffusion of a marketing
message, similarly to biological viruses which are epidemically disseminated (Fong &
Yazdanifard, 2014; Schulte, 2007). If the message is distributed off the internet by “mouth
to mouth propaganda” the terms WoM or buzz marketing are commonly used to substitute
the word viral (Nufer, 2013, p. 3, Wilson, 2012). The fundament of viral marketing is the
spread of a message from person to person with the internet, especially social media
platforms, in the key role as a medium for rapid dissemination (Fong & Yazdanifard,
2014; Schulte, 2007). Consumers themselves serve as gratuitous “advertising vehicles”
by recommending products and/or services to third parties (Nufer, 2013, p. 3).
Recommendations can be more effective than traditional marketing messages because
they are not perceived as advertising (Nufer, 2013). In order to stimulate the exchange of
information between consumers, the content of the marketing message has to be
extraordinary, unique, funny or exciting (Toedter, 2006). An outstanding example of its
kind is the free PC game Grouse Hunt which was spread through the internet and
downloaded over 40 million times, tremendously increasing the brand awareness of the
company behind the game, Johnny Walker (Nufer, 2013).

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Ambush Marketing: As the efficiency of traditional marketing methods has been

decreasing over time, alternative methods of marketing communications such as
commercial sponsorships have grown in significance (Meenaghan, 1996). A sponsorship
can be defined as a financial investment to enable the realization of an event with the
sponsor’s aim of creating brand awareness as well as associations to the event in the minds
of the audience (Meenaghan, 1996). Ambush marketers pursue the objective of providing
an impression of association with a major event without being an official sponsor (Bruhn
& Ahlers, 2003; McDaniel & Kinney, 1998). A famous example is the Atlanta Olympics
1996 where Michael Johnson, an American sprinter promoted the sports apparel
manufacturer Nike instead of the official sponsor Reebok (Appendix Nike did
not pay any sponsorship fees; however, individually sponsored the athlete (Davis, 1996).
Following the principles of guerrilla marketing, ambush marketing aims to yield a high
return in form of brand awareness with a minimal investment (Schminke, Koch &
Reinmuth, 2007). Other components of guerrilla marketing and also viral marketing are
the elements of surprise, unconventionality and provocation trying to divert the attention
from official sponsors to their own brand (Bruhn & Ahlers, 2003; Schulte, 2007). This
method of free-riding often maneuvers within a legally diffused area and many major
sport events these days protect themselves with numerous lawyers (Patalas, 2006).

Ambient Marketing: Ambient marketing emerged from classical outdoor advertising

and was turned into a guerrilla variant (Schulte, 2007; Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011). It again
relies on the concept of surprise by placing advertisements in unconventional locations
(Schulte, 2007; Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011). Luxton and Drummond (2000, p. 735)
accurately described ambient advertising as:

“The placement of advertising in unusual and unexpected places (location) often with
unconventional methods (execution) and being first or only ad execution to do so

Advertisements often are placed in the direct social environment of the target segment,
predominantly younger generations, as for example in discotheques, bars or universities
(Patalas, 2006). Ambient medias have no limits concerning material, size or place, they
only have to be placed in the close environment of the target segment, raise awareness,
be relevant as well as accepted by them (Jäckle, 2007; Huber et al., 2009; Schulte, 2007).

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Concrete praxis examples are posters in bathrooms of bars, wash-away graffiti, or even
paintings on the forehead of students (Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011; Jäckel, 2007). Ambient
marketing also orients itself on principles of guerrilla marketing trying to reach a great
number of consumers with little financial expenses (Turk, Ewing & Newton, 2006).
Furthermore, there is a lot of potential for a rapid diffusion of the message and for these
reasons, ambient marketing has one of the largest growth rates among all marketing
instruments (Turk et al., 2006).

Sensation Marketing: The concepts of ambient and sensation marketing are diffusing,
both aiming to surprise and fascinate the target group (Nufer, 2013). The profound
difference is the time-horizon (Nufer, 2013). The term sensation marketing refers to
surprising, unusual, spectacular and special activities that go beyond the “scope of
familiarity” and are one-time happenings (Huber et al., 2009; Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011,
p. 44; Nufer, 2013). While both are placed in familiar environments of their target group,
ambient marketing activities span over a specific amount of time, whereas sensation
marketing actions only occur once and cannot be replicated (Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011).
The objective of sensation marketing is to generate an “aha” or a “wow” effect so that the
advertising message sustains in consumers’ minds and will be diffused through WoM
(Jäckel, 2007; Schulte, 2007; Nufer, 2013). A widely-used example are flash mobs11 as
in the form of massive pillow fights or sudden a freezing of people (Veller, 2012).

2.2.4 Critical Assessment

As a modern form of advertising, guerrilla marketing comes into effect as a flanking
measure as soon as classical advertising in isolation is not able to reach the target group
anymore (Nufer, 2013). However, its underlying principles of unconventionality, surprise
and viral diffusion of the message also bear risks (Huber et al., 2009).

Firstly, the extraordinary and provocative messages maneuver in a legal, moral and
ethical twilight-zone (Huber et al., 2009; Nufer, 2013). Toedter (2006) stated that
especially offensive ambush – as well as ambient marketing actions as for example
spraying graffiti on illegal ground – might have undesirable legal consequences involving
monetary fines. Moreover, if guerrilla marketing actions cross ethical boundaries of the

11A flash mob can be defined as a pointless performance at a public place that is collectively
executed by a gathering of anonymous people (Veller, 2012).

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targeted consumer group, the message might be perceived as obtrusive or irritating and
can cause a feeling of discomfort or even annoyance (Patalas, 2006). In the long run, this
can substantially damage the underlying values and the image of a brand and in the worst-
case lead to a boycott (Kanbach, 2007; Zerr, 2005). An example sets the Italian fashion
brand Benetton which harmed its own brand equity12 by advertising with original pictures
of blood-soaked clothing from slayed soldiers (Appendix 8.2; Galloway, 2017). This
morally and ethically questionable marketing activity crossed a sensitive line and had a
negative impact on the corporate image (Kanbach, 2007).

Secondly, guerrilla marketing lives from its uniqueness and the element of surprise
(Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011; Patalas, 2006; Zerr, 2005). In order to attract attention and
become the point of interest the surprise effect is crucial (Schulte, 2007; Zerr, 2005). This
implicates that an action can only be executed once, because a replication can induce a
wearout effect, lead to boredom and even antipathy toward the brand (Bass et al., 2007;
Toedter, 2006; Patalas, 2006).

Thirdly, the viral diffusion of a message through WoM cannot be sufficiently controlled
(Huber et al., 2009; Leskovec et al., 2007). As mentioned in section 2.2.2 not only positive
but also negative messages can be virally spread. While a successful campaign can
considerably increase the value of a brand, an abortive one can noticeably harm the brand
image and result in a downturn in sales (Schulte, 2007; Toedter, 2006; Zerr, 2005).

As illustrated, guerrilla marketing bears high potential but also considerable risks. In
order to prevent undesirable headlines and negative WoM, which can greatly harm a
brand image, cautious and careful planning is vital (Nufer, 2013).

12 “The differential effect that knowing the brand name has on customer response to the product or
its marketing” (Kotler & Armstrong, 2016, p. 275). If a brand has a positive brand equity, consumers
prefer their products over generic or unbranded versions; whereas, a negative brand equity leads to a
less favorable reaction than to an unbranded version of the same product (Kotler & Armstrong,

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2.3 Lifestyle Brands

In an era in which consumers daily are confronted with up to 5’000 advertising messages
from countless companies, being visible – and therefore the concept of brands – has
become increasingly important (Armstrong et al., 2014; Keller, 2009; Petrecca, 2006). A
brand enables consumers to differentiate between product offerings and make purchasing
decisions; therefore, it is a central value driver and directly impacts a company’s success
(Esch, Tomczak, Kernstock & Langner, 2004). Over the time, brands have changed and
a new category has emerged, the category of symbol intensive brands.

2.3.1 Definition
The American Marketing Association (AMA) defined a brand as a "name, term, design,
symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from
those of other sellers” (American Marketing Association, 2017). The elements described
by the AMA are called brand elements and are, according to Keller (2013), only one part
of the definition of a brand. He complemented “a brand is a set of mental associations,
held by the consumer, which add to the perceived value of a product or service” (Keller,
2013, p. 30). Many managers refer to Keller’s definition as it describes a brand as
something that has created awareness and a certain reputation in the marketplace (Keller,
2013). The key of branding is to create difference among brands and product categories
with the aim to reside in consumer minds (Keller, 2013). In other words, marketers are
creating labels (distinguishing names and/or symbols such as the logo) to identify the
market offerings and assign a meaning to the brand which is regarded as a guarantee for
authenticity and trustworthiness (Batey, 2008; Ghodeswar, 2008; Keller, 2013). This
definition of a brand aims to provide a theoretical background for the subsequent section
about symbol intensive brands, which will be considered in more depth.

2.3.2 Symbol Intensive Brands

The ongoing technological development has minimized differences in product
performances, hence, today’s products face numerous substitutes offering the same
functional benefits 13 (Pawle & Cooper, 2006). The ever-increasing number of offerings
has led to a phenomenon called choice overload – similar to the overstimulation through

13Objective benefits that are based on product attributes, providing functionality such as
performance or durability to the consumer (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013).

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advertising messages – which has changed the purchasing behavior of consumers

(Scheibehenne, Greifeneder & Todd, 2010). Modern consumers choose their products not
only on the basis of functionality, but intangible emotional benefits 14 that are connected
to symbolic value, have become a decisive criterion (Keller, 2013; Saviolo & Marazza,
2013). There are still brands that have their competitive edge based on product
performance as for example the continuously innovating brands Gillette and Merck,
which have been leaders in their product categories for years (Keller, 2013). Such brands
are designed to satisfy consumption needs which were created by the external
environment – in other words, they offer functional benefits (Ghodeswar, 2008).
However, nowadays, marketers need to have a deeper understanding of their target
segment as well as their way of life and insert their brand into the culture of their
consumers (Frias, 2016). Therefore, brands like Apple, Abercrombie & Fitch or Coca-
Cola, which competitive advantage is mostly based on intangible associations to the brand
– emotional benefits – are on the rise (Keller, 2013; Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). So-called
symbol intensive brands15, are able to engage consumers and serve them as a vehicle to
express their personal identity or display a sense of group affiliation (Saviolo & Marazza,
2013). In other words, to consumers it is important what these brands represent or
symbolize, the functionality is only secondary. Brand Map

Saviolo and Marazza (2013) are the creators of the symbol intensive brand map (Figure
3) that categorizes symbol intensive brands on two axes. One dimension is the target
scope representing the size of the market, specifically the number of segments which are
aimed to be served (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). A narrow scope (focus on one product or
segment) can be extended through line extensions to correlated or uncorrelated
segments/categories, increasing the range as well as the variability of products and
services (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). The second, more interesting dimension refers to
the type of benefit the brand delivers (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013; Marazza, 2013). The
category emotional auto-directed benefits can be assigned if the following question can

14 Emotional benefits refer to the experience that is attached to the usage or ownership of a brand and
add richness and depth to it (Aaker, 2014)
15 A symbol-intensive brand is characterized by meanings and qualities that go beyond functional

values (Marazza, 2013).

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be answered: “When I buy or use

this brand I feel …” (Aaker, 2014,
p. 56). The purchase process or use
experience aims to provide a
particular feeling to the consumer
(emotional benefits) and respond
to the individual need of personal
gratification (Aaker, 2014;
Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). An
example would be the feeling of
healthiness through the
consumption of Danone yogurt or Figure 3 - Symbol Intensive Brands Map

the feeling of regeneration through (Developed by Saviolo & Marazza, 2013, p. 39)
drinking Gatorade (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). In contrast, hetero-directed emotional
benefits allow the consumer to express their own or idealized self in a social context
(Aaker, 2014; Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). According to Aaker (2014, p. 57), such self-
expressive benefits can be identified by answering the question: “When I buy or use this
brand I am …”. This is typical for the luxury segment where brands, such as Louis
Vuitton, are seen as status symbols that make people appear “successful” (Saviolo &
Marazza, 2013, p. 37). As soon as a brand allows to express more than individual aspects
of a personality and connects people to a social group by providing a sense of identity
and belongingness, it offers social benefits (Aaker, 2014; Saviolo & Marazza, 2013).
These benefits answer the question: “When I buy or use this brand, the type of people I
relate to are …” (Aaker, 2014, p. 58). In this case, the social context can define a person
and influences buying decisions (Aaker, 2014). Individuals seek a ”membership to a
certain lifestyle” and satisfaction of the needs for belongingness and self-actualization
(Saviolo & Marazza, 2013, p. 37). Groups of people who share the same values and try
to express these through products of a particular brand, become more than just loyal
consumers but rather act as brand ambassadors, fans or brand champions that perceived
the brand as irreplaceable – a famous example is the Harley-Davidson community
(Saviolo & Marazza, 2013).

The bottom line is that emotional, self-expressive and social benefits can establish deeper
relationships as well as stronger loyalty than functional benefits (Aaker, 2014). According

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to Saviolo and Marazza (2013), a brand needs first and foremost strong functional benefits
in order to move into the area of symbolic value creation (offering emotional, self-
expressive and social benefits). Especially lifestyle brands, which firmly associate
themselves to a certain lifestyle, deliver strong social benefits (for a summary of all brands
refer to Appendix 8.3) (Marazza, 2013). Lifestyle brands commonly symbolize change
and target young consumers – promising preconditions for guerrilla marketing (Marazza,

2.3.3 Lifestyle Brands

Lifestyle brands have emerged through an increasingly strong connection between social
identities of people and brands (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). The social identity is a part
of a person’s dynamic self-concept that is based on the value and significance of a social
group membership (Tajfel, 2010). In other words, it is the perception about either
themselves as an individual or as a member of a social group (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013).
Lifestyle brands capture this social identity, not only enabling individuals to associate
with an anticipated self-image but also with a desired group; therefor, they deliver social
benefits (Ghodeswar, 2008). Social groups share values, symbols and a common language
and often influence consumption patterns (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). In that sense, a
lifestyle brand ”inspires, guides and motivates beyond product benefits alone, but is also
capable of contributing to the definition of lifestyle of those who adapt it” (Saviolo &
Marazza 2013, p. 2). Lifestyle Definition

To better understand the concept of lifestyle brands, it might be helpful to step back and
question the core term lifestyle itself. The concept has been defined by psychologists in
various ways, from an analytical construct to an individual unique world interpretation to
cultural trends and consumption patterns (Adler, 1931; Saviolo & Marazza, 2013).
Because a lifestyle suggests a way of life and might help to predict consumption patterns,
it traditionally has been used by companies for psychographic customer segmentation (De
Mooij, 2010; Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). However, the concept has become far more
important for consumers themselves, because for them brands are bearer of an ideology
which indicates a way of life (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). Based on that, De Mooij (2010)
defined lifestyle as consumption patterns that are influenced by shared values or tastes.
Another, more comprehensive description of the mental construct is offered by the Dutch

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consumer psychologists Antonides and Van Raaij (1998, p. 377): “Lifestyle is the entire
set of values, interests, opinions and behavior of consumers”. This definition is backed
by Plummer (1974) who further specified the individual elements: interests represent
important things to people, opinions describe the feeling of people about themselves and
their environment, and the behavior of consumers, which Plummer labelled as activities,
refers to individual spending patterns of time and money (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013).
Therefore, as soon as a brand establishes an own world view which is shared by a group
of people and represents a lifestyle in terms of values, opinions and interests, it becomes
a lifestyle brand (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013).

Once a brand has a clear and coherent point of view it has to communicate the relevant
values; a widespread instrument is storytelling 16 (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). These
stories must engage, be memorable and emotionally involve brand ambassadors in order
to be virally spread among like-minded people (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). Consistency
and authenticity are the underlying success factors for a way of life to be accepted and its
communication has to be understandable (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). Communication is
not foremost about persuasion through functional attributes but predominantly about
storytelling and inspiration and heavily relies on symbolic elements as well as image-
based interactions (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). In order to foster WoM, the story has to
be “simple, unexpected, concrete, credible, emotional and full of anecdotes (stories)”
which is summarized in the acronym “SUCCES” (Saviolo & Marazza, 2013, p. 73).
Another crucial factor is the communication with communities of customers that can be
physical or virtual, which requires properly managed social media activities (Saviolo &
Marazza, 2013). In a nutshell, the story has to be aligned to the brand’s values and the
communication must be emotionally involving in order for the story and the attached
ideology to be spread.

In summary, an attractively designed advertisement being served to carefully targeted

consumers does not automatically translate into sales anymore (Frias, 2016). Marketers
need to have a deep understanding of their consumers and provide an experience that they
crave for. In other words, a lifestyle brand has to connect to its consumers and become a
part of their way of life.

16Story productions that are built around archetypal myths including products and services which
are given an anthropomorphic identity. (Holt & Thompson, 2004; Wertime, 2002)

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2.4 Culture
Only recently, Andrea Monica Hug, a Swiss journalist and writer of the blog Chic in
Zurich, described the Swiss culture as introverted and distant, after returning from the
United States (Zanni, 2017). Anne Liebgott, a representative of US-Expats, explained that
many American citizens, which are known for their openness and cordiality, have trouble
understanding the Swiss reservedness (Zanni, 2017a). This raises the question of how the
construct of culture can be defined and to what extend it influences people’s lives.
Therefore, this section starts with presenting a general overview on culture before
focusing on Swiss culture.

2.4.1 Definition
Over the years, social scientists have taken several approaches to conceptualize the term
culture. Various definitions have emerged but none which is generally agreed upon. From
the numerous academics, Herskovits (1955) interpreted culture as the parts of the human
environment that are man-made; while according to Hall (1959, p. 169) “culture is
communication and communication is culture”. Birdwhistell (1970, p. 318) also included
communication into his definition of culture, however, according to him, culture and
communication are two different ways of representing “structured interconnectedness”.
In addition, he added that while culture is responsible for the structure, communication
has its focus on the process (Birdwhistell, 1970).

After reviewing many theories of

culture, Keesing concluded that culture
can either be described as an adaptive
or an ideational system which is
depicted in Figure 4 (Gudykunst &
Ting-Toomey, 1988). Supporter of the
adaptive-system-theory emphasize the
Figure 4 - Theories of Culture
connection between the individual and
(Based on Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey, 1988) the environment; such as Harris (1968),
describing customs and the way of life as specific behavioral patterns that characterize a
group. Especially in the 1960’s and 1970’s, many ideational theories about the concept
of culture emerged – describing culture as a cognitive system, a structural system, or a
symbolic system (Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey, 1988). While Goodenough (1961), an

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advocate of the cognitive system, centered common standards that determine feelings,
behavior and the view of the world, Lévi-Strauss (1971), an advocate of the structural
system theory, focused on structuring the components of culture which consists of
common symbolic systems created by the minds. In contrast, Geertz (1966) used for his
definition of a symbolic system the octopus as a metaphor; separately integrated tentacles
all lead to the brain, which connects them to an entity and ensures its preservation.

Peterson (1979, p. 159) reviewed various conceptualizations, identified the shared

elements and defined culture as “a map for behavior”. Building on this and various other
definitions that are summarized by Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey, van den Bergh (n.d., p.
5) stated:

“Culture is defined as the learned beliefs, values, rules, norms, symbols, and traditions
that are common to a group of people. It is these shared qualities of a group that make
them unique. Culture is dynamic and transmitted to others. In short, culture is the way of
life, customs, and script of a group of people”

Given the inclusiveness of this definition it is accepted as the working definition of

culture. Hofstede, Hofstede and Minkov (2012) added that the social environment
mentally programs the way of thinking, feeling and acting of a person. This led to a we
(in-group) and they (out-group) thinking and the emergence of nations 17 (Hofstede et al.,
2012). Individuals are shaped by culture and their social groupings, therefore, culture and
individuals are interconnected and do not independently exist (De Mooij, 2010). Also,
the historical context has an influence on shared beliefs, attitudes, norms roles and values
– culture can therefore be seen as the memory of society (De Mooij, 2010). In short,
national cultures define who people are, what they do and how they do it (Hofstede et al.,
2012; Usunier & Lee, 2009). In order to identify cultural differences, Hofstede
distinguished symbols, heroes and rituals, which are visible practices or expressions of
culture, as well as values, the invisible aspects of culture (De Mooij, 2010). Moreover,
based on empirical data, he identified five dimensions of culture in order to analyze

17Every human is assumed to belong to a certain nation which are political units and together build
the entire world (Hofstede et al., 2012). In other words, “nations are groups of people linked by
unifying traits and the desire to control a territory that is thought of as the group’s national
homeland” (Barrington, 1997, p. 713).

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differences in consumer behavior (De Mooij, 2010). However, these concepts have no
direct relevance to this research and are therefore not further elaborated.

2.4.2 Swiss Culture

Even if some cultures share common traits like the language, the religion or a similar
social class, each culture is distinct and has its own characteristics (Oertig-Davidson,
2006; Usunier & Lee, 2009). It becomes even more complex to characterize nations like
Switzerland which has four linguistic regions that partly have adapted to the cultures of
its neighbor countries (Bilton, 2013; Maycock, 2016). 63% of the Swiss people speak
German and build the foundation of the solid Swiss economy (Bilton, 2013; SWI, 2016).
The second-most spread language is French with 23% followed by Italian with 8% and
Romansh with less than 1%, of total 8.1 million citizens (Maycock, 2016; SWI, 2016).
The federation is divided into 26 cantons which almost act like small-scale countries
(Bilton, 2013). However, despite differences in attitude and behavior, some tensions
between the German- and the French speakers as well as a few people that stronger
identify themselves with the culture of the neighboring country, there is still a common
culture that connects the federation and builds a national identity (Bilton, 2013).
Therefore, cultural varieties within Switzerland are acknowledged; however, this study
considers the shared national identity and does not separate the language regions. Hence,
generalized character traits of Swiss people that might have an influence on the attitude
toward guerrilla marketing are subsequently illustrated. Swiss Characteristics

An important sphere of culture is the attitude toward time (Usunier & Lee, 2009).
Especially for Switzerland, time is a central concept or as the advertising slogan of the
former national airline Swissair depicted: “Time is Everything” (Bilton, 2013, p. 73). It
is well-known that Swiss people are überpünktlich – literally, over punctual which is
considered to be correct, whereas being late is seen as impolite (Bilton, 2013, p. 73;
Oertig-Davidson, 2006). This implicates that Swiss try to function in an organized way
as efficient as possible (Bilton, 2013).
Moreover, Swiss are considered to be conservative, reserved and to rely on traditional
ideas which have proven to be successful in the past (Bilton, 2013). Their traditional
mindset is also mirrored in important little daily rituals as for instance waiting for
everyone before start eating and start the meal with saying en guete (engl. enjoy your

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meal) or looking people in the eye while cheering (Oertig-Davidson, 2006). Such
established rituals are a way to express good manner and are highly valued by the
conservative Swiss (Oertig-Davidson, 2006). The apparent reticence of Swiss people is
not only discussed in literature, but it also a topic of conversation in many online blogs
and forums. Many people discussing on such platforms, mainly non-Swiss citizens,
described the average Swiss person as very polite but reserved (English Forum
Switzerland (EFS), 2013).

Other interesting characterizations, having the framework of guerrilla marketing in mind,

include holding-back, shy, suspicious and wary (EFS, 2013). Remembering that guerrilla
marketing heavily relies on the element of surprise and intrinsic motivation to disseminate
a message, these might not be the most desirable preconditions. However, for a profound
understanding of the Swiss culture further aspects need to be considered. As depicted in
the definition of culture, also communication is a fundamental part and will therefore be
elaborated in more detail. Swiss Communication

Even though the Swiss are a “hard nut to crack”, once it is cracked, most private and
personal spaces are disclosed (Bradley, 2016; Oertig-Davidson, 2006; van den Bergh,
n.d.). Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) introduced in their book Riding the
Waves of Culture the framework of cross-cultural communication including the
dimension specific versus diffuse which also can be described as peach- versus coconut-
cultures (Figure 4) (Oertig-Davidson, 2006; van den Bergh, n.d.). This sphere is
concerned with the boundaries of private and public life spaces, meaning to what degree
people engage others in their lives (Oertig-Davidson, 2006). In specific cultures, such as
the United States, the public space overwhelms the private space which means that people
readily share with others and do not clearly distinguish between friends and non-friends
(Oertig-Davidson, 2006; van den Bergh, n.d.). Information is shared between a wide
range of people in a relaxed, open and personal manner (Oertig-Davidson, 2006).
Relationships are built in specific areas of life and are considered in isolation – the only
close relationships, illustrated by the small inner layer, are usually reserved to family
(Oertig-Davidson, 2006; van den Bergh, n.d.). In the large public area, people know each
other for limited purposes which implicates that there is not a deep commitment to the

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relationship and communication happens on a superficial level (Oertig-Davidson, 2006;

van den Bergh, n.d.).

Figure 5 - Specific versus Diffuse Cultures

(Based on van den Bergh, n.d.)

On the contrary, in diffuse cultures such as Germany or Switzerland, also called coconut-
cultures, there is a clear distinction between acquaintances in the outer layer and friends
and family in the inner layer (Oertig-Davidson, 2006). While in the small public area little
personal information is relinquished, in the inner layer – the private area – each life space
and every level of personality is overlapping (van den Bergh, n.d.). Once the permission
is granted to enter the wide private area, access to all life spaces is available and personal
information is subject to communication which can be the basis for deep and long-lasting
relationships (Oertig-Davidson, 2006; van den Bergh, n.d.). Hence, while specific
cultures can appear as superficial, people from diffuse cultures can be described as caring
and loyal – once the shell of the coconut is cracked (van den Bergh, n.d.). Communication
also is important in a business context which is a sphere to uncover cultural characteristics
form a different angle. Hence, the next section is dedicated to the Swiss business behavior
and way of negotiating. Negotiating International Business in Switzerland

If one knows how to negotiate with people from another culture, one also knows how to
communicate with them (Cai & Drake, 1998). A negotiation is a strategic interaction in
which two or more independent parties, with conflicting interests, try to reach a mutual
agreement in order to cooperate and realize own goals in the best possible way (Ehlich &
Wagner, 1995; Walton & Krabbe, 1995). Analyzing the Swiss negotiation behavior

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discloses cultural traits in a business environment which serve as a complement to the

characteristics that already have been discussed.

Katz (2006) confirmed the cultural influence of neighboring countries on the various
Swiss regions; however, he also supported the opinion that many cultural values as well
as the Swiss proudness of their country build a common identity. Swiss have a conflict-
avoiding attitude, are no debating culture and tend to reach resolutions by logical
reasoning and facts (Katz, 2006; Oertig-Davidson, 2002). Swiss business people are
experienced in the interaction with other cultures but also can be ethnocentric and are
known for treating outside influence with caution, especially outside of Zurich and
Geneva, the international business centers of the country (Katz, 2006). Swiss are
described as cautious, reserved and keeping business and private life separate which
prolongs the complex process of building trust and personal relationships; hence, the
concept of a diffuse culture also applies in a business context (Katz, 2006; Oertig-
Davidson, 2002). Consequently, negotiation techniques that involve personal
relationships rarely work (Katz, 2006). In contrast, emotional negotiation techniques,
including arouse a feeling of guiltiness or happiness, can sporadically be employed (Katz,
2006). Generally, in order to win trust, personal integrity and dependability are important
factors (Katz, 2006). Once the necessary trust is established, Swiss people become loyal
business partners (Katz, 2006).

Business people tend to slowly speak in a quiet and gentle manner, emotions are not
openly displayed and interrupting others is considered impolite (Katz, 2006).
Communication is typically direct and there is a spare use of non-verbal communication
(Katz, 2006; Oertig-Davidson, 2002). Accordingly, Swiss prefer to start with business
conversations instead of small talk (Katz, 2006; Oertig-Davidson, 2002). Presentations
should be held clear and concise; there is a general suspicious behavior against hype and
exaggerations as well as aggressive sales approaches, which is known from the Unites
States (Katz, 2006). Quite the contrary, Swiss are known for understatement and being
modest (Oertig-Davidson, 2002).

In a nutshell, Swiss are slow negotiators due to their methodical and carefully planned
approach (Katz, 2006; Oertig-Davidson, 2002). Personal feelings and experiences tend to
be considered irrelevant in business negotiations and empirical evidences a well as other

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objective facts are primary influencers of the risk-averse decision-making process (Katz,
2006). They have a systematic, monochronic work style and dislike interruptions;
therefore, they are sometimes perceived as closed-minded and overly restrictive by other
cultures. Straightforward and honest negotiations are appreciated and techniques as
telling lies, making false demands and concessions may jeopardize trust which takes a
long time to build and is an essential element for negotiations, especially in Switzerland
(Katz, 2006). Advertising Styles

Another dimension that is more closely related to marketing and also directly influences
the execution of guerrilla marketing is the advertising style which determines the content
of the message and can either be direct or indirect (De Mooij, 2010). Indirect messages
are applicable in high-context communication18 and are characterized by implicit,
transformational messages using emotions and little information to approach the
customer; whereas, direct messages are commonly applied in low-context
communication19 and distinguish themselves by being precise, to the point, relevant and
informational by providing meaningful facts (De Mooij, 2010). According to Hofstede
(Appendix 8.4), Switzerland can be described as an individualistic culture of relatively
strong uncertainty avoidance and, as mentioned in the Swiss negotiation behavior, Swiss
people prefer serious, structured and detailed information – hence fall into the category
of direct advertising (De Mooij, 2010). This might have an impact on the message design
of guerrilla marketing actions.

In summary, important elements of the Swiss stereotype 20 that might influence the
success of guerrilla marketing are tradition, wariness and diffuseness. Tradition can be
connected to the attitude of conservativeness and wariness. This construct implies that
Swiss people have a tendency to the known and might try to avoid the unknown/new.
However, Swiss people share a lot of information with their social environment, meaning
once a message has touched their personal space, it has the potential to be widely spread.

18 In high-context communication, a lot of information is retrieved from the environment and/or

interpreted by the person; the message itself has little content (De Mooij, 2010.
19 In low-context communication the message includes explicit information and there is little need

for personal interpretation (De Mooij, 2010).

English and English (1958, p. 253) provided a typical definition, among social psychologist, by
describing a stereotype as “a relatively rigid and oversimplified or biased perception of conception
of an aspect of reality, especially of persons or social groups, …”

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2.5 Connecting Concepts

The previous sections individually described marketing, lifestyle brands and culture. This
chapter connects these three concepts. Firstly, marketing and culture are cumulatively
considered. Secondly, a link between marketing and lifestyle brands is established. In
both cases, marketing instead of specifically guerrilla marketing is subject of the analysis
in order to support it with existing literature. Implications for guerrilla marketing are
discussed in the findings. Lastly, an inclusive model, illustrating the relation of the three
core concepts, is introduced.

2.5.1 Marketing and Culture

“Communication and culture reciprocally influence each other” (Gudykunst & Ting-
Toomey, 1988, p. 17). This opening quotation aptly represents the view of many
academics when communication and culture are mentioned together and argued for
adaption to the particular environment. However, not all academics agreed and some
argued in favor of standardized marketing strategies (also refer to section 2.1.2).

The fundamental basis of the standardization school of thought is the believe that there is
no international variance of consumers’ needs and wants (Vrontis & Thrassou, 2007). In
other words, global consumers have the same demands and a single marketing strategy
that provides low costs and consistency should be applied (Vrontis & Thrassou, 2007).
The most influential endorsers of this point of view are Theodore Levitt, Michael E.
Porter and George S. Yip, which argued on the basis of the theory of economies-of-scale
and the potential to enhance product quality (Shoham, 1996). The origin of the later
debate over standardization versus adaption lies in Levitt’s controversial position, arguing
for “standardized products and practices on the entire globe” (Levitt, 1983, p. 102).
According to this position, a company should make use of the same advertising,
promotions, prices and channels in each market to maximize efficiency (Shoham, 1996).
Samiee and Roth (1992) named Coca-Cola, McDonald’s and IBM as examples of
multinational corporations that have standardized elements of their marketing strategy.

On the other hand, supporters of the adaption theory believe that marketers have to adjust
to macroenvironmental factors and tailor their marketing strategy to the local market
environment (Vrontis & Thrassou, 2007). De Mooij (2010) documented that failure of

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recognizing communications differences is the cause for many cross-cultural clashes. In

order to illustrate this connection, the classic communication model is seized again (refer
to section Communication is effective, if the message can be decoded by the
receiver so that it can be understood as intended by the sender (De Mooij, 2010). Cultural
knowledge and characteristics are the basis for the creation of an advertising message,
which per se only is a symbolic artifact without the decryption of the receiver (De Mooij,
2010). De Mooij (2013) further described that advertising often appeals to lacking
elements in society; for instance, in countries where family coherence is lacking a happy
family is more often portrayed.

Therefore, if the same advertising message was used across cultures, it might be irrelevant
or faultily interpreted because the underlying cultural knowledge is missing – especially
in high-context cultures. Not only communication, but all marketing mix determinants
and the marketing strategy have to be altered an adjusted to meet specific market needs
and suit local tastes (Cho & Cheon, 2005; Harris & Attour, 2003; Koudelova &
Whitelock, 2001).

There is no right or wrong approach, it always depends on the company and the situation.
Some advantages of both strategies are summarized in Appendix 8.5. However, by
comparing contemporary academic articles, a pattern emerges. Even though some
marketers suggest homogenous desires of a global youth segment with the internet being
the example of global communication, most communication efforts are localized and
tailored to local markets (De Mooij, 2013). Marketing is a universal concept; however,
its practice varies due to unique countries with unique people (Keegan & Schlegelmilch,
2001). This is appropriately reflected by De Mooij (2013, p. 5): “There may be global
products, but there are no global people. There may be global brands, but there are no
global motivations for buying those brands”. This infers that even if the product can be
the same in many markets, the purchase behavior has to be differently triggered.
According to this statement, some elements of the marketing mix can be standardized,
such as the product; however, the communication has to be adjusted.

2.5.2 Marketing and Lifestyle Brands

During the last decades, there was has been a shift from a production to a consumer
society with brands becoming a powerful life-shaping force (Kornberger, 2010). Brands

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can be defined as “ready-made identities” and with the lifestyle concept, they profoundly
shape our way of living (Kornberger, 2010, p. xii). At the same time, the marketing
landscape experienced a dramatic change and the effectiveness of mass media has been
eroded (Bianco, 2004; O’Leary, 2003; Pendleton, 2004). This section analyzes how
modern lifestyle brands can be effectively promoted.

Based on the assumption that all customers have similar needs and wants, companies used
to produce and sell a single product for one single segment, the mass market (Michman,
Mazze & Greco, 2003). As described in the previous section this is no longer the case.
An additional reason for this shift is the technological development that has enabled
companies to collect more information about consumers which is the basis for a more
narrowly defined target market with more specific needs (Michman, Mazze & Greco,
2003). Small homogenous segments can be identified based on their activities, interests
and opinions (AIO research) or their values, beliefs and lifestyle (VALS) which are part
of psychographic segmentations (Michman et al., 2003; Sathish & Rajamohan, 2012). A
lifestyle, which is an umbrella term of a “person’s attitudes, values, interests, opinions
and his over behavior” depicts the entire person interacting with the environment (Sathish
& Rajamohan, 2012, p. 152f). Therefore, an according segmentation allows marketers to
better understand their customers and tailor their marketing efforts toward a carefully
segmented target group (Michman et al., 2003).

Technology and the internet not only changed the segmentation approach of companies,
but also the marketing communication environment while at the same time elevating
branding to a key marketing activity. Branding aims to add value by enhancing brand
equity, the intangible value of a brand, which is based on consumers’ perception about it.
Marketing communication symbolizes the voice of the company and aims to build
relationships with and among consumers. Mass media instruments, above all television
(TV) advertising, used to be successful tools to reach a wide target segment. As an
example, fifty years back, Procter & Gamble was able to reach 80% of US women with
one 30-second Tide commercial synchronously aired on three TV channels. Nowadays,
customers are more fragmented due to an overabundance of media offerings and new
channels to reach them which is why the consulting company McKinsey assumed that
traditional TV advertising has lost two-thirds of its effectiveness in the last twenty years.
In this new media landscape, in which consumers are exposed up to 5’000 advertising

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messages a day, many consumers have started to actively avoid or ignore them – changing
the way of advertising (also refer to section 2.1.2) (Keller, 2009; Petrecca, 2006).

In recent years, a trend toward interactive marketing communication could be observed

mainly due to the internet which enables much greater customer interaction and
individualization (Keller, 2009). However, for lifestyle branding the channel is not the
most important factor, the fundamental element is to consistently market in line with the
company’s values (Solomon, n.d.). If interactive online or traditional offline
communication, the brand personality has to be consistently visible and integrated in all
communication efforts (Keller, 2009). In addition, a brand has to establish strong,
emotional connections with consumers and that exactly is how lifestyle brands market
themselves (Jung & Merlin, 2003). Lifestyle brands distinguish themselves by delivering
emotional, self-expressive and social benefits which have to be promoted through a
variety of communication channels (Jung & Merlin, 2003; Keller, 2009; Naik & Raman,
2003). Depending on the consumer response or brand association a marketer tries to elicit,
different marketing communication options are most suitable (Edell & Keller 1999;
Keller, 2009). Lifestyle brands, no matter if they sell cars, clothing or alcohol, want to
sell an image of what people want to be and they have to consistently market these
aspirations and the connected values (Solomon, n.d.). The fundamental principle of
lifestyle branding is to identify a lifestyle that the target group strives for and mirror it in
communication efforts (Solomon, n.d.). Apple for example, a successful lifestyle brand,
not only sells qualitatively state of the art products, but it provides its customers with the
feeling of being a trendsetter; or Lululemon, the brand selling yoga wear and accessories,
justifies the higher price with selling the feeling of being fashionable, wealthy and sporty
(Solomon, n.d.). Kornberger (2010, p. 13) expressed a brand as the formula: “brand =
functionality + meaning”, the meaning being the brand equity. Because lifestyle is an
abstract, intangible construct, it is exactly this meaning which has to be in the foreground
of lifestyle branding (Jung & Merlin, 2003; Solomon, n.d.).

In summary, lifestyle brands have to exhibit a consistent personality throughout their

marketing communication efforts and market on the basis of emotional, self-expressive
and social benefits – attach meanings to the brand rather than functional benefits.

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2.5.3 Model Context Effects on Guerilla Marketing

To provide an overview, how all three concepts are connected, a newly developed model
is introduced. As disclosed in the previous sections, marketing, within the framework of
this research, is influenced by two different dimensions: culture and lifestyle brands. Both
influence the marketing process (section 2.1.1) at every stage; however, the focus of this
investigation lies on guerrilla marketing activities, which mainly fall into the categories
marketing strategy and integrated marketing program. Therefore, the connection
between culture, lifestyle brands and these two categories is examined in more depth. The
latter category can be further divided into the marketing mix of which one element is
communication – an elemental part of guerrilla marketing (refer to section 2.1.1). Thus,
instead of including the whole marketing process into the model, only the relevant
elements of marketing strategy and communication are extracted, as visualized in Figure
6, which enable a more specific analysis.

Integrated Profitable Capture

Understand Marketing
marketing customer customer
customers strategy
program relationships value

Figure 6 - The Marketing Process (Focus)

(Based on Kotler & Armstrong, 2016)

Before introducing the model, the purpose of this research is recalled. It is designed to
elaborate success factors for lifestyle brands in Switzerland that plan to engage in guerrilla
marketing. Hence, the influence of lifestyle brands and culture on the execution of
guerrilla marketing is the focal point. The model is constructed in a way that the outer
layers build the basis for the inner layers and accordingly influence them. It illustrates
how both concepts impact the marketing strategy which in turn influences the individual
communication efforts and ultimately the practicability of guerrilla marketing. There
could also be an influence from the inside toward the outside, for instance if lifestyle
brands start to heavily engage in guerrilla marketing activities, a previously rather
conservative culture might become more open-minded. However, because the guerrilla
marketing activity itself is the center of this study, only the influences from the outwards
directed dimensions toward guerrilla marketing are examined and not vice versa.

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Figure 7 - Context Effects on Guerrilla Marketing

The planning of a guerrilla marketing activity is an interplay of many aspects and next to
communication and marketing experts, also people that are aware of the cultural
environment as well as people which have a full understanding of the brand have to be
involved. The design and execution of a guerrilla marketing activity is based on
knowledge and experience of all these different fields. This knowledge has to be
amalgamated, hence, the communication process between the different experts is crucial
but also critical; communication between experts from different fields might be subject
of misinterpretation.

This model highlights how the three core pillars of this study are interrelated and also
underlines the importance of expertise from various fields. On the one hand, by linking
the three main concepts of this study it represents the end of the theoretical framework
and on the other hand, it serves as a starting point for the ensuing empirical research.
Before the findings are disclosed and discussed, the research method is revealed.

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3. Methodology
The methodology section provides a short review of the underlying objective of this
research as well as an account of procedures that were applied to answer the research

Researchers commonly follow one of two common paradigms, or a combination of the

two: the quantitative or the qualitative research method (Creswell, 2013; Langdridge &
Hagger-Johnson, 2009; Steckler, McLeroy, Goodman, Bird & McCormick, 1992).
Simply defined, researches which involve numbers are of quantitative nature in contrast
to qualitative research in which numbers are not central (Langdridge & Hagger-Johnson,
2009). The deductive quantitative method is “verification and outcome oriented” and
analyzed in more detail first (Steckler et al., 1992, p. 2). Its primary objective is to
quantify, which includes measuring and counting, a phenomenon (Steckler et al., 1992).
Aligaga and Gunderson (2000) described quantitative research as the mathematical
analysis of numerical collected data in order to explain a phenomenon. Muijs (2010)
supported this definition and further defined quantitative research as numerical data
collection and its analysis based on mathematical methods which often involves the use
of statistics. Common data collection instruments are questionnaires, surveys or tests
which transform data into quantitative data (Muijs, 2010). If accurately measured, claims
with a certain degree of certainty, about the study object can be made (Langdridge &
Hagger-Johnson, 2009). However, accuracy, which implies the reach of a representative
sample, is also a major difficulty due to an often insufficient response rate (Langdridge
& Hagger-Johnson, 2009). The main advantages of quantitative research, thanks to its
numerical nature, is its objectivity, reliability and potential generalizability, which is why
the quantitative view sometimes is described as being realist (Muijs, 2010; Steckler et al.,
1992). In the realist view, research uncovers an existing reality, in contrast to the world
view of qualitative research which can be defined as subjectivist; according to this point
of view, reality is partly constructed by individuals (Muijs, 2010; Steckler et al., 1992).

Qualitative researches do not believe that there is a general truth that can objectively be
discovered through research, however, the role of human subjectivity is at the center of
this research process (Langdridge & Hagger-Johnson, 2009; Muijs, 2010). The type of
data in qualitative research is non-numerical which means that it has not been quantified
(Steckler et al., 1992). It is of inductive nature, meaning “discovery and process oriented”

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and is primarily concerned with text and meaning (Langdridge & Hagger-Johnson, 2009;
Steckler et al., 1992, p. 2). Text-based data collection often involves case studies or a
small number of interviews in various forms (Langdridge & Hagger-Johnson, 2009;
Muijs, 2010). The qualitative approach often offers more depth, unexpected insights into
the object and also a more flexible research process (Langdridge & Hagger-Johnson,
2009; Steckler et al., 1992). On the other hand, the subjective findings are not statistically
representative and therefore cannot be generalized (Langdridge & Hagger-Johnson, 2009;
Steckler et al., 1992).

For the analysis of success factors for lifestyle brands that engage in guerrilla marketing
within the context of the Swiss culture, secondary literature, professional articles, studies,
statistics, case studies and qualitative interviews were used for data collection. A flexible
explorative research design was suitable for this study due to its thematic variety.
Depending on the field of expertise, the research process could be adapted which allowed
for an in-depth analysis of each thematic area that went beyond the possibilities of
quantitative methods. Moreover, to connect the three varying concepts, human experience
was more valuable than numerical data gathered through quantitative research. The author
waived the option to conduct a quantitative research, such as surveys and questionnaires,
mainly due to its inflexibility to adapt to the environment – close-ended questions have a
limited set of answer possibilities. Moreover, time restraints could have led to an
insufficient sample, impacting the statistical accuracy as described above. Before the
research method is described in more detail, the principal questions are restated to focus
the attention on the purpose of this paper.

- What differentiates lifestyle brands from normal brands?

- Which marketing strategies are successfully applied by lifestyle brands?
- What distinguishes the Swiss culture from other cultures in term of attitude toward
- How do companies brand themselves in Switzerland and what are typical
advertising instruments that are used?
- Does the way of advertising in Switzerland substantially vary with the company

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3.1 Literature
The review of existing literature served to establish a theoretical framework of all
research-relevant concepts. In order to avoid misunderstandings about the key concepts
of this research, a preliminary terminology delimitation as well as working definitions
were provided in the theoretical framework. Theories, models, definitions and
assessments of numerous academics have been scrutinized and contrasted with each other
to assure validity and reliability. Furthermore, recent publications indicated the current
state of research which was especially valuable for the derivation of the interview

3.2. Interviews
Qualitative interviews were conducted with nine interview participants from different
fields of expertise: two experts in the field of cross-cultural competences, three academic
and three practical marketing experts. These three categories are only umbrella terms to
establish categories; however, every interview partner has a different field of expertise
and was accordingly chosen. The participants were selected based on literature
references, individual publications and/or recommendations of other experts.

The leading aim of the interviews with the experts in culture was to identify
characteristics of the Swiss mentality and evaluate their supportiveness of guerrilla
marketing campaigns. The marketing and brand experts were primarily questioned in
order to assess marketing and guerrilla marketing campaigns and commonly applied
marketing instruments in Switzerland. To promote structure and hence validity, a
structured interview with a standardized set of questions was applied and provided to the
participants in advance. The underlying questions of all interviews were identical, just the
approach respectively the context provided around the questions strongly varied with the
expert. In order that areas of interest could be explored, the majority of the questions were
formulated as open questions, enabling the question to be answered based on experience,
or as probing questions to explore responses in a particular direction. To enhance the
quality of the questionnaire, it was tested with a psychologist and expert in qualitative
research from University of Zurich and adaptions in terms of sentence structures and
formulations were conducted. After the first test run, the order of the questions was
rearranged for a smooth transition between the topics. To start with the field of expertise
of the respective expert, two different chronologies were developed, one for cultural and

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one for marketing experts. Moreover, the first interview partner as well as the supervisor
of this research provided new insights from a different angle which led to the inclusion
of two additional questions. On the other hand, one question was removed, because it did
not offer any additional value. For the derivation of the interview questions refer to
Appendix 8.6.

For the subsequent analysis of the interviews, a transcription system was needed in order
to convert the spoken words of the interviews into a text document. To assure accuracy
and enable a subsequent scientific evaluation with potential for interpretations, all
interviews, except one, were audio recorded and transcribed according to the system of
Wörtliche Transkription, meaning a word for word transcription rather than a summarized
transcription (Höld, 2007; Ottenschläger, 2004). Mayring (2014, p. 45) also described it
as “clean read” or “smooth verbatim transcript”; a word for word transcription which
excludes utterances as “uhm” or “ah” and decorating words as “you know”. Furthermore,
dialects are not maintained and translated into standard language (Mayring, 2014). The
content-thematic level is in the focus which is also why there was no need of a
Kommentierte Transkription (engl. commented transcription), which includes many
nonverbal aspects (Höld, 2007; Ottenschläger, 2004). The interviews were conducted in
Swiss German, German or English; the language in which the interviewee felt most
confident in. Interviews held in Swiss German, were translated into German according to
Mayring (2002). Thereby, dialects, grammatical mistakes, sentence structure and style
were corrected (Mayring, 2002). All detailed transcription rules, which are based on the
guidelines of Kuckartz, Dresing, Rädiker & Stefer (2008), are stated in Appendix 8.7.
This transcription system could not be applied to one interviewee which did not allow to
be recorded. In that case, as many information as possible were noted during the interview
and a form of summarized protocol was compiled (Höld, 2007).

The expert interviews have a qualitative, no quantitative, nature and were accordingly
treated. For the analysis, the socio-cultural background of the communicator, which is
depicted at the beginning of each interview protocol, was taken into consideration. All
answers were examined within the context of the interviewees background in order to
identify and control potentially biased statements. The next part described the approach
of the interview analysis.

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3.3. Methodological Approach

While the last chapters established the research structure, this section now presents the
analytical approach of this research. To establish a direction of analysis, the goal of the
analysis has first to be determined. Language material can be interpreted in various ways;
explorative research studies, such as this one, mostly intend to analyze the content of the
text, which is also the chief aim of these interviews. Therefore, the method of qualitative
content analysis with focus on the subform of Inhaltliche Strukturierung (engl. content
structuring) is presented (Mayring, 2010, p. 94).

3.3.1 Qualitative Content Analysis: Content Structuring

The qualitative content analysis describes an evaluation procedure of qualitative research
and aims to systematically and theoretically analyze communication in written form
(Mayring, 2010). The main idea of qualitative content analysis is to present forms of
interpretation in a describable and verifiable way by following content analytical rules
and step by step models (Appendix 8.9; Mayring, 2010). According to Gläser and Laudel
(1999), openness and theory-guided research, two contradictory procedural principles,
are synthesized by qualitative content analysis. Therefore, it establishes a link between
qualitative and quantitative methods due to a rule-based allocation of categories to the
textual material which can build the basis for a further quantitative processing (Mayring,
2014; Mayring, 2010).

The qualitative content analysis can be divided into three basic forms: summary,
explication, and structuring whereby each of these forms has subforms (Mayring, 2014;
Mayring 2010). In order to extract a certain structure from the qualitative expert
interviews, rather than summarizing it or explaining certain passages, the analysis is based
on the content-analytical method of structuring which is described by Mayring (2014, p.
64) as following:

“The object of the analysis is to filter out particular aspects of the material, to give a
cross-section through the material according to pre-determined ordering criteria, or to
assess the material according to certain criteria”.

As submethods of structuring, Mayring (2010, p. 94) defined Formale Strukturierung

(engl. formal structuring) which focuses on the inner structure of the material; Inhaltliche

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Strukturierung (engl. content structuring) which allocates the material to certain

categories for an assessment; Typisierende Strukturierung (engl. categorized structuring)
which focuses on individual peculiarities of the material; and Skalierende Strukturierung
(engl. scaled structuring) which assesses the material on a scale according to particular
dimensions. This study is not aiming to structure the material, identify individual
peculiarities and neither to numerically assess certain dimensions. On the contrary, the
material should be allocated to the three main categories of this study, which were derived
in the theoretical framework, and accordingly be evaluated. Hence, the method of content
structuring is applied which aims to extract and summarize material to certain subject
areas based on predefined criteria (Mayring 2010). Implementation of the Method

Following the procedure of the analysis, which is based on Mayring’s qualitative analysis
of content structuring, is described. It has to be mentioned that the structure of the method
was slightly adapted by the author (Appendix 8.10).

At the center of the qualitative content analysis is a category system which builds the
basis for the subsequent systematical extraction from the material (Mayring, 2014). The
three main categories of this study are derived from the problem statement, theoretically
based in the theoretical framework and can be described as: Guerrilla marketing, lifestyle
brands and Swiss culture. In a first step of a trial run-through, all passages of the interview
protocols were revised and assigned to one of these dimensions through differently
colored underlining and marks in the text itself. Concrete passages which can be cited as
typical examples to characterize these dimensions were marked as anchor examples. In a
second step, the marked material was processed corresponding to the structuring intention
and subcategories, based on major points of discussion and theory, were defined. The
definition of these categories is foremost based on objective relevance. For each
subcategory, coding rules were formulated to ensure an unambiguous assignment to a
certain category. Once the category system was established and revised, the main
examination of the material started. It again was dived into two stages: firstly, marking
points of discovery and secondly, extracting and summarizing as well as analyzing them
on the basis of the category system (Hausser, Mayring & Strehmel, 1982). The general
model of structuring content analyses in Appendix 8.9 graphically illustrates all steps.

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Subsequently, the explorative findings were contrasted with the existing theory and
accordingly interpreted. This builds the basis for answering the leading questions as well
as the research question of this study, which will be approached in the findings (section
4.). However, before these findings are expounded, case studies will be introduced and
analyzed in order to extend the theoretical background knowledge by means of practical

3.4. Case Studies

In the light of case studies, this chapter aims to demonstrate the potential but also the risks
of guerrilla marketing. By way of illustration, a successful campaign of the British car
manufacturer Lotus and a less effective campaign of the Swiss online shop Siroop are
examined and contrasted. Both examples are derived from expert interviews and
complemented with additional sources. Based on the theoretical framework as well as the
expert interviews, factors of success and failure are elaborated and discussed.

3.4.1 Lotus “Faceless People”

This campaign was introduced by the interview partner MA3 (Appendix, 8.8.5) and
afterwards studied in more detail. It was chosen because it combines many important
aspects of this research; it was executed by a lifestyle brand, was virally spread and even
crossed cultural boundaries, to name a few. It also was a huge success and honored with
marketing awards (ResponseSource, 2012). Even though this campaign was not executed
within Swiss boundaries, it is believed that factors of success can best be illustrated with
an internationally successful campaign. Backgorund
In 2008, the British car manufacturer Lotus launched the Evora, its first new car in more
than a decade. Lotus appointed the communication agency CMW to build buzz around
the launch of the new model. CMW identified that the target segment of the Lotus Evora
highly valued individuality and was looking for ways to express this value. Combining
this lifestyle of the key target consumer and Lotus’ positioning as an exciting high-end
brand, CMW dismissed a traditional advertising approach and instead focused on a
creative buzz campaign (Miller, 2011).

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The center of the campaign was to

associate the Evora with an
individual and unusual automotive
experience for unique consumers
(Miller, 2011). Built on the concept
“individuality versus the mass
market” the title of the campaign was
“true character in a faceless world”
(Miller, 2011, p. 98). The agency Figure 8 - Lotus' Faceless People Campaign

developed the idea of “faceless” people, models wearing black suits and a flesh-colored
latex membrane to totally obscure facial contours, emphasizing the contrasting
personality and character of the new car (Cockcorft, 2008; Miller, 2011). These faceless
people were placed at high profile events spread across the UK, including Wimbledon,
Henley Royal Regatta and Elton John’s White Tie & Tiara Ball (Cockcroft, 2008). The
campaign was flanked by the microsite where a backwards
ticking countdown indicated the unveiling of the Evora (Cockcroft, 2008). At the day of
the launch, the still-covered car was surrounded by faceless people that disappeared as it
was revealed (Cockcroft, 2008). After the secret was uncovered, the microsite
transformed into a fully functional website with information about the Evora (Milller,

The publicity created by this campaign was priceless; footages of the campaign were
uploaded on Youtube and the phenomena was covered on blogs and social networking
sites across the globe. Additionally, the leading media press, including the Telegraph, the
Daily Mail, BBC Radio 2 and even ABC News in the USA, covered the topic. Hence, it
reached more than 290 million people over a period of six weeks, 250 unique articles
(excluding coverage on blogs) were written about the campaign and its microsite received
over 100’000 unique visitors in the first two days. The campaign not only raised
awareness but also translated into sales; Lotus achieved 25% of its order book target with
this action alone (UTalkMarketing, 2008). At this point the question arises: what has been
Lotus’ recipe for success? Analysis

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For the analysis of the campaign, the central elements of guerrilla marketing are seized
again. According to the theory, the predominant principles of a guerrilla campaign are
creativity, surprise, viral and cost-effectiveness. These fundamentals are now considered
in the context of the faceless people campaign.

Firstly, the campaign does not follow the pattern of a traditional advertising approach
(Milller, 2011). The campaign was unconventional, imaginative and had an extraordinary
appeal. It was something new that people never have seen before (creativity) and therefore
attracted attention. The appearance of these faceless people at many major events across
the UK was something unexpected that happened outside of existing schemas of the
present people (surprise). It can be assumed that the high-profile nature of the events even
led to a higher surprise than if faceless people would have appeared on the streets. One
might expect to see something unusual on the streets, however, at exclusive events this
might be less expected and hence caused a deeper emotional reaction. The surprising
event triggered people to share their experience which unleashed the power of WoM. The
diffusion of the information can be seen as the critical point of this campaign, because
only a handful people could personally witness the faceless people but over 290 million
people were reached in the end. A crucial factor, which also can be derived from many
interviews, is certainly the coverage of the mainstream press. According to several
interview partners, media coverage should be one of the main aims of a guerrilla
marketing campaign, not only because of its wide reach but it also provides some
credibility. On top of that, social media platforms undoubtedly also played a major role
in diffusing the information (viral).

If the campaign was more cost-effective as a traditional approach is difficult to determine

because some expenses, for instance the salary of the models, the costs to infiltrate them
to the events or the establishment and maintenance of the microsite, can only be
estimated. What can be stated for sure is that PR and editorial coverage generated
priceless publicity for free (Miller, 2011). Thanks to the immense PR-value, the campaign
assumingly provided better value for money than a traditional campaign (Miller, 2011)

A last fundamental element, which especially was emphasized by the culture expert C2
(Appendix, 8.8.2), is the storytelling aspect of creating a legend or a myth. The figures
provoked much speculations and numerous newspapers and bloggers were writing about

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the mystery of the faceless people (Cockcroft, 2008). Some bloggers thought that they
were just random people, others rumored that they were celebrities trying to avoid
paparazzi’s and again others were writing about a group named Anonymous (Cockcroft,
2008). Even though the favorite theory was the one of a viral marketing campaign, no one
could tell with certainty and the identity as well as the purpose of the figures remained a
mystery and upheld a constant media flow, another important element for a successful
campaign (Appendix, 8.8.8). Key Take-Aways

Even though interview partner MA3 (Appendix, 8.8.5) suggested that many people may
have been disappointed that the whole mystery only was a marketing campaign, it still
was very successful, not only in raising awareness but it also translated into sales
(UTalkMarketing, 2008). It confirmed the fundamental principle of guerrilla marketing
and added the additional element of storytelling. The campaign surprised and emotionally
engaged which led to a viral diffusion. Interestingly, it also crossed national borders and
was also very successful in the United States. As ABC News broadcasted a two-minute
editorial on the phenomenon, one of the most searched-for terms in the US was faceless
people (UTalkMarketing, 2008). As interview partner MA3 (Appendix, 8.8.5) suggested,
in our digital age country boundaries disappear and messages are easily spread. Maybe
the culture expert C2 (Appendix, 8.8.2) has a point in saying that culture is not the
predominant factor influencing the success of a guerrilla marketing campaign.

3.4.2 Siroop “Doormats”

According to many experts, Swiss companies rather engage in traditional marketing
activities and often are hesitant to try new, unconventional measures (Appendix 8.8).
Siroop tried to overcome this general reluctance and launched a guerrilla marketing
activity – and “failed”. It is of interest for this study to evaluate if this failure is culturally-
related or which other factors contributed to its inefficiency and what could have been
differently done. Background
Coop and Swisscom, one of Switzerland‘s largest retailers and a major
telecommunication provider, recently launched the online-marketplace Siroop. The
ambitious aim of the new platform is to advance to the most relevant online-marketplace,

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which might be one reason for the heavy marketing expenditures. The company
extensively advertises through traditional channels and above-the-line instruments (ABL)
such as billboard and newspaper advertising; however, they also orchestrated a guerrilla
campaign. Siroop offers local products and wants to collaborate with local suppliers next
to selling their own products. In order to raise awareness among smaller vendors, potential
new suppliers and pedestrians, potential new customers, the company placed colorful
doormats in front of several retailers in Bern, Basel and Zürich (Lenherr, 2016). Analysis
Again, the fundamental elements creativity, surprise, viral and cost-effectiveness are used
for the analysis of this campaign. Additionally, some aspects of the expert interviews
supplement the examination.

It certainly is not common to advertise

by the means of doormats; however,
the concepts of doormats in various
variations is widely known and
nothing unusual. Mächler (2016)
describes the doormat as a boring
“Bünzliges” product which might not
be the best medium to create buzz
Figure 9 - Siroop's Doormats in Basel
(creativity). Even though it is a little
surprising to see very colorful doormats, it is not substantially deviating from existing
schemas, because doormats are a common product, and therefore not mentally processed
in more depth (surprise). Another, external element in this case was the timing (Mächler,
2016). The action took place on a Sunday which at the same time was Mothers’ Day. This
had two important consequences: firstly, the stores were closed which implicates that
people were not able to enter the store and walk over the doormats. Secondly, on Mothers’
Day many people enjoy time with their family and pay even less attention to marketing
activities. These two aspects combined with the unspectacular product might have
prevented the campaign from being spread. The only social media activities the campaign
received were from the Siroop employees themselves (viral) (Mächler, 2016). In terms
of costs, printing and distributing the doormats probably did not exhaust the marketing
budget, however, considering the limited value of the action its value for money remains

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questionable (cost-effectiveness). In summary, the campaign did not attract attention,

hence did not emotionally arise people which in turn did not spread the information. Even
worse, most local suppliers did not understand the message and perceived the online-
platform as a competitor that tried to lure away consumers instead of seeing in the
platform as a possible collaboration partner (Lenherr, 2016). According to Lenherr
(2016), the message was unclearly formulated and instead of aiming to raise awareness
for the online shop among potential suppliers and potential customers, it should have
targeted only the small shops and their possible role as local suppliers. Furthermore, it
even induced negative WoM because environmentalist labeled the action as littering, even
though the doormats were collected again in the evening (Lenherr, 2016).

Going deeper into the analysis, another reason for the ineffective action might be
delivered by the marketing experts MA2 as well as MP2. Both stated in their interviews
that especially large corporations fear to have an image damage through guerrilla
marketing actions and try to avoid illegal undertakings and fines (MA2, Appendix 8.8.4;
MP2, Appendix 8.8.8). This reluctance to take risks has extracted the teeth of guerrilla
marketing (MA2, Appendix 8.8.4). This also might apply to this case, Coop and
Swisscom, both renowned Swiss enterprises, may acted too risk-averse trying to
minimize the threat of a loss of reputation. They may have chosen doormats because it is
not very abstract and a Sunday to avoid conflicts with the shopkeepers. However, moving
along the borderline of legality and daring something new and unexpected exactly is what
characterizes guerrilla marketing and helps such actions to distinguish themselves (MA2,
Appendix 8.8.4). Hence, by trying to not annoy anyone, the campaign lost its fundamental
guerrilla marketing characteristics (Mächler, 2016). A crucial element of guerrilla
marketing is to think out-of-the-box and to try something unconventional; not everyone
will like the campaign, but also these people can create buzz (MA2, Appendix 8.8.4). Key Take-Aways

This example shows that not every guerrilla activity leads to a positive outcome. In this
case, the campaign failed to attract attention of the consumers and was misinterpreted by
the secondary target segment, the small business owners. A key take-away is that if there
is a direct message, it has to be clearly formulated for a specific target segment (Lenherr,
2016). MA4 (Appendix 8.8.6) supported this idea and added that it should be short,
precise and easy to understand. A guerrilla marketing campaign cannot be for everyone

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and naturally involves some negative reactions (MA2, Appendix 8.8.4). However, the
target segment should be narrowly defined and in this case, it might have been better to
only target one group, instead of both, possible consumers and suppliers. A message only
tailored to the suppliers might have enhanced the comprehensibility and thus prevented
the misunderstanding and negative perception. Moreover, a guerrilla marketing activity
has to be something unconventional, it has to surprise and induce people to diffuse the
message. The campaign has to be out-of-the-box and dare something. Siroop acted
conservative and inhibited, which made its activity rather a “fake” guerrilla action as MP2
(Appendix 8.8.8) defined it. This analysis reveals that the campaign did not foremost fail
because of the Swiss culture but because of its execution.

At least, the campaign was covered in newspapers as 20 Minuten and BLICK (Lenherr,
2016). Even though it was titled a failed marketing activity, it still raised some awareness.
Coupled with numerous other advertisements and billboards, the company certainly
raised some awareness and underlines an important point that emerged throughout many
interviews; guerrilla marketing activities should not be executed in isolation but rather be
a part of a whole marketing campaign in order to sustainably raise awareness which
translates into sales. This point, Siroop seems to have understood.

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4. Findings and Discussion

This section of the paper aims to connect existing theoretical knowledge with findings of
this empirical research. In a first step, the potential of guerrilla marketing for lifestyle
brands in the context of the Swiss culture is assessed. The analysis is presented according
to the three main pillars of this research and is accordingly divided into the three chapters:
culture, lifestyle brands and guerrilla marketing. For a systematical analysis, according
to section 3., each of the three chapters is further divided into subcategories which were
derived from the interviews; the coding agenda, including coding rules and anchor
examples, is depicted in Appendix 8.10. Each subcategory starts with a summary of
relevant theory followed by the results of the expert interviews which are derived from
Appendix 8.8. The exact appendix path of each interview partner is provided with the
first mentioning of the expert. Important German statements were translated into English
with the help of a studied translator; however, since there is no perfect correspondence
between the two languages, these statements are treated as paraphrases instead of direct
quotations. At the end of each chapter the results are analyzed and discussed in order to
answer and conclude the corresponding leading questions. In a second step, all findings
are consolidated and success factors for lifestyle brands which want to orchestrate a
guerilla marketing activity in Switzerland, identified. Hence, the research question is
being answered.

4.1 Culture
In order to establish the necessary external preconditions, culture is the first pillar which
is analyzed. This subchapter starts by analyzing the Swiss attitude toward marketing.
Afterwards the preconditions for successful guerrilla marketing are established and the
Swiss characteristics that might influence guerrilla marketing revealed.

4.1.1 Swiss Attitude toward Marketing Theory Recapitulation
According to Hofstede, Switzerland is a culture of relatively strong uncertainty avoidance
(Appendix 8.4, De Mooij, 2010). Swiss people prefer direct messages which are precise
and to the point, meaning that they only convey informational and meaningful facts (De
Mooij, 2010). If an advertisement is perceived as appealing, it has the potential to be
widely spread across the individual’s network; this can be attributed to the Swiss

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characteristic of a diffuse culture (Oertig-Davidson, 2006; van den Bergh, n.d.). The
qualitative analysis aims to reveal some more specific insights in how advertising
generally is perceived in Switzerland. Findings

For many, advertising probably is a necessary evil; one accepts that it exists and that it
has to exist because otherwise no products could be offered (MP1, Appendix 8.8.7).

The majority of the expert opinions gravitate into the direction that advertising is rather
perceived as a necessary evil than something that Swiss people really value. The primary
reason seems to be the issue of information overload which is an international
phenomenon. Due to the flood of advertising messages, people long for ad-free spaces
(MA1, Appendix 8.8.3). MA2 (Appendix, 8.8.4) confirmed this statement and claimed
that there is a general tiredness of advertising. Next to this universal overflow of
advertisements, MA1 and MP1 also argued that Switzerland has no advertising culture.
MP1 (Appendix 8.8.7) and MP2 (Appendix, 8.8.8) amended that this is largely due to the
existing regulatory framework. On the contrary, the United States has looser regulations
which extends the horizon of advertising opportunities for companies, such as the
possibility of comparing two rivaling products – an iconic example would be Coca-Cola
versus Pepsi-Cola (MA1). Because companies can be more creative, advertising is also
more entertaining (MP1; MA1). In the United States, advertising has become part of the
culture and people accordingly celebrate it – a repeatedly named example are the popular
Super Bowl advertisements (MP3, Appendix 8.8.9; C2, Appendix, 8.8.2). Hence, people
accept that certain things, such as universities, are financed by advertising which would
not be possible in Switzerland, as demonstrated by the attempt of UBS to finance the
University of Zurich which was not accepted (MA3, Appendix, 8.8.5).

However, not all arguments are against Switzerland. MA2 (Appendix, 8.8.4) argued that
Swiss people like well-done advertising and this rational is supported by a number of
other experts. The bottom line of numerous statements is that if advertising is intelligently
done in an innovative and informative way, Swiss people will see the benefits and like it,
even though advertising is not culturally embedded (MA3; MA4, Appendix, 8.8.6; C2).

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4.1.2 Favorable Preconditions Theory Recapitulation
In theory, guerrilla marketing is characterized by terms as customization,
imaginativeness, provocation, spectacle and countless other expressions (Levinson, 2007;
Nufer, 2013). However, there are principles which many academics agree upon. They can
be summarized as: creativity, surprise, viral and cost-effectiveness (refer to section 2.2.2).

Because these principles do not directly correlate to cultural preconditions, they were
decoded (derivation in Appendix 8.6). While cost-effectiveness stands in no direct
correlation with cultural characteristic, the first three can be translated into cultural
dimensions. Creativity can be seen as the openness toward the new; surprise as attitude
toward the unexpected and viral as willingness to share information. It is hypothesized
that a positive attitude toward these dimensions sets a positive precondition for guerrilla
marketing. The qualitative analysis aims to test these dimensions. Findings

“…supportive factors are spontaneity, curiosity, not being shy, openness to new ideas,
not being so conservative, love to be surprised, which is the opposite of conservative, and
feeling comfortable to act in public” (C1, Appendix 8.8.1, p. 116).

To disclose favorable cultural preconditions for guerrilla marketing, the interviewees

were asked which cultural traits might have an influence on the success of guerrilla
marketing (the three dimensions outlined above have not been disclosed at this stage).
The most frequently mentioned factor was openness followed by a positive attitude
toward the surprising. Other factors which were considered to have a positive effect on
the success of guerrilla marketing were: like the unconventional, humor, spontaneity,
curiosity and a rule-breaking society. The most stressed factor which may have a negative
influence on guerrilla marketing was being conservative followed by being shy and
reserved. Based on that, the three derived theoretical dimensions were confirmed and
complemented by some additional aspects. Consequently, the experts were asked to
characterize Swiss people and rate them on these three dimensions; the results are
depicted in the following section.

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Anticipatory, an interesting point was introduced by MP1. He hypothesized that an

unconventional activity is able to generate awareness from both, people with a
conventional as well as an unconventional mindset. While conventional people might
directly be triggered to a purchasing behavior, it might elicit outrage among
unconventional people which can translate into media attention. Also C2 and MA3
supported the hypothesis that culture is no barrier for guerrilla marketing, MA3 proposed
that it can work everywhere. MP3 (Appendix 8.8.9, p. 195) added that “the aim of
guerrilla marketing can just be to crash this cultural context”, so as long as it breaks the
cultural boundaries it has potential to be successful.

4.1.3 Swiss Characterization Theory Recapitulation
The theory acknowledged different regional manifestations of the culture in Switzerland;
however, it suggested common traits that build a national identity (Bilton, 2013).
Generally, Swiss people are perceived to be proud of their country, have a traditional
mindset, value established rituals, appear conservative, reserved and sometimes even
suspicious (Bilton, 2013; EFS, 2013; Katz 2006). Switzerland is characterized as a diffuse
culture which emphasizes long-lasting relationships (Oertig-Davidson, 2006; van den
Bergh, n.d.). Little information is shared in the public space (Bradley, 2016; Oertig-
Davidson, 2006; van den Bergh, n.d.). In contrast, much is shared in the wide private
space (Oertig-Davidson, 2006; van den Bergh, n.d.). In a business context, Swiss are
described as conflict-avoiding, cautious and planned negotiators that prefer
straightforward and honest negotiations over exaggerations and aggressive sales
approaches (Oertig-Davidson, 2006; Katz, 2006). Based on the theory, the hypothesis can
be proposed that Switzerland does not offer the most favorable environment for guerrilla
marketing. The ensuing findings demonstrate how an average Swiss person is perceived
by the experts.

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“Swiss identity is a conceptual identity in the sense that it is an idea or a vision” (C1,
Appendix 8.8.1, p. 114).

Both, cultural as well as many marketing experts agreed that the culture of Switzerland
greatly differs among the different language regions. C1 (Appendix 8.8.1, p. 114)
explained that the Swiss people have “little historical connections” which indicates a
weak national identity. According to her, “the identity becomes stronger on local levels
such as regions and cantons” but it remains very abstract (C1, Appendix 8.8.1, p. 114).

Several marketing experts agreed and highlighted the influence of neighboring countries
on the respective regions. C2 (Appendix 8.8.2, p. 120) identified differences even within
the regions themselves and stated: “not every person and not every region is the same”.
This statement was supported by MA1 which claimed that there is not one Swiss person
nor one American person. Nevertheless, some common characterizations, based on
generalizations, also emerged. The experts assessed Swiss as risk-averse, critical, serious,
shy and understating themselves but also as innovative, honest, reliable, precise, loyal
and quality-oriented. Hence, there is a contradicting view; Switzerland on the one hand
is seen as very traditional but on the other hand also was described as innovative. In
comparison, the Americans have commonly been characterized as more open,
entertaining and less shy but also as more superficial.

In order to assess the potential of guerrilla marketing, the participants were asked to rate
both cultures based on the above-noted three dimensions (section 4.1.2) from one to ten
(one being very negative, ten being very positive). Conscious of the generalizing nature
of these evaluations, the numerical analysis is not representative and the assessment only
should serve as a general indication.

Firstly, the attitude toward the unexpected was evaluated which is based on the
fundamental guerrilla marketing principle of surprise. On average, the Swiss attitude was
rated below a five and the American one with nine to ten. Not one participant rated
Switzerland higher than America. MP1 explained this difference with the American
mentality which is more open at the first contact as many other cultures.

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Secondly, the openness toward the new, with the underlying guerrilla marketing principle
of creativity, was assessed. A similar pattern emerged, Switzerland being described as
traditional (MA2) and averagely rated just over five, whereas Americans were
experienced as more open (MP2; MA1) which translated into an eight. Only MP2 rated
Americans lower on this dimension; however, he explained that it is very topic-
dependent. Interesting factors arouse from the interviews with the two culture experts. C1
indicated that it heavily depends on the region within the country and C2 emphasized
generation differences. Accordingly, urban areas and young people are supposed to be
more open than rural areas and elderly people.

The last dimension investigated the potential of a viral distribution and was named
willingness to share information. Here, both cultures were very similarly rated, in the
upper range of the scale, with a slight tendency in favor of America. MP1 and MA1
explained this outcome by the social media phenomenon insinuating the interconnected
youth. However, many other factors were mentioned that influence the rating of this
dimension which is why no numbers are visualized. Again, rural areas were rated lower
than urban areas and young people more likely to share than elderly people (C2; MP3).
For MA2 and MA4 the content is decisive; as long as it is appealing and understandable,
the potential for both countries is similar.

4.1.4 Discussion

If you have a creative enterprise, I believe it works (MA1).

As could be expected form the theory, Switzerland does not offer the most desirable
preconditions for guerrilla marketing, at least not compared to its country of origin, the
United States. Swiss tend to be perceived as conservative people who stick to established
and proven values and do not like to leave their comfort zone. MP1 believed that Swiss
rather are critical and question things first bevor they can laugh about it. MA3 (Appendix
8.8.5, p. 152) saw the greatest potential in cultures of “gossiping and sharing” and rates
Swiss rather “medium” on this dimension, adding that Switzerland is a small market and
information commonly does not cross boundaries. Restating the contextual conditions
which were rated to be favorable for guerrilla marketing, namely: openness, positive
attitude toward the surprising and unconventionality as well as curiosity; and comparing

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them with the characterization of a Swiss person that is perceived to be innovative and
reliable but also risk-averse, critical and shy, there is not many congruities. The Swiss
character attributes rather gravitate toward factors which are perceived to hinder guerrilla
marketing, namely: being conservative, shy and reserved.

However, this evaluation is solely based on generalizations which is not the truth for
everyone and therefore, it is generally agreed that guerrilla marketing can work in
Switzerland, especially in urban areas where people are by tendency more open-minded.
MP1 and MP2 have experienced that people from rural areas have a more conservative
mindset which lowers the potential. MA4 amended that in cities a larger quantity of
people can be reached but also campaigns that start in rural areas can be diffused through
social media and reach a wide mass. If guerrilla marketing can work in a culture which
naturally does not support it, the following questions arise: to what extend does culture
impact guerrilla marketing, or marketing in general? And what are other factors, which
might have a more significant influence on guerrilla marketing? These questions cannot
conclusively be answered within the scope of this research; however, a first approach is

Many interesting points have been made regarding the influence of culture on guerrilla
marketing. The most illuminating insight from the expert interviews was the opinion that
guerrilla marketing can work everywhere. Naturally, guerrilla marketing challenges
established values; hence, if it is appropriately applied, its success might not be dependent
on the location. Even if it was dependent on geographical locations, it is noticeable that
no expert could easily define a Swiss or an American person, neither rate them on the
provided dimensions. Many indicated that their assessment was based on generalizations
and stereotypes, which is a start but cannot be applied to everyone. Common traits
certainly exist, however, there is not only one true culture for one country; hence, the
assessment of the potential of guerrilla marketing should be based on a specific target
segment within a culture. There the question arises, which other factor might influence
guerrilla marketing? Many other aspects could be considered and one that frequently
emerged was the age of the target segment. In a century of social media, geographical
boundaries have become less important. MA4 proposed that it might not be location-
dependent but a generation question and MP2 said that the primary target of guerrilla
marketing are young people, especially the ones that are active on social media. This is

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also reflected in the distinction in terms of age that some experts made when rating the
dimensions. Young people were generally rated more open. Thus, there might be factors,
such as age, which have a wider implication on guerrilla marketing than the country

To sum up, even though, based on the theory, Swiss characteristics are not supportive for
guerrilla marketing, it might be different in reality. On the one hand, it should not be
neglected that Switzerland in general might not have the ideal preconditions for
successful guerrilla marketing campaigns. On the other hand, one should not act based on
generalizations and more accurately segment the market, not only based on geography.
The values and attitudes of people within a country, within a region and even within a
city greatly differ and there are always people in favor and people that disapprove a
campaign. As MP1 stated, also the people which oppose your campaign can create
awareness. Hence, the culture has taken into account for the planning and execution of
the campaign, which will be discussed in section 4.4; however, it is not a barrier.

“The culture is not against guerrilla marketing” (C2, Apendix 8.8.2, p. 123).

Based on the analysis of the Swiss culture, the following key question of this research can
be answered: What distinguishes the Swiss culture from other cultures in terms of attitude
toward marketing? As revealed, there is a common oversaturation of advertising in many
regions of this world (MA4). However, other countries such as the United States or the
United Kingdom, known for black humor, have more entertaining advertisements and
people generally have a more positive attitude toward it. On the other hand, as disclosed
in section, Switzerland prefer direct advertising which provide meaningful facts
and is concise. Moreover, based on section, exaggerations as well as aggressive
approaches are suspiciously considered. Even though Switzerland’s regulatory
framework does not allow for a more creative advertising approach the question arises if
this even is necessary. Swiss people like advertising as long as it is appealing to them.
According to the expert interviews, this could mean that the message has to be intelligent
and informative but also innovative. Approaches that are repeated cause a wearout effect
and a negative attitude toward marketing, whereas, innovative approaches, which still
provide meaningful facts, are likely to be positively interpreted. Hence, if appropriately
executed the Swiss mindset does not oppose marketing.

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4.2 Lifestyle Brands

The second pillar of the analysis are the brands, which are behind the planning and
execution of guerrilla marketing campaigns. Firstly, the concept of lifestyle brands is
defined and secondly, commonly used marketing instruments examined.

4.2.1 Definition Theory Recapitulation
Lifestyle brands belong to the category of symbol intensive brands and have emerged
through an increasingly strong connection between social identities of people and brands
(Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). Lifestyle brands address aspects that go beyond product
benefits and enable individuals to become part of a desired group which share a lifestyle
(Ghodeswar, 2008; Saviolo & Marazza, 2013). There has not been much research done
about the concept of lifestyle brands, which is why this theoretical definition is
complemented by definitions of expert interviews. Findings

It connects the brand with my sense of life (MA4).

Analyzing the definitions of the experts, two typical facets appeared: the inner and the
outer dimension. The inner dimension describes a lifestyle brand as something that
establishes a world in the minds of the people (MA1). Lifestyle brands underline which
lifestyle people live or their desire to “change to another lifestyle” (MA4; C2, Appendix
8.8.2, p. 126). These aspects are about the personal feelings which such brands convey.
The outer dimension refers to something that is expressed to the world through the
lifestyle brand, “it can mirror…, dimensions of who you are” (C1, Appendix 8.8.1, p.
117). It conveys a certain statement, a certain attitude and enhances self-esteem (MP2).
Hence, a lifestyle brand can communicate a statement to the outside world. Another
empirical cognition is provided by MA2 which described a lifestyle brand as a temporary
fashion. New trends will start and people change their lifestyle over the course of their
life. Accordingly, a lifestyle brand will eventually disappear again; examples are Ed
Hardy or Abercrombie & Fitch (MA2). Only luxury brands, such as Louis Vuitton or
Chanel, area able to sustain over time (MA2). MP1 had a similar opinion and stated that

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a lifestyle brand has to feel the current zeitgeist and provide an answer, in form of
products, to current needs.

In summary, lifestyle brands fulfill two functions: enhance the personal feeling and serve
as a vehicle to express certain statements. However, as soon as a lifestyle brand cannot
feel and integrate current trends anymore, it will disappear.

4.2.2 Marketing instruments Theory Recapitulation
The focal point of a lifestyle brand is the values and the personality of the company and
they have to be consistent across all marketing efforts; if online or offline communication
(Solomon, n.d.). In order to reach consumers, a lifestyle brand exactly has to convey its
values and its personality through delivering emotional, self-expressive or social benefits
(Naik & Raman, 2003; Keller, 2009; Jung & Merlin, 2003). To sell an image of what
people want to be, lifestyle brands rely on a strong, emotional connection and also have
to market themselves on that basis, rather than on the basis of functional attributes (Jung
& Merlin, 2003; Solomon, n.d.). Findings

Communication has to happen more on an emotional and less on a cognitive level (MA4).

In line with the theory, experts emphasized not a particular instrument but the emotional
aspect that should be communicated. MP2, MP3 and MA4 commonly stated that lifestyle
brands communicate on a psychological level trying to emotionally involve people by
incorporating the values of a specific consumer (as the Lotus example, section 3.4.1,
illustrated). Many believe that any marketing instrument can be applied, as long as it fits
to the brand and the integrated marketing strategy. However, there is also a specific
suggestion of which instruments to use. MA2 claimed that luxury brands organize large
events and collaborate with stars; whereas, smaller lifestyle brands use scene bloggers
and online marketing. Additionally, next to the communication also the underlying
product is important (MP2). Through communication, the brand has to convince that the
product will satisfy the expectations (C2); however, the product also has to deliver what
it promises (MP2).

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4.2.3 Discussion
Lifestyle brands are equally described in theory as well as by the experts. The brand
values are the most important asset and also have to be mirrored in communication efforts
which have to emotionally involve the target group. This section about lifestyle brands
enables to answer two of the leading questions of this research. Based on theory, the
expert interviews and a personal assessment the following two key questions are

The first question about lifestyle brands is concerned with its definition: What
differentiates lifestyle brands from normal brands? To answer this question, several
definitions which have been provided are taken into consideration. As a result, three
distinctive differences can be identified. Firstly, lifestyle brands connect people that share
common values and have similar attitudes. Lifestyle brands establish a world in their
minds. Secondly, lifestyle brands are being used to express this inner world, in which
they live in, to their environment. Therefore, product attributes and functionality are of
secondary importance, first and foremost the product has to serve as a value satisfier and
expresser (emotional-, self-expressive and social benefits). Thirdly, lifestyle brands often
are an ephemeral phenomenon. They have to be closer to the zeitgeist than other brands,
spot current trends and incorporate these into their product offering. Generally, one can
say, lifestyle brands function only on a psychological, emotional level, whereas normal
brands also can convince on a cognitive, functional level.

The second question is as following: Which marketing strategies are successfully applied
by lifestyle brands? In conformity with the definition, lifestyle brands have to market on
an emotional level and promote emotional, self-expressive and/or social benefits. They
have to make the people feel something, if it is personal gratification or belongingness to
a group. Therefore, marketing efforts have to be more individualized in order to touch
people’s feelings and connect to them. Regarding marketing tools, the question arises if
traditional or modern methods are more successful. It has been identified that the critical
point is not necessarily the tool itself, however, it is about aligning all marketing efforts
with the values of the company and convey a consistent image. Successful lifestyle brands
offer solutions to current trends in the form of solid products and satisfy requirements of
consumers. To communicate this solution, various channels which are appealing to
feelings and emotions of a clearly defined target segment can be used.

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4.3 Guerrilla Marketing

After having analyzed the environment as well as the executing entity, the instrument
itself is scrutinized. Firstly, the role of the company size is assessed and then the
appropriate guerrilla marketing instrument for the Swiss culture is inquired.

4.3.1 Company Size Theory Recapitulation
The idea of the guerrilla tactic is to surprise the enemy with flexible and agile ambush
attacks using variable means (Guevara, 1986). In the world of marketing, the concept of
guerrilla was designed for resource-poor SME that tried to position themselves next to
larger, well-financed companies (Hutter & Hoffmann, 2011). However, nowadays also
global multinational companies apply guerrilla marketing instruments (Huber et al.,
2009). There is a blurry line, which companies can profit most from guerrilla marketing
activities which is why the experts were consulted. Findings

The larger the company, the more is at stake (MP1).

Due to it unconventional, rule-breaking character, guerrilla marketing inhibits a higher

risk of reputational damages than conventional marketing. It is widely agreed that the
image damage can be higher for large companies; therefore, they are less likely to engage
in guerrilla marketing activities (MP1; MP2; MA1; MP3). MP2 stated that larger
companies executed guerrilla marketing in the past, however, nowadays there is a trend
back toward smaller companies. SME are perceived to be more flexible and creative even
though they have less funds available for larger campaigns (MA2; MA4).

A noteworthy factor is presented by MA3. According to him “it is not a question of size
but a question of the company culture and the brand image” (MA3, Appendix 8.8.5, p.
151). This belief is also endorsed by MP3 who emphasized the importance of the brand
values. As an example, he named Apple which is a multinational company and in his
opinion suitable for guerrilla marketing because it stands for innovation and rule-breaking
behavior. These findings are more deeply examined in the discussion in section 4.3.3.

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“I think it works for every size of a company” (MA3, Appendix 8.8.5, p. 151).

4.3.2 Instruments Theory Recapitulation
Guerrilla marketing belongs to the BTL activities and is an umbrella term for many
instruments (Kimmel, 2005; Nufer, 2013; Reinhard, 2012). Commonly used tools are
viral marketing, ambush marketing, ambient marketing and sensation marketing. Viral
marketing targets the exponential diffusion of a campaign (Carls, 2007; Fong &
Yazdanifard, 2014; Schulte, 2007); ambush marketing pursues to establish a connection
between a major event and the brand without being an official sponsor (Bruhn & Ahlers,
2003; McDaniel & Kinney, 1998); ambient marketing refers to unconventional
advertisements that are being placed in the direct social environment of the target segment
(Luxton & Drummond, 2000; Patalas, 2006); and sensation marketing are unusual
activities that surprise and are one-time happenings (Huber et al., 2009; Hutter &
Hoffmann, 2011; Nufer, 2013). To evaluate the potential of these instruments in
Switzerland, experts were asked to rate them on a scale from one to ten (one meaning
very low potential, ten meaning very high potential). Findings

It is funny, until recently billboard advertising in Switzerland was still increasing (MP2).

To start, commonly used marketing instruments in the Swiss marketing landscape are
examined. Most experts agreed that Switzerland is still on the conservative side and relies
on traditional advertising instruments. MP2 even revealed that billboard advertising still
has been on the rise until recently; whereas, everywhere around Switzerland the statistics
record a decreasing trend. On the other side, the experts unanimously suggested a trend
toward online advertising. MA1 stated that it needs time to let go but there is a change.
MP1 alluded that the media behavior has totally changed over the last years and it has
become increasingly challenging to reach consumers, not matter through which channels.
That is where guerrilla marketing instruments become relevant.

The majority of the experts did not provide numerical ratings but rather descriptive
assessments. Subsequently, the main points about each instrument are summarized.

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Starting with ambush marketing, this instrument was rated with a medium potential by
most interview partners. The primary issue which was raised by numerous experts was
that most people are not aware of the main sponsor of an event; therefore, they will not
realize the ambush and it will not create any buzz. Hence, it can create awareness at the
event itself but the sustainability is questionable (MA1; MA2; MA4). Furthermore, MA1
identified little creativity in this free riding approach and C1 suggested that such action
might be perceived as mean and not funny in Switzerland, a culture that complies to rules
and laws (MA3).

The assessment of viral marketing was varying. Still there is one factor which experts,
regardless of a low or high rating, agree upon: the low predictability. MA1 reckoned that
a viral campaign can be successful but it is very difficult to plan and no agency could
guarantee success. MA2 introduced the element of luck, one has to be at the right time at
the right place. MA1 thought that the campaign has to be credible and creative; however,
even then it is difficult to feel if it will go viral. MP2 also raised a reasonable concern
which is connected to the Swiss culture. The viral reach might be limited due to the
different language areas and due to the small size of Switzerland, viral campaigns are
unlikely to cross national borders (MP2).

Ambient and sensation marketing had the most positive resonance. An often-discussed
aspect was creativity, which is central for such campaigns. Representatively, MA2
identified most potential in ambient marketing and claimed that it is currently not very
widespread. MP2 rated ambient and sensation marketing similarly high and hinted that
independent of the instrument, the message has to be short and concise. He also stated
that the interaction with the customer is crucial. People that directly experience such
campaigns are very engaged and it is important to create a positive feeling in order that
they will share this experience. MA3 and C2 added that due to social media, such
campaigns are attractive because they have the potential to be spread. MA4 reckoned that
ambient actions are subtle, whereas, sensation actions can release strong emotions. Lastly,
C2 added that one needs a certain mental distance to the sensation marketing action in
order to perceive it as funny.

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4.3.3 Discussion
The influence of the company size on guerrilla marketing as well as commonly used
marketing instruments in the Swiss marketing landscape are the two remaining key
questions that need to be answered. The previous subchapter provided the basis for their

How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing vary with the company size? According
to the theory, guerrilla marketing was established for smaller companies with a limited
marketing budget; however, these days it is also applied by multinational companies. The
expert interviews provided a valuable insight that depreciate the significance of size. The
concepts of company culture and brand image were emphasized instead of its size.
Correspondingly, every size of company can engage in guerrilla marketing activities,
there only has to be a fit between the campaign and the brand. Naturally, any marketing
activity has to suit the brand personality; however, in the case of guerrilla marketing this
connection has to be even stronger in order that the action is perceived as credible. MP1
described the most important factor, next to creativity, as credibility. If the campaign suits
the company image and transfers the value it stands for in a credible way, every company
can theoretically execute guerrilla marketing. However, it has to be considered that larger
companies typically invest a lot to establish their reputation which can be in jeopardy
when engaging in unconventional guerrilla undertakings. According to the experts, the
top management commonly evaluates the risk of an image damage higher than the
potential value. On top of that, the approval of such a campaign is a long and complicated
process which limits the flexibility of such companies. Hence, the question arises if SME
still might profit the most from guerrilla marketing?

The last remaining key question is: How do companies brand themselves in Switzerland
and what are typical advertising instruments that are used? The theory as well as the
experts suggested that the marketing environment has changed over the last years and it
has become challenging to attract attention. Experts claimed that, compared to other
countries, Swiss companies still rely on traditional marketing instruments and channels,
such as television or billboard advertising. As MP2 stated, billboard expenditures were
on the rise until recently and still constitute a major part. However, Switzerland is in the
middle of a transition toward a more digital marketing landscape; according to MA2,
social media, Google AdWords and related instruments are increasingly becoming

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important. At the same time, she thought that this trend will not last long and that there
will be a backward movement toward traditional instruments. According to her, online
media is less efficient because it is easily ignored. This is acknowledged as a valid point.
Traditional advertising is more tangible and not as abstract as online advertising which is
important in a rather conservative culture such as Switzerland. On the other hand,
Switzerland has an innovative vein which is why also modern instruments have potential,
once they have proven to be successful in other countries. Hence, companies use
traditional as well as modern marketing instruments. At the moment, traditional
instruments are prevailing but there is a movement toward more modern tools; and maybe
back again.

4.4 Success Factors

A crucial finding of this chapter so far is that guerrilla marketing is possible in the context
of the Swiss culture. Furthermore, it can be applied by any brand as long as it is in line
with its values. These values are a vital element for lifestyle brands which should try to
reach their target segment on an emotional level. These and other discoveries are
connected to answer the research question of this study. Twelve success factors for
lifestyle brands which intent to orchestrate a guerrilla marketing campaign in Switzerland,
have been identified. Even though some success factors are not unique to the provided
context and may also apply in different situations, they all are relevant and therefore
presented. The findings are based on the consolidation of theory, expert interviews, the
case study analyzes, the discussions and personal assessment; consequently, no direct
references are provided. However, a selection of anchor examples for each success factor
is provided in Appendix 8.11.1. in order to enhance validity. Hereinafter, the research
question is restated and each success factor briefly described:

What are the success factors for a guerrilla marketing campaign executed by a lifestyle
brand within the context of the Swiss culture?

Human Capital: Behind every campaign and the implementation of each of these
elements are people. Talents which understand their brand, love their brand and think out-
of-the-box are a fundamental element for successful guerrilla marketing campaigns.
Especially for lifestyle brands it is vital that everybody who is involved in the campaign
fully understands the brand values; only then they can accordingly be communicated.

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Product/Service: The product offering has to satisfy qualitative expectations; an

exceptional marketing campaign cannot compensate for a poor product or service – at
least not in the long-term perspective. This is especially true for the Swiss culture in which
quality is of high importance. Only if this requirement is fulfilled, the product offering
can ascend to the area of symbolic value creation and offer emotional, self-expressive
and/or social benefits which is a central element of a lifestyle product offering.

Aim: Before starting with the planning and design process of the campaign, the objective
of it has to be clearly defined. Success can have various meanings and everyone involved
has to be deeply conscious about the target. Naturally, guerrilla marketing is applied to
raise awareness; however, there is potential which goes beyond the element of awareness.
Particularly in Switzerland with a focus on long-term relationships, raising awareness is
not enough to turn cautious Swiss people into customers. Therefore, instead of only
focusing on pure awareness which fluctuates after a short-time, the successive factors are
constellated to exploit the potential of guerrilla marketing and to move Swiss customers
from the stage of awareness to the stage of purchase (section – hence increase
brand value.

Focus: A guerrilla marketing action, as well as the lifestyle communicated by a lifestyle

brand, is not for everyone and it should not be designed to reach everyone, as
demonstrated by the Siroop case study. Due to its rule-breaking nature, some people will
disapprove the campaign and might negatively talk about it – which on the other hand
also can create awareness. However, it is important that the target segment, which has to
be narrowly defined, positively responds to the campaign and disseminates the
information. If it is a real, physical campaign, not many people will directly see it but if
it is orchestrated in an intelligent way it will virally spread through WoM. Swiss people,
especially the young which live in cities, have a high willingness to share once the brand
is accepted within their private area (section However, other segments do not
have to be less attractive. In a nutshell, if the campaign is customized and triggers a
positive reaction among the target group it has potential to be spread among the large
social environment of Swiss people.

Planning and Consequences: Guerrilla marketing activities always should somehow

question established values and break prevailing rules. Hence, they are constantly

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maneuvering within a legally diffused area which bears some risks. Particularly, in a
strictly rule abiding society with a strong social control such as Switzerland,
delinquencies can become costly and time-consuming. Hence, the brand has to obtain the
legal-, financial- as well as manpower to face the consequences. Additionally, the
guerrilla marketing activity might impact the underlying brand values of a lifestyle brand,
hence the content and way of communication has to be thoroughly planned and possible
outcomes – also possible damages of reputation – carefully considered. If the best case
will not lead to an increased brand value and the worst case involves high legal costs or
image damages, a less risky, more strategic marketing campaign might be more
appropriate. In case of uncertainty, a trial in a testing environment is advisable.

Zeitgeist: An underlying characteristic of lifestyle brands is their closeness to current

trends and their feeling of prevailing values. These values have to be sensed and
incorporated into a guerrilla marketing campaign. If there is a trend in Switzerland toward
healthy living for instance, this aspect should be included into the campaign. Furthermore,
the general mood is an important factor regarding timing. In Switzerland, the four seasons
heavily influence the disposition and the people’s mindset; during summer months, when
people tend to be happy, a guerrilla marketing campaign has a higher acceptance rate as
during cold, depressing winter days.

Authenticity: It is crucial that the guerrilla action fits to the brand and the product/service
behind it. The brand values, the lifestyle which the brand signifies, have to be credibly
mirrored in the campaign otherwise it can lead to confusion. Swiss consumers, which
tend to critically examine and question new information, instantly feel if the message is
insincere. Thus, credibility is key for lifestyle brands, which live from their brand values.
Actuality: Next to incorporating contemporary trends, the subject of the campaign also
should be relevant. Topics that already are discussed in the media have a certain energy
within them. If this vitality is captured and translated into a campaign, the guerrilla
marketing action has a greater potential to be covered by the media, especially if the
campaign includes an unconventional/controversial element. However, also this topic
should be in line with the underlying personality of the lifestyle brand.

Surprise: It is the central element of guerrilla marketing, according to the theory, and was
also one of the most named success factors in the expert interviews which also took the

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Swiss culture and lifestyle brands into consideration. It is not only important that the
action is something totally unexpected which deviates from existing schemas of people,
however, it also should leave the people behind with a positive feeling. In a culture of
direct communication, such as Switzerland, it is important that the message is concise and
understandable, so that Swiss people can reflect on it in a positive way. Swiss people tend
to critically examine vague or ambiguous messages which can destroy the positive
association created through surprise.

Unconventionality and Creativity: Also these fundamental principles from the theory
have been confirmed through the expert interviews. A guerrilla marketing campaign has
to be rule-breaking in order to raise from the wide mass of advertising messages.
Therefore, courage is needed and the company has to dare trying something completely
new – something that is perceived as worth sharing – and not copy other campaigns. Swiss
companies tend to be risk-averse and reluctant to push societal limits (refer to case study
3.4.2); therefore, real guerrilla marketing is rarely seen and rule-breaking activities have
the potential to attract a lot of attention. Moreover, innovation is key, the company has to
redefine and reinvent itself over and over again, it has to be dynamic – which is a
prerequisite for lifestyle brands not only in marketing. Lastly, as stated in the last
paragraph, in order to appeal to the Swiss consumers, it is important that the content is
concise, relevant and to the point. Redundant information and exaggerations will reduce
the effectiveness.

Emotional Involvement: Lifestyle brands do not foremost sell functionality but emotions.
Hence, the guerrilla marketing campaign should convey emotions that are in line with the
lifestyle brand’s personality and its values. Storytelling is an instrument which is
commonly utilized to arouse people and also can be effective in the Swiss culture of direct
communication, as long as it evokes feelings. The creation of a story, a legend or a myth
around a brand or a product offering can foster curiosity which Swiss people might not
openly express but also experience. If possible and appropriate, this feeling should be
connected to the lifestyle brand’s values.

Integration: Rather than being an isolated communication effort, a guerrilla marketing

activity should be a flanking measure of an integrated marketing program. The created
awareness has to be complemented by traditional and modern instruments such as

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newspaper, billboard or online advertisements. If the product allows, sampling is an

efficient way to move Swiss customers to the stage of liking (section
Furthermore, in order to spread the message, lifestyle brands should have close ties to the
media and obtain an influencer network. Influencers, if stars or micro-influencers, are a
modern and efficient way to reach the target segment. This way of marketing is relatively
new in Switzerland and has a lot of potential. Lastly, throughout all communication
efforts, the brand should integrate some consistent elements in order to create recognition
value and enhance the visibility of the brand. Due to the diffuse nature, Swiss people are
difficult to reach; however, repeated appealing exposure to the brand will eventually
attract awareness. Once they ascend to the next stage and start linking the brand, they
become loyal customers and share it with their social environment (

To provide a structure to the twelve

dimensions, they are incorporated into
the developed model and placed into the
appropriate dimensions. Starting from
the outside, people, product/service and
the aim are elements of the brand itself
and influence all inwards directed
dimensions. On the other side, focus,
which refers to the cultural target group,
is located in the culture sphere and also
builds the basis for the inner dimensions.

Figure 10 - Context Effects on Guerilla Marketing (including

Authenticity as well as emotional
Success Factors)
involvement connect the brand with
marketing and ultimately communication efforts and are therefore situated across these
dimensions. The same applies for zeitgeist, cultural trends have to be spotted,
incorporated into the marketing program and accordingly communicated. Before
designing the communication strategy, the marketing campaign has to be carefully
planned and possible consequences assessed. Aware of the possible outcome and related
effects, communication efforts have to be integrated into an inclusive marketing strategy
in order to be successful in the long run. Lastly, the communication efforts themselves
have to be designed. In order to circumvent psychological advertising filters of the target
consumers, the activities have to be surprising, unconventional and creative.

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Additionally, to increase the potential for media coverage, the topic of the campaign
should be relevant (actuality).

There are also limits in the application of guerrilla marketing (Appendix 8.11.2). Firstly,
even if the campaign maneuvers within the legal framework it should not offend anyone’s
feelings. The cultural, political, social and also religious environments always have to be
treated with utmost caution. In today’s interconnected world, an insulted group can
quickly generate a shitstorm which can have far-reaching consequences and hurt the
overall brand value. Generally, sensitivity is a crucial skill for a successful outcome.
Secondly, one has to be familiar with the legal preconditions. The campaign can and
should push the limits of the law, however, it should not become totally illegal. Thirdly,
guerrilla marketing has to stay a niche instrument and should be cautiously applied. It has
to be special and surprising and therefore cannot become a standard instrument by

The lists of success factors and limitations are not conclusive but they rather should serve
as a guideline when planning a guerrilla marketing campaign in Switzerland.

4.5 Additional Findings

An advantage of structured interviews, which are transcribed word for word, is the
potential for interpretation of the interview material. Reading between the lines often
discloses additional information and can make a valuable contribution to the current study
or build the basis for further research. Within the framework of this research, there is one
question where expert opinions widely differed: to what extend does culture influence the
(guerrilla) marketing activities?

For the purpose of illustrating the various opinions, the experts were positioned on the
first three steps of the marketing process (section 2.1.1) according to their attributed
significance of culture in terms of marketing. The closer the experts are located toward
understanding customers the higher the importance they attributed to culture within the
marketing process, because it becomes relevant at an early stage. In other words, culture
has an important role for understanding and segmenting the market. A positioning in the
middle of the continuum, close to marketing strategy, indicates that culture becomes
relevant when targeting the consumers. There, culture still has an impact on the design of

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the marketing strategy, however, there are other factors to consider as well. The more the
experts gravitate toward integrated marketing program the more the significance of
culture in the marketing process is decreasing. The outer right boarder means that a
similar marketing mix is applied regardless of the culture and other elements have to be

MA1 C1 MP2
MA4 C2 MA2 MP1 MP3

Understand Marketing
customers strategy

Culture becomes relevant

Figure 11 - Cross-sectional Comparison of Culture and Marketing

(Based on Kotler & Armstrong, 2016)

According to the analysis of the interviews, each expert acknowledged cultural

differences among and even within countries. Especially, academic marketing experts
(MA1 & MA4) underlined the importance of culture when designing the marketing
strategy. However, also for them culture is not the only influencing factor which is why
they are not further located to the left. Moving toward the middle, culture slightly loses
its significance but still plays a major role. Particularly, the culture experts believe that,
next to the culture, there is another important element to define a target segment namely
the generation. According to them, generations from different cultures might have similar
character traits which elevates generation to an important segmentation sphere. Moving
further toward the right, culture becomes important at a later stage of the marketing
process, meaning that more other factors become relevant. It seems that especially
marketing experts with a practical orientation tend to put higher emphasis on other aspects
such as the company culture, the brand value or the marketing instrument itself. They are
aware of cultural differences but suggested only minor amendments of the marketing mix
based on the country culture.

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These findings do not aim to provide an answer to the posed question; in fact, they should
encourage further studies toward this direction. People with different backgrounds seem
to assign different levels of significance to culture in the marketing process, an in-depth
analysis might be able to create a connection between the background and the evaluation.
Furthermore, other factors which might have a more substantial impact on marketing, or
more specifically guerrilla marketing, could be evaluated.

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5. Conclusion
This study reports’ insights into the influence of culture and lifestyle brands on guerrilla
marketing activities, contribute toward a better understanding of the potential of guerrilla
marketing within this context.

Findings from theory as well as expert interviews indicated that the Swiss culture does
not provide an ideal environment for the execution of a surprising, unconventional and
creative guerrilla marketing activity. In an age of visual overstimulation, Swiss people
generally perceive advertising as a necessary evil and long for ad-free spaces. On top of
that, the relatively strong uncertainty avoidance nature of the Swiss culture combined
with stereotypical characteristics as risk-averse, critical and rather traditional are not in
line with the deduced favorable preconditions for guerrilla marketing such as openness
and a positive attitude toward surprise. On the other hand, Swiss people share a lot of
information with people within their private space meaning once a message has reached
and touched them, it has the potential to be widely spread. It has to be stated that this
evaluation is based on generalisations which are not the truth for everyone because
cultural diversity exists not only between countries but also within a country. Hence, the
question arises if there is a target segment which is prone to guerrilla marketing in every
country. This research does not provide an answer to this question, however, the results
from the study of the potential of guerrilla marketing within the context of the Swiss
culture questions the underlying connection between culture and guerrilla marketing.
Some experts indicated that the application of guerrilla marketing is location independent,
hence, does national culture play a role? To attract attention, guerrilla marketing activities
maneuver along cultural and legal boundaries. These limits substantially vary among
different countries which underlines the necessity of different ways of execution.
Therefore, it can be said that culture influences the planning and execution of guerrilla
marketing; however, its influence on success cannot be conclusively answered through
this research.

This study also elaborated on the connection between lifestyle brands and guerrilla
marketing. Lifestyle brands connect people with a common lifestyle and serve as a vehicle
of value expression. They accordingly adjust their marketing efforts and focus on
promoting on an emotional rather than on a cognitive level. Guerrilla marketing, with the
fundamental element of surprise, also aims to create an impression and ultimately induce

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a positive feeling toward the brand. Hence, guerrilla marketing seems to be a suitable
instrument for lifestyle brands. This point of view is supported by findings about the
relevance, or rather irrelevance, of the company size. Once established for resource-poor
SME, guerrilla marketing nowadays is also applied by multinational enterprises.
Therefore, experts presented the belief that the applicability of guerrilla marketing is not
a question of size but a question of brand values. In order to survive, lifestyle brands have
to be dynamic, be close to the prevailing zeitgeist and so does guerrilla marketing. Hence,
as long as the guerrilla marketing activities are in line with the lifestyle brands’ underlying
values, the size of the company is not an eliminating factor for guerrilla marketing

Another focal point of research were advertising instruments that are commonly used in
Switzerland. As is evident from the expert interviews, Switzerland, compared to other
countries, still has a relatively traditional marketing approach. The country seems to be
in a transition phase toward a more modern marketing landscape, however, traditional
instruments such as billboard advertising are still prevailing and also highly valued. This
is also mirrored in the assessment of suitable guerrilla marketing instruments within the
context of the Swiss culture which accredits the largest potential to sensation and ambient
marketing, the latter being an instrument that emerged from classical outdoor advertising.

Based on the findings, twelve success factors have been identified that serve as a guideline
for lifestyle brands for the orchestration of a guerrilla marketing campaign in the context
of the Swiss culture. The factors combine guerrilla marketing, Swiss culture and lifestyle
brands, the three main concepts of this research, and highlight areas of consideration. The
diffuse nature of the Swiss and their direct communication style as well as the importance
of the underlying values of a lifestyle brand are the core elements which affect many

Preconditions in terms of innovative human capital and high-quality products/services

have to be given in order to consider a guerrilla marketing campaign in quality-oriented
Switzerland. Before start planning the campaign, the aim has to be clearly defined and
communicated. In Switzerland, the objective should not be to attract short-lived attention
but the incremental establishment of long-lasting relationships should be prioritized.
Once Swiss people accept the brand within their private space, they become loyal

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customer and accordingly contribute to an increased brand value. During the planning
process, the target segment has to be narrowly defined (focus) and the possible
consequences of the campaign have to be evaluated. Not everyone will support the
campaign; however, if carefully planned and executed, the positive resonance will
overshine negative voices and the target customers will diffuse the message among their
social environment. In order to execute, the lifestyle brand as well as the action have to
be close to the current zeitgeist and hit the nerve of time. Furthermore, the action has to
be authentic and credible, meaning in line with the company’s values and the lifestyle it
aims to convey. Credibility is an essential factor for persuading warily Swiss people.
Additionally, the action lives from actuality, surprise, unconventionality/creativity and
has to evoke positive emotions among the target segment. The company has to be daring
and orchestrate an activity that maneuvers along the limits of the Swiss rules and laws.
The message has to be clearly formulated without redundant information and at the same
time emotionally touch the target segment. Finally, in order to take advantage of the Swiss
loyalty and not only reach a short-term peak in attention which will evaporate soon after,
the guerrilla marketing activity has to be incorporated into a marketing program which
includes traditional as well as modern methods.

To conclude, there is potential for lifestyle brands to engage in guerrilla marketing in

Switzerland. There are various ways how to plan and implement such an activity,
however, no one can guarantee success and neither do the identified success factors. They
should serve as a guideline and highlights elements to consider based on empirical
research. Moreover, guerrilla marketing has to stay a niche instrument in order to unlock
its full potential. Lastly, the campaign also has to be carefully planned in order not to
offend anyone. It is natural that not everybody will like it; however, as soon as people
feel offended, the risk of an image damage is high, especially in the age of social media.

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6. Reflection
Nowadays, attention has become a scarce resource and marketing activities often
disappear in the mass of media; hence, guerrilla marketing with its surprising and
unconventional character should be increasingly considered as an alternative marketing
instrument. This research is practically relevant due to its underlying purpose of
increasing a lifestyle brands’ understanding of the concept of guerrilla marketing and its
possible implementation within the Swiss culture. This last chapter starts with a critical
appraisal including limitations of the thesis followed by suggestions for further research.

6.1 Critical Appraisal

This research is contributing to the field of guerrilla marketing by examining its potential
within the context of the Swiss culture, executed by a lifestyle brand. There has only been
limited research in this field, hence, this study is built on available existing theory and
aims to extend it. All conclusions are solely based on the findings of this study. To show
awareness about deficiencies, a critical review is presented.

The theoretical framework was built on the basis of a funnel approach. The analysis of
the concepts started with a broad view and as the examination proceeded it becomes more
specific and nuanced. The academic literature for this analysis was carefully and
selectively chosen and cross-verified to ensure validity. However, due to the specification
of the topic area, this research only is based on an extract of the available literature and
is not representative for other literature about guerrilla marketing and the other concepts.

Another limitation of the present study concern the validity of the questionnaire items.
Although all of the questionnaire items utilized for the purpose of this study were
developed through a systematic approach and validated by a psychologist and expert in
qualitative research, a certain degree of bias cannot be excluded. The formulation of the
questions might have had an influence on the answer and thus the eventual findings.
Furthermore, each interview is influenced by the personal filter of the author, even though
the interviews tried to be conducted from a neutral position.

The experts for the qualitative research were selected according to their field of expertise.
Each expert had a distinct and relevant knowledge of a particular aspect of this research

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and could provide another piece in the puzzle on the path of answering the research
question. The background of each interviewee was included into the examination of their
statements to limit biases. Despite that, expert opinions are individual opinions and
therefore are not representative. Translational limitations of the current study result from
the method applied to translate interviews which were held in Swiss German to German
and some statements from German to English. Even though the professional translations
were revised by a German/English linguistic expert, they are not in line with
contemporary methods such as Gentzler (2001) suggested. The primary reason is the
content-focus, the importance of the wording was secondarily considered; therefore,
during the translation process some information could have been slightly differently

6.2 Suggestions for Further Research

In the course of this empirical study, a number of interesting observations have raised
questions which translate into suggestions for future research.

Firstly, all statements and assumptions that led to the identification of the twelve success
factors are based on existing theory and qualitative research. In order to analyze the Swiss
attitude toward guerrilla marketing from a different angle, assuming that culture is a factor
with profound impact on the success of guerrilla marketing, a quantitative research with
a representative character could complement this study.

Secondly, one of the most interesting and at the same time critically discussed topics of
this research is the question about the influence of culture on guerrilla marketing. Further
research could be directed into two different areas. Firstly, based on the hypothesis that
guerrilla marketing is location independent, the influence of culture on guerrilla
marketing could be analyzed and tested through case studies from various countries.
Secondly, other factors, which might have a more significant impact on the success of
guerrilla marketing could be evaluated. A starting point could be the age of the target
group, a factor that was frequently mentioned by the interview participants, especially the
culture experts. On the other hand, also the influence of guerrilla marketing on culture
could be examined. An interesting hypothesis would be that repeated exposure to guerrilla
marketing increases the acceptance and hence a culture, or a part of it, might become
more open-minded.

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Thirdly, this research was limited to lifestyle brands. Further research could scrutinize
different industries and evaluate if the findings of this study are valid for different types
of company and suggest the industry with the greatest potential. A further specification
would be the lifecycle of the company. Theoretically, guerrilla marketing activities are
cost-effective and hence might be best suitable for young companies that are in the
beginning of their operations and only have limited available capital. This hypothesis
could be tested by examining various companies at different life stages from various

Fourthly, through this research, the hypothesis emerged that apart from the country
culture, the company culture might be a crucial factor. The company culture should be in
line with the guerrilla marketing activity, hence, a comparison and examination of the
values of companies which successfully apply guerrilla marketing might serve as an
evaluation of a favorable company culture.

Lastly, as stated by many experts, guerrilla marketing should not be executed as an

isolated action but rather should be incorporated into a marketing campaign with flanking
instruments. Traditional instruments still have a high share in Switzerland, however, a
shift toward more modern marketing instruments can be observed. A frequently discussed
topic in current literature that was also mentioned by numerous experts is the one of
influencer marketing. Isch (2017), identified untapped potential in marketing with social
media influencers in Switzerland and claims that they are an efficient instrument for the
dissemination of information. Guerrilla marketing relies on creating buzz and social
media influencers could serve as an according instrument. Therefore, further research
could examine the potential of connecting guerrilla marketing and social media

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8. Appendix
8.1 Common Communication Platforms

Advertising Sales Promotion Public Relations (PR) Personal Selling

Print & broadcast Contests, games Press kits Sales
ads presentations

Packaging Sweepstakes, Speeches Sales meetings

Packaging inserts Premiums and gifts Company magazine Incentive
Motion pictures Sampling Annual reports Samples
Brochures & Fairs and trade Charitable donations Fairs and trade
booklets shows shows
Directories Exhibits Publications
Posters and Low-interest Community relations
leaflets financing
Reprints of ads Coupons Lobbying
Billboards Rebates Identity media
Display signs Demonstrations Seminars
POS displays Entertainment
Audiovisuals Trade-in allowances
Symbols & Logos Continuity
Video Tie-ins

Events and
Direct and Online WoM and related techniques
Sports Catalogues Person to person
Entertainment Mailings Chatrooms
Festivals Telemarketing Blogs
Arts TV shopping Viral marketing
Causes Electronic shopping Buzz marketing
Factory tours Fax Influencer marketing
Company museums E-Mail Evangelist marketing
Street activities Voicemail Street marketing
Blogs Stealth/Undercover marketing
Mobile Marketing

(Based on Beurer-Züllig, 2014; Kotler & Keller, 2011; Kirby & Marsden, 2006)

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8.2 Controversial Benetton Campaign

(Galloway, 2017)

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8.3 Features and Characteristics of Symbol Intensive Brands

(Developed by Saviolo & Marazza, 2012, p. 50)

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8.4 Cultural Dimensions of Switzerland in Comparison with the United


(Geert Hofstede, n.d.)

8.5 Adaptation vs. Standardization in International Marketing

8.5.1 Advantages of Standardization

(Developed by Vrontis & Thrassou, 2007, p. 12)

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8.5.2 Advantages of Adaption

(Developed by Vrontis & Thrassou, 2007, p. 19)

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8.6 Derivation of Questionnaire

8.6.1 Questionnaire Version 1 21
1. Which are the three most predominant characteristics of Swiss
2. Do they differ for the various regions of the country?
3. From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss:
• Curiosity (following trends)?
• Openness toward the new /acceptance of unconventionality?
• Attitude toward the unexpected/surprise?
• Willingness to share information / use of social media?
4. How strong are marketing measures depending on culture?
5. What distinguishes the Swiss culture from other cultures in term of attitude
toward marketing?
6. Are traditional or modern methods more successful in Switzerland?
7. Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in Switzerland
to position/brand themselves?
8. Does the way of advertising in Switzerland substantially vary with the company
9. What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?
10. If marketing measures differ among industries, what are the peculiarities of the
lifestyle industry (which instruments are commonly used)?
11. Which countries/companies are known for successful guerrilla marketing
12. How do you rate the success rate of guerrilla marketing within Switzerland?
a. Generally
b. Specific examples
13. What are factors to consider when applying guerrilla marketing in Switzerland?
14. Which guerrilla marketing instruments would you choose?
15. Is there a particular type of company for which it is particularly advisable?
16. To what extend is guerrilla marketing a solution for new and small companies?

21This first version of the questionnare aimed to compile research relevant questions based on
theory and the research objective.

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8.6.2 Questionnaire Underlying Thoughts22

The underlying purpose of this research is to examine, if Switzerland provides the
necessary preconditions to successfully apply the modern marketing method guerrilla
marketing. If this question can be positively answered, factors that contribute to a
successful guerrilla marketing campaign are determined. In pursuance of answering this
question, the research will be twofold: on the one hand, existing, relevant theory will
provide a theoretical background for the research and on the other hand, non-
representative interviews with academic experts as well as marketing professionals will
be held to test and complement the theory. In the following section, the guideline that will
be used for the interviews will be derived.

Firstly, it is important to understand the context in which guerrilla marketing can be

executed1 and what factors might negatively impact its feasibility2. Existing literature
illustrates that many successful campaigns have been conducted in the United States
which is at the same time the country that guerrilla marketing originates from. Therefore,
it can be taken as a best case with the underpinning assumption that the American culture
provides optimal framework conditions. The next step is to scrutinize the Swiss culture,
which is hypnotized to be comparably more conservative and less open toward the new3.
Hence, according to the theory, guerrilla marketing might be less effective in Switzerland
than in the United States. In order to test this theory, the Swiss attitude toward marketing4,
especially with regards to modern methods5, is an essential factor and has an influence on
the other areas.

However, this general attitude might not transfer to all marketing instruments. It can be
assumed that every culture has different factors for success and distinct sets of marketing
tools leading to it. These instruments have to be identified for Switzerland 6. Despite the
fact that Switzerland is a multicultural country which is divided into four different
language regions with obvious cultural differences, some academics suggest that there
are major common cultural traits and the country can be analyzed in its entirety. However,
other theorists believe it is necessary to consider each region on its own; therefore, an
additional expert opinion on this subject is needed 7. For this purpose, it is crucial to
identify the principal cultural factors that decide on the success of guerrilla marketing.

22In order to get a deeper understanding of the questions and test their validity, they were derivated
and some adaptions were made. The superscripted numbers indicate the question numbers.

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According to the theory, four of the most fundamental principles of guerrilla marketing
are first and foremost the element of surprise, a creative marketing campaign, the
potential to go viral and cost effectiveness. The first three elements are paraphrased (to
simplify the rating) to the notions: attitude toward the unexpected, openness toward the
new and the willingness to share information8. The dimension of cost-effectiveness might
provide an indication toward companies that are most gravitated to guerrilla marketing.
The hypothesis is that young companies (Start-ups) as well as SME with a limited
marketing budget can tremendously benefit from such campaigns 9. It has to be stated that
the mentioned four elements are not carved in stone and may vary with the interviewee’s
point of views. The aim is to get an assessment about these four, or related, elements for
the Swiss as well as the American culture. Moreover, this structure aims to detect, if there
are assumed cultural deviations among the regions within Switzerland. A further step is
a two-sided analysis of concrete examples of actually orchestrated marketing campaigns
for sources of success10. It is two-sided in the sense that the interviewee is being asked to
provide specific examples of successful (traditional and/or non-traditional) marketing
campaigns (within Switzerland) and subsequently is confronted with specific guerrilla
marketing campaigns (one example each of ambush-, ambient-, sensation-, and viral-
marketing) that proofed to be internationally successful. This might allow for an insight
about success factors of marketing campaigns in Switzerland while at the same time
indicate a direction toward tools to use.

Once guerrilla marketing in the context of the Swiss culture has been discussed and its
likelihood of success as well as a tendency toward instruments have been determined, the
topic will be more narrowly scrutinized with the additional element of lifestyle brands.
The concept of lifestyle brands is relatively new and there is little existing literature about
it, which is why it is the differences to “normal” brands have to be examined first 11.
Especially, variances in terms of marketing have to be recognized and the applicability
of guerrilla marketing evaluated12. According to the theory, lifestyle brands seek to create
an experience for their consumers and become a part of their way of life; therefore, it is
hypothesized that guerrilla marketing, with its element of creativity and exceptionality,
might become a part of this experience. Unconventional activities form a brand’s
character, show which values it stands for, motivate consumers to follow its ideology - if
they share this point of view - and get involved in the community.

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Finally, lifestyle brands executing guerrilla marketing campaigns are set in the context of
Swiss culture and all the separate information are consolidated. The most important
findings are reflected, the limits of guerrilla marketing13 examined and the finale question
asked: “Mr./Ms./Mrs. XY, if you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want
to launch a guerrilla marketing campaign to increase awareness, which tools would you
use and what are the most important factors you would consider for a successful

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8.6.3 Questionnaire Version 2 23

1. Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last years?
What has been their recipe for success?
a. In Switzerland
b. Internationally
2. Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla marketing
3. What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful guerrilla
marketing campaign?
4. What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being successful?
5. Does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) substantially vary with
the company size?
6. How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American culture)?
7. Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ among
the four language regions?
8. From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American (please indicate if there are
regional differences):
o Attitude toward the unexpected
o Openness toward the new
o Willingness to share information
Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
9. What distinguishes the Swiss culture from the American culture in terms of attitude
toward marketing?
10. What is their attitudes toward modern marketing techniques?
11. Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in Switzerland/US
to position/brand themselves?
12. How would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for the following four
• Ambush marketing

This version of the questionnaire was tested with a psychologist and expert in quantitative research
from University of Zurich. Some reformulations and changes in terms of structure were conducted and
this questionnaire served as the guideline for a test run and for the first interview (culture expert C1).

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• Ambient marketing
• Sensation marketing
• Viral marketing
13. What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?
14. If marketing measures differ among industries, what are the peculiarities for
lifestyle brands (which instruments are commonly used)?
15. Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?
16. If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a guerrilla
marketing campaign to increase awareness, which tools would you use and what
are the most important factors you would consider for a successful outcome

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8.6.4 Questionnaire Final Version 24

1. Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last years?
a. In Switzerland
b. Internationally
c. What has been their recipe for success?
2. Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla marketing
3. What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful guerrilla
marketing campaign?
4. What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being successful?
5. How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) vary with the
company size?
6. How much potential does Switzerland offer in terms of guerrilla marketing
(different regional potentials)?
7. How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American culture)?
8. Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ among
the four language regions?
9. From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American: (Please indicate if there are
regional differences)
o Attitude toward the unexpected
o Openness toward the new
o Willingness to share information
Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
10. What distinguishes the Swiss culture in terms of attitude toward marketing (e.g.
from the American culture)?

24 After the first interview, question 10 (colored red in the former verision) was removed because
this question was being answered with other questions and therefore offered no additional insights.
On the other hand, during the first interview and a meeting with the supervisor of this study, new
insights were gained and two questions added, namely 6 and 15 (colored in green). Furthermore,
some adaptions regarding structure and wording were made. Hence, this questionnaire served as a
guideline for the other eight interviews. Depending on the interview partner, the question order was
rearranged to enable a smooth start for the experts, however, the questions were the same for each
interview. Before each interview, some icebreaker questions were posed. Because they were
individually adapted, they are not stated on the questionnaire.

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11. Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in Switzerland/US

to brand themselves?
12. From 1-10, how would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for the
following four examples:
• Ambush marketing
• Ambient marketing
• Sensation marketing
• Viral marketing
13. What differentiates lifestyle brands from “normal” brands?
14. Which marketing instruments are commonly used by lifestyle brands?
15. In your opinion, what are crucial skills a company has to possess for successful
guerrilla marketing?
16. Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?
17. If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a guerrilla
marketing campaign, which tools would you use and what are the most important
factors you would consider?

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8.6.5 Questionnaire German Version 25

1. Welche Marketingkampagnen waren speziell erfolgreich in den letzten Jahren?
a. In der Schweiz
b. International
c. Was war ihr Erfolgsrezept?
2. Welche Firmen sind (international) bekannt für Guerilla Marketing Aktivitäten?
3. Welches sind die wichtigsten Rahmenbedingungen für eine erfolgreiche Guerilla
Marketing Kampagne?
4. Welche externen Faktoren beeinflussen den Erfolg einer Guerilla Marketing
Kampagne negativ?
5. Wie unterscheidet sich die Popularität von Guerilla Marketing mit der
6. Wieviel Potenzial hat die Schweiz im Bezug auf Guerilla Marketing (unterscheidet
sich das regionale Potenzial)?
7. Wie würden Sie die Schweizer Kultur charakterisieren (im Vergleich zur
8. Variieren die wichtigsten kulturellen Charakteristiken zwischen den vier
Sprachregionen der Schweiz?
9. Von 1-10, wie würden Sie Schweizer bzw. Amerikaner bewerten: (Bitte erwähnen
Sie regionale Differenzen, falls vorhanden)
o Einstellung gegenüber dem Unerwarteten
o Offenheit gegenüber Neuem
o Bereitschaft um Informationen weiterzuverbreiten
Gibt es ein anderes Element, dass sie als wichtig einstufen würden im
Bezug auf Guerilla Marketing?
10. Was unterscheidet die Schweizer Einstellung gegenüber Marketing (z.B. gegenüber
der Amerikanischen Einstellung)?
11. Welche Marketing Instrumente sind allgemein im Gebrauch bei
Schweizer/Amerikanischen Firmen um sich zu vermarkten?

The questionnaire was translated into German with the help of a studied English/German
translator. This version was provided to the interview partners if needed; however, the following
interview protocols all are based on the English questionnaire to simplify the analysis.

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12. Von 1-10, wie würden Sie das Erfolgspotential in der Schweiz für folgende
Instrumente einschätzen:
• Ambush marketing
• Ambient marketing
• Sensation marketing
• Viral marketing
13. Was unterscheidet einen “Lifestyle brand“ von einer normalen Marke?
14. Welche Marketing Instrumente werden von “Lifestyle brands“ üblicherweise
15. Was sind fundamentale Skills, die eine Firma besitzen muss, für erfolgreiches
Guerilla Marketing?
16. Wo sehen Sie die Grenzen von Guerilla Marketing?
17. Falls Sie eine “Lifestyle“-Firma in der Schweiz besässen und planen, eine Guerilla
Marketing Kampagne durchzuführen, welche Instrumente würden Sie nutzen und
welche Faktoren würden Sie berücksichtigen?

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8.6.6 Instruments of Guerilla Marketing Examples

In order to visualize the four different kinds of guerilla marketing instruments, namely:
ambush marketing, ambient marketing, sensation marketing and viral marketing, two
successful examples of each tool were selected and presented as a help to answer question
12. Subsequently, each example is briefly described. Ambush Marketing

A famous example for ambush
marketing is the 1996 Summer
Olympics in Atlanta. Michael
Johnson, an American sprinter,
won gold – with his striking
golden Nike shoes. Nike was not
official Olympic sponsor;
however, individually sponsored
Johnson which promoted the
brand instead of the official
sponsor Reebok. It was a successful ambush action for Nike and resulted in rule changes
of the IOC (Klara, 2016; Davis, 1996).

At the 2011 US Open of

Tennis, Heineken was the
official beer sponsor;
however, Stella Artois
cleverly advertised, by the
means of 15 billboard
advertisements with tennis
references, around the
stadium. The controversy
was widely spread and
Stella Artois could extend its brand appeal (Kaplan, 2011).

According to Business Insider, both campaigns rank among the best Ambush marketing
campaigns (Minato, 2012).

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Folgers, an American coffee brand, newly decorated the constantly steaming gully covers
in New York. It was a creative, easy action that created awareness (Schmidt, 2012)

Another popular ambient marketing example is one of IWC, which printed its Big Plot
Chrono watch on bus wrist straps on the airport. It perfectly blended in with its
environment and generated a memorable expression (Anders, 2013).

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During the last years, the non-governmental organization (NGO) Amnesty International
increasingly engaged in sensation marketing activities. One example was at the airport
where transparent suitcases with humans inside were placed on the baggage carousel.
The action shocked and succeeded to raise awareness for the problem of human
trafficking (Nufer & Kern, 2012).

Also, the car manufacturer BMW has been engaging in sensation marketing for years in
order to promote its Mini models. In this example, a Mini was wrapped in suitcase
protective foil and placed at the airport like an unclaimed item of baggage. It generated
a lot of buzz (Nufer & Kern, 2012).

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Artisan Entertainment, the maker of the movie The
Blair Witch Project effectively executed a viral
marketing campaign which created buzz and was
widely distributed. The interest was created through
creating a myth around the movie and by giving it the
character of a documentary, both supported by an
internet side. People were talking about The Blair
Witch Project and the site was frequently visited. With
a budget of just USD 2.5 million, the movie generated
over USD 245 million in worldwide box office sales
(Dobele, Lindgreen, Beverland, Vanhamme, & Van Wijk 2007).

Before Christmas 2013, a Santa Claus appeared on large screens at the boarding gates of
the airports Toronto and Hamilton, Canada. Passengers could make a wish and when the
planes landed a few hours later in Calgary, the gifts were on the baggage carousel –
wrapped and labeled. 250 passengers received their Christmas wishes and experienced
emotions from laughing to crying. However, the most valuable gift received WestJet,
Canada’s second largest airline and the company behind the action, which was called
Christmas Miracle. The video of Christmas Miracle received over 13 million views from
200 countries within the first few days and got media coverage in the United Kingdom,
Australia, Japan, Poland and Malaysia. It was an invaluable branding sensation and,
according to WestJet’s
vice president of
communications and
community relations,
the costs of Christmas
Miracle were a fraction
of the production of
traditional commercials
(Bender, A. 2013).

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8.7 Transcription System

There are various transcription systems available to translate speech into a fixed form,
such as a written text document (Kuckartz, 2005). The systems differ in terms of scope,
interpretation content and linguistic accuracy and are dependent on the kind of analysis
that needs to be conducted (Flick, 2006) All detailed transcription rules for this study,
which are based on the guidelines of Kuckartz et al. (2008), are stated below:

1. It is literally described, not phonetic or summarized.

2. It is transcribed in standard German or English. Swiss-German dialects are
directly translated into standard German and the grammar accordingly adjusted.
The exception are specific expressions which cannot be translated.
3. The speech and punctuation are slightly smoothened, meaning they are
approximated to standard German or English.
4. Information, which could lead to inferences about the questioned person are
anonymized if explicitly requested.
5. Distinct, longer breaks are marked by suspension marks (…).
6. Particularly emphasized terms are written in capital letters.
7. Affirmative expressions of the interviewee (Mhm, Aha, etc.) are not transcribed,
as long as they do not interrupt the flow of speech of the questioned person.
8. Sounds, which support or clarify the statement of the questioned person (as
laughing or sighing), are noted in brackets.
9. The interviewing person is labeled with an “Q”, the interviewed person labeled
depending on their field of expertise with either a “C” (culture expert), a “MA”
(academic marketing expert) or a “MP” (practical marketing expert) followed by
their identification number (as “C2:”)

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8.8 Interview Protocols

Hereinafter, the protocols of all expert interviews are presented. Due to time restraints of
some interview partners, a few questions could not be elaborated in more detail and a
small number had to be skipped.

8.8.1 Expert Interview Protocol C126

Date: 5th of April 2017

Having a multicultural background herself, she became an expert in intercultural

competences after originally studying history and sinology at the University of Zurich.
She made her doctorate at the same institution in modern history. Throughout her
professional career she has been working for many academic institutions and cross-
cultural competences were always a substantial part which is why she decided to get a
further education in that field. Currently, she is a lecturer at a Swiss university and tutors
Bachelor-, Master- as well as MBA subjects that touch upon the framework of culture.
Furthermore, she has been consulting the EDA (Eidgenössisches Departement für
auswärtige Angelegenheiten) as well as the IOC (International Olympic Committee) on
intercultural issues. The primary aim of this interview was to elaborate on cultural
characteristics that might have an influence on the perception of guerrilla marketing
campaigns and to analyze if these preconditions are given in the Swiss context. This
interview was deliberately chosen as the first one in order to get an understanding of the
cultural framework surrounding marketing decisions.

Q1: How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American
C1: The first thing that comes to my mind is that Swiss people are much more risk-
averse. Americans are more spontaneous, more progressive/multicultural, less shy,
less gehemmt (engl. inhibited), less controlled and naturally more funny. In America,
you learn from an early stage on how to be an entertainer and the necessary
preconditions are provided. Therefore, Americans know much better how to market
themselves. I think, being original and special is more supported by Anglo-Saxon

26This interview could not be recored and was transcribed accoriding to the rules of a
summarized protocol.

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cultures. Being entertaining is less a talent here and not so important; however, Swiss
people are not boring. There are fields where Swiss people are innovative, for
example in politics when it comes to drugs (controlled methadone supply) or the
voting about a basic income for everyone where Switzerland can be seen as a pioneer.

Q2: Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ

among the four language regions?
C1: Swiss identity is a conceptual identity in the sense that it is an idea or a vision.
It is abstract, it is like the American identity respectively the American dream and
not a deep-rooted national identity in the common sense. The core is a vision of being
an independent county that is democratically organized. However, there is little
historical connections which is why the concept is rather abstract and not very strong.

The identity becomes stronger on local levels such as regions and cantons. There we
have traditional identity patterns in the form of a common language, a common
history and in a sense a common race. Switzerland in general has no traditional
patterns (different languages, history, ethnicities etc.); therefore, it is a modern
construction. If we look at the history, Switzerland was united for the purpose of
defense with an identity that is defined in what we want to be and not want to be and
what kind of country we want to be. But again, it is very abstract and there is no
strong feeling of belongingness.

In Korea, there are only about 10-20 family names with three dominant ones. There,
we have one nation and one family because only a few tribes have been living
together for thousands of years. This provides a sentiment of connectedness that is
inherited in the blood – all speak the same language and eat Kimchi. This culture is
based on traditional patterns of identity and hence builds a strong national identity.
In contrast, Switzerland is a young country with a more abstract national identity and
the different cantons have different mindsets/cultural identities. For some people, it
is even more important to be a member of this canton than being Swiss. They would
define their canton as their home.

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Q3: From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American (please indicate if there
are regional differences):
• Attitude toward the unexpected
C1: Switzerland: 4, US: 8+
• Openness toward the new
C1: Switzerland: 4, US: 8, for urban cities in coastal regions; however, America
has some very conservative and traditional regions.
• Willingness to share information
C1: This one I cannot evaluate.
• Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
C1: No.

Q4: What is their attitudes toward modern marketing techniques?

C1: That is a generation question. Older people still like to read newspapers;
however, do you see younger generations with a newspaper?

Q5: What distinguishes the Swiss culture from the American culture in terms of
attitude toward marketing?
C1: Swiss people are generally more risk-averse. Not only on the consumer-, but also
on the supplier-side. Companies fear to lose their face by engaging in an
unconventional marketing activity. However, I do not think that Switzerland is a bad
place for marketing activities. Especially, big cities like Zurich are very international
and innovative. People in Zurich want to be hip, want to elevate Zurich to a world
city and in a way try to be American. Among all the places in Switzerland, I think
Zurich is the best suitable for guerrilla marketing because I do not think that there
are many differences in terms of attitude toward marketing in comparison to
American cities.

Q6: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in

Switzerland/US to position/brand themselves?
C1: For me that also depends on the target segment respectively the target generation.
Q7: Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last

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C1: The initiators of the initiative bedigungsloses Grundeinkommen distributed tons

of 5 Rappen-coins all over the Bundesplatz in Bern and shoveled them around. The
message was that we are so rich to have the discussion about basic income and this
action created beautiful pictures. It went viral all over the world, I even read about it
in the Chinese news. It was a very, very good action.

Q8: Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla

marketing activities?
C1: I remember Nivea dressed people like polar bears to give away samples.

Q9: What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful guerrilla
marketing campaign?
C1: Guerrilla marketing needs an audience that is not risk-averse and loves to be
surprised. The crowd has to play along, meaning that people need to have the
willingness to participate in unconventional activities. Other supportive factors are
spontaneity, curiosity, not being shy, openness to new ideas, not being so
conservative, love to be surprised, which is the opposite of conservative, and feeling
comfortable to act in public. Also, people have to be willing to sacrifice their leisure
time but you always find such people. I believe that urban centres are more suitable
for such campaigns. In rural areas, public space is not so diverse and more ritual,
meaning that public space is not open for various usages but only has one purpose.
As an example, a marketplace in a small village has less usage options and is more
traditional than the main station in Zurich.

Q10: What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being
C1: When people feel shy and worry to be spontaneous. This might be applicable
in small villages where everyone has an assigned role to play and everyone knows

Q11: Does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) substantially vary
with the company size?

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C1: Smaller companies that need attention might be in more need for guerrilla

Q12: How would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for the following
four examples:
• Ambush marketing
C1: Swiss people might perceive such actions as mean, not fair and hence not
• Ambient marketing
C1: Such actions are funny and could work.
• Sensation marketing
C1: Nice, could work too.
• Viral marketing
C1: This one I cannot tell.

Q13: What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?

C1: When an entire lifestyle is embedded in the brand it becomes a lifestyle brand.
It can mirror political orientation, a sense of music or communicates many other
dimensions of who you are. For example, depending on what kind of sneakers you
are wearing, people can tell if you are rather multicultural or conservative, rock or
pop. My son really likes this one rapper and wants to be dressed like him, sing like
him and dance like him – this rapper is like a lifestyle brand too.

Q14: If marketing measures differ among industries, what are the peculiarities for
lifestyle brands (which instruments are commonly used)?
C1: Many young kids are on the internet nowadays.

Q15: Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?
C1: As long as it is something special it can work, but if a guerrilla marketing action
is waiting for you at every corner, like billboards, it loses its effect. The effect is
bigger the less you use it. You can destroy yourself if you use it all the time. With
the time, it gets dull so keep it rare.

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Q16: If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a
guerrilla marketing campaign to increase awareness, which tools would you
use and what are the most important factors you would consider for a
successful outcome?
C1: It is important make the brand visible that is behind the campaign. I think that
many people remember the action but not the brand which was behind it. So, brand
recognition is a crucial factor. Also, one has to consider all directions of effects
such a campaign could have and what reactions it might trigger because it is placed
in public places. You do not want to read in the newspaper that someone got hurt
or so. Therefore, the design process is important (what can you trigger - chain
reaction) as well as the cultural environment, where do I put it (urban or rural

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8.8.2 Expert Interview Protocol C2

Date: 20th of April 2017

The second expert in the field of culture has a bi-cultural background and has been
internationally working in several countries in Europe but also in other regions. He is
personally interested in multicultural issues, has been working in numerous consulting
positions and was involved in many multicultural negotiations. Nowadays, he is
professionally working with the Swiss tourism, the federal government and also the
police. On the academic level, he is an expert for international business and is lecturing
several related topics at a Swiss university. This interview not only disclosed
characteristics of Swiss people but also ways to reach them by understanding their
underlying values.

Q1: How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American
C2: I mean that is always a stereotype. When we characterize something we always
generalize and generalizations are not the truth for everyone, but it is a start. Now,
the Swiss naturally are very precise. The intention of the Swiss tourism is to give
maximal service, happiness and fulfillment for the customers but at the same time
for the lowest price. The quality is more important than the other elements, price is
not number one but it certainly should be included because it is a part of the enterprise
which makes business. But quality is first and anything which is disturbing quality,
whether it is coming from suppliers, the company itself or the customer, is disturbing
the Swiss person. Swiss people are very tough because they would like to have
quality and they have a vision about it. They think that their quality is, let us say, the
only right quality. So, if it is not delivered as he has the vision of it, he thinks that it
is not quality. The perception of quality is very limited, tied and closed in
Switzerland. It is not wrong but it is like that. If he says, I give you the room at four
o’clock, it is four o’clock. A quarter to four is not four, a quarter past four is also not
four. So, if the client is coming a quarter to four, he is disturbed and if the lady that
is cleaning the room finishes at a quarter past four, it is also not quality. He is very
tight on this issue because he wants to deliver quality. His perception, his vision of
the quality is closed, limited and not flexible. He is a perfectionist on one side but at

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the same time he is, let us say, shooting himself with the same quality. It is good and
bad at the same time.

Q2: Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ

among the four language regions?
C2: Not every person and not every region is the same. For example, the Italian part
is a little bit more flexible. You also have differences between institutions. For
example hotels, which already have been exposed to foreigners, versus hotels that
have not. That is a big difference. Let us speak about time. When customers are
coming or eating, hotels which already have experience with cultures where time is
not very exact, have it easier than hotels which never have been exposed to such a
type of behavior. It is not straight-forward and not everyone in one region or another
region is the same. But as I said, the Latin part of Switzerland is a little bit more
flexible, but still not flexible compared to other countries.

Q3: From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American: (Please indicate if there
are regional differences)
• Attitude toward the unexpected
C2: I think Americans are a 10 and the Swiss are a 5.
• Openness toward the new
C2: Now we have to differentiate because young people in Switzerland are quite
open and the older are less open. So, here I think we have to differentiate in age-
terms. The young in Switzerland, I would say, are quite high. Not as high as in
America, but certainly not far from that. So, I would say if Americans are a 10 the
young Swiss are between 7-8. The elderly people will be between 4-5.
• Willingness to share information
C2: Here I say the young will be an 8 and the older will be between 6-7. The attitude
to speak about an experience, is quite high in both cases (Swiss and American), if
it is good or bad. Because an experience can be this or this one (good or bad).
• Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
C2: The speed. I mean in Switzerland we do not like to be in a hurry, we do not
like to be pushed. Guerrilla is something which is short-term. In Switzerland, we
do not like this short-term surprise because we need to swallow the surprise, think

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about it and then take the decision. Guerrilla marketing actually is based on not
giving you the time to think too much. For Swiss that is not welcomed.

Q4: How much potential does Switzerland offer in terms of guerrilla marketing
(different regional potentials)?
C2: It depends on where guerrilla marketing will be applied: is it on the internet, is
it in the supermarket or somewhere else? It also depends on which channel of
interaction between the customer and the supplier is used. The second aspect is the
age and the third the technology of the products, or let us say the industry. If you go
to some industries, yes you can do it, in some others you cannot do it. I think we have
to differentiate between these three elements, knowing that the Swiss are more
conservative about it. So, I think yes there is, but one should take into consideration
these elements: that it is not for every industry, not for every age and not for every
channel. The channel depends on the industry.

Q5: What distinguishes the Swiss culture in terms of attitude toward marketing
(e.g. from the American culture)?
C2: I think we are bored with that. The Americans less, it is part of their culture. We
are bored with advertisement, unless it is something that we are interested in. We are
a little bit strange in Switzerland (laughs). We do not want to be bored by the
advertisement but if we want something and we do not get the information we are
angry. That is a little bit the contradiction. Normally, the first objective of the
advertisement is to give you basic information, to create awareness about the product,
the channel how to get it, maybe how to use it or where, in which domain, to use it.
That is part of the advertisement. If it is repeated we do not like it, but when we need
it we say: why is it not explained? Why do we not have the information? The
Americans are used to that. He can sleep while hearing advertisements that does not
disturb him. So, when he needs it, he can get the information. I think we have
different attitudes for advertisements here.

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Q6: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in

Switzerland/US to brand themselves?
C2: It is changing. We are more traditional but it is changing. I mean we slowly see
electronic platforms and social media. The television is always taking less and the
newspaper anyhow. On the internet, many things are going on. One of the things I
have experienced during the few last years is that a lot of individuals are going
regional to present their product. Back home in your post box you see individual
flyers and things like that. It is increasing maybe because the cost of production of
these products is easy, you can produce your flyer by yourself and the price is cheap.
It is on a regional level and I think because we have a lot of unemployment, especially
under the young, they say: I am not losing anything, I go from door to door and put
that in the boxes, I do not have any problem with that. I think this makes that you
also have this type. Overall it is not like the internet, that is for sure, but it is
something new and it is a different approach than the traditional newspaper and
television or radio and so on.

Q7: Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last
C2: (...) To be frank with you, I do not like to look at advertisements. But there is
something that I like. I like is this steady message sent by the Appenzell cheese secret.
It is steadily the same message, always. It is a steady message in a different layout. I
like it as a concept because it is creating, let us say, a legend. It is creating a legend
that there is a secret, of how to make this nice cheese, somewhere hidden. Now,
whether this is a secret or not, I do not know. I think someone that is clever from that
region can make it, it is not so secret like the Coca-Cola formula, if this one also
exists. The creation of a legend in terms of advertisement is very positive. And this
is always in the same way, the same manner. It is steady, always calm, colorful,
traditional and related to the product that you can find everywhere. I think it is a nice

Q8: Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla

marketing activities?
C2: I think we have something which can be similar at Zalando and this type of
company. It is not only guerrilla but also traditional, but they use some of the

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principles of guerrilla marketing. All is remote, they do not have shops, which is why
they need to attract your attention to that.

Q9: What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful
guerrilla marketing campaign?
C2: It (guerrilla marketing) should resolve one of the problems that you have. Swiss
are pragmatic. In order to have success in any commercial action you should resolve
a problem. Now why does Zalando and these companies have success? Because they
are resolving the problem of: I do not have time to go to the shop and spend time to
select. I (Zalando) offer you a platform, you can resolve this problem and I can be
successful. The same when you think about the e-shop from Coop or Migros. It is
resolving a problem; I do not have to go to the shop but I receive it at home or at the
Zurich or Winterthur railway station. If you can resolve a problem, you can come
with guerrilla marketing. I do not think that guerrilla marketing for guerrilla
marketing will bring something in the long run. It should resolve a problem. Now
anyone who wants to make guerrilla marketing should find the niche for his product
which can resolve a problem and then he will have success. The culture is not against
guerrilla marketing. The culture is looking for a solution. If guerrilla can combine
these two things together it will be successful.

Q10: What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being
C2: I do not think it is a matter. Again, we have to ask ourselves, what is the
product? An ABB product does not work with guerrilla marketing, people are not
taking it seriously. So, I think it depends on the product.

Q11: How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) vary with
the company size?
Refer to the answer of Q4

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Q12: From 1-10, how would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for
the following four examples:
• Ambush marketing
C2: I do not think people will realize that. The ambush is so quick that people are
going to analyze that later but on the spot, there is no one seeing the big difference.
I think that is also the advantage of ambush marketing, because with that you get
the effect before people are thinking about it. I think when people are influenced by
that, for example this Nike thing (Nike ambush marketing example), you made it
and people are not going to realize it. We speak about the large population because
it is also done for a large population and not only for one individual. Now, if you
go to the people which are analyzing, they are not going to like that because it is
impolite in Switzerland. Because you do not pay, you are steeling something.
People, which analyze, will not like it. Naturally, we always have to see the legal
impact of that. We have to take into consideration how it will be considered by the
Swiss law, which I do not know. If there is a legal impact, there is no chance because
Swiss generally respect the law, I think 7.
• Ambient marketing
C2: This will work especially for more individual products. Here, for example, the
platforms will be social media, things like that, where it goes viral. It is nice and
unusual but it should be done in a manner that attracts attention of the target
segment. I would say, this type is more for young, individual persons. Everyone has
to be touched by that, you are not creating an impression. I am influenced by that.
The beer before (Stella Artois ambush marketing example) creates an impression,
it is not for you. Here you say: look how nice it is. It is personal and that it is a little
bit different. Therefore, I would say, it is more for young people, social networks
and things like that and for individual products. Under these conditions I also would
rate it high.
• Sensation marketing
C2: I think the people will like it, it will be attracting. Attracting if there is no
damage. Here we have to come into communication and think about what is funny.
Fun starts when there is a distance. For example, if I fall down the stairs, I am not
laughing about that. If there is somebody I do not know and he falls, maybe I will
laugh. Why? Because I do not know him and nothing happened. So, two things:
there is a distance between me and the person and the event and the second thing is

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that there is no big damage. If the guy will be dead, I am not going to laugh. But if
the guy stands up and laughs and is a bit confused then I am going to laugh. That is
the principal of funny. Swiss people are sensitive to that. The principles of funny
should be respected and then, yes, it is attractive. The Amnesty example is funny
because nothing has happening to her and I do not know her. If I will be in there (in
the suitcase) it will not be funny because it is hot, I have muscle problems or
whatever it is. But I do not know her, I know that it is one time, I know that it is an
advertisement and I know nothing will happen to her. If I knew that she would stay
there for three days, then it is not funny. But she was paid for that and if something
was wrong they would take her out. So, it is funny and I accept it.
• Viral marketing
C2: Yes, they are going to speak, especially if it brings an added value. This gift,
for example (WestJet example), is something that is positive in the Swiss culture.
We do not look at the value of these things but we look at the gesture. In the movie
(Blair Witch Project example), people are young, it is nice, they have courage to do
that, we look positively at these things. Anything which can be out-of-the-box,
without putting us under stress, will be okay and people will speak. Here again, we
see that the target segment has an influence on how much it will spread. But I think
Swiss are open as long as it does not put them under stress or require anything from
them. If we have to fill out something to get a Christmas gift we do not do it, because
I am waiting for my luggage and when it comes I want to go. So, I have two or three
minutes and it should be something that takes ten seconds while I am waiting. If it
was three minutes more, it should have value, otherwise I do not like it. For
example, I saw at the airport of Zurich, an advertisement with Roger Federer where
you can take a picture with him. I think it was Rolex. So, he made a movie, which
is on the wall and at a certain time you can stand near him and take a picture so it
looks as if you were next to him. But you have to wait until he is coming and that
is a place where people are going from the passport to the luggage, so nobody will
wait there. Despite that it is Roger Federer, I am not going to wait until Roger
Federer will come to the position where I am going to take a picture with him. Some
people did it, I saw some, but you did not hear about that, many people did not hear
about it and many people do not even remark that. Because when you arrive and
they are speaking about Roger Federer it is only one advertisement more. It should

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not cost you time, put you under stress, harm the procedure where you go and it
should be something a little bit out-of-the-box.

Q13: What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?

C2: It is something that you use because it is either your lifestyle or you want to
change to another lifestyle. You are going to segment the market according to
lifestyles which are existing and you make your marketing for that.

Q14: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by lifestyle brands?

C2: Well, I think they use different instruments, because you have an expectation
management which is different. Even if you are rich you are not going to pay CHF
10’000.-- for a Rolex if you are not going to get a reward for that. This reward can
be prestige, image or whatever. But I have an expectation and it should be rewarded.
Therefore, I have to advertise in order that my promise will be tangible, acceptable
or something the consumer is looking for. It depends on the product how you
advertise, each one has another expectation. You have to bring the proof that this
will satisfy your expectation.

Q15: In your opinion, what are crucial skills a company has to possess for
successful guerrilla marketing?
C2: Guerrilla marketing is very emotional. So, you have to have people in your
environment, your testing environment or in the team that are developing that,
which can share these emotions. Otherwise you cannot test it and you have to test
it in one way or another, if it is a conceptual or a real test or whatever, because it is
costly for the action, maybe not for the whole campaign but for the action. If you
take the price per minute, then it is costlier than the other traditional things,
generally speaking. You have to have a good return on that. Since it is short, you
cannot repeat it every day, otherwise it will become boring. So, the short action
should be effective. That is the only emotion. I mean all our decision making, we
know that from marketing and other studies, is built on emotions. Then you need to
have a person who can share these emotions. If you do not have this, I think it is
difficult to concede that. For example, if you are segmenting young people that are
on social media, you have to have somebody that is involved in that. It is not enough
that I understand what it is or have statistics about it – that is static. It is about

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emotion and guerrilla is emotion because it is only a short time, intensive and also
should be viral.

Q16: Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?
C2: It again depends on the segment but for the consumer it should be acceptable.
So, anything which is acceptable, whether it is horror, fun, sex, physical trial or
whatever it is, it should be something that is acceptable for the culture where you
are and your target segment.

Q17: If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a
guerrilla marketing campaign, which tools would you use and what are the
most important factors you would consider?
C2: That is again linked to the emotion that I want to create. It should be intense,
harmless and it should also be profitable. But first I want to see what is the emotion
I want to create, is this emotion a solution for the objective of my marketing
strategy? Then, what is the perception of the others, as we said before, and at the
end of the day it should also be profitable.

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8.8.3 Expert Interview Protocol MA1

Date: 19th of April 2017

After two marketing-related studies at Universität Mannheim and EBS Universität für
Wirtschaft und Recht, this marketing specialist completed his PhD in marketing at
Universität Basel. Thereafter, he was employed in the field of marketing by different
companies in the private sector, including Sunrise, before leaving that path and following
a more academic direction. For more than eleven years, he has been Head of Center for
Marketing at a Swiss university, supervising numerous marketing programs. This
marketing expert has an extensive knowledge of many different facets of marketing and
could therefore contribute to this study by connecting all different marketing parts and
provide complementing information.

Q1: Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last
MA1: Also ich denke mal, ein sehr gutes internationales Beispiel ist für mich ein
Unternehmen was eigentlich gar kein Marketing im engeren Sinne macht. Das ist,
was Tesla macht, weil sie es im Prinzip geschafft haben, mit einer Gallionsfigur auf
der einen Seite und einem konstanten Medienstream auf der anderen Seite, die
Aufmerksamkeit aufrecht zu erhalten. Damit haben sie sehr, sehr viel awareness und
Goodwill geschaffen für ein Produkt, eine Marke und am Schluss das Unternehmen
was bis heute noch keinen Franken wirklich verdient hat. Also verdient schon, aber
noch keinen richtigen Gewinn gemacht hat. Und das ohne, dass man Tesla Anzeigen
oder Banner sieht. Das ist für mich immer wieder ein Paradebeispiel dafür, wie man
sehr virtuos auf der Klaviatur von Marketinginstrumenten im weiteren Sinne spielen
kann und das recht erfolgreich. Das Erfolgsrezept ist sicherlich auch die Person vom
Musk, muss man ganz ehrlich sagen. Der ist selber seht gut vernetzt und sehr präsent
in den Medien, nicht nur mit Tesla aber auch mit anderen Themen wie seinen
Hobbies in Anführungsstrichen. So haben sie eben einen konstanten Newsflow. Dann
gibt es einen neuen Autopiloten, ein Update, einen Ausblick auf das Modell 3, dass
noch keiner gesehen hat aber das tausend Leute blind bestellen und tausend Dollar
anzahlen, dann gibt es das und gibt es jenes. Sie schaffen es mit einem, nicht
klassischen Marketing doch so viel Buzz zu generieren, dass immer wieder über die

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Marke berichtet wird und dass sie einfach präsent sind. Das ist effektiv ein
bewundernswertes Konzept.

Q2: Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla

marketing activities?
MA1: Also jüngst muss ich jetzt ehrlich sagen ist mir kein Beispiel hangen

Q3: What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful
guerrilla marketing campaign?
MA1: Ich weiss nicht, ob wir in der Schweiz in bisschen stier sind und dann von
solchen Aktivitäten relativ schnell einmal die negativen Seiten sehen. Ich glaube, es
braucht sicherlich eine gewisse Kreativität, eine gewisse Aktualität, eben etwas das
halt am Schluss auch berichtenswert ist und einen gewissen Newsfaktor hat.
Grundsätzlich braucht es eine gewisse Aufgeschlossenheit gegenüber modernen
Massnahmen, modernen Aktivitäten. Ich denke mal, da sind manche internationale
Länder, über unsere europäischen Nachbaren hinaus, wahrscheinlich ein Stück
weiter. Da gibt es ein Stück mehr Freiheiten.

Q4: What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being
MA1: Bei verschlossenen Bevölkerungen wird es halt kritisch angeschaut. Guerilla
Aktivitäten bewegen sich ja oftmals ein bisschen in einer Grauzone, ist es noch
erlaubt oder ist es nicht erlaubt oder brauche ich eine Genehmigung um jetzt an der
Bahnhofstrasse irgendetwas zu machen oder nicht. Es gibt sicher eine rechtliche
Grenze wo ich sagen würde da wird es dann kritisch. Ich meine auch Beispiele bei
denen das Unternehmen nicht genug nachgedacht hat. Vor zwei oder drei Jahren hat
Sunrise irgendeinen Contest gewonnen und hat da eine Ballonaktion in Zürich
gestartet und hunderte oder tausende Ballone in die Luft steigen lassen. Die sind dann
geplatzt und konzentriert in einem Wald in einem Alpengebiet runtergegangen. Dann
hat man festgestellt, dass ich glaub entweder die Verschlüsse oder irgendwelche
Teile davon nicht biologisch abbaubar waren, sodass wieder Tiere gefährdet waren.
Die Aktion war lustig und es ist auch berichtet worden aber zwei Tage später war sie
bereits eher negativ in den Medien. Darum ist es im Prinzip eher nach hinten

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losgegangen. Man muss sicherlich die Konsequenzen, die Tragweite einer Aktion,
durchdenken. Ich sag jetzt einmal, wenn Sie auf eine Ampel einen Smiley kleben ist
das ja noch lustig, aber wenn die Ampel am Schluss nicht mehr ihre Funktion erfüllen
kann, sind wir in einem Bereich wo es dann nicht nur illegal, sondern auch gefährlich
wird. Ich glaube, da muss man sicherlich eine scharfe Grenze ziehen und natürlich
bei aller Lustigkeit keine Gefühle von irgendwelchen Menschen verletzen.

Da sind wir in Europa vielleicht auch wieder anders geprägt, in manchen anderen
Ländern wäre politische Korrektheit vielleicht weniger das Thema. Politische
Korrektheit in der USA oder in der Schweiz wäre jetzt ein ganz starkes Thema. Wenn
Sie eine Minderheit verletzten würden, dann könnte das je nach dem welches
Sprachrohr, welche Lobby diese Minderheit in den USA hat, ein Gau werden und
einen Shitstorm auslösen. Ich sage mal in anderen Ländern haben sie vielleicht eher
ein Stück weit schwarzen Humor und stehen ein bisschen darüber und würden
manche Dinge durchgehen lassen. Der schwarze Humor in England, zum Beispiel,
ist ein anderer als in Deutschland oder der Schweiz. Deswegen muss eine Aktion
sicherlich irgendwie in den kulturellen Kontext reinpassen, darf gewisse Grenzen
überschreiten aber es gibt vielleicht irgendwo ein Hartlimit, wo man sagt: dann ist es
nicht mehr lustig. Dann geht es hinten raus.

Q5: How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) vary with the
company size?
MA1: Ich glaube es spielt einfach die Kreativität eine Rolle wie auch die
Entscheidungswege. Da trauen sich vielleicht kleinere Firmen tendenziell mehr als
grössere. Ich kann mir schwer vorstellen, dass die UBS eine Guerilla Aktion macht,
weil da wird man sich mindestens über fünf Hierarchieebenen Gedanken machen und
wahrscheinlich primär die negativen Konsequenzen gewichten. Ich behaupte am
Schuss wird das nicht durchkommen, weil man Angst vor dem Reputationsverlust
hat. Ich glaube in kleinere Einheiten haben Firmen kürzere Wege, sind schneller, sind
kreativer. Sie haben dann vielleicht auch eher mal den Mut etwas zu machen, etwas
das auch ein bisschen in die Grauzone hineingeht.

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Q6: How much potential does Switzerland offer in terms of guerrilla marketing
(different regional potentials)?
MA1: Letztens gab es gerade eine Aktion in Bern, wo sie die Erdmännchen
fotografiert haben und da stand ein Unternehmen dahinter. So etwas finde ich jetzt
persönlich nicht super witzig, aber es ist lustig und führt die Leute ein wenig an der
Nase rum. Das Problem ist ein Stück weit, man kommt heute relativ schnell in die
Schiene der Fake News und dann finden es die Leute auch nicht mehr lustig. Weil
dann stellt sich die Frage, wem kann ich überhaupt noch trauen. Ich sage mal, wenn
Sie ein kreatives Unternehmen haben, wie eine Smoothie Bar, und die macht in der
Stadt Zürich etwas Lustiges und vielleicht ein bisschen Spezielles, glaube ich,
funktioniert das schon.

Q7: How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American
MA1: Das ist eine schwierige Frage. Wenn Sie sich im Marketing bewegen, dann
sind sie schnell bei dem Thema Zielgruppensegmente und so weiter. Dann zu sagen,
DER Schweizer und DER Amerikaner ist schwierig. Wenn Sie einen Menschen vom
mittleren Westen nehmen und einen von San Francisco, Boston oder New York dann
ticken die auch unterschiedlich. Wenn Sie manche Dinge im konservativen Zentral-
USA machen würden, dann haben Sie schnell mal eine Kugel in der Brust, weil es
jemand einfach nicht lustig findet, Sie auf sein Grundstück gegangen sind und er von
seinem Waffenrecht Gebrauch macht – blöd gesagt. Hingegen in San Francisco
würde man darüber lachen. Es gibt Dinge, die man klischeemässig Nationen
zuschreibt, aber ich finde es immer schwierig.

Q8: Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ

among the four language regions?
MA1: Wenn Sie jetzt einen Basler gegenüber einem Walliser anschauen, einen
jungen Basler gegenüber einem alten Walliser, einen alten Basler gegenüber einem
jungen Walliser, kann das ganz unterschiedlich sein. Ist es ein Schweizer? Ist es ein
Walliser? Ist es ein Junger? Ist es ein Alter? Da gibt es einfach zu viele
Denkhaltungen und zu viele Segmente um jetzt zu sagen, generell DER Schweizer
oder DER Amerikaner. Das funktioniert nicht. Sie werden auch in Zürich Leute
finden, die sagen das ist nicht lustig und andere sagen: coole Aktion.

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Q9: From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American: (Please indicate if there
are regional differences)
• Attitude toward the unexpected
MA1: In dem Bewusstsein, dass man sich jetzt stärker bei Klischee und beim
Aussenbild, wie andere die Schweiz und die USA wahrnehmen, bewegen, dann
denke ich mal man ist in der USA schon spontaner und aufgeschlossener gegenüber
einer kreativen Idee. Pauschal würde ich sagen sind sie in der USA eher bei einer 8
und in der Schweiz eher bei einer 5-6.
• Openness toward the new
MA1: Da geht es in der USA vielleicht noch ein Stückchen weiter hoch. Weil ich
glaube man probiert Dinge eher mal aus und gibt neuen Dingen eine Chance und
schaut ob es passt und funktioniert. In der Schweiz, vielleicht in Europa etwas
weiter gefasst, haben wird vielleicht doch ein gewisses Beharrungsvermögen und
schauen erst einmal ob es wirklich gut ist und funktioniert. Aber eben, das ist jetzt
auch wieder eine sehr pauschale Aussage. Nehmen wir Tesla wieder, der Markt in
der Schweiz ist grösser als der in Deutschland. In 2015 wurden in der Schweiz mehr
Teslas verkauft als in Deutschland, also absolut. Da muss man sagen, das Segment
oder das Cluster von innovationsorientierten Menschen, die sich das auch leisten
können, ist offensichtlich so gross, dass sie Tesla eine Change geben. Deutschland
ist vielleicht auch etwas geprägt durch die Autoindustrie und denken die
Amerikaner können keine Autos bauen und dann kommt der Typ noch aus dem
Internet, ist ja sowieso suspekt. Deswegen finde ich sind pauschale Aussagen da
recht schwierig.
• Willingness to share information
MA1: Tendenziell schlägt das Pendel in den USA auch ein wenig weiter aus, 8 und
in der Schweiz ein bisschen zurückhaltender. Wenn Sie da die klassischen Social
Media Regeln anschauen haben Sie 90% die passiv etwas konsumieren, 10% die
vielleicht etwas liken und 1% am Schluss noch die selber aktiv werden. Das haben
sie natürlich in anderen Ländern ähnlich, sie haben viele passive Beobachter. Die
wenigsten generieren wirklich Content und machen aktiv etwas.

• Is there another element that you would consider as important that influences
guerrilla marketing?

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MA1: (...) Dieser rechtliche Aspekt, sich an Regeln halten. Das mag auch mit den
rechtlichen Konsequenzen zusammenhängen, wenn ich es nicht mache (Rechte
befolgen). Da bin ich in der Schweiz schnell einmal in einem Bereich in dem es
nicht mehr lustig ist (lacht). Hier werden Sie vielleicht zu einer Geldstrafe von
40'000.-- Franken verurteilt, dafür haben Sie in Amerika, im mittleren Westen,
vielleicht eine Ladung Schrott im Rücken. Es wird auch viel reglementiert, wenn
Sie an der Bahnhofstrasse ein Schild raushängen oder eine Fahne, müssen Sie sich
das genehmigen lassen. Wenn Sie das nicht machen ist es ein Verstoss und Sie
müssen zahlen. In anderen Ländern würde kein Hahn danach krähen, das muss man
einfach sagen. Das fängt ja schon an beim vergleichen der Werbung an: was hier
tendenziell in den Kinderschuhen steckt wird schnell auch mal verboten. In anderen
Ländern haben sie kein Problem zu sagen: das ist das Angebot von dem und das ist
unser Angebot und dann stellen sie es gegenüber. Das ist absolut legal, legitim,
akzeptiert und es kräht kein Hahn danach.

Q10: What distinguishes the Swiss culture in terms of attitude toward marketing
(e.g. from the American culture)?
MA1: Da gibt es ja Studien und Zahlen dazu und auch da glaube ich ist es immer
eine Frage welches Segment und welchen Teil der Bevölkerung Sie anschauen. Ich
denke mal, es wird tendenziell eher als störender empfunden als in anderen
Ländern, wo es einfach schon eine viel grössere Tradition gibt, das halt bestimmte
Dinge werbefinanziert sind. Wenn Sie sich überlegen, dass es in den USA an
Universitäten Hörsäle gibt; das ist dann halt der GM Hörsaal und das ist der Aldi
Hörsaal, so what? Es ist akzeptiert, dass die Uni Mittel generiert indem sie halt
einen Hörsaal verkauft. Bei uns gab es vor ein paar Jahren diese Diskussion, als die
UBS die Uni Zürich mit 100 Millionen unterstützen wollte, gegen ein gewisses
Branding von den Hörsälen, Gebäuden und so weiter. Welche Konsequenzen
solche finanziellen Mittel haben, kann und muss man sicher diskutieren. Wenn die
UBS der Harvard Business School 100 Millionen geben würde, so what? Dann gibt
es halt das Branding, dann gibt es halt den UBS Campus oder das UBS building.
Das ist naheliegend und vollkommen akzeptiert und da glaube ich sind wir in
manchen Bereichen einfach skeptischer. Generell muss man natürlich sagen, dass
es durch die Flut von Werbebotschaften auf unterschiedlichen Kanälen auch
manchen Menschen einfach zu viel wird und man sich auch ein Stück weit nach

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werbefreien Räumen sehnt. Wenn Sie dann verfolgt werden, gerade in

elektronischen Kanälen, mit Dingen, wie wenn Sie einmal nach einem Kühlschrank
gegoogelt haben und dann zwei Monaten mit Anzeigen zu Kühlschränken und
Bannern und Pop-ups belästigt werden, da muss man die Grenze einfach noch
finden. Man soll den Menschen am Schluss nicht mehr verärgern. Aber trotz allem
finden Sie Studien, dass sich Leute auch bewusst sind, dass Werbung einen Nutzen
hat und über neue Angebote informiert. Von dem her, wenn man es intelligent
macht, wird der Nutzen auch gesehen. Wenn man es plump und unspezifisch macht,
dann wird es tendenziell eher lästig.

Q11: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in

Switzerland/US to brand themselves?
MA1: Es bewegt sich jetzt zunehmend auf elektronische Kanäle, wenn man die
Werbeausgaben betrachtet. Aber noch vor drei, vier Jahren war der Anteil, der
faktisch ausgegebene Franken für elektronische Kanäle verschwindend. Da waren
wir bei 10% und im UK bei 50%. Das verschiebt sich jetzt langsam und das sehen
wir auch bei den Medienhäusern, heute können Sie im Tagesanzeiger die
Stellenanzeigen mit der Lupe suchen (lacht). Da sehen wir den shift natürlich ohne
Zweifel. Aber gleichwohl wird es manchmal in der Wahrnehmung immer noch
falsch eingeschätzt, weil man denkt es wäre viel, viel mehr Online als es tatsächlich
ist. Zwei Drittel der Schweizer benutzen noch immer gedruckte Telefonbücher, ich
meine, ich weiss nicht wann ich das letzte Mal ein Telefonbuch in der Hand hatte
(lacht). Da staune ich selber und frage mich wie weit dieser Medienshift in der
Bevölkerung angekommen ist. Gemäss der Statistik sind wir heute bei ca. 25%,
wenn ich die letzte Veröffentlichung richtig im Kopf habe. Es ist auf dem Weg,
aber das etablierte und was früher funktioniert hat loszulassen braucht halt Zeit.

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Q12: From 1-10, how would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for
the following four examples:
• Ambush marketing
MA1: Man muss grundsätzlich sagen, wenn man Leute im Umfeld von solchen
Sportereignissen nach dem Sponsor fragt, dann ist es fast egal ob Geld ausgegeben
wurde oder nicht. Es wird immer gedacht, bei Olympischen Spielen ist Coca-Cola
sicher dabei, ob sie dabei sind oder nicht, sie werden einfach genannt. Oder da war
mal Visa der Sponsor und Mastercard wurde als Sponsor genannt. Das ist natürlich
grundsätzlich ein bisschen heikel, weil manche Dinge in unserer Wahrnehmung
einfach verschwinden. Viele denken, das sind Grosse, die sind da sicher dabei. Vor
dem Hintergrund, kann Ambush Marketing, auch in der Schweiz durchaus
funktionieren. Klar gibt es diese Zonen, innerhalb denen nur die Sponsoren präsent
sein dürfen und nichts Anderes, aber da kann man sich auch darüber hinwegsetzten.
Ich kann mir zum Beispiel durchaus vorstellen, dass jetzt Coca-Cola ein Sponsor
von einem Event ist und Rivella auf dem Weg halt Rivella verteilt. Vielleicht dürfen
sie dann die Rivella Flasche nicht reinnehmen, weil es kontrolliert wird, aber die
Aufmerksamkeit haben sie trotzdem. Wenn man das geschickt macht kann man sich
schon ran hängen. Machbar ist das schon, es ist immer eine Frage wie man es
umsetzt und ob man es schlau genug umsetzt.
• Ambient marketing
MA1: Für mich hat das prinzipiell mit Kreativität zu tun. Wenn man ein kreatives,
passendes Setup findet, funktioniert das aus meiner Sicht eigentlich grundsätzlich.
Wenn Sie etwas schaffen, das zur Marke passt und überrascht, funktioniert das auch
in der Schweiz, ohne Zweifel.
• Sensation marketing
Refer to the answer of ambient marketing
• Viral marketing
MA1: Es funktioniert schon, man muss einfach sehen, der Anteil der erfolgreichen
Kampagnen im Verhältnis zu denen, die es versucht haben ist halt vergleichsweise
klein. Ein Kennzeichen von viralen Kampagnen ist halt einfach, dass sie zum Teil
sehr schwer planbar sind. Einen viralen Effekt anzustossen kann funktionieren, aber
garantieren, kann Ihnen das heute wahrscheinlich keine Agentur, keine würde sich
trauen. Klar kann ich Dinge versuchen die das begünstigen, wie Influencer,
Meinungsführer ins Boot holen. Aber etwas Kreatives zu produzieren und sagen

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das reicht, reicht eben nicht. Ich denke man kann sicherlich Dinge machen um einen
viralen Effekt zu unterstützen, aber eine Garantie, das etwas funktioniert, haben sie
nicht. Zumindest nicht in der Schweiz.

Q13: What differentiates lifestyle brands from “normal” brands?

MA1: Red Bull ist für mich ein lifestyle brand. Eine Marke, die eine Welt im Kopf
der Menschen erschafft würde ich da einordnen.

Q14: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by lifestyle brands?

MA1: Ein wesentliches Element ist ganzheitliches oder integriertes Marketing,
dass halt wirklich alles zusammenpasst. Der Markenauftritt, der Showroom, die
Aktivitäten die gesponsert werden, sonstige Kommunikation. (...) Es ist ein
Mosaikstein der zum anderen passt. Das macht halt den Unterschied zwischen Red
Bull und Flying Horse, ich meine wer kennt Flying Horse? Was verbinden Sie
damit? Wahrscheinlich nichts, wenn Sie es überhaupt kennen. Wenn Sie Red Bull
sagen, hat jeder die Farben im Kopf, die Strichmännchen, den Slogan, das Air Race
und, und, und. Das ist ein sehr konsequenter Markenaufbau und eine konsequente
Markenpflege. Es ist etwas, was halt wirklich die Menschen an allen touchpoints
so abholt, dass es ein stimmiges Gesamtbild ergibt und das es am Schluss irgendwo
einen Coolness-Faktor hat. So wünscht sich doch ein gewisser Teil der Kunden,
irgendwie dazu zu gehören. Mini hat es geschafft, dass Sie nicht darüber
nachdenken einen Daccia zu kaufen, weil Mini ist halt Mini. Auch wenn der Mini
inzwischen Maxi ist (lacht), ist es halt trotzdem ein Stück weit ein lifestyle brand.
Auch ein Porschefahrer würde sich ein Stück weit niemals Gedanken machen,
etwas anderes als einen Porsche zu fahren. Der Effekt dieser Ganzheitlichkeit ist
halt, dass sie eine Community, eine fanbase haben. Sie haben das Konzept der
lovemarks vielleicht auch schon mal gefunden, wo sie emotional geliebt und
rational geschätzt werden. Vernunft und Herz ist beides gleichermassen gegeben.
Das zeichnet jetzt halt Red Bull aus, wie auch Mini. Das haben Sie bei anderen
Produkten oder Marken einfach nicht in dieser Form.

Q15: In your opinion, what are crucial skills a company has to possess for
successful guerrilla marketing?

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MA1: Ich glaube, man muss die Marke und was die Marke ausmacht sehr gut
verstehen. Die Kampagnenmacher müssen die Marke sehr gut verstehen. Die
Kernwerte, wofür die Marke steht müssen wirklich verstanden werden. Wenn Sie
jetzt eine Kampagne für Migros machen würden, würde ich das nie einer deutschen
Agentur geben. Die können Sie briefen wie Sie wollen aber nur ein Schweizer
versteht eigentlich was hinter Migros steht. Man muss die Marke durchdrungen
haben und die Werte verstanden haben und dann halt intelligente
Anknüpfungspunkte für kreative, für schnelle Aktionen finden. Kreativität und
Schnelligkeit, finde ich, sind auch Themen, die einfach dazugehören. Schnell was
zu machen was in den momentanen Kontext reinpasst, das glaube ich, ist relativ
wichtig für den Erfolg.

Q16: Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?
MA1: Wenn es halt Gefühle von Menschen verletzt. Wenn es nicht mehr lustig ist,
auch wenn es rechtlich eigentlich zulässig ist, muss man sehr vorsichtig sein. Ich
bin jetzt nicht der Verfechter der hundertprozentigen politischen Correctness und
ich denke man darf auch mal einen Witz machen. Aber gibt einfach, auch wenn
nicht trennscharf festlegbar, eine Grenze die man sich für jeden Fall, für jede
Kampagne gut überlegen muss und diese nicht überschreitet. Vor einer Weile
wurden einseitig bedruckte Geldscheine hier in Zürich verteilt, das war heikel, weil
es wie Geld aussah. Strafen müssen einkalkuliert werden und wenn der
Medieneffekt so und soviel höher war, kann es sich lohnen. Aber wenn Sie auf
Kosten von irgendeiner gesellschaftlichen Gruppe etwas machen, muss man sich
die ethischen Grenzen und die möglichen Shitstorm Konsequenzen bewusst sein.
Man muss schauen, dass die dann nicht den positiven Effekt übersteigen. Da
braucht es sicherlich ein gewisses Fingerspitzen Gefühl dafür, es gibt keine Linie
die so scharf ist, dass man sagen kann, bis dahin funktioniert es und darüber hinaus
nicht mehr. Da sind wir wieder bei den viralen Effekten, die einen machen etwas
und die Leute finden es lustig, die nächsten machen etwas Ähnliches und dann
eskaliert es und dann ist es eben nicht mehr gut. Und Sie wissen eben nicht genau

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Q17: If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a
guerrilla marketing campaign, which tools would you use and what are the
most important factors you would consider?
MA1: Es dürfen keine Gefühle von Menschen verletzt werden (refer to Q16).

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8.8.4 Expert Interview Protocol MA2

Date: 20th of April 2017

Her expertise lies in the field of communication which is built upon her doctorate in social
and institutional communication. Her work and research focus include integrated
communication, strategic communication and corporate communication. The
communication scientist has been employed by Red Bull, has been working as head of
communication and marketing for various institutions and currently oversees the CAS
Marketing- & Corporate Communications of a Swiss university. This interview aspired
to evaluate various ways of communication within the context of the Swiss culture and
get an understanding of commonly used communication instruments as well as current
best practices.

Q1: Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last
MA2: Auf unserem Blog können Sie einige Beispiele von gelungenen
Marketingaktivitäten finden. Es lohnt sich reinzuschauen. Um erfolgreich zu werden,
müssen Marketingkampagnen aktuell sehr authentisch sein und zum Unternehmen
passen. Man merkt es schnell, wenn die Aktion nicht zum Unternehmen passt. Zudem
berühren erfolgreiche Kampagnen auf der emotionalen Ebene, wie die aktuelle
Osterkampagne von Netto Marken-Discount. Es muss auch ein gutes Produkt
dahinterstehen und ein Mehrwert für den Kunden geschaffen werden. Die Kampagne
muss innovativ umgesetzt werden und über verschiedene Kanäle, auch traditionelle
Kanäle, laufen. Gerade Plakatwerbungen sind sehr erfolgreich. Ein gutes Beispiel
sind die Werbungen vom VBZ. Sie sind ansprechend gestaltet und weisen eine
gewisse Kontinuität auf. Werbung soll kontinuierlich und gestalterisch auffallend
sein; Mercedes ist eine andere Marke, welche das erfolgreich umsetzt. Somit
schaffen sie einen sehr schnellen Erkennungswert. Ein weiteres Beispiel ist Red Bull
mit ihren Comicwerbungen. Seit Beginn arbeitet die Firma mit der gleichen Agentur
und bringt so eine gewisse Konstanz in ihre Werbung. Eine langfristige
Zusammenarbeit ist sehr wertvoll.

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Q2: Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla

marketing activities?
MA2: Als Guerilla Marketing aufkam war es bekannt für Marketingaktivitäten, die
im Vorfeld keine Bewilligung eingeholt haben. Mittlerweile steht Guerilla Marketing
einfach für aussergewöhnliches Marketing, spezielle Kampagnen mit speziellen
Verpackungen et cetera. Es ist also vom ursprünglichen Guerilla Marketing nicht
mehr viel übriggeblieben. Man muss sich also ausserhalb der gängigen
Marketingkanäle bewegen, das macht eigentlich Guerilla Marketing aus. Früher war
man an der Grenze zur Illegalität, heute ist das deutlich abgeschwächter. Die Agentur
Alive macht kleinere Kampagnen, wie Bikecaps für Bayer. Bin nicht ganz sicher, ob
man das Guerilla Marketing nennen kann, weil es das schon so lange gibt, also schon
bevor der Begriff Guerilla Marketing überhaupt aufkam. Aber Red Bull hat die BWM
Minis mit den Dosen. Die Sampling Girls fahren herum und verteilen zu allen
möglichen Zeiten Red Bull Dosen zum Beispiel an Ärzte, Polizisten und so weiter.
In der Schweiz macht Gorilla mit Stickern Guerilla Marketing. Einer der ersten
Kampagnen waren vor Jahren verlorene Portemonnaies in der ganzen Stadt Zürich,
die man dann mitnehmen konnte. Ich mag mich aber leider nicht mehr an die Firma
erinnern, die dahintersteckte. Zeitweise waren auch die Flashmobs extrem beliebt,
aber auch die haben mittlerweile ihren Zenit überschritten. Im internationalen
Umfeld nutzen Autofirmen (Mercedes, BMW), Coca-Cola und Ikea das Marketing
sehr effektiv. In der Schweiz würde ich Migros nennen. Ein negatives Beispiel von
Guerilla Marketing ist die Kampagne von Siroop welche nicht verstanden wurde.

Q3: What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful
guerrilla marketing campaign?
MA2: Früher war es dieser leichte Touch von Illegalität, das so besonders war. Am
besten war es, wenn man noch eine Busse kassierte. Dann war die Kampagne
wirklich geglückt. Heute ist das nicht mehr der Fall. Vielleicht hat man sich auch
schon ein bisschen daran gewöhnt. Es muss sicherlich eine sehr aussergewöhnliche
Aktion sein, die mitten im Leben spielt und nicht die gängigen Werbekanäle bedient.
Aber der wichtigste Faktor bleibt einfach das Produkt. Wenn das Produkt nicht gut
ist, dann wird es auch durch keine Guerilla Kampagne besser. Eigentlich bedeutet
Guerilla Marketing, dass man mit einem geringen Einsatz von Mitteln eine hohe
Wirkung erzielt. Ich bezweifle, dass bei den heutigen Kampagnen wirklich wenige

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Mittel eingesetzt werden. Ich erachte sie als sehr teuer. Guerilla ist ja eine Taktik aus
der Kriegsführung im Hinterland des Gegners und von dieser Art und Weise ist nicht
mehr viel übrig geblieben. Online kann man mit viralem Marketing noch Erfolge
erzielen, besonders mit emotionalen Videos, aber auch hier ist eine gewisse Sättigung
bei den Konsumenten eingetreten.

Kulturell muss eine gewisse Offenheit da sein. Ich könnte ich mir vorstellen, dass es
im asiatischen Raum schwieriger ist, weil die Länder sehr strukturiert sind. Im
Gegensatz reagieren südliche Länder offener, zum Beispiel Italien. In der Schweiz
ist die Grenze sehr schmal, bei ungewöhnlichen Aktionen sind wir sehr schnell
peinlich berührt. Sampling geht noch, weil das kennen die Schweizer. Es ist immer
eine Gratwanderung und man hat immer solche, die es extrem schlecht finden und
solche, die es gut finden. Es gibt kein Guerilla Marketing für alle. Ziel ist es, dass
meine Zielgruppe die Aktion eine coole Sache findet. Aber auch Leute ausserhalb
der Zielgruppe, vielleicht gerade welche die es schlecht finden, können zum BLICK
gehen und so die Aktion weiterverbreiten, was sich betreffend Aufmerksamkeit
positiv auswirken kann. Aber unter dem Strich muss meine Zielgruppe einfach
angesprochen werden. Was gar nicht geht ist eine Kampagne, die für alle da sein soll.
Es ist eine Zielgruppefrage, man muss diese genau eingrenzen. Dabei spielt auch die
Generation keine grosse Rolle, Red Bull hat mit ihren Girls Leute die in der
Nachtschicht arbeiten, wie Ärzte und Polizisten, angesprochen und Red Bull’s
verteilt. Dies hat gut funktioniert, weil es Zielgruppe bezogen ist und das Produkt
passt; wenn man in der Nachtschicht müde ist, hat man gerne einen Energy Drink.

Q4: What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being
MA2: Die Konsumenten sind abgebrühter und gesättigt. Wir werden von Werbung
nur so überschüttet. Die Unternehmen wollen aber auch nichts riskieren und wollen
keine illegalen Kampagnen mehr, zumindest die Mehrheit. Von daher sind dem
Guerilla Marketing die Zähne gezogen worden und es geht im Informationsrausch
unter. Ich bin überzeugt, dass sehr viele Konsumenten einen grossen Teil der
Kampagnen nicht mitbekommen. Allgemein wenn das Umfeld sehr geregelt ist, zu
viele Regeln existieren, oder die Leute Angst haben, zum Beispiel wegen
wirtschaftlichen Schwierigkeiten oder nach Terroranschlägen, würde ich auf Guerilla

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Marketing verzichten. Die generelle Stimmung ist sehr wichtig, so sind Guerilla
Marketing Aktionen tendenziell in Sommermonaten geeignet, im Sommer sind die
Leute gut drauf, oder nicht? Im Winter sind wir hingegen nicht so offen.

Q5: How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) vary with the
company size?
MA2: Es ist wie überall in der Werbung. Wer gross ist hat tendenziell mehr Geld zur
Verfügung und kann sich auch solche Kampagnen leisten. Kleinere Unternehmen
können das nicht und bei vielen passt es wohl auch nicht zur Unternehmenskultur.
Theoretisch könnte aber auch ein kleiner Handwerksbetrieb Guerilla Marketing
betreiben, er bekäme aber relativ schnell eine Busse, die er natürlich nicht riskieren
will. Dementsprechend ist Guerilla Marketing sicher besser geeignet für grosse

Q6: How much potential does Switzerland offer in terms of guerrilla marketing
(different regional potentials)?
MA2: Richtiges Guerilla Marketing bewegt sich an der Grenze der Legalität und ist
nicht für alle Unternehmen geeignet, aber für gewisse ist es durchaus. Ich erwarte
auch, dass sich Unternehmen an diese Grenzen tasten. Aussergewöhnliche
Aktivitäten, im Allgemeinen, sind notwendig um aufzufallen, sonst geht man unter.
Gerade kleinere Firmen, sollen einfach mal etwas wagen, dann wären sie besser
unterwegs als wenn sie einfach Instagram nutzen. Auch für die Behörden, zum
Beispiel die Polizei, wäre es eine Option, sie könnten daraus einen Nutzen ziehen.
Die Leute haben einfach immer Angst. Klar, Bussen müssen einkalkuliert werden,
aber das ist auch das lustige daran. Man könnte viel mehr machen. Gerade im Sport-
und Autobereich gäbe es viel mehr Potenzial. Smart hat teilweise von Guerilla
Marketing Aktivitäten Gebrauch gemacht und beispielsweise Smarts

Guerilla Marketing eignet sich gut um neue Produkte zu lancieren, wenn es gut
gemacht wird, bleibt es auch im Gedächtnis. Bei einer schlechten Kampagne, wie die
von Siroop, wird hingegen keine Aufmerksamkeit generiert. Natürlich ist es immer
auch ein wenig Glücksache, wie es ankommt. Man muss einfach zur richtigen Zeit
am richtigen Ort sein. Beim Marketing ist es normal, dass ein grosser Teil einfach

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verpufft, gerade bei Guerilla Marketing in ländlichen Gegenden. Ausser bei Events
mit grossen Menschenansammlungen, wie das Eidgenössische Schwingfest, sind
Städte tendenziell besser geeignet. Aber es ist immer ein ausprobieren.

Q7: How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American
MA2: Ich bin kein Experte für amerikanische Kultur, habe dort nie gelebt und war
auch noch nie dort. Daher kann ich das nicht beantworten. Schweizer sind sicherlich
sehr stolz auf ihr Land. Wir mögen unsere Dialekte, unsere Eigenheiten unsere
Verschiedenheiten und grenzen uns gerne von anderen ab und das ist auch gut so.
Wir sind speziell und das soll auch im Marketing so wiedergegeben werden. Unsere
Geschichte hat uns geprägt und wir mögen unsere Swissness.

Q8: Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ

among the four language regions?
MA2: Es gibt sicherlich Unterschiede, schon innerhalb der Deutschschweiz,
sicherlich auch in der Romandie und im Tessin. So wie wir aus der Deutschschweiz
nicht mit den Deutschen gleichsetzt werden wollen, so wollen das auch nicht die
Romands und Tessiner mit Franzosen und Italienern. Es gibt regionale Unterschiede,
auch durch die Sprache bedingt, die man berücksichtigen muss.

Q9: From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American: (Please indicate if there
are regional differences)
• Attitude toward the unexpected
MA2: Schweizer sind recht aufgeschlossen, deshalb würde ich eine 7 geben.
• Openness toward the new
MA2: 5, Tradition ist uns sehr wichtig.
• Willingness to share information
MA2: Im Büro wird Wissen nicht gerne geteilt. Generell arbeitet man eher für sich:
3. Allerdings, Give-aways und Musik wie auch bekannte Gesichter laufen gut.
Sampling ist eines der effizientesten Mittel vor allem für Produkteinführungen. Alle
Aktionen, bei denen man etwas bekommt, finden die Schweizer gut. Gerade
Esswaren und Getränke laufen sensationell. Allerdings muss man aufpassen, kleine
Müsterchen kommen nicht so gut an, dann wird das Unternehmen schnell als geizig

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empfunden. Wenn man die Aktion allerdings nicht versteht und nichts bekommt,
wird es schwierig. Alles was ich nicht verstehe und nicht cool ist würde ich nicht
• Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
MA2: Es muss aussergewöhnlich und innovativ sein, die einen müssen es mögen,
die anderen müssen es hassen. Das ist effizientes Guerilla Marketing, hart an der

Q10: What distinguishes the Swiss culture in terms of attitude toward marketing
(e.g. from the American culture)?
MA2: Schweizer mögen gut gemachte Werbung, aber wir wollen nicht dauernd
von Werbung überflutet werden. Sampling Aktionen laufen immer gut, Rabatte,
sowie Plakatkampagnen. Zum Beispiel VBZ Werbungen sind dezent und lustig,
bringen mich zum Schmunzeln und sehen gut aus. Man merkt, dass sich jemand
etwas überlegt hat. Sachen die Anders sind, auffallen, lustig und emotional sind,
laufen gut. Die Evian Werbung mit den Babies, wiederspiegelt die Schweizer Liebe
und war ein Erfolg. Auch die Plakatwerbungen von Digitec, mit schlechten
Produktbewertungen, fällt auf. Plakatwerbungen sind immer noch da und gut, weil
sie unbewusst wahrgenommen werden. Onlinewerbungen werden viel mehr
ausgeblendet und es nervt. Bei Plakatwerbungen, zum Beispiel beim Warten auf
den Zug, schaut man automatisch drauf und es fällt einem gar nicht so auf, im Laden
kauft man dann unbewusst. Dies wird in Onlinediskussionen häufig unterschätzt.
Mittlerweile wird ja vieles online gemacht und der Trend geht zum
individualisierten Marketing. Ich bekomme die Angebote, die mich auch tatsächlich
interessieren könnten. Wir wissen allerdings noch nicht, wie sich das auswirkt. Es
gibt aber eine deutliche Verlagerung der Marketingaktivitäten in den digitalen
Bereich und ein Zusammenspiel von traditionellen und modernen Instrumenten.

Q11: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in

Switzerland/US to brand themselves?
MA2: Alle gängigen Marketinginstrumente sowie heutzutage viel im digitalen
Bereich, Videos, Social Media, Google AdWords et cetera. Werbegelder werden

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mehr in online Werbungen investiert da die Wirtschaft schlecht ist und online
günstigeres und zielgerichteteres Werben erlaubt. Ich glaube, es wird eine
Rückbewegung geben, wenn Leute merken, was der Wert von offline Werbung ist.
20 Minuten Werbung ist teuer aber wird bewusster wahrgenommen als Werbung
im Onlinebereich. Was sehr gut geht sind direct marketing Aktivitäten, spezielle
Verpackungen (zielgruppen-spezifisch) und individualisierte Produkte.

Wo ich ebenfalls viel Potenzial sehe ist bei Geruchsmarketing, was es noch zu
wenig gibt in der Schweiz. Beim Geruchsmarketing werden die Leute je nach
Tageszeit mit anderen Gerüchen zum Kauf animiert. Solche Sachen würden auch
draussen funktionieren, gerade um die Mittagszeit können Gerüche Leute anlocken.
Tests in Kaffeebars, mit und ohne Kaffegeeruch, zeigen, dass mit Kaffeegeruch
80% mehr Kaffee konsumiert wird. Geruchsmarketing ist effizienter als Musik. Es
ist etwas das nicht kontrollierbar ist und geschieht total unbewusst. Erstaunlich,
dass es nicht mehr gebraucht wird.

Q12: From 1-10, how would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for
the following four examples:
• Ambush marketing
MA2: Funktioniert gut bei grossen Sportveranstaltungen, wie Olympia oder
Fussball WM, siehe Elektronikhändler, die dann spezielle Aktionen anbieten, und
eventuell bei Openairs. Allerdings kennen viele die Hauptsponsoren gar nicht, und
dann würde die Ambush Aktion nicht auffallen beziehungsweise keinen Buzz
• Ambient marketing
MA2: Ambient Marketing hat viel Potenzial. Es gibt vereinzelte Aktionen, ist aber
noch nicht sehr verbreitet. Obwohl es ideal funktioniert, machen es die Leute zu
wenig. Spontan fallen mir VBZ Trams ein, in welchen viel gemacht werden könnte.
IKEA machte mal eine Aktion und hat Einrichtungen in Trams gestellt. Auch
draussen könnte mehr gemacht werden, aber da haben wir in der Schweiz ein
Wetterproblem. Gut war in Zürich die Aktionen mit den Bären, Löwen und Bänken.
Leute fanden es lässig und Unternehmen konnten individuell kreativ sein. Es war
typisch Zürich und ist gut angekommen.
• Sensation marketing

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MA2: Das ist ja der Oberbegriff aller aussergewöhnlichen Marketingaktionen.

Amnesty / PETA machen viel Gebrauch davon und es kommt nicht immer so gut
an. Die Aufmerksamkeit ist zwar da, aber ob sie Geld/Spender gewinnen, weiss ich
nicht. Nur zu provozieren reicht nicht, man muss mehr machen. Das Ziel sollten
mehr Spenden sein, deshalb sollten solche Aktionen mit anderen Kampagnen
gekoppelt werden.
• Viral marketing
MA2: Vor allem im Videobereich gibt es hier gute Möglichkeiten, aber man muss
auch Glück haben zur richtigen Zeit am richtigen Ort zu sein. Viel Potenzial sehe
ich für Werbung am Flughafen bei der Gepäckausgabe. Da kann man viel machen,
weil die Leute sowieso am Warten sind. Zudem gibt es am Flughafen tendenziell
nur Luxusmarken, was meiner Meinung nach ein wenig an der Hauptzielgruppe

Q13: What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?

MA2: Ein lifestyle brand passt aktuell gerade zur Zielgruppe, es ist eine
Modeerscheinung und verschwindet irgendwann wieder. Beispiele sind Ed Hardy,
Agent Provocateur und Abercrombie & Fitch. Nur die grossen luxury brands stehen
wirklich dauerhaft für einen gewissen Lifestyle, wie Louis Vuitton, Mercedes,
Maserati, Chanel et cetera. Das Produkt muss nicht zwingend besser sein, aber ich
verkaufe eine gewisse Lebensattitüde. Ich drücke mit den Produkten aus, dass ich
zur Gesellschaft dazugehöre.

Q14: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by lifestyle brands?

MA2: Es kommt auf die Brands an. Luxury brands nutzen das Marketing natürlich
anders, sie machen grosse Shows, favorisieren VIP-Kunden, arbeiten mit Stars
zusammen. Kleinere Labels setzen auf Szene Blogger und online Marketing.

Q15: In your opinion, what are crucial skills a company has to possess for
successful guerrilla marketing?
MA2: Sicher jemand in der Leitung der Marketingabteilung, der out-of-the-box
denkt. Niemand der festgefahrenen ist, aber dafür und noch ein wenig Kind ist. Es
steht und fällt mit dem CMO. Dieser kann auch den CEO überzeugen und kreative
Kampagnen lancieren. Viele machen leider nur noch copy and paste vom letzten

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Jahr. Das zweite ist eine super Agentur. Eigentlich ist es nur das Menschliche, alles
andere kann hergestellt und visualisiert werden. Das heutige Problem ist, dass
Marketing- und Kommunikationsjobs boomen und viele Leute einfach reinrutschen
oder ohne fundierte Ausbildung quereinsteigen. So werden viele Fehler gemacht
und es kann nichts Kreatives daraus entstehen. Man muss dafür leben, was man
macht, wer eine Schlaftablette ist verliert. Man muss in die andere Richtung laufen
damit es läuft, ich als Mitarbeiter muss mit den Ideen kommen. Wenn man die
Freiheit nicht hat, wird es schwierig. Zudem kann eine Guerilla Kampagne auch
nicht eins zu eins von anderen Ländern übertragen werden, was in Deutschland
funktioniert muss nicht in der Schweiz funktionieren. Man kann einzelne
Kampagnen in verschiedenen Städten durchführen, allerdings nur in einem kurzen
Zeitintervall. So könne Kampagnen von Genf nach Zürich, Bern oder Luzern
kopiert werden und das wird auch gemacht. Es funktioniert aber nicht bei allen
Kampagnen. Manchmal, je nach Inhalt, muss in der Romandie mit anderen
Gesichtern gearbeitet werden, anderer Humor und andere Sprachspiele verwendet
werden. Das wird bisher zu wenig berücksichtigt.

Q16: Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?
MA2: Wie gesagt, es ist kein richtiges Guerilla Marketing mehr. Die
wirtschaftliche Situation ist angespannt und da sitzt das Werbebudget nicht mehr
so locker, ausserdem will niemand mehr eine Busse generieren.

Q17: If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a
guerrilla marketing campaign, which tools would you use and what are the
most important factors you would consider?
MA2: Ich muss zuerst sicher sein, dass das Produkt wirklich gut ist und meine
Zielgruppe das Label wirklich mag. Bei einem Kleiderlabel könnte man gewisse
Kleider in Zürich verstecken oder guerillamässig an der ZHAW ganze
Studentenklassen im Unterricht stören und neu einkleiden. Das würde in der
jüngeren Zielgruppe für Aufmerksamkeit sorgen. Es muss eine Kampagne sein, die
zum Unternehmen und zum Produkt passt und die man extrem schnell ausführen
kann. Man muss ja wegrennen, bevor die Polizei kommt (lacht). Ich würde
sicherlich keine klassische Agentur wählen, sondern wirklich auf Innovation achten
und extrem nahe bei meiner Zielgruppe bleiben, ansonsten verpufft der Effekt.

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8.8.5 Expert Interview Protocol MA3

Date: 20th of April 2017

This academic expert has been the head of center for strategic customer relationship
management at a Swiss university for more than ten years. Furthermore, he also
supervises the degree program marketing management and participated in many
publications within these two fields. Before occupying this position, he received a
doctor’s degree in service management, had a job as an academic assistant at a German
university and also worked as a project leader for a research funding project. Next to the
academic path, he also worked in the private sector and was CFO of a web monitoring
company for a few years; however, ever since he has been pursuing a more academic
way. The purpose of this interview was to get a theoretical understanding of how to
interact with Swiss consumers in an appropriate and sophisticated way and get an insight
on how to measure the success of a guerrilla marketing campaign.

Q1: Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last
MA3: I personally think that success of guerrilla marketing is a very difficult
question. Most companies just have some kind of buzz in mind, which of course is
the first step. You create an action and reaction to a certain point. But then you should
also have a connection to success in terms of company figures. New customers, a
more positive image, things like that. In that sense, it is much more difficult to
measure or tell if a guerrilla marketing activity was successful. Most campaigns that
we say have become famous we just look at the buzz. But maybe the most critical
point is the question, if there is a connection to the company at all. For instance, one
of the most famous successful campaigns was the faceless people campaign done by
Lotus. They put faceless people, people with a mask, on famous sights. The message
was: you should buy a Lotus and not be a faceless person, you should individualize
yourself. Later you come to lifestyle brands and one reason to buy a lifestyle brand
is to show your personality through your buying behavior.

The first step of success is to create buzz, but it is not all. The faceless people
campaign is a good example; a lot of people did not realize that it came from Lotus.
If I just know the campaign and it has no connection to the brand that did this

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campaign, it is not a success at all. I believe, but one should measure that, that a lot
of people have been disappointed that followed this lead trying to solve this riddle of
these faceless people and then it was a marketing campaign. This is also a critical
thing; it not only should create buzz but also a positive reaction.

Q2: Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla

marketing activities?
MA3: In Switzerland, in terms of PR value, the unicorn sighting campaign by
Chocolate Frey was very successful and made it to the major news. Well, Pokémon
Go, at the whole is pure guerrilla marketing too. How this game was spread and
became famous, people were thinking: what is going on here? And that was the way
how it got to most users. They saw something happening on the streets, there was
something new around. I am not sure to what extent it was strategic to build on
guerrilla marketing but I think it was. This kind of service, this game, was made for
guerrilla marketing. One success factor, which we will talk about later, that I believe
is important for really successful guerrilla marketing campaigns, is that they combine
physical real life, situations and things, with online spreading. Most have a physical
part where you can see something or personally and physically confront it, a guerrilla
marketing element. In the next step, it has to create pictures or films that are easily
spread online. The distribution, the buzz, is only there if it is spread online.

Q3: What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful
guerrilla marketing campaign?
MA3: Well, special about guerrilla marketing is that it is typically challenging or
even a little bit illegal or totally illegal (laughing). The campaign has to fit to the
culture of the company. However, Migros has done a lot of guerrilla marketing
actions, which shows that it also can be in contrast to the image of the brand. When
they say, we have a boring brand and we have to do something about that, to not be
seen as boring anymore. But it is easier if it fits the culture and the image of the
brand, like we are a young and dynamic company, like technology companies or for
social media brands. It is easier to do guerrilla marketing for brands that are seen as
young, fresh and dynamic.

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The second thing is that the culture of the country should be open to rule-breaking. I
believe that Switzerland and the US are interesting examples, because in the US we
have a very strong political correctness and in Switzerland we have a strong social
control. It is not so political and not so public but even more so strong if you are an
outsider and you break the rules. So, the political correctness in the US is very official
and political correctness or social responsibility is more unofficial but even more so
very strong in Switzerland. In Switzerland, it is important to say: do not overdo it
with the guerrilla part. It still has to fit to the humor of the people. They have to think:
what is going on, but in a positive sense. That is a very important prerequisite to be

Q4: What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being
MA3: I think it can work everywhere. The company should be able to take the
consequences. We do not here from most guerrilla marketing campaigns. Most of
them fail or show no effect, but it is hard to measure for us as scientists because you
actually do not hear from them. But it must be true. There are also legal
consequences. Challenging the rules in Saudi Arabia will work extremely well but
you have to be able to take the consequences. This is a very strict culture but even
more so small things, like showing the neck bone of a person, might be enough to
create a great buzz in Saudi Arabia. But you should be able to face the courts. You
also need the financial and legal power if something goes wrong and communicative
possibilities to react if you overdo it.

Q5: How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) vary with the
company size?
MA3: I think it works for every size of a company. It is not a question of size but a
question of the company culture and the brand image. There are different
motivations. Big companies do it to refresh their brands and have also much more
resources to produce films and make settings like the faceless people campaign which
was really expensive. Small companies do it to get known at all. There, guerrilla
marketing maybe has the greatest potential. To give a strong impulse and to still have
a small control about the communication, you have to use contents, you need to have
an influencer network that you can use and you have to be active yourself in terms

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of communication of course, which costs. To react to thousands of tweets, posts and

comments, is expensive in terms of manpower. There, small companies are
frequently quite overwhelmed.

Q6: How much potential does Switzerland offer in terms of guerrilla marketing
(different regional potentials)?
MA3: The greatest potential is where there is a strong social media culture of
gossiping and sharing. So, I would say it is rather medium for Switzerland. The
problem for guerrilla marketing in Switzerland is that it is not a large market and it
is connected to large media communities. You cannot separate the German-speaking
Switzerland with the German-speaking internet. And the same with the French-
speaking Switzerland and the French-speaking internet which is so much larger. If
you do a specific Swiss campaign, a large part of French-speaking people are not at
all interested. You have a lot of lost communication, so to say.

Q7: How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American
MA3: Swiss are a lot more timid than Americans, which are much more active to
communication and less shy to speak out loud. That fits guerrilla marketing well and
also the active networking is important in both markets. It is important for guerrilla
marketing that you have networks that distribute the message, but in the US it is much
louder communication whereas here more silent communication. The kind of
message has to be different to the level of emotion. Black humor and offensive
messages are possible to a different extent in Switzerland and the US. Here the
message has to be less offensive and the usage of social media is much stronger in
the US.

Q8: Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ

among the four language regions?
MA3: I would expect that there are large differences, we find that in many aspects.
The German-speaking Switzerland is much closer to Austria and Germany, than to
the Romandie. One aspect that might be important here is that the level of politeness
is much stronger in the French-speaking Switzerland. If we do a questionnaire, for
instance, it becomes much longer in French because you have all the politeness

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factors in the language. In German you are short and precise. That might be a factor.
Virtually, any topic that we research, shows large differences between the different
regions in Switzerland. But I do not know of any research that has made this
comparison, specifically for guerrilla marketing.

Q9: From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American: (Please indicate if there
are regional differences)
• Attitude toward the unexpected
MA3: I would say it is higher in the US, 9-10, in an international context and
Switzerland more like a 4.
• Openness toward the new
MA3: Similar thing, maybe 5 for Switzerland and 9-10 for the US.
• Willingness to share information
MA3: Would also be less in Switzerland, like 6 and maybe also close to 10 in the
US. 10 meaning that you will not find many countries in the world where it is higher
for all these three aspects.
• Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
MA3: I would say social control and humor, like black humor in Britain for
instance. There you can do a lot of things which in other countries would be seen
as very offensive and totally inacceptable. It is the art, not the science, of guerrilla
marketing to have a good sense of your community and the public. What is still
seen positively, as surprising or new, fresh and daring and what is the point where
it becomes totally inacceptable. It is a small path and nowadays, in the internet
world, you cannot limit communication to one county. What you want to
communicate in English potentially spreads around the world, which makes it really
difficult. It is not enough to say, especially if you are an internationally active
company, this is right for the US, because it might be read in China and seen
completely different and if you are active in China as well you might suffer.

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Q10: What distinguishes the Swiss culture in terms of attitude toward marketing
(e.g. from the American culture)?
MA3: I would say they like it less here. If you look at the advertisements in the
Super Bowl break, it is an event itself. There is a tendency to information overflow
and too much advertising messages in both countries but the attitude toward
advertising is more positive in the US than in Switzerland.

Q11: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in

Switzerland/US to brand themselves?
MA3: Here it is more traditional instruments. The best way to see that is looking at
the usage of digital marketing instruments which is lower in Switzerland. All
modern marketing instruments are slower in Switzerland, also influencer marketing
which is a topic you might should look at too. Because as an instrument to spread
guerrilla marketing, if you have influencers that help you spread the message, it is
much more effective and better controllable. If you were Jura coffee machines and
you could get Roger Federer to take your coffee to the tennis court and make a tweet
about it, automatically you would have reached a wide audience. If you do not have
this possibility, you have to set a much stronger impulse to do that and you have no
control if it will distribute at all. If Federer writes a tweet or puts it on his Facebook
channel you automatically have reached a huge audience, as a first step, when you
set the seed. If you have a network of micro-influencers it works just as well and is
less expensive. If you want to build up, one of the most important prerequisites for
successful guerrilla marketing is that you have a network in media and in terms of
influencers. With a great connection, you can spread it much more at the start, you
start at a different level. Micro-influencers might even be better to spread the
message, but much more work to manage.

Q12: From 1-10, how would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for
the following four examples:
• Ambush marketing
MA3: It has been a big topic at the EM in Switzerland, we did some research on
that. One result for example is that more people thought that Credit Suisse was the
official sponsor rather than UBS. But you would insult Credit Suisse, if you said
that they were ambush marketing. Because they say we have been sponsoring and

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supporting the Swiss national football team for years and years. Also Migros did
ambush marketing campagins: “If you speak M, you speak EM”. Nobody can take
away from Migros that they used their big orange M and they played with that. I
would rate ambush marketing with a 6.
• Ambient marketing
MA3: I think it is difficult to limit it to a certain location. Social media makes
ambient marketing attractive for Switzerland, there you have a local connection. I
would give ambient an 8.
• Sensation marketing
MA3: Sometimes sensation marketing is seen as the top concept and ambush and
guerrilla below. To create sensations and buzz is common for many different
concepts. I am not sure if anyone needs the term sensation marketing at all. I would
give it a 6 though.
• Viral marketing
MA3: I would rate viral marketing with the lowest potential, 5.

Q13: What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?

Refer to the answer of Q1. Due to time restraints, this question could not be
answered in more depth.

Q14: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by lifestyle brands?

Refer to the answer of Q1; Due to time restraints, this question could not be
answered in more depth.

Q15: In your opinion, what are crucial skills a company has to possess for
successful guerrilla marketing?
MA3: You need to have specific journalists, for instance, that you can leak some
information or give secret bits of information. You need to have the contacts that
listen to you so that you can spread it through your Facebook community at the first
point. Or an important point could be the ability to connect it to your influencer
marketing and sponsoring to have a lot more reach. The last factor, I would say, is
that you have the talents to create unique experiences.
Q16: Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?

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MA3: It is a very crucial factor for guerrilla marketing that, in order to be

successful, it has to stay a niche instrument. Guerrilla marketing has to be
surprising, has to be special so it cannot be a standard instrument by definition. The
prerequisites that you need in terms of competences, you can replicate and build
upon but you always need a new and special idea, a special experience and not an
experience that has been seen often. That makes it a very difficult instrument and
hard to control, you never know, what comes out of it.

Q17: If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a
guerrilla marketing campaign, which tools would you use and what are the
most important factors you would consider?
MA3: The one important thing is that the company builds up their network in terms
of social media and classical media contacts before they start the campaigns. So
that they can set the seed effectively and have flanking PR measures. For most
really successful guerrilla marketing campaigns it was important to reach classical
media. The Chocolate Frey campaign made it to 10 vor 10, the most seen news
show in Switzerland, and at this point it was very a very successful campaign. If it
is limited to social media, then it reaches only part of the population. For broad
success, very often you have to reach classical media like 20 Minuten or the Swiss

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8.8.6 Expert Interview Protocol MA4

Date: 24th of April 2017

With two master degrees; one in industrial and organizational psychology & marketing,
and one in business administration and general management, she has been occupied in
many different fields. She has been in a managerial position for various companies in
numerous countries and therefore developed extensive cross-cultural competences.
Moreover, she has been working in the marketing and communication department for
UBS and the European Chamber of Commerce. Today, as a senior manager for business
consulting projects she combines her knowledge and her advisory fields include
internationalization strategies and intercultural management. With the marketing
background, the cultural competences and the experience form consulting services for
various companies, this expert combines all three main pillars of this research and was
consulted to establish a big picture and connect the different concepts.

Q1: Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last
MA4: Was ich vor kurzem ganz Speziell gefunden habe, ist die Kampagne von
Zweifel. Was mir da sehr gut gefallen hat, was mir ins Auge gestochen ist, ist das
sehr Reduzierte. Es war eine Plakatkampagne mit einem ganz weissen Hintergrund
und das I love, also das Herz, war in dem typischen Zweifelorange. Das ist mir
persönlich ins Auge gestochen, weil ich fand, dass sie mit sehr reduzierten Mittel
einige Botschaften transferiert haben. Das eine ist das typische Orange, das habe ich
gerade mit Zweifel assoziert, natürlich müssen sie noch Zweifel hinschreiben, aber
ich konnte gerade den Link machen. Bei einer andere Kampagne im Bereich der
Getränke, ich weiss die Marke gerade nicht mehr aber bei Coca-Cola und Rivella ist
es ähnlich, hatte ich das Gefühl es ist eher unruhig. Da waren viele Menschen darauf,
junge Menschen die Spass und Freude haben und das wird versucht zu vermitteln.
Bei der Zweifel-Kampagne haben sie viele Assoziationen mit sehr, sehr wenigen
Mitteln rübergebracht und das ist mir ins Auge gestochen.

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Q2: Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla

marketing activities?
MA4: Was mir eingefallen ist, ich war in den letzten Jahren sehr viel unterwegs, sind
zwei Sachen am Flughafen Zürich. Das eine ist im Zug, also in dem Shuttlezug der
zum Terminal und zurückfährt. Im Wagen kommt zuerst eine muhende Kuh. Dann
kommt ein Bild an die Wand, auf dem man die Bergwelt und Heidi sieht. Haben Sie
das auch schon gesehen? Das ist etwas, dass ich extrem lässig gefunden habe. Es geht
ein bisschen in die Richtung Guerilla in meinem Verständnis. Es ist das Branding für
die Schweiz, dass sie machen. Diese Art von Werbung in Der U-Bahn habe ich auch
in China gesehen, ich mag mich aber nicht an einen bestimmten Brand erinnern. Das
ist etwas, was ich denke ist sehr einfach, mir aber geblieben ist. Mit dieser Kuh die
“muh“ macht fällt es auf eine Art auch auf, vor allem bei Kindern. Die andere
Kampagne ist eine mit Roger Federer. Man kommt aus dem Flugzeug und auf dem
Weg zum Gepäck verfolgt er einem in einer Art. Also er ist auch auf einem
Bildschirm (lacht). Ich bin mir nicht sicher, ob es für eine Bank oder eine
Uhrenmarke ist. Ich war so verwirrt, Roger Federer zu sehen, dass ich mich
irgendwie gar nicht mehr auf die Marke konzentriert habe. Aber das habe ich auch
eine ganz witzige Sache gefunden, ist mir auch stark geblieben.

Q3: What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful
guerrilla marketing campaign?
MA4: Offenheit für Neues, da es viel mit Überraschung arbeitet. (...) Diese
Offenheit, dass man sich gerne überraschen lässt, ist das eine; man muss aber auch
die richtige Intensität dieser Überraschung haben, sodass es nicht ins Gegenteil
kommt, wo es dann zu viel ist. Dann erscheint es einem fremd und man bildet quasi
schon fast eine Gegenreaktion. Es ist nicht nur die Offenheit gegenüber Neuem, aber
auch die richtige Intensität von dem Neuen, von dem Überraschungseffekt. Dann
denke ich, eine gewisse Art von Humor. Aber da kommt es auch wieder auf den
Inhalt darauf an. Ich glaube, die Amerikaner, aber vor allem die Briten, haben diesen
schwarzen Humor und das ist eine ganz andere Art von Humor als zum Beispiel ein
Humor der mit Pointen spielt oder solche Sachen. Inhaltlich gesehen, könnte es da
einen kulturellen Unterschied haben.

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Q4: What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being
MA4: Jetzt kommen wir mal auf China zu sprechen. China ist zum Beispiel ein Land,
in dem Werbung noch nicht so verbreitet ist. Man sieht nicht so viel Werbung.
Marketing ist eher sales, also eigentlich das Handwerkzeug und die kreative
Komponente kommt erst langsam dazu. Bislang beinhaltet es weniger dieses
Spielerische. Es ist wie mit HR; HR in China ist eher Personal einstellen und
beinhaltet nicht diese Softkomponente. Der Reifegrad von einem Land, denke ich,
ist auch einer dieser Faktoren. Das Marketing ist einfach anders. Überlegen wir mal,
wäre Guerilla Marketing in den USA in den 20er Jahre möglich gewesen? Das weiss
ich jetzt nicht (lacht).

Q5: How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) vary with the
company size?
MA4: Das ist jetzt eine Hypothese, aber man sagt kleineren Unternehmen nach, dass
sie flexibler sind und weniger Geld haben, da könnte ich mir vorstellen, es hängt
natürlich auch von der Unternehmenskultur ab, dass dort zum Teil auch mehr
Kreativität ist. Vom Setup, ich will jetzt nicht sagen aus der Not heraus, aber man
versucht aus den verfügbaren Ressourcen das grösstmögliche zu machen. Da könnte
ich mir schon vorstellen, dass die Grösse einer Unternehmung eine Rolle spielen

Q6: How much potential does Switzerland offer in terms of guerrilla marketing
(different regional potentials)?
MA4: Ist das ortsabhängig? Kann man Guerilla Marketing überhaupt als einzelne
Massnahme betrachten? Man müsste im Grunde ein ganzes Päckchen schnüren. Also
das heisst, wenn ich eine Kampagne mache im Guerilla Marketing, dann würde ich
schauen, dass ich diese zu möglichst vielen Leute kommuniziere. Da könnte ich mir
gut vorstellen, dass ich eine Kampagne auf dem Land starten könnte und dann zum
Beispiel auf Social Media verbreite, dass ich das gemacht habe. Das wäre zum
Beispiel eine Möglichkeit. Aber sie erreichen einfach schlichtweg mehr Leute in der
Stadt. Dort hätten sie vielleicht auch den kulturellen mindset, aber es gibt
verschiedene Leute die in einer Stadt wohnen. Ich könnte mir auch vorstellen, dass
wie etwas bei den Leuten ankommt, auch generationenabhängig sein könnte. Ich

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würde es aber auf jeden Fall versuchen und fände es spannend als Unternehmen.
Ergänzend, ist es eine sehr kreative und frische Art, eine Botschaft zu vermitteln.
Viel wichtiger, als der Entscheid ja oder nein, ist wie es gemacht ist. Das sind die
zwei Sachen, die ich am Anfang erwähnt habe: erstens muss man die Intensität
anschauen, sodass keine Reaktanzen ausgelöst werden und ein Bumerang
zurückkommt, und das andere ist die Art von Humor. Das denke ich ist ganz, ganz,
ganz wichtig und eher Kultur abhängig.

Q7: How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American
MA4: (…) Das kommt darauf an, ob es ein Deutschschweizer, ein Welschschweizer
oder ein italienischer Schweizer ist. Ich würde aber schon sagen, dass der Schweizer
ein sehr umtriebiges Volk ist, um einen gemeinsamen Nenner zu sehen. Das Land ist
klein, hat wenig natürliche Ressourcen und ist eines der innovativsten Länder dieser
Welt. Das ist der Aktivität vom Schweizer gutzuschreiben wie auch seiner Neugier
und dem Willen etwas Neues und Gutes zu machen. Das denke ich, könnte vielleicht
ein gemeinsamer Nenner sein. Allenfalls, da lehne ich mich jetzt aber weit aus dem
Fenster, sind das gerade diese Charakteristiken, die man auch einem kleinen
Unternehmen nachsagt. Das heisst, dass man dort Parallelen ziehen könnte. Ein
grösseres Land würde eher wie ein grösseres Unternehmen funktionieren, eher
traditionell und ein kleines Land wie die Schweiz, welches sehr umtriebig und
innovativ ist, wie ein kleineres Unternehmen. Das würde allerdings wieder der These
mit Amerika wiedersprechen, Guerilla Marketing kommt aus Amerika, also dürfte es
auch mehrere andere Faktoren haben, die da reinspielen. Der Amerikaner hat auf eine
Art eher ein sales mind. Aber das bleibt auf Stereotypen Ebene, da gibt es auch
wieder ganz verschiedene Leute.

Q8: Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ

among the four language regions?
MA4: Stadt/Land dürfte auch wieder einen Einfluss spielen. Aber auch ist es wieder
so, dass beispielsweise die Welschschweiz wieder einen ganz anderen Humor hat,
als die Deutschschweiz. Es ist eine andere Art, wie Humor empfunden wird.

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Q9: From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American: (Please indicate if there
are regional differences)
• Attitude toward the unexpected
MA4: (…) Ich würde die Amerikaner ein weniger offener als die Schweizer
einschätzen. Aber versteckte Kamera funktioniert in beiden Ländern. Von dem her,
ist eine gewisse Bereitschaft sicher da.
• Openness toward the new
MA4: (...) Da bin ich eher zurückhaltend. Ich denke, auch in Amerika ist es sehr
stark von der Region abhängig. Auch die Art was Neu bedeutet, zum Beispiel das
Silicon Valley ist extrem offen gegenüber Neuem und Geschäftsideen und so. In
Bezug auf das Unerwartete, etwas was man noch nie gesehen hat, würde ich auch
den Amerikaner ein bisschen offener einstufen.
• Willingness to share information
MA4: (…) Ich glaube, wenn es guter Humor ist, ist die Chance gleich gross, dass
sie es weitererzählen. Im Sinne von: oh, du glaubst nicht was mir heute passiert ist.
Ich denke, man muss die betreffende Person einfach mit einem positiven Gefühl
zurücklassen können. Dann erzählt man es auch.
• Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
MA4: Die eine Komponente, die ich wichtig finde, ist dieses Positive. Also, die
ausgelöste Emotion darf nicht negativ sein, sonst kommt es zu diesem Bumerang-
Effekt den ich vorhin angesprochen habe. Wenn man ein bisschen tiefer in die
Werbepsychologie hineingeht, kann mach auch sagen, dass die betreffenden
Personen nicht das Gefühl haben dürfen, dass man ihnen mit der Aktion ein neues
Produkt aufschwatzen will. Das ist auch wieder dieser Bumerang-Effekt, denn es
gibt diese Abwehrhaltung, wenn man jemanden beeinflussen möchte. Da ist auch
wieder ganz, ganz wichtig, dass man die Balance behält. Werbungen überzeugen
eher wenn der Inhalt balanciert rüberkommt und nicht zu viel ist. Das ist einseitige
versus zweiseitige Kommunikation. Wenn man zum Beispiel nur sagt: mein
Produkt ist super, super, super, super, dann ist der Konsument eher ein wenig
skeptisch und denkt nur super gibt es auch nicht und irgendetwas spricht vielleicht
auch dagegen. In der klassischen Werbepsychologie wird die balancierte,
zweiseitige Kommunikation eher angenommen. Weil Guerilla Marketing eher auf
die Emotionsebene als auf die Kognitive Ebene, also die

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Informationsverarbeitungsebene, geht, denke ich ist auch dort wichtig diese

Balance zu halten. Somit kann man auch eine positive Endbilanz zurücklassen.

Q10: What distinguishes the Swiss culture in terms of attitude toward marketing
(e.g. from the American culture)?
MA4: Ich denke, generell ist bei beiden eine gewisse Werbemüdigkeit vorhanden.
Ich bin ja selber Konsumentin und gerade die ganz klassische Werbung, wie
Briefkastenwerbung, ist etwas, das ich nicht einmal mehr anschaue. Ich habe ganz
am Anfang ja von Roger Federer oder von dieser Kuh im Shuttlezug gesprochen,
das empfinde ich als charmanter. Sie könnten mir irgendwie 20 Prospekte in den
Briefkasten legen, das hätte nicht die gleiche Wirkung. Man muss immer wieder
innovativ sein. Die Idee ist nur frisch gut und greift sich mit der Zeit ab. Man kann
dann vielleicht die Strategie fahren, dass man immer wieder die gleiche
Grundkomponente nimmt, dass die Kuhglocke mit anderen Bildern assoziiert wird
oder so etwas. Diese Neuheit ist einer der Aspekte, die wir bisher noch nicht
angesprochen haben. Das ist sehr wichtig, weil mit der Zeit würde mich diese
Kuhglocke auch langweilen, wenn es immer das gleiche ist. Oder beim Roger
Federer weiss ich jetzt was es ist. Von dem her würde ich mich über Änderungen
freuen, dann wird es wieder interessant und meine Aufmerksamkeit ist wieder dort.

Q11: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in

Switzerland/US to brand themselves?
MA4: Ich denke klassiche Methoden werden immer noch am häufigsten gebraucht.
Das sind sichere Werte. Aber ich denke, dass jetzt vermehrt frischere Sachen
kommen. Die Schweiz ist vielleicht, wenn wir gerade bei diesen Vergleichen sind,
ein bisschen traditioneller und langsamer mit dem adaptieren und ausrollen. Ich
denke, es wird je länger je mehr kommen, aber es wird noch viel Traditionelles
gemacht. Hängt es nicht auch wieder von der Branche ab? Also vom Produkt? Die
Frage ist, passt es überhaupt zu meinem Produkt und sind die Kunden dafür bereit.
Wenn ich zum Beispiel eine Maschine verkaufe, dann wird es sehr wahrscheinlich
schwieriger sein, guerillamässig vorzugehen.

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Q12: From 1-10, how would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for
the following four examples:
• Ambush marketing
MA4: (lacht) Ich denke, den Aspekt mit dem Verwirren, welchen Sie erwähnt
haben, wäre in der Schweiz eher schwieriger. Es würde vielleicht eher ein wenig
irritieren, man wüsste nicht ganz genau wer der Hauptsponsor ist und man kommt
auf eine Art nicht draus. Wir neigen vielleicht dazu, zu viel zu denken.
• Ambient marketing
MA4: Das denke ich ist eher subtil. Es ist weniger mit Pauken und Trompeten,
darum hätte ich ein besseres Gefühl.
• Sensation marketing
MA4: Gerade das Beispiel mit Amnesty International, denke ich, ist etwas das
starke Emotionen auslöst. Dort wäre nicht auf die Art vom Marketing selber zu
schauen, also Sensation Marketing, sondern welche Emotionen werden durch
unsere Massnahme ausgelöst. Es (Amnesty International Beispiel) ist etwas das
challenged und herausfordert, das ist eher die Dimension, die beachtet werden sollte
und nicht die Massnahme an sich. Deshalb denke ich sind die zwei Ambient
Marketing Beispiele subtiler.
• Viral marketing
MA4: Das ist auch wieder so ein Beispiel von: weisst du, was mir heute passiert
ist? Es ist eine sehr positive Überraschung, welche die Leute gerne teilen, denke
ich. Wie weit das es geht, müsste man schauen. Man würde es vielleicht bei
Freunden und Verwandten platzieren, aber ich denke weniger, dass man es im
Social Media verbreiten würde. Weil da kann ich das positive Erlebnis nicht mit
den Leuten teilen, sondern ich gehe mit dem in einen anonymen Raum. Also ich
denke ja, es wird geteilt, aber es fragt sich wie weit.

Q13: What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?

MA4: Sachen die unterstreichen welchen Lifestyle ich lebe, ob ich zum Beispiel
eher grünorientiert oder eher wellnessorientiert wäre. Es verbindet den Brand mit
meinem Lebensgefühl.

Q14: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by lifestyle brands?

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MA4: Ich denke auch hier spielt die emotionale Komponente eine ganz grosse
Rolle. Einen Lifestyle überlegt man nicht. Man muss mich emotional abholen und
unterstützen. Von dem her denke ich, kann man alle Marketinginstrumente
verwenden, es kommt auf die Art drauf an, wie die Kommunikation gemacht wird.
Diese muss anders, mehr auf der emotionalen und weniger auf der kognitiven
Ebene, sein.

Q15: In your opinion, what are crucial skills a company has to possess for
successful guerrilla marketing?
MA4: Ein ganz grosses Feingefühl, also ein Gespür. Ich denke effektiv, es ist nicht
die Massnahme an sich, sondern die richtige Dosierung der Massnahme. Die
Intensität ist für mich jetzt persönlich das Wichtigste. Das hat man auch bei diesen
Beispielen gesehen, es sollte überraschend aber doch subtil sein. Es sind immer
wieder diese Wiedersprüche, man lehnt sich ein Stück aus dem Fenster, kickt ein
bisschen an und danach holt man wieder zurück, damit man sich mit der
Kommunikation wohl fühlt. Das denke ich, das ist das Feingefühl, das gegeben sein

Q16: Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?
MA4: (…) Sie wollen ja vermeiden, dass Sie plötzlich eine Kommunikationskrise
haben. Dass man dieses Feingefühl hat, denke ich, ist schon eine Grenze, man sollte
mit einer Kampagne nicht over the top gehen, dass nicht dieses Negative
überhandnimmt. Das ist die Grenze, würde ich sagen. In unserer Gesellschaft ist es
so, dass wir immer offener werden und immer mehr möglich wird. Man versucht
immer wieder an die Grenze zu gehen, an der Grenze zu stupfen und dann merkt
man: ups, das funktioniert nicht. Dann geht man wieder zurück.

Q17: If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a
guerrilla marketing campaign, which tools would you use and what are the
most important factors you would consider?
MA4: Dieses subtile, der Einsatz von Humor und das Anstupsen und in der gleichen
Kampagne wieder abholen. Das wäre wieder die Intensität, es soll nicht etwas sein
an dem ich einfach vorbeilaufe, sondern es soll meine Aufmerksamkeit fesseln.
Meine Aufmerksamkeit wird gefesselt, indem ich etwas Überraschendes sehe. Es

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muss mich schon herausfordern, es soll mich aber positiv herausfordern und mir
nicht so vor den Kopf stossen, dass ich denke: was wollen die von mir. Dann das
andere, wegen Lifestyle, da denke ich muss man eher auf der emotionalen Ebene
arbeiten, weil ein lifestyle brand muss man weniger erklären, sondern eher spüren.
Man sollte versuchen, mit Witz in eine emotionale Richtung zu lenken. Witz
braucht es auf jeden Fall. Die Art von Humor unterscheidet sich ja sehr stark und
da denke ich, kommt die kulturelle Komponente ins Spiel. Der Schweizer erlebt
den Humor anders als der Amerikaner, denke ich.

Die Kampagne muss natürlich auch zum Produkt, zum Inhalt welchen man
transferieren möchte, passen. Das Ganze muss zum Produkt passen, sonst bin ich
als Konsument verwirrt. Produktinhalt und -botschaft müssen schon
übereinstimmen, sonst würde ich es als geschmackslos empfinden. Wenn gerade
eine Amnesty-Kampagne mit Humor geführt werden würde, würde ich es eher als
geschmackslos empfinden. Es sind ernste Themen und die sollen auch mit der
notwendigen Sorgfältigkeit behandelt werden. Der Produktbotschaft und -
kampagnen fit, denke ich, ist auch einer dieser Erfolgsfaktoren und muss auf jeden
Fall auch gegeben sein.

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8.8.7 Expert Interview Protocol MP1

Date: 18th of April 2017

With a Master of Business Administration from Universität St. Gallen (HSG) and an
Advanced Leadership Program degree from University of Cambridge this expert has
ascended to the Global Head of New Business Development in a multinational company
that has a reputation for excellent marketing. In fact, this company is widely recognized
as best practice example for its exceptional marketing activities. This senior executive
has broad experience and a successful track record in the fast-moving consumer goods
(FMCG) industry and has been with the current company for 17 years being responsible
for various global regions. His wealth of professional experience complemented each of
the three cornerstones of the questionnaire and this paper; specifically, guerrilla
marketing, lifestyle brands as well as Swiss cultural idiosyncrasies.

Q1: Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last
MP1: Das ist ganz schwierig, es kommt immer darauf an, auf was man selber affin
ist. Sachen auf die man selber affin ist, bleiben einem besser haften.
Marketingkampagnen, klassische Kampagnen, kommen mir weniger in den Sinn.
Das hat zwar nichts mit einer klassischen Kampagne zu tun, da kommen wir schon
fast wieder in den Guerilla Marketing Bereich, aber ich mag mich an diese Swatch
Uhren besinnen, welche heute nicht mehr so populär sind. Als sie dazumal lanciert
wurden, hat man zu einem gewissen Grad bewusst das Angebot verknappt. Somit hat
man geschafft, was Apple zu einem gewissen Grad heute macht. Wie bewusst sie das
machen, kann ich nicht sagen, aber sie verknappen das Angebot zu einem gewissen
Teil. Wenn das Angebot kleiner ist als die Nachfrage, führt das dazu, dass Medien
darüber berichten und Leute vor dem Shop stehen und sogar für ein Produkt warten.
Dies suggeriert am Konsumenten, dass es etwas gibt, das scheinbar so hoch im Kurs
ist, dass die Leute dafür sogar vor dem Laden übernachten. Solche Sachen bleiben
einem mehr als klassische Kampagnen, die man auf Plakaten, im Fernseher oder
sonstigen Medien sieht und zwar nett findet aber weniger haften bleiben.

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Q2: Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla

marketing activities?
MP1: Ich habe keine spezifische Kampagne im Kopf, die mir geblieben ist. Es war
keine so stark, damit ich sagen muss "wow". Ich komme nochmals auf dieses Beispiel
von Swatch zurück, aber ich weiss nicht, ob man die Verknappung von Produkten in
diese Rubrik einordnen kann. Swatch hat damals, das war Ende 80er Jahre, mit
limitierten Editionen ein Sammelfieber ausgelöst und die Leute dazu gebracht, Uhren
zum Sammeln zu kaufen und auf eine gewisse Wertsteigerung zu hoffen. Gut, das
war natürlich das eine Klientel, aber auf der anderen Seite wurde darüber berichtet
und dies freut eine Firma, die ein Produkt verkauft. Wenn man das als Marketing,
ich weiss nicht wie eng Guerilla Marketing zu definieren ist, verstehen will, ist es
etwas Unkonventionelles gewesen. Apple macht dies auch zu einem gewissen Grad,
diese Verknappung. Vor allem bei den ersten Geräten konnte man einen weltweiten
Hype inszenieren. Die Leute flippen schon aus, wenn sie (Apple) eine Präsentation
machen und im Liveticker über die neuen Features des Geräts berichtet wird. Die
Leute sind so besessen, dass sie vor dem Shop campieren. Falls dies bewusst
gesteuert ist und man dies als Guerilla Marketing bezeichnen kann, wären dies für
mich die Sachen, die mir wirkliche bleiben. Das hat ein grösseres Ausmass und auch
eine grössere Wirkung.

Q3: What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful
guerrilla marketing campaign?
MP1: Aus meiner Warte, denke ich, weil das Ganze als etwas Unkonventionelles
aufgesetzt ist und überraschend, dass die Leute welche angesprochen werden eine
gewisse Offenheit haben müssen. Wobei darüber könnte man ein wenig
philosophieren, wenn etwas Unkonventionelles kommt und auf jemanden trifft der
Konventionell ist, kann man sicher davon ausgehen, dass Aufmerksamkeit erregt
wird. Sehr wahrscheinlich erregt es bei den Unkonventionellen wie auch bei den
Konventionellen Aufmerksamkeit. Bei den Unkonventionellen wird es höchst
wahrscheinlich gerade so ansprechen, dass sie danach einen Kaufakt vollziehen, was
schlussendlich die Idee dahinter ist. Bei den Konventionellen, wo die
unkonventionelle Aktivität hinkommt, löst das wahrscheinlich schon fast Empörung
aus. Diese Empörung wird aber dazu führen, dass irgendwo mediales Interesse
erweckt wird. Das ist auch die Idee dahinter, die Sache funktioniert nur, wenn

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Aufmerksamkeit erregt wird und darüber berichtet wird. Auch erst dann wird sie
gross. Philosophisch gesehen braucht es beide. Auf der einen Seite, diejenigen die
auf die unkonventionelle Art angesprochen werden und dies lieben und kaufen; und
die Anderen, die das überhaupt nicht anspricht, aber durch ihre Empörung dazu
beitragen, dass dieses Ding in die Medien kommt und darüber berichtet wird.

Q4: What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being
MP1: Ja gut, es gibt natürlich Grenzen und Tabubereiche, bei welchen es (...) sehr
schwierig wird, wo Leute in religiösen Gefühlen verletzt werden. Ein Beispiel ist
Benetton mit ihren provokativen Plakatkampagnen, ich weiss nicht ob es diese heute
überhaupt noch gibt. Diese Gratwanderung ist natürlich schon sehr eng, sobald es
irgendwo um Religion und Politik geht, sind es heikle Punkte und es kann schnell
umschlagen. Dann kann es unkontrollierbar werden. Da gibt es schon Bereiche, bei
welchen es wahrscheinlich eine rote Linie gibt und wenn man diese überschreitet
kann es sehr negativ werden.

Q5: How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) vary with the
company size?
MP1: Ich könnte mir vorstellen, dass es sehr wahrscheinlich, auf Grund von der
Definition von diesem Instrument, eher mit weniger Mitteln auszukommen und
unkonventionell zu sein, für kleinere Firmen fast ein bisschen einfacher ist, um zu
exekutieren. Also einfacher und zu einem gewissen Grad auch interessanter, weil sie
die Mittel nicht haben. Grössere Firmen haben die Schwierigkeit, dass sie durch Ihre
Grösse mehr an Reputation aufgebaut haben und diese zu einem gewissen Grad
leiden kann, wenn nicht goutiert wird, was gemacht wurde. Ich mag mich besinnen,
dass Emmi, guerillamässig für eine Produktlancierung von einem neuen Getränk,
welches im Markt gefloppt ist (...), Lacto Tap hat es geheissen, bei der Kappelbrücke
einen Sicherheitsturm wie das Getränk eingekleidet hat. Das ist bei der Luzerner
Bevölkerung nicht wirklich gut angekommen. Erstens weil sie (Emmi) dort einfach
ihren (Bevölkerung) regionalen Stolz verletzt hat, weil die Kappelbrücke angefasst
wurde und auf der anderen Seite hat man auch gesagt, das hätte Emmi gar nicht nötig
so etwas zu machen. Also, je grösser die Firma, desto mehr steht auf dem Spiel, wenn
man solche Geschichten macht. Jetzt ist es so (…), ja sagen wir mal die Einkleidung

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von irgendetwas halb ohne Bewilligung, erregt für eine kurze Zeit Aufmerksamkeit.
Aber es gibt Guerilla Marketing Aktivitäten und Guerilla Marketing Aktivitäten.
Solche die vielleicht so clever gemacht wurden, dass sie ein Schmunzeln
hervorrufen, und solche bei denen ich sagen muss, das ist eine reine Effekthascherei
um irgendwie darüber zu reden. Aber das ist ganz schwierig, man kann es
wahrscheinlich auch nicht planen, je nachdem wie es umgesetzt wird, kommt es
besser oder schlechter an.

Q6: How much potential does Switzerland offer in terms of guerrilla marketing
(different regional potentials)?
MP1: Ich denke, die Schweiz ist einfach, das hat mit unserer Kultur zu tun, eine
ernstere Gruppierung. Sicherlich der Deutschschweizer ist eher kritisch, anstatt dass
er einfach (...), sag ich jetzt einmal, sich etwas anhört und darüber lachen kann. Er
hinterfragt es sicherlich einmal. Da gibt es sicher Kulturen, die Sachen viel lockerer
nehmen als wir und dementsprechend so etwas sehr wahrscheinlich mit weniger
Risiko umsetzbar ist als in der Schweiz. Tendenziell, ohne pauschalisieren zu wollen,
ist die ländliche Bevölkerung konservativer als städtische Bevölkerung. Und je
konservativer man ist, desto mehr Mühe hat man mit solchen Aktionen, das ist
sicherlich so.

Q7: How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American
MP1: Der Schweizer, sage ich jetzt einmal, zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass er Sachen
kritisch hinterfragt und es braucht sicher länger bis man ihn überzeugt hat. Wenn
man ihn allerdings mal überzeugt hat, steht er auch dahinter und hat weniger Tendenz
seine Position wieder zu verändern. Aber er hinterfragt die Sachen schon und ist ein
wenig ernster im Alltag als dies vielleicht andere Kulturen sind. Der Amerikaner ist,
sicher prima vista, offener und hat vielleicht auch das Flair, schneller mit jemandem
in Kontakt zu treten, aber ist je nach dem aus welchem Kulturkreis man kommt, nicht
so nachhaltig in seinem Wesen wie man das Gefühl hat. Mit dem Amerikaner kommt
man schnell in Kontakt und man redet schnell mit ihm, dies macht man mit einem
Schweizer viel weniger schnell, da braucht es länger, aber wenn er (der Amerikaner)
in seinem Gespräch drin ist und nach einer Minute sagt: komm mich mal besuchen,
dann meint er dies nicht wirklich so, sondern mehr als Floskel, die er im Gespräch

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sagt. Wenn man dann aber zwei, drei Tage später vor seiner Tür steht, wird er schief
schauen. Wenn der Schweizer sagt: komm mich mal besuchen, meint er es auch so.
Ich will das nicht als gut oder schlecht werten, beides hat so seine Sachen. Aber durch
die Eigenheit, dass der Amerikaner am Anfang offener ist, wird er sicher auch besser
auf solche Aktionen anzusprechen sein.

Q8: Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ

among the four language regions?
MP1: Es gibt sicherlich gewisse Charakterzüge, die wir gemeinsam haben. Das ist
natürlich primär schon durch unseren Wohlstand geprägt, den wir im Land haben,
und der mehr oder weniger in jeder Sprachregion vorhanden ist. Aber nichts desto
trotz, wird jede Sprachregion von ihrer Sprache beeinflusst. Die italienische Schweiz
wird von Italien, die französische Schweiz von Frankreich und die Deutschschweiz
von Deutschland beeinflusst. Dementsprechend gibt es auch kulturelle Nuancen, das
kann man nicht wegdiskutieren. Aber es ist ein Zwischending vorhanden; der
Westschweizer ist kein Franzose, aber er ist doch offener, oder ist in diesem
Kulturkreis offener als wir in der Deutschschweiz. Und umgekehrt, in der
Deutschschweiz ist uns der deutsche Sprachraum näher und die Kultur ist uns eine
Spur näher und wir leben sie eine Spur näher als wir sie in der Westschweiz leben.
Nicht, dass sie uns unsympathisch ist, ich glaube durch das, dass wir unterschiedliche
Sprachen haben, gibt es ein leicht anderes Verhalten. Man schaut halt ausländische
Fernsehsender in dieser Sprachregion und bekommt von klein auf gewisse Sachen
mit, die in diesem Kulturkreis typisch sind. Sehr wahrscheinlich schaut der Tessiner
viele italienische Fernsehsender, weil er italienisch versteht. Dementsprechend
bekommt er die Kultur von Italien besser mit und verinnerlicht sie zum Teil.

Q9: From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American: (Please indicate if there
are regional differences)
• Attitude toward the unexpected
MP1: Sicher ist der Schweizer dem Unerwarteten gegenüber schlechter
gegenübergestellt als der Amerikaner. Ich würde sagen, der Schweizer ist irgendwo
bei einer 4 und der Amerikaner irgendwo bei einer 7. Also nicht, dass der
Amerikaner jetzt absolut offen ist, das auch nicht. Aber durch seine Mentalität und
Kultur ist er beim ersten Schritt/ersten Kontakt relativ offen.

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• Openness toward the new

MP1: Das würde ich ähnlich bewerten, der Amerikaner ist grundsätzlich offener
als der Schweizer.
• Willingness to share information
MP1: Ich glaube heute mit dem Einbezug von Smartphones und Social Media,
früher hätte ich das noch ein bisschen anders bewertet, würde ich behaupten, dass
dies relativ ähnlich ist, wenn man es nur auf den Aspekt Weiterverbreitung bezieht.
Dies hat mit Informationen weiterleiten zu tun und diese schnell zu teilen. Mit
Smartphones und Social Media würde ich keinen Unterschied zwischen Schweizer
und Amerikaner machen. Wenn es etwas Gutes ist und als wertvoll eingestuft wird,
würde ich schon eine 8 oder so geben. Dabei geht es allerdings mehr um das Social
Media Phänomen und weniger ums Guerrilla Marketing, dass man immer etwas
Aktuelles teilen will und zeigen will, dass man immer an etwas Speziellem ist.
• Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
MP1: Nein ich glaube, das ist schon alles.

Q10: What distinguishes the Swiss culture in terms of attitude toward marketing
(e.g. from the American culture)?
MP1: (holt tief Luft) Das ist eine gute Frage (lacht). (...) Wir realisieren alle, auch
gerade mit dem Aufkommen von den ganzen Onlinediensten und Onlinemedien,
dass alles irgendwie finanziert werden muss. Entweder bezahlen wir direkt dafür,
in dem wir sagen ich will etwas und zahle gerne dafür, oder man sagt nein, wo die
Leute dafür direkt bezahlen, akzeptieren aber indirekt, dass es durch die
Werbeindustrie finanziert wird. Für viele ist Werbung wahrscheinlich ein
notwendiges Übel; man akzeptiert, dass es sie gibt und dass es sie geben muss, weil
sonst einige Dinge gar nicht angeboten werden könnten. Diese Gratiszeitungen,
zum Beispiel, 20 Minuten und so, würde es ohne Werbung nicht geben. Das
Hauptinteresse dieser Zeitungen ist primär Werbung zu verkaufen und nicht
Informationen zu liefern. Informationen liefert man noch dazu, ja, aber eigentlich
geht es darum Werbung zu verkaufen. Der Schweizer, als solches, akzeptiert
Marketing und Werbung und ich spreche jetzt wirklich von klassischen Werbespots
die eingeblendet werden, aber eher als notwendiges Übel, als das er ein Fan davon
ist. Der Amerikaner hat vielleicht noch ein bisschen mehr das kreative Element, wo

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er auf gewisse Sachen gespannt ist. Bei dem Amerikaner gibt es natürlich
werbetechnisch auch noch mehr Möglichkeiten, welche es in der Schweiz nicht
gibt. Möglichkeiten im rechtlichen Bereich, dass man Produkte miteinander
vergleichen darf. Man darf sagen Produkt A ist besser als Produkt B und Produkt B
darf man namentlich zeigen und nennen. Der Klassiker wäre Coca-Cola vs. Pepsi
Cola welche schon einen gewissen Kultstatus bekommen haben. Wer nimmt den
anderen besser auf die Schippe? Aber man muss auch klar sehen, dort kann die
Werbung nachher ein wenig zu einem storytelling, um Geschichten zu erzählen,
mutieren. Geschichten erzählen über eine Konkurrenzsituation. In der Schweiz geht
das nicht, da wäre dies unlauterer Wettbewerb. Also geht es hier nur darum, sein
eigenes Produkt in den Vordergrund zu stellen und das ist natürlich ganz schwierig,
dass dies gut rüberkommt und jemand sagt: wow, das hätte ich jetzt gerne. Beim
anderen (in Amerika) wartet man noch auf das "aha"-Erlebnis, die Werbung beginnt
und man weiss, es kommt noch eine Pointe zum Schluss. Das ist natürlich bei der
Werbung hier nicht der Fall, oder kann wegen den Rahmenbedingungen nicht der
Fall sein.

Q11: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in

Switzerland/US to brand themselves?
MP1: Das wird immer schwieriger. Die meisten Firmen wollen ein junges
Zielpublikum ansprechen. Nicht, dass man die Älteren auf der Seite lassen will,
aber schlussendlich gibt es die meisten Produkte schon länger im Markt und für die
meisten Produkte ist es wichtig, dass man eine neue Generation zum Produkt holt.
Also muss man im Prinzip für die jüngere Zielgruppe attraktiv sein, dass quasi die
Konsumenten nicht aussterben. Heute ist es natürlich anspruchsvoller denn je,
Aufmerksamkeit von den jungen Zielgruppen zu holen. Die jungen Zielgruppen
haben ein ganz anderes Konsumverhalten, als das andere Zielgruppen gehabt
haben. Früher gab es wirklich nur klassische Fernseher, Radio und natürlich ist man
an irgendwelchen Plakatwänden vorbeigefahren und es gab Zeitungen und
Magazine. Heute hat jeder von uns ein solches Smartphone in der Hand und es ist
mittlerweile zum wichtigste Instrument geworden. Die meisten Informationen
kommen von hier (zeigt auf sein Smartphone). Das mediale Verhalten hat sich
komplett verändert, das klassische Fernsehen, welches man früher gemacht hat, und
die Leute gewusst haben, an diesem Wochentag um diese Zeit kommt diese

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Sendung, gibt es heute nicht mehr. Heute wird konsumiert, wann man will und was
man will. Mit dem haben viele ein Problem bekommen. Jetzt können sie sagen, sie
nehmen ihren Werbespot und platzieren in hier drin (zeigt auf dein Smartphone).
Aber auch hier drin ist es immer schwieriger geworden, dass es jemand anschaut.
Also klar, bei gewissen Sachen kann man zappen, bei gewissen nicht, es gibt
verschiedene Sachen. Das sieht man auch bei den Anbietern von diesen
Instrumenten. Die sehen auch, dass sie es nicht zum Exzess betreiben können. Bei
den meisten Anwendungen, kann ein Spott acht Sekunden oder zehn Sekunden
laufen und danach muss man die Option zum Überspringen geben. Wenn man es
ganz laufen lassen würde, gehen die Leute weg, diese Geduld haben sie nicht mehr.
Es ist auch interessant zu schauen, wie viel es leiden mag, bis jemand weggeht, weil
es einfach zu viel Werbung ist. Es ist ganz schwierig geworden, die Leute heute in
den Medien noch abzuholen und das ist eine grosse Herausforderung für viele
Firmen. Da gibt es natürlich schon wieder Mittel, wie man das gut angehen kann.

Ich mache jetzt trotzdem kurz die Brücke zu Red Bull 27. Wir haben zum Teil auch
klassische Sachen, wie unsere Cartoons und so weiter, aber was wir schon immer
gemacht haben seit es uns gibt ist ein Content Marketing. Wir produzieren eigenen
Inhalt, eigenen Content, von Athleten die wir unterstützen oder was auch immer,
und erzählen eine Geschichte. In dieser Geschichte kommen wir natürlich vor und
bewirtschaften den ganzen Content. In diesem Film kommt niemand vor und sagt:
du musst Red Bull trinken, damit du weniger müde bist und länger magst. Vielleicht
muss es nicht mal jemand trinken, vielleicht kommen wir nur als Marke vor oder
so im Branding von einem Athleten, aber wir kommen so vor, dass wir glaubwürdig
sind. So, dass jeder sagt: ja klar, das ist ein Sportler von ihnen. So kommen wird
durch dieses Storytelling zum Konsumenten. Der Konsument schaut uns wegen der
Story, weil er diese Story sehen will und nimmt uns innerhalb dieser Story wahr,
anstatt, dass er uns in einem klassischen Werbespott sieht. Dies muss gut gemacht
werden und ein natürlicher Bestandteil sein, nichts Aufgesetztes. Eine Marke die
nie im Sport aktiv ist aber Sport cool findet und die Marke jetzt in dieses
Sportumfeld setzt, ist nicht glaubwürdig. Wenn man das schaut, sagt man dann:
Was macht jetzt diese Marke im Sport. Wenn man aber sowieso Aktivitäten in

27 In agreement with the interviewee the brand is mentioned

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diesem Bereich hat und man produziert so etwas, dann ist das nicht wie die Faust
aufs Auge, dann macht das irgendwo Sinn für den Konsumenten. Wenn er es schaut,
denkt er nicht, das geht jetzt gar nicht. Mit dem will ich sagen, es gibt schon
Möglichkeiten wie man an den Konsumenten kommen kann, aber es wird immer

Q12: From 1-10, how would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for
the following four examples:
• Ambush marketing
MP1: (…) Dieses Trittbrettfahren hat durchaus Potenzial, da kann man taktisch
etwas machen damit man dabei ist. Wenn man es witzig und clever macht, kann
man dies immer in Erwägung ziehen, sofern dies selber für einen Sinn macht. Eine
Note zu geben ist aber noch schwierig, da es mehr eine taktische Geschichte ist, bei
der man die Situation ausnutzt. Strategisch macht das so gesehen keinen Sinn. Aber
taktisch, wenn es etwas gibt das man erzählen will und man nicht mitmachen konnte
oder wollte (als offizieller Sponsor), dann kann dies durchaus Sinn machen.
• Ambient marketing
MP1: Diese würde ich weiter oben einstufen als Ambush Marketing. Ambush
Marketing erkennt natürlich jeder, wenn man sich an etwas anhängt, ist man nicht
der Erste. So gesehen, bleibt da immer etwas ein bitterer Nachgeschmack, auch
wenn es taktisch vielleicht sinnvoll sein kann. Hier kommt eine ganz andere
Kreativität, eine eigene Kreativität, zum Tragen. Beim anderen (Ambush
Marketing) fragt man sich was man zu einem bestimmten Anlass machen kann und
hier gibt es keinen Anlass an und für sich, sondern es geht darum sich kreativ zu
bewegen und wie man etwas zum Thema machen kann. Wenn man gewisse
Umsetzungen sieht, gefallen mir diese am besten, welche ganz einfach gemacht
sind und eine Botschaft ausstrahlen. Da muss ich sagen: mol, das ist noch clever

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• Sensation marketing
Refer to the answer of ambient marketing
• Viral marketing
MP1: Es ist ganz schwierig zu spüren, ob etwas viral geht oder nicht. Es ist wichtig,
dass die Idee kreativ ist und für mich ist noch fast wichtiger, dass das wo man hier
macht glaubwürdig ist. Wenn es nur lustig und witzig ist stellt sich die Frage, ob
das Vertrauen in die Fluggesellschaft und ihr Produkt (vom Beispiel abgeleitet)
gestärkt wird, sehr wahrscheinlich eher nicht. Zu einem Geschenk sagen die
Wenigsten nein, aber habe ich jetzt als Konsument wirklich etwas mehr? Ich
schmunzle darüber, ja, und eine gewisse Aufmerksamkeit habe ich auch aber ob
diese nachhaltig ist, weiss ich nicht. Die Nachhaltigkeit würde ich in diesem
konkreten Beispiel in Frage stellen. Es gibt sicher andere, die sich näher mit der
Marke assoziieren, bei denen es mehr Sinn machen würde.

Q13: What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?

Due to time restrictions, this question could not be answered

Q14: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by lifestyle brands?

MP1: Grundsätzlich müssen sie sich nicht anders vermarkten. Wenn man sich
selber als lifestyle brand definieren möchte, setzt dies voraus, dass man sehr nahe
am Zeitgeist ist. Dass man spürt, was in dieser Zeit bewegt, was in dieser Zeit "in"
ist, was die Bedürfnisse der Leute sind und eben noch ein bisschen näher bei diesen
Sachen ist als vielleicht andere Marken. Die sagen vielleicht: ich muss nicht so nahe
sein, wenn ich meine Marke inszeniere, ich folge dem, der sich etabliert hat etc. Ich
denke, eine solche Lifestyle Marke müsste viel näher am Zeitgeist, an
Entwicklungen sein und diese auch inszenieren bzw. eine Antwort darauf geben mit
ihren Produkten.

Q15: In your opinion, what are crucial skills a company has to possess for
successful guerrilla marketing?
MP1: Ich denke, dass was ich vorhin gesagt habe, dass man wirklich den Zeitgeist
spürt. Welche Werte sind derzeit im Vordergrund, das ist natürlich
landesspezifisch, ist die Gesellschaft eher ein bisschen konservativer orientiert oder
ein bisschen offener, ist der Wohlstand ein bisschen besser positioniert oder gibt es

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grosse Spannungen zwischen sozialen Schichten. Das ist sehr, wie soll ich sagen,
eine schwierige Aufgabe. Da kann man nicht irgendwelche Werte nehmen, sondern
man muss es spüren, auf was sprechen die Leute, auf die man sich fokussiert, die
Zielgruppe, an und wie kann man sie abholen. Ich glaube, das ist sehr
wahrscheinlich am wichtigsten, dass man das noch besser spürt als andere und
dementsprechend mit einem Konzept kommt, dass die anderen (die Zielgruppe)
dann auch akzeptieren und sagen, das entspricht unserem Zeitgeist. Vielleicht ist
jetzt Naturnähe ein Thema oder in der Lebensmittelindustrie ist seit einigen Jahren
ein BIO-Trend festzustellen. Leuten wird es immer wichtiger von wo ihre
Lebensmittel kommen, vor 30 Jahren war es noch Wurst, weil es damals einfach
darum gegangen ist, dass man satt wird. Aber jetzt sind wir bei einem gewissen
Wohlstand und können uns fragen: wie werde ich satt? Und da muss man schon das
gewisse Gespür haben: was ist derzeit “in“, was bewegt derzeit und was ist den
Leuten wichtig. In der Schweiz haben auch Umweltthemen eine gewisse
Wichtigkeit. Wenn eine Lifestyle Marke gegen gewisse Sachen, die aber wichtig
sind, verstösst und diese nicht ernst nimmt, kann der Schuss nach hinten losgehen.
Der heutige Zeitgeist gibt einem gewisse Rahmenbedingungen vor, worin man sich
bewegen muss um etwas zu kreieren.

Q16: Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?
MP1: Ich denke, jedes Land hat ein anderes kulturelles Empfinden und eine andere
Wertedefinition, ist in gewissen Punkten offener oder geschlossener als andere
Kulturen. Das sind solche Sachen die man sicher berücksichtigen muss, sonst fällt
man gnadenlos auf die Nase. Zum Beispiel in Asien, ich will das nicht werten aber
es ist einfach so, ist es das A und O, dass man sein Gesicht nicht verliert. Also wenn
man jemanden dort in einer Art und Weise bloss stellt, sodass er sein Gesicht
verlieren kann, dann ist das ein no-go. So kann das von Land zu Land
unterschiedlich sein. Was natürlich der Klassiker ist, sind religiöse Sachen, wo man
sehr schnell die Finger daran verbrennen kann, weil man findet immer jemanden
der das Gefühl hat, das geht gar nicht. Politische Sachen sind natürlich auch solche
Themen die zum Teil sehr heikel werden können. Auf der anderen Seite will man
natürlich einen gewissen Positionsbezug machen. Da stellt sich halt auch die Frage,
was man erreichen will und was die Zielsetzung der Aktivität ist. Wenn die
Zielsetzung nur ist Aufmerksamkeit zu erhaschen, kann man sehr vieles machen.

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Wenn die Zielsetzung, was wahrscheinlich bei den meisten der Fall ist, auch ist die
Leute dazu zu bewegen, dass sie näher zu der Marke stehen, beziehungsweise die
Kaufbereitschaft zu steigern wenn sie mit dieser Marke in Kontakt kommen, dann
muss es natürlich schon nachhaltig sein. Da kann man nicht jemandem vor den Kopf
stossen. Es ist eine Gratwanderung die sehr schnell kippen kann.

Q17: If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a
guerrilla marketing campaign, which tools would you use and what are the
most important factors you would consider?
MP1: (...) Egal was man macht, die erste Frage ist: was ist die Zielsetzung und was
will man erreichen. Hier muss man auch klar definieren um was es geht, was
erwartet man. Sehr wahrscheinlich erwartet man, neben einer gewissen
Aufmerksamkeit die man bekommt, dass es zu gewissen Verkäufen kommt. Es ist
schwer vorstellbar, dass eine Firma nur provozieren will. Irgendwann provoziert sie
so viel und verkauft nichts, dass einfach fertig ist. Die meisten, denke ich, haben
schon das Ziel Aufmerksamkeit bei ihrer Zielgruppe zu erreichen und diese soll
dazu führen näher zur Marke zu rücken beziehungsweise die Kaufbereitschaft bei
diesen Gruppierungen zu steigern. Dementsprechend, muss man genau wissen, was
man sich erlauben darf und was nicht und was diese Gruppe gut und nicht gut findet.
Da sind wir wieder beim gleichen, dass man den Zeitgeist dieser Gruppe spüren
muss, dass man wirklich genau abklären muss wie das bei grösster
Wahrscheinlichkeit aufgenommen werden wird. Auch hier glaube ich nicht einmal
mit einem Test kann man das wirklich vorfühlen. Das kann manchmal ganz
spezielle Dimensionen annehmen, die man nicht steuern kann.

Es ist etwas Unkonventionelles, etwas Unerwartetes und natürlich kann man sagen:
Dies wird wahrscheinlich beim gros meiner Zielgruppe folgendes auslösen. Aber
vielleicht wird es gerade bei jemand anderem, der ein Ausreisser ist, etwas Anderes
auslösen und der macht mit dem etwas ganz Anderes als man geplant hat und
nachher ist man, ja, (lacht) ist man irgendwo ganz anders. Es ist, wie soll ich sagen,
ein solch schmaler, enger Pfad wo man ausrutschen kann. Man muss sich wirklich
gut überlegen, ob man wirklich so etwas machen will. Man kann es sicher machen
aber soll so gut wie möglich Abklärungen treffen, ob die Aktion wirklich zu
erhöhter Kaufbereitschaft führt. Sonst macht es fast mehr Sinn, etwas strategisches,

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mittel-/langfristiges zu machen, dass vielleicht ein bisschen weniger spektakulär ist,

aber wenn es darum geht, zu messen, wieviel es mir wirklich gebracht hat in den
Verkäufen, ist das vielleicht trotzdem nachhaltiger als eine Guerilla Geschichte bei
der es einen kurzen Peak an Aufmerksamkeit gibt (hebt eine Hand vom Tisch in die
Höhe), aber wenn das wieder so nach unten sinkt (legt die Hand wieder auf den
Tisch), bringt es dann auch nichts. Dann ist es schnell lustig und wieder vorbei.
Wenn es etwas ist, das kontinuierlich ein wenig steigt, bringt es schlussendlich
trotzdem mehr. Ich glaube wir werden sehr viele finden, die Guerilla Marketing
pushen und kreativ sind. Gerade solche Agenturen wollen immer etwas Neues, aber
wenn es nur darum geht zu fragen: was hat es wirklich nachhaltig zu den Verkäufen
beigetragen, weiss ich die Antwort nicht.

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8.8.8 Expert Interview Protocol MP2

Date: 19th of April 2017

This company can be seen as a European pioneer in ambient marketing and has been
successfully implementing over 1’700 unconventional marketing campaigns in
Switzerland for more than 20 years. Meanwhile 70 creative employees are working in
four different locations in Switzerland, from the idea development stage to its execution.
Their customer portfolio ranges from Swiss brands such as Dar Vida to internationally
renowned brands such as P&G, Coca-Cola or Nike. For this research, the interesting part
of their clientele is the great share of lifestyle brands such as Porsche, Axe, Heineken,
Mini, just to name a few. To recapitulate, a lifestyle brand within the context of this
research, is defined as a brand that connects people with a common point of view by
becoming part of their life and serves as a vehicle of self-expression. The experience and
expertise in developing a marketing campaigns for such brands can provide a valuable
insight into commonly used temporary marketing tools. The interview was personally
conducted with a consultant and project manager which has been with the company for
many years and also is the founder of another marketing agency.

Q1: Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last
MP2: Pepsi-Coke und Nike machen international wirklich spannende Sachen, wie
auch Apple. Im europäischen Raum gehören meines Erachtens Swisscom,
Graubünden Tourismus und Zalando zu den Firmen mit erfolgreichem Marketing.
Es stellt sich natürlich auch immer die Frage, wie Erfolg gemessen wird. Auch
kleinere Marken, die nicht wie Zalando oder Coke permanent in den Medien gesehen
werden, können durch kleine Werbungen und Samplings erfolgreich sein. Solche
Firmen machen teilweise wenig aber haben einen mega Return on Investment.
Einerseits braucht es das konzentrierte targeting, zum andern einen
Wiedererkennungswert, dass sich die Synapse im Kopf auch versetzt wenn man die
Marke sieht. Ein Brand muss qualitativ und quantitativ top sein, das gibt auch eine
gewisse Markenstärke. Ein anderes Beispiel ist Lego, die mit ihrem Film einen
riesigen Hype ausgelöst haben und sonst fast nichts machen, vorallem in der Schweiz
nicht. Die Konkurrenz ist da riesig und sie hatten einen rücklaufenden Markt, vor
allem auch weil Mädchen nie damit spielen konnten. Dann kam der Film, ein

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storytelling, in dem Frauen auch eine gute Rolle gespielt haben und das hat die Leute
wieder animiert Legos zu kaufen. Es ist schon ziemlich spannend, welche Tools es
gibt. Ich glaube in der heutigen Welt gehört es auch dazu, immer wieder neue Wege
auszuprobieren. Viele die immer das gleiche machen, gehen wieder in diesen Pool
rein und das sieht man in den Verkaufszahlen. Es wird als 0815 angehsehen und nicht
als etwas, das herausragt.

Q2: Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla

marketing activities?
MP2: Ich finde PETA ist ziemlich cool. Ist vielleicht keine klassische Firma als
solches, aber sie leben von der Aufmerksamkeit, die sie erregen müssen damit
gespendet wird. Sie schaffen es immer wieder, dass sie omnipräsent in den Medien
sind. Das Ziel ist immer, mit wenig Aufwand viel zu generieren. Ich glaube, die
weiteste Spannung die erzeugt werden kann mit einer solchen Aktion ist, wenn du
von den Medien aufgenommen wirst. Vor allem bei uns in der Schweiz oder in
Deutschland, wo es nicht so riesige Facebook-Communities gibt wie in Amerika,
wenn dort etwas viral geht schwappt es schnell mal zu uns rüber, aber das wenigste
das in der Schweiz passiert schwappt in andere Länder rüber. Es ist erstrebenswert,
dass Medien wie 20 Minuten oder BLICK darüber berichten. Dann könnte es sogar
auch von Deutschland aufgenommen und von dort in andere Länder weiterverbreitet
werden. Wir haben für Bioflorin eine Kampagne gemacht, die von 20 Minuten
aufgenommen wurde und bis nach Kolumbien gekommen ist. Sie hat PR-Value im
Wert von zwei Millionen Dollar generiert und war praktisch kostenlos. Die Gefahr
ist dann natürlich auch die Verbreitung von negativer Werbung, allerdings man sagt
ja, dass es keine negative Werbung gibt. Bei negativer Werbung wächst schnell Gras
drüber, man nehme Iphone, jeder weiss, dass es in China zu asozialen Bedingungen
produziert wird, aber trotzdem kauft man wieder die neue Version.

Q3: What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful
guerrilla marketing campaign?
MP2: Sicher Offenheit aufs Thema hin und ein genereller offener Geist für Sachen,
die man vorhin noch nicht gekannt hat. Vielleicht auch eine gewisse Neugierigkeit,
wo man sagt: hey das kenne ich noch gar nicht, das möchte ich kennenlernen. Auch
dieses Multikulti-Feeling, der Wille eine neue Kultur kennenzulernen, braucht es

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bestimmt. Und auch Entertainment und Spass muss von den Leuten gewährleistet
sein. Sie müssen gerne entertained werden. Natürlich muss das Gezeigte immer
einen unterhaltsamen Effekt haben und nicht billig daherkommen, es soll qualitatives
Entertainment sein. Aber die Leute sollen es auch toll finden, wenn etwas gemacht
wird das unterhaltend ist und ein gutes Gefühl vermittelt. Das ist etwas, dass die
Gesellschaft mitbringen muss, damit es funktioniert.

Q4: What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being
MP2: Gesellschaften mit konservativen Richtlinien. Auch ein falscher Stolz
beziehungsweise Völker, die niemals einen Witz über sich machen würden sind
keine optimale Grundlage, da funktioniert es nicht. Guerilla und auch andere
unterhaltsame Kampagnen funktionieren nur, wenn man auch über sich selber
lachen kann, wenn Unternehmen auch über sich selbst mal einen Scherz machen
können. Im Endeffekt ist ein falscher Stolz nie positiv.

Q5: How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) vary with the
company size?
MP2: In der Schweiz gesehen, sind es bis vor ein paar Jahren, vor allem Grosse
gewesen, wie beispielsweise Migros. Für Migros haben wir sehr viele Guerilla
Aktionen gemacht. Irgendwann ist dann der Cut gekommen, und Migros, als
Beispiel, musste aufpassen, weil sie halt als Genossenschaft daherkommen. Als
fundierte Unternehmung, die jetzt gerade der Generation M auch etwas zurückgeben
will und möchten sozusagen den Werbefranken, meines Erachtens, sehr konservativ
einsetzen. Vielleicht nicht konservativ, aber sehr bedacht, sorry, sie wollen überhaupt
keine negativen Schlagzeilen erzeugen und einen Shitstorm auf das vehementeste
vermeiden. Man merkt, dass gerade solche Unternehmen heutzutage faked Guerilla
Aktionen machen. Der, der nicht aus der Werbung kommt, weiss aber nicht, dass es
faked ist. Vielleicht hast du die Werbung von Graubünden Tourismus auch gesehen,
mit dem Alp-Öpi der live in einem TV auf einer Alp hockt, und Leute zu ihm
raufgeschickt wurden. Alle Leute die auf die Alp gingen, waren Schauspieler. Alle
rundherum haben gedacht: voll cool. Es war auch eine gute Aktion als solches, aber
die Leute die dort mitmachten waren Schauspieler und es war inszeniert.

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Wir haben vor kurzem auch eine Toilettenwerbung für die Pille danach gemacht und
die ist dann guerillamässig gestreut worden, obwohl es eigentlich ein klassischer
Ambient Media Kanal ist. Wir haben auf die Pille in Clubs aufmerksam gemacht,
weil wir gewusst haben, dass wir die Girls dort nochmals ein wenig sensibilisieren
müssen. Eine Journalistin hat es gesehen, redaktionell in die Zeitung aufgenommen
und wir sind auf die Titelsite und die dritte Seite gekommen. Auch das ist eigentlich
Guerilla, etwas Extravagantes das so aufgefasst worden ist und verbreitet wurde, die
Kampagne ging bis nach Deutschland. Zurück zum Thema, viel grössere
Unternehmen stellen etwas wie inszeniertes Guerilla Marketing dar. Die Kleinen
wagen eher etwas und es ist auch okay wenn sie mal eine Busse bekommen. Ich
glaube, die können besser damit umgehen. Bei den Grösseren kann dann doch der
Imageschaden relativ hoch sein. Es ist ein Trend zu den Kleineren, zu der neuen
Generation die aus diesem “Hipstertum“ rauskommen. Sie wollen anders sein und
sind stolz anders zu sein und wollen sich auch so darstellen. Das ist eher bei den
KMU’s anzusiedeln, bei den Grossen soll es Guerilla sein aber es ist eher wie ein
Drehbuch. Man weiss genau, was, wann, wie, wo kommt.

Q6: How much potential does Switzerland offer in terms of guerrilla marketing
(different regional potentials)?
MP2: Von der Bevölkerung her eigentlich schon. In der Stadt hast du mehr
Befürworter als auf dem Land, das ein sehr traditionelles Denken hat. Ich denke, der
Schweizer ist zum Amerikaner sehr ähnlich, wenn man die Städte vergleicht. Zum
Beispiel in Bern kann man Sachen einfach machen, braucht nicht einmal eine
Bewilligung und die Leute haben Spass daran, wie auch in New York. In Zürich
hingegen, wirst du gerade angezeigt. Wir haben da zwar viel gemacht, aber haben
auch schon viel Bussen kassiert (lacht). Es ist je nach Stadt anders, Zürich und Basel
ist sehr streng, Luzern eher easy-going solange es unterhaltsam ist und Bern sowieso
ist sehr liberal, da kannst du Promotionen in der Nähe des Bundesplatzes machen und
brauchst für drei Leute nicht einmal eine Bewilligung. Auf dem Land, sind sie noch
ein wenig konservativer und sagen schnell: das ist ein Seich. Wir haben gerade eine
Aktion gemacht, bei der wir einen SZU-Waggon, der zu einem Wildnispark beim
Sihlwald fährt, mit Bäumen und Tieren eingekleidet haben. Es ist explizit der Wald,
in dem du nachher auch bist. Die Leute, welche dort arbeiten, halt eher “Büetzer“,
haben das nicht toll gefunden und als Marketinggag abgestempelt. Dabei war die

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Aktion auch für sie, wir wollen ja auch, dass die Leute ihren Zug nutzen, dass es am
Schluss auch wieder rentiert und sie ihre Jobs haben. Aber ich glaube, die sehen
manchmal gar nicht wieso man gewisse Sachen macht. Dementsprechend, glaube
ich, sind sie auch im Alltag unterwegs. Eher mal nein sagen, anstatt ja. Ich glaube
diese Unterschiede gibt es schon zwischen den Regionalitäten (Stadt/Land).

Q7: How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American
MP2: Ich finde der Amerikaner hat manchmal ziemlich viele Ähnlichkeiten mit dem
Schweizer. Wir haben beide einen gewissen Stolz, auch wenn er dort (in Amerika)
ein wenig mehr zelebriert wird. Je nach Region in der Schweiz ist es aber schon auch
unterschiedlich, ich merke schon, dass die Deutschschweizer in gewissen Ansätzen
und Korporationen oftmals offener sind als Westschweizer. Die Tessiner sind auch
mega offen, das ist auch das Schöne an den Italienern, alles ist cool und alles ist
machbar. Da merkt man schon Unterschiede. Ich glaube, es steckt auch ein bisschen
ein Generationenkonflikt dahinter. Die Jüngeren finden schnell etwas cool.

Der Inhalt ist doch auch sehr entscheidend, ob eine Guerilla Aktion gut ankommt
oder nicht. Es gibt sicher Themen, die über Generationen hinweg gut ankommen,
und die eine Mehrheit gut findet. Aber Guerilla ist schon etwas, das auf die Jungen
fixiert ist und diese erreichen soll. Der 40-jährige ist in seinem Leben angekommen,
also die Meisten, hat seine Schiene mittlerweile und findet somit nicht mehr jeden
Gag lustig. Die Jungen wollen eher ausbrechen und etwas cooles, spannendes. Das
merkt man auch mit diesen ganzen Foodfestivals und dem ganzen anders sein, das
kommt bei uns immer mehr. Wie ich es interpretiere, von der Zielgruppendefinierung
die man erreichen will mit solchen Aktionen, ist man schon eher aufs Alter und Städte
fokussiert, da Städter eher weltoffener sind. Ob das Genf, Lausanne oder Zürich ist,
kommt nicht so darauf an, meistens sind unsere Briefings auch so darauf angesetzt.
Die Kernzielgruppe, mit welchen man zusammenarbeiten und spielen will, ist in
Sachen Alter zwischen 15-25 oder mittlerweile 30 Jahren. Sie sollen auch in den
sozialen Medien die Informationen viral über sich streuen. Da kommen auch Medien
wie Watson ins Spiel, die eher ein solches Klientel haben, als eine Sonntagszeitung.
Ich denke schon, dass es ein Generationen-Ding ist.

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Q8: Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ

among the four language regions?
Refer to the answer of Q7

Q9: From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American: (Please indicate if there
are regional differences)
• Attitude toward the unexpected
MP2: Sagen wir mal der Amerikaner ist bei 8-9. Dieses Celebrating-Ding ist schon
etwas, dass er gerne hat. Bei Events, wie bei den US Open, wenn die Kamera
unerwartet auf sie kommt, gehen sie voll ab. Ich glaube, das haben sie schon gerne.
Der Schweizer findet es schon auch cool, aber er ist ein wenig bedeckter. Er hat
vielleicht eher eine innere Freude, aber das äusserliche zeigen fehlt ein wenig.
Sagen wir mal so 6. Das merken wir auch, wenn wir mit der Kamera unterwegs sind
und Emotionen, wenn sie etwas sehen, filmen. Sie schauen schon, aber sind nicht
so begeistert wie ein Amerikaner, der schnell mal rumschreit. Bei uns ist es eher so:
es ist cool, danke, ciao. Aber ich glaube schon, vor allem die Städter, finden es
schon cool.
• Openness toward the new
MP2: Der Amerikaner hat gewisse Themen, gegenüber welchen er überhaupt nicht
offen ist, denke ich mal. Ich war auch schon einige Male in Amerika und sie haben
halt schon einige Sachen wo sie ziemlich konservativ sind. Gerade bei
Waffengesetzen und so, sogar die Jungen, Studierten. Da glaube ich, ist der
Schweizer ein bisschen weltoffener. Da kann man besser über Sachen diskutierten
und man hört anderen lieber zu. Der Amerikaner hat seine Meinung und that is it,
empfinde ich so. Ich würde dem Schweizer eine 8-9 geben, der Amerikaner ist eher
so bei 5. Aber kommt ganz auf das Thema darauf an.
• Willingness to share information
MP2: Der Amerikaner macht das mehr als wir. Ich folge auch gewissen Start-ups
auf Instagram und die haben fast keine Klicks. Sie versuchen es schon auch, aber
die Bereitschaft Sachen zu sharen ist bei den Amerikanern schon höher. Er ist schon
entertainmentgeil und attraktionsgetrieben, wir finden Sachen vielleicht auch eher
für uns selber cool. Ich habe es zwar gesehen und finde es lässig, aber die
Bemühungen dies noch weiter zu sharen nehme ich beim Amerikaner stärker wahr,
als bei uns. Da denke ich, ist sogar der Deutsche noch näher am Amerikaner. Ich

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würde sagen 7-8 beim Amerikaner und 5-6 beim Schweizer. Nein, geben wir eine
4-5 beim Schweizer (lacht).
• Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
MP2: Tagesaktualität, was am Tag passiert ist, ist sicher auch mitentscheidend ob
eine Kampagne überhaupt aufgenommen wird. Wenn wir eine Guerilla Aktion
machen, haben wir auch unsere Reporter unterwegs, die Bilder machen und diese
dann an die Medien schicken. Das Ziel ist, dass so viel Leute wie möglich
kommunizieren und dies den Medien zuspielen, aber man kann es nie garantieren.
So plant man halt in diese Richtung und hat ein Team von fünf verschiedenen
Leuten, die den Inhalt zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten den Medien zukommen lassen,
sodass die Medien sehen, dass etwas läuft. Wenn du jetzt aber einen Tag erwischst,
an dem ein Krieg losgeht, hast du no chance. Dann ist es halt wieder überhaupt
nicht wichtig. Man muss das Ganze auch wieder ein bisschen relativieren, es ist
cool und lässig aber vom Weltgeschehen her nichts Spannendes. Es gibt natürlich
viele Faktoren, welche eine Rolle spielen, so auch das Produkt an und für sich. Wie
wird es schon vorher von der Gesellschaft wahrgenommen? Welchen Stellenwert
hat das Produkt, welches guerillamässig präsentiert wird bei der Gesellschaft? Zum
Beispiel dieses Ricardolino, welches später OLX hiess, hatte null Stellenwert. Der
Namenswechsel hat nicht verhindert, dass es nach einem halben Jahr oder Jahr
gecancelled wurde.

Bei Guerilla Marketing ist es häufig so, dass in dem Moment, in dem du die Aktion
umsetzt, nicht viele Leute die Aktion mitbekommen. Am Schluss ist es wichtig,
dass du es viral weitertragen kannst, ob über die Medien oder Facebook. Es ist auch
wichtig, dass du es mit andern Kampagnen koppeln kannst, es gehört zum gesamten
Tool-Mix. Ich empfehle auch immer, wenn man Guerilla macht, dass es nicht
eigenständig gemacht wird, das ist viel zu wenig. Du musst es weitertragen können.
Gerade heutzutage, wo du die ganze Zeit so viele impressions, eine riesige
Reizüberflutung, hast. Wir leben heute in einer Tradition von Werbung, wo man
schon auch merkt, dass man auf den Werbefranken oder auf das Produkt viel mehr
investieren muss, damit man am Schluss auch wieder rauskommt. Der Streuverlust
ist riesig, weil wir irgendwann auch sagen: ich mag nicht mehr, ich kann nicht mehr
aufnehmen. Das Überraschungsmoment, in dem Moment wo es die Leute sehen,

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muss sicher Bombe sein. Ich merke auch immer wieder, der Inhalt ist sehr
entscheidend. Was kommuniziert wird, wie es kommuniziert wird, es soll nicht
langweilig daherkommen und muss einen gewissen impact haben. Man will auch
eine gewisse Nachhaltigkeit schaffen, dass jemand der eine solche Aktion gesehen
hat, auch zum Kaufen animiert wird. Das ist sicher auch sehr entscheidend. Guerilla
geht schon mehr in Richtung awareness und Image durch die Darstellung von
etwas, wie zum Beispiel diese riesigen Nike Bälle in den Wänden oder die Bänke
bei denen sie die Sitzflächen weggenommen haben. Dabei geht es um ein Statement
der Marke und nicht darum, den Verkauf mega zu puschen. Es ist mehr um eine
Erinnerung im Gehirn zu setzen und sagen: für das stehe ich als Brand. Du kannst
nie die Masse erreichen, die sagt: jetzt gehe ich wirklich kaufen. Es geht eher in die

Q10: What distinguishes the Swiss culture in terms of attitude toward marketing
(e.g. from the American culture)?
MP2: Wenn du den Inhalt betrachtest, liebt der Amerikaner die Werbung schon
mehr. Ich glaube auch der Amerikaner, ich meine im amerikanischen TV-
Programm gibt es alle fünf Minuten Werbung, zelebriert Werbung mehr. Sie haben
auch Brands sehr, sehr gerne und machen sich ein Spektakel daraus. Wenn man
zum Beispiel die Werbung beim Football, Super Bowl nimmt, ist das ein riesiges
Highlight, im Gegensatz zu uns, wo es als störend empfunden wird. Die TV Boxen
von Swisscom und Co. gehen weg wie warme Semmel weil die Leute einfach keine
Werbung mehr sehen wollen. Ich gebe ihnen aber auch recht, unsere Werbung ist
nicht unterhaltsam. In Amerika hat man wieder dieses Entertainment-Ding und
surprise, so wird teilweise ein ganz klassischer Spot zum Highlight. Wir haben auch
Statuten und Gesetzgebungen, die das einschränken und so können wir bei dem
Ganzen nicht ein wenig ausflippen. Da kann man oftmals fast gar nichts machen,
was ein bisschen schade ist. Auch auf Grund dieser Überreglementierung, wird
Werbung oftmals auch schon fast als störend angesiedelt. Auch Werbeanrufe und
Hausbesuche sind bei uns schon fast verpönt, in Amerika funktioniert das noch
besser. Generell denke ich sind sie offener gegenüber Werbung und wollen zuerst
mal hinhören, vielleicht ist es ja etwas das ihnen passt. Bei uns ist es zuerst mal ein
nein und du musst versuchen über die Hintertür mit den Leuten darüber zu sprechen
und an sie ranzukommen, was es relativ schwierig macht.

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Q11: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in

Switzerland/US to brand themselves?
MP2: Es ist lustig, bis vor kurzem haben Aussenplakate in der Schweiz immer noch
einen steigenden Wert gehabt. Rund um uns herum, ist das alles im Sinkflug. Bei
uns ist es irgendwie immer noch ein Highlight. Man merkt es auch ein bisschen mit
den Guerilla Aktionen, wir haben die klassischen Tools, die ATL und BTL Tools,
die man einfach standardmässig macht. In Amerika, das merkt man schon mehr,
versuchen sie einfach alles. Sie sind bereit, neue Wege zu gehen und zu investieren
und zu machen und zu tun. Wir machen einfach copy and paste wenn es gut
geklappt hat. Wie dieses programmatic advertising, wo dort schon seit Jahren
gemacht wird und bei uns im letzten Sommer mal angefangen hat. Ich glaube, in
Amerika sind sie auch mehr bereit, für etwas mehr zu bezahlen, weil es einfach mal
etwas Neues ist. Sie haben natürlich auch einen viel grösseren Druck. Wir sagen
schon, dass wir viel Konkurrenz haben, aber dort ist es nochmals eine ganz andere
Liga. Da muss man ausbrechen und etwas Neues schaffen. Wir haben unsere Big
Brands und denen geht es gut, wir haben also nicht diese Not, sage ich einmal. Es
ist gut und läuft, natürlich kann es immer besser laufen aber wir sind mit unseren
Tools präsent in den Köpfen.

Der Schweizer ist auch sehr markentreu im Gegensatz zum Amerikaner. Der
Amerikaner probiert gerne mal aus, der Schweizer ist entweder ein Migroskind oder
ein Coopkind, man entscheidet sich schon so früh was man ist. Aber ich glaube, da
ist auch wieder ein Generationenwechsel. Die Jungen möchten auch gerne
ausprobieren. Das merkt man bei der Generation 16-20, die einfach mal das
Sortiment durchprobieren wollen. Vielleicht sind wir Schweizer auch schneller im
uns finden und definieren uns als Volkswagen- oder Daccia-Fahrer. Bei den
Amerikanern ist es immer ein Wandel, von GM zu VW und wieder zurück, viel
schneller als bei uns. In der Schweiz ist es auch sehr schwierig, jemanden von einem
Brand abzuwerben. Man muss viel machen, ihn umwerben und schon fast heiraten
damit man ihn bekommt. Man muss viel machen, dass er sich auf dieses Abenteuer
einlässt und dann muss man rocken. Wenn du dann nicht rockst, hast du sowieso
verloren. Da merkt man schon ein bisschen die Markentreue. Auch die top zehn der

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treusten Brands der Schweiz sind immer die gleichen, sie wechseln nur die

Q12: From 1-10, how would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for
the following four examples:
• Ambush marketing
MP2: (...) Ich habe mir mal eine 5-6 aufgeschrieben. Es kommt sicherlich immer
auch auf die Welt drauf an, aber es geht häufig ein wenig in diese Me-too-Produkte
rein. Wir machen das gleiche einfach unter einem anderen Namen, das läuft häufig
gut. Für mich geht es ein bisschen in diese Richtung, natürlich ohne den Kontext,
dass ein Event im Vordergrund steht. Ich könnte mir schon vorstellen, dass es nicht
schlecht läuft. An der WM oder EM haben wir für Schützengarten, als Carlsberg
Nr. 1 war, bei den Public Viewings ein bisschen mitgehyped und das funktionierte
nicht schlecht, was mich überraschte. Bei speziellen Kampagnen ist es natürlich
immer wichtig, dass es schnell verstanden wird. Man muss es sehen und gerade
drauskommen. Aber ich glaube, in der Schweiz wurde Ambush Marketing noch nie
so stark dargestellt.
• Ambient marketing
MP2: Beim Ambient Marketing ist man sehr konzentriert und beim Sensation
Marketing ist man schon etwas breiter und versucht etwas zu schaffen. Hier
(Ambient Marketing) liegt der Fokus qualitativ wirklich bei der Zielgruppe,
Ambient ist sehr, sehr nahe. Ich kenne die Umsetzung vor allem von unseren
Buchungen und die sind in den letzten Jahren wieder sehr angestiegen. Das hat auch
mit dem Erfolg zu tun, viele nehmen es jedes Jahr wieder in ihr Portfolio von ihren
Werbekampagnen. Sagen wir mal 7 bis 8, 9. Aber auch hier ist der Inhalt sehr
entscheidend. Man kann einen TV-Spot machen, der wie eine Bombe einschlägt,
oder Plakate, wie Ali Hebab, welche polarisieren, aber auch solche die keiner cool
findet. Ambient Marketing ist schon etwas, dass von nationalen und internationalen
Unternehmen oft gebraucht wird, also so um eine 8 herum. Die Botschaft muss
kurz, knackig und prägnant sein, soll kein wischiwaschi enthalten. Alles andere ist
Verwässerung von der Botschaft. Auch mit der Wortwahl soll man sich abheben.
Zuerst soll man sich aber überlegen, was will man kommunizieren und nicht einfach
tausend Sachen auf das Plakat klatschen. Damit überfordert man die Leute völlig.
• Sensation marketing

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MP2: Das ist cool. Ich würde es ähnlich wie Ambient bewerten, geht aber ein
bisschen mehr Richtung Guerilla im klassischen Sinn. Man kann, für die Art und
Weise wie es weiterverbreitet wird, natürlich auch bestehende Kanäle nutzen. Ich
finde, um Aufmerksamkeit zu generieren, ist es ein super Tool. Die Leute, die im
Umfeld einer solchen Aktion sind, sind gerade Feuer und Flamme wenn der Inhalt
auch stimmt. Wie bei unserem Peugeot Beispiel, als wir Schlüssel in Eisblöcke
eingefroren haben, waren die Leute so fasziniert, dass sie sich diese halbe Stunde
Zeit genommen haben und sogar Werkzeug kaufen gingen. Die Interaktion mit
Konsumenten ist wichtig.
• Viral marketing
MP2: Die Chance auf Erfolg würde ich auch mit 8 bewerten. Die Gewichtigkeit
der Botschaft ist sicher auch entscheidend bei solchen Aktionen. Sagen wir mal, bei
uns ist die Challenge, dass wir drei Sprachen haben. So etwas hier aufzugleisen ist
immer viel teurer, als wenn man es von Deutschland oder Amerika aus plant. Weil
den Deutschen interessiert es nicht gross, was in der Schweiz passiert, sage ich
einmal. Die Schweiz ist einfach zu klein und solche Sachen leben von wo sie
kommen. Auch Amerika ist viel grösser und der Drang es zu vermitteln ist auch
grösser. Auch Snapchat und all diese Apps kommen von dort, auch wenn von uns
oftmals die Technologie kommt. Ich glaube, wir können das auch aber es ist einfach
ein bisschen schwieriger, weil wir auf viel mehr Sachen schauen. Oftmals glaube
ich auch, machen wir uns viel zu viele Gedanken. Wie bei unserer Guerilla Aktion
mit der Pille danach, die Journalistin, welche das nachher aufgefasst hat, hatte das
Gefühl, wir wollen die Frauen dazu animieren die Pille zu nehmen. Das stimmte
aber gar nicht, es war eine Aufklärungskampagne. Weil die Journalistin das so
kommuniziert hat, gab es auch kein Zündfeuer und man konnte über das Thema
nicht diskutieren. Ein guter Journalist, der das Thema dementsprechend hyped ist
hier sehr wichtig. Das Thema muss einfach auch ein bisschen polarisieren, damit es
funktioniert, was bei uns seltener ist.

Wie gesagt, vieles ist sehr inhaltsabhängig, was ist die Botschaft und wie wird sie
vermittelt? Manchmal sollte man auch einfach weniger Ängste haben und einfach
mal machen. Natürlich sollten dadurch keine Gruppierungen angegriffen werden,
aber das ist normaler Menschenverstand. Sonst feel free, die Hauptsache ist, dass
du die Leute positiv unterhalten tust. Im Vergleich zu Amerika, sind wir aber

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vielleicht einfach auch zu klein und denken schnell, dass es sowieso niemanden
interessiert, wenn wir etwas machen. Dieses kleinere Denken, so ist die Schweiz
schon immer ein wenig gewesen, die Insel in Europa die mehr auch für sich ist. Der
Amerikaner prahlt schon mehr und zeigt was er hat. In der Werbung muss das halt
auch so sein, da sind wir wieder zu scheu in unserem überregulierten Land.

Q13: What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?

MP2: Meines Erachtens ist ein lifestyle brand, etwas, dass ein gewisses Statement
darstellt, eine gewisse attitude und auch das Selbstbewusstsein fördert, wenn man
sich damit schmückt. Insgeheim schlägt er ein bisschen auf die Psychologie an und
vermittelt ein besseres Gefühl. Man könnte von allem einen no name Brand
nehmen, es muss nicht Carhartt oder Nike draufstehen, aber solche Brands haben
etwas aufgebaut, das total in die Psychologie geht. Es gibt dir auch eine gewisse
Wertigkeit als Mensch, wenn du es trägst. Sie haben sich das zu Nutzen genommen
und haben sich dementsprechend integriert.

Q14: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by lifestyle brands?

MP2: Wir haben eine existierende Anzahl Instrumente die es gibt und viele
brauchen oftmals das Gleiche. Ich glaube einfach, sie heben sich inhaltlich ab. Oder
(...), sie schaffen einfach auf einer viel psychologischeren Ebene als andere Brands.
Sie hinterfragen den Grund, wieso die Marke gekauft wird. Gerade bei Lebensmittel
sind die Produkte sehr auswechselbar. Autospots sind auch immer gleich aufgebaut
und vermitteln ähnliche Inhalte, aber trotzdem hat Audi vor ein paar Jahren den
Sprung an die Spitze geschafft. Sie waren mal fast in Vergessenheit geraten, aber
dann haben sie ein Facelifting gemacht und sich neu positioniert. Die Tools waren
ähnlich, man hat klassische Medien und soziale Medien gebraucht, aber der Inhalt
in diesem Sinne hat sich enorm gesteigert. Es braucht ein gutes Produkt, welches
auch hält was es verspricht. Nehmen wir Nestlé, die jedes Jahr Millionen in den
Markt buttern und trotzdem Kunden verlieren, weil einfach niemand mehr Nestlé
unterstützen will. Man vermeidet sie einfach, auf Grund all den Geschichten mit
den Wasserquellen und so, die rausgekommen sind. Sie wurden in den Augen der
Leute zu einer skrupellosen Unternehmung, also bei den Leuten die sich Gedanken
darübermachen, gerade hier in der Schweiz. Darum verlieren sie in diesen Ländern

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auch permanent Marktanteil. Nestlé hat es jetzt schwierig, weil sie als eine solche
Unternehmung angeschaut werden.

Q15: In your opinion, what are crucial skills a company has to possess for
successful guerrilla marketing?
MP2: Ich denke sicher, es braucht Mut um anders zu sein. Man sollte auch keinen
falschen Stolz für diesen fun factor haben. Man muss seinen eigenen Brand lieben.
Wenn du deinen Brand nicht liebst, wie sollen ihn die anderen lieben? Es ist schon
fast wie bei sich selber, wenn man sich selber nicht gerne hat, wie sollen einen
andere gerne haben? Ich glaube, diese Zelebrieren merkt man vor allem bei der
neuen Generation, welche am kommen ist mit diesem “Hipstertum“. Der Burger ist
nicht mehr nur ein Burger, jetzt kommt er mit Avocado und allem und wir zelebriert
und die Leute lieben es, weil du es eben auch liebst und es liebevoll darstellst. Ich
glaube, diese Skills waren immer in uns, wir haben sie einfach vergessen in der
Gier. Gier macht viel kaputt. Gerade auch am Anfang bei Unternehmungen, die
sagen, ich will nur noch Profit. Unternehmen, die Liebe zum Detail und Produkt
gezielt einsetzten, werden längerfristig auch davon profitieren. Grössere
Unternehmen wie P&G müssen viel mehr machen, um wieder dahin zu kommen,
wo sie mal waren. Die müssen Millionen reinstreuen, damit es funktioniert. In
Deutschland gibt es eine Burgerbude, die nur Facebook Werbung macht, aber
extrem erfolgreich ist und jetzt eine Kette eröffnet. Er hat einfach gesagt, mein
Burger ist mein Baby und wird dementsprechend zelebriert. Seine Bilder sind sehr
stark und authentisch. Ich glaube, authentisch muss man auch sein. Diese
Marketingskills sind learning by doing, wenn mal man beginnt weiss man schnell
welche Möglichkeiten es auf dem Markt gibt. Man muss sich in diesem Markt auch
immer wieder selber neu erfinden und sich selber neu definieren. Man soll es mal
so machen aber dann auch wieder ganz anders. Man soll sich innerhalb des Kanales
neu erfinden, wie Calanda, die ein Plakat inwendig mit Kühlelementen bestückt
haben, damit das Plakat einfror. Man soll in seinem Kanal rocken und etwas Neues
machen. Das geht auch wieder in die Richtung den Mut und Willen zu haben, anders
zu sein. Mit diesen zwei Elementen, kann man sehr erfolgreiche Kampagnen

Q16: Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?

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MP2: Im Endeffekt darf niemand beleidigt werden. Ich finde es auch nicht
schlimm, wenn man den Fussgängerstreifen bemalt, wie die FDP bei den Wahlen
in Bern, solange niemand verletzt wird. Die FDP kam dann auch im 20 Minuten
und bekam eine kleine Busse. Aber ich finde das super, es soll einfach unterhaltsam
sein und glücklich machen. Beleidigungen hingegen hat niemand gerne und bringen
einem auch nichts. Schlussendlich sind wir ein Team auf dieser Welt und es wäre
schade, wenn Marken dazu aufrufen, sich gegenseitig zu “dissen“. Eher sollte man
unsere multikulturelle Welt fördern.

Q17: If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a
guerrilla marketing campaign, which tools would you use and what are the
most important factors you would consider?
MP2: Sicher der Faktor, dass du von den Tagesmedien aufgenommen wirst. Dass
du etwas entwickelst, wo es wert ist, darüber zu berichten, auch nachhaltig. Auf der
einen Seite hat man die Aktion, welche cool, lässig ist und so noch nie gesehen
wurde; und auf der anderen Seite muss man versuchen eine gewisse Nachhaltigkeit
in dieser Guerilla Aktion zu sehen. Die Medien sollen einen Bericht über die Aktion
machen und die Menschen dahinter kennenlernen wollen. Sie sollen sich fragen,
was ist das für eine Firma die dahintersteckt? Auf Grund von Analysen der
Zielgruppe und den Geschehnissen, kann man etwas in diese Richtung entwickeln
und das Potenzial ausschöpfen. Klar, kann man es aber niemals garantieren. Bei uns
ist es auch wichtig, dass man mit gewissen Influencern zusammenarbeitet, gerade
im Bereich Social Media, wo wir nicht so starke Gruppen haben. Wenn ein Roger
Federer etwas postet, sind wieder alle begeistert. Er ist ein starker Charakter, der
viel Vertrauen ausspricht und die Leute haben ihn gerne. Vielleicht kann man etwas
in diese Richtung integrieren. Sunrise hat ihren Turnaround sicher auch wegen
Roger Federer geschafft, was Salt nicht geschafft hat, obwohl sie noch mehr in
Werbung investiert haben. Sie haben recht viele Kunden eingebüsst, klar geht man
bei einem Rebranding auch davon aus. Aber Sunrise hat sich mit Federer ein
Gesicht gegeben und mit bekannten Gesichtern kann man viel rausholen. Influencer
darf man sicher nicht unterschätzen.

Aber bei uns, wenn die Tagesmedien darauf aufmerksam werden, bringt es schon
recht viel. Man hat einen enormen traffic auf 20 Minuten oder Blick und somit hat

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man schon mal zwei Plattformen, die einen mega puschen können. Optimalerweise
hast du dann noch ein paar Influencer auf sozialen Medien. In der Schweiz bist du
schnell am Peak angelangt, aber das ist auch egal, man will auch nur die Schweiz
erreichen. Natürlich ist es cool, wenn die Kampagne bis nach Kambodscha oder so
geht, aber schlussendlich soll der Schweizer Markt kaufen, alles andere ist einfach
nice to have und nicht relevant für dich.

Eine Guerilla Marketing Aktion ist häufig ein Auslöser für kommende
Interaktionen von Werbemedien. Viele Aktionen werden durch andere Kanäle
weitergeleitet, wie Plakate, Flyer, Inserate, Online Pages und so weiter. So versucht
man den Wiedererkennungswert mitzunehmen.

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8.8.9 Expert Interview Protocol MP3

Date: 21th of April 2017

The current CEO of a Swiss premium service platform has extensive experience in the
area of marketing and sales. He had been working for several companies in the
corresponding department, before starting at Nike in a sales position. He then internally
changed to product marketing and was involved in many campaigns, some of them in the
field of guerrilla marketing. He left Nike to found an own business in the Swiss luxury
industry where he could successfully establish himself. He not only is an expert in
marketing but also in the area of lifestyle, because he made it to his everyday business.

Q1: Which marketing campaigns have been especially successful during the last
MP3: That is a tough one. I think the campaign that impressed me the most is
probably one form Nike in which we were also involved in. Because it was so new
at that time. It was the campaign with the Brazilian soccer players at the airport, I
really loved that one. It depends on how you measure success but it was probably
one of the most successful campaigns of Nike because it changed the way the people
looked at football. Before it was a sport and then it became a lifestyle. (…)
Everything was there and you had it viral at that time, people talked about it, you had
some music that became trendy afterwards, so there are all kinds of elements that
were embraced in that campaign. It changed the way people were looking at the sport.
Before it was big, hardcore guys playing soccer and the campaign brought something
entirely new to it, it was delight, the fun factor, it was the game again.

Q2: Which companies are (internationally) known for successful guerrilla

marketing activities?
MP3: Nike again, because I was involved but apart from that spontaneously nothing

Q3: What are the most important contextual preconditions for a successful
guerrilla marketing campaign?
MP3: Again, it depends on how we define success: is it awareness, is it sales, is it
brand value, I do not know. I give you an example of a campaign we did at Nike.

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Whether it is a success or not you might want to judge but it was very unconventional.
Nike tried to buy themselves into Bayern Munich with lots of money, ten times more
than Adidas was able and willing to pay. The head of Adidas at that time was good
friends with Franz Beckenbauer, the former president, and they made kind of a
gentleman’s agreement that Nike would not be able to buy into Bayern, although they
were willing to pay a lot more. At Nike, we decided to bomb them with guerrilla
marketing. Nike Germany owned a Hummer, this big car, which they were using for
events. We painted it yellow with a big black swoosh on the side. About three or four
hours before the match Bayern against Dortmund in the Munich arena, we drove the
car to the front of the main entrance and we said we had to deliver products for the
game. They did not allow us to drive inside and said we have to leave. While we were
talking to the security people, we took out the Zündkerzen (engl. spark plugs) of the
car, so that it would not start. Because it is so big and so heavy you cannot easily tow
it away. So, we had this huge car just in front of the main entrance where everybody
had to walk by and it got picked up by the media.

Now, back to your question, is there a cultural link to this? Would that be accepted
in Switzerland or was it in Germany? No, it was not. But somehow the nature of
guerrilla marketing is to crash these boundaries, even on purpose. I think to the
question of your work, if there is a cultural context: yes of course there is but it
depends on your goal. Maybe if you are a kickass company like Nike used to be, you
do not have to care. The aim of guerrilla marketing can just be to crash this cultural
context. I mean if the private bank UBS for instance that goes after trust, which is
even represented in their key symbol, went for such a campaign, it would not be in
line with their values. I would say depending on what the value of your brand is, you
need to attach this into the guerrilla campaign that you are focusing on.

Q4: What are context-factors that hinder guerrilla marketing from being
Refer to the answer of Q3

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Q5: How does the popularity of guerrilla marketing (in Switzerland) vary with the
company size?
MP3: Apple is a big company and I would give Apple a guerrilla marketing
campaign. Because they are about invention, about rule-breaking, about individuals,
so why not. I would not give that a private bank or an insurance company. Since they
are dependent on the trust of people, they need to be in line with cultural expectations.
Them being rule breakers would not fit. In their guerrilla marketing campaigns, they
could still do unusual things but it would need to be in the context of their brand
values. I think large brands have higher expectations of their brand value. So, there
might be a link (between size and guerrilla marketing) but I would not say that is the
defining point of a guerrilla marketing campaign.

Q6: How much potential does Switzerland offer in terms of guerrilla marketing
(different regional potentials)?
Refer to the answer of Q3

Q7: How would you characterize the Swiss culture (compared to the American
MP3: I do not know too much about Americans. But the normal Swiss person does
not exist, but the expectation of a normal Swiss person would be something that we
see in a Ricola advertisement. A kind of understatement, not very extravagant,
reliable, on time, clean – I think these are the values that you are playing with.

Q8: Do the most predominant characteristics of Swiss culture/mentality differ

among the four language regions?
MP3: It is a bit difficult because I am German but I have been living here now for
15 or more years and I personally would differentiate. As Premium Switzerland 28, I
do not differentiate between the regions for us a Swiss is a Swiss, although I know
that there are differences between the cities. But we still market in the same way for
all Swiss people.

28 In agreement with the interviewee the brand is mentioned

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Q9: From 1-10, how would you rate Swiss and American: (Please indicate if there
are regional differences)
• Attitude toward the unexpected
MP3: 2 (Switzerland).
• Openness toward the new
MP3: 3 (Switzerland).
• Willingness to share information
MP3: Rural regions are sharing with a small group only; so, they are very unlikely
to share. Cities are more open to share. 2 for rural, 7 for cities across all ages
• Is there another element that you would consider as important that
influences guerrilla marketing?
MP3: Personally, I think that the key to success, at least of the viral campaigns or
guerrilla campaigns that I know for being successful, is to draw attention. With the
10’000 influences that you have every day, this one has to stick out by far. To an
extent that I feel it is worth to share at one point. (…) Somehow, unconventional
hits it. Surprising, unexpected, shocking to a certain extent can all be summarized
in unconventional. What I really like on the other side is the tradition of the 1 st of
April in Switzerland. The newspapers come up with these April jokes, which is to
a certain extent also comparable to guerrilla marketing. They always have things
that seem to be true. I think this could be a quality of guerrilla marketing as well if
you are looking for another dimension. Is it true or is it not? I got hung up ones. In
Rüschlikon, we have this wonderful Badi. Everyone in my village loves it. At one
point, it was written in the newspaper that they were going to take it down and build
a ferry station. We were sharing this like hell and we were talking together a lot.
So, another dimension could be, is that true or false? And another one, am I
connected to that?

Q10: What distinguishes the Swiss culture in terms of attitude toward marketing
(e.g. from the American culture)?
MP3: (…) It is tough to say. But I would say it is annoying, who likes advertising?
Q11: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by companies in
Switzerland/US to brand themselves?

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MP3: (unsure how to answer) We are only online. We are obnoxious. This is
because we are building a brand. When you visit our website, you might end up
being chased by us for three or four weeks. We place banners everywhere you go
on the internet. Personally, we try to hammer our brand into your mind and we are
focusing on that. We do not want to be nice, we just want you to remember us. For
us, it is super good, because we are not a well-known brand. It is different for Apple
or for IWC. But we are not known, so we go to Google and say chase this guy.
Google will show adverts all the time and it does not cost us anything, only when
they click. We have, I would say a good ten more touchpoints with you. For us it is
an important tool. Unconsciously, you may have this stored somewhere and the
next touching point of with our brand might be the success. We are looking for
touchpoints all the time.

Q12: From 1-10, how would you rate the potential for success in Switzerland for
the following four examples:
• Ambush marketing
MP3: I mean that is basically a sort of product placement. Especially, in the context
of sports, this has one of the highest values. You can weaken a sponsor, just as we
did (Nike Hummer example). I would say, 9-10, very high.
• Ambient marketing
MP3: (really excited) That is super, it is so unexpected. I could see something like
the coffee stuff for us in combination with wellness holidays. I also would rate this
high, it is really cool.
• Sensation marketing
MP3: Here again, you see this is rule-breaking. This might be one of the success
factors of a good campaign; breaking the rules. Maybe for your work you can
analyze this a bit deeper, whether someone who has an image as a rule breaker,
such as Mini, has more successful guerrilla marketing campaigns than companies
that do not have this kickass value in their brand value.

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• Viral marketing
MP3: Same here, it is a big surprise, it is totally unexpected, it is fun and it is
positive. You should look into different ways of measuring success of a guerrilla
campaign. I personally would be interested in that as well, because I know for
instance, one of the most successful beer commercials is the one of Kronbacher,
which is just a commercial of this lake and a forest. It is super boring and all they
say is: pure nature, pure beer, or something like that. It is more or less always the
same, no big changes over the years. Whereas Heineken does many funny things
every year. However, they (Kronbacher) have the best sales figures. Now, is it the
beer? I do not know. But I have read that a lot of beer consumers love this advert,
although it is not spectacular and boring but sales figures are really good on that
one. Because people might just look for purity and calmness and associate this with
the beer. Maybe it is also the sales point, I have no idea. This is difficult to measure

Looking at WestJet, it is good to be in the consumers’ mind, it is good to be known

but here I would question the outcome, because what does this (WestJet campaign)
have to do with buying flights? It is good to be known and to have a positive image
but does that turn into bookings? To me, if I would have been the marketing
manager, I would have thought about how can I tie this into flying. It is good to
give a way presents, but maybe rather than putting it on a Gepäckband (engl.
baggage carousel) it would have been nice to deliver it with a helicopter, a drone or
something. Something that is more related to flying. To me this is a great campaign,
it is cool and fun, but does it translate into bookings? It is different for the car (Mini
sensation marketing example). When I am considering myself a young, crazy
person, this ties in into the image of myself. I want to be a crazy guy and drive a
Mini. But here with WestJet, where is the link?

Q13: What is the difference between a lifestyle and a “normal” brand?

MP3: I am in the process of buying a new car, a BMW i3. Why? Because
sustainability is an important point for me. I am identifying myself a lot with this
purchase because I want to be a good person, I do not want to pollute the
environment, so there is a lot of me in this purchase. The concept of a lifestyle
approach can apply to all, fast- and slow-moving consumer goods. Like chewing

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gums, something I would consider as fast consumer good. I buy these that are good
for the teeth so there is a lifestyle approach in it because I want to live healthy.

Q14: Which marketing instruments are commonly used by lifestyle brands?

MP3: Lifestyle somehow incorporates the value of a specific consumer. In this
sense, a lifestyle brand is something kind of modern, up-to-date. There are
automatically some values built in. (…) I would say they are trending, not trendy,
somehow following a specific trend. Now, whatever the trend is, it could be
sustainability or craziness, there are automatically some values built in. Depending
on the trend, most of the values are emotional. I would say one should incorporate
these emotional values into a campaign.

Q15: In your opinion, what are crucial skills a company has to possess for
successful guerrilla marketing?
MP3: First, you need to be aware of your values. Then you need to think about how
can I incorporate these values into a campaign, yet still being somehow creative.
Creativity is the key. Then, as we defined, it needs to be surprising. Again, the key
element is a mix between understanding the own brand values and being surprising
without hurting the brand values.

Q16: Where do you see the limits in the application of guerrilla marketing?
MP3: The limit is the brand value. One of our clients is the CEO of a big watch
company from the Richmond Group. He always says: the only thing that matters to
me is the brand value. As a watch maker, I am selling just the brand value, the watch
itself is useless. We are actually doing a campaign now with IWC and we will bring
them into our book in some sort of guerrilla marketing, but only with design
elements. You will not see IWC but you will recognize them. They are tying into
our brand, they like the premium aspect and the Swissness.

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Q17: If you had a lifestyle brand here in Switzerland and you want to launch a
guerrilla marketing campaign, which tools would you use and what are the
most important factors you would consider?
MP3: We do not to guerrilla campaigns as such. What we are doing is that
whenever we have something that is culturally on the edge in Switzerland and I
have enough resources to spot it, we will launch a small campaign, mostly PR-
driven. For instance, when we had the Burkaverbot in Tessin we launched a
campaign for Halal-tourism. We knew it was in the media and that it was going to
be picked up and that drew attention to us. All of a sudden I was in SRF1 and 10
vor 10. Or one or two Christmas ago, the Sheik of Qatar broke his hip and they flew
in at night. They breached the Nachtflugverbot. They came in with two big
Boeing’s, landed at night and had an emergency surgery. Everybody was like: why
can the Sheik breach this Verbot? And that is what we do. Whenever there are social
discussions in the society it is a value-breaking thing. In Switzerland, you are not
supposed to be extravagant or make exceptions, everybody should somehow be the
same. But the Sheik flew in and did not care about the rules and Switzerland allowed
him to. There was some energy in the discussion and this is where we tap in.
Because we do not have enough resources to do big things, apart from the
interesting things that you showed which are really cool. We really do the approach
that whenever we feel something energetic, like when Trump was putting the
Muslim ban for the first time, we tap in. This is what we do for guerrilla marketing,
whenever we spot this cultural discussion, we tap in with something unexpected.

It can happen that a negative buzz is created but that is something that you just have
to take. I am pretty often in the media because some media people have me as an
expert for health or Muslim things. One thing was about health tourism and I made
an interview for Tagesanzeiger. Our business is kind of strange, because people
come in and spend thousands for a suit, jewelry and so on and I said: I think it is
really cool for Switzerland that people come here and spend so much money. People
were discussing it in the chat and personally attacked me, saying really tough stuff
because they feel that all the money is corrupted and they (the clients) are all
gangsters. Well, to a certain extent it is true. But I have a bit more of a Samariter-
approach and I say: it is good that they spend it at least. If they steel it from
somewhere it is good that they spend it. Better than just being on some kind of bank

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account. Not that I think that it is good what they are doing, I do not like the fact
that some royal families suppress people, not at all, but we take the money and
spread it. It is very controversial and that is always the downside. If you shock, if
you open the oppose against something, then you get the pressure but also visibility.

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8.9 Structuring Content Analysis

(Developed by Mayring, 2014, p. 96)

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8.10 Category System

Successively, coding rules and anchor examples of each subcategory which have been
derived from the interviews, are illustrated. Anchor examples of interviews held in
English could be marked as direct quotations. Statements of interviews that were held in
German or Swiss German had to be translated and are presented in the form of
paraphrases. A studies English/German translator checked the translations in order to be
as close to the original message as possible.

8.10.1 Swiss Attitude toward Marketing

Coding guideline: Statements that directly concern the attitude of people from the Swiss
culture toward marketing in any form.

Partner Question Anchor Example

C1 Q4 “This is a generation question”
“We are bored with advertisements, unless it is something
C2 Q5
that we are interested in”
It is a question of which segment and which part of
the population one considers

I think by tendency it is rather considered as disturbing

MA1 Q10
Generally, one has to say that because of the flood of
advertising messages, people long for ad-free spaces

If it is smartly done, the benefit is also seen

Swiss like well-done advertisements, but they do not want
constantly be over-flooded
MA2 Q10
Online advertisements are more often ignored and
perceived as disturbing
“There is a tendency toward information overflow and too
many advertising messages in both countries but the
MA3 Q10
attitude toward advertising is more positive in the US than
in Switzerland”
MA4 Q10 I think that there is a general oversaturation of advertising
For many, advertising probably is a necessary evil; one
MP1 Q10 accepts that it exists and that it has to exist because
otherwise no products could be offered
Because of our over-regulation, advertising often is
MP2 Q10
perceived as disturbing

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8.10.2 Favorable Preconditions for Guerilla Marketing

Coding guideline: Propositions that indicate a favorable contextual environment for the
execution of a guerilla marketing action.

Partner Question Anchor Example

“Guerilla marketing needs an audience that is not risk-
averse and loves to be surprised”

C1 Q9 “Other supportive factors are spontaneity, curiosity, not

being shy, openness toward new ideas, not being so
conservative, love being surprised which is the opposite
of conservative and feeling comfortable to act in public”
“The culture is not against guerilla marketing”
C2 Q9
“So, I think it depends on the product”
Basically, it needs a certain openness toward modern
MA1 Q3
methods and modern activities
MA2 Q3 Culturally, a certain openness needs to exist
Q3 “…the culture should be open to rule-breaking”
Q4 “I think it can work everywhere”
Openness toward the new because it works a lot with
MA4 It also needs a certain kind of humor
The maturity level of a country, I think, is also one of
these factors
People which are addressed need to have a certain
There is a thin line, especially with topics such as religion
or politics it can change quickly
Surely openness toward a topic and a general open mind
for things that one did not know before
MP2 Maybe also a certain curiosity
Wrong pride respectively people that would never make a
Q4 joke about themselves build no optimal basis, there it
does not work
“The aim of guerilla marketing can just be to crash this
MP3 Q3
cultural context”

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8.10.3 Swiss Characterization

Coding guideline: Statements that refer to general characterizations of the Swiss
population as well as regional similarities and differences of the Swiss culture.

Partner Question Anchor Example

“The first thing that comes to my mind is that Swiss
people are much more risk-averse”
C1 “There are fields where Swiss people are innovative…”
“Swiss identity is a conceptual identity in the sense that it
is an idea or a vision”
“When we characterize something we always generalize
and generalizations are not the truth for everyone but it is
a start”

C2 Q1 “The quality is more important than the other


“…his vision of the quality is closed, limited and not

There are too many mindsets and segments in order to
MA1 Q8
identify THE Swiss or THE American
We like our dialects, our particularities, our diversities
and like to distance ourselves from others
MA2 Our history has shaped us and we like our Swissness
There are regional differences, also because of the
language, which have to be considered

Q7 “Swiss are a lot more timid than Americans are…”

“Virtually, any topic that we research, shows large
MA3 differences between the different regions in Switzerland”
“I would expect that there are large differences, we find
that in many aspects”
It depends if it is a German Swiss, a French Swiss or an
Italian Swiss
MA4 Q7
I would say that Switzerland is a very bustling nation
The Swiss characterize themselves through critically
Q7 questioning things and it certainly takes longer to
MP1 convince them
Q8 Each region is influenced by its language
I believe that the American sometimes has many
MP2 Q7 analogies with the Swiss

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We both have a certain pride

I believe that there is an underlying generation conflict

Q7 “…the normal Swiss person does not exist…”
MP3 “But we still market in the same way for all Swiss

8.10.4 The Potential of Guerilla Marketing in Switzerland

Coding guideline: Assessments of the potential for success of guerrilla marketing in
Switzerland and indications of regions with the greatest/lowest potential.

Partner Question Anchor Example

“So, I think yes there is, but one should take into
C2 Q4 consideration these elements: that it is not for every
industry, not for every age and not for every channel”
MA1 Q6 If you have a creative enterprise, I believe it works
MA2 Q6 Cities are by tendency more suitable
“The greatest potential is where there is a strong social
media culture of gossiping and sharing”
MA3 Q6
“The problem for guerilla marketing in Switzerland is that
it is not a large market and it is connected to large media
MA4 Q6 Is it depending on the location?
I think Switzerland is rather critical

MP1 Q6 Swiss question it for sure

Rural people are more conservative than urban people

In the city you have more advocates than on the
MP2 Q6
countryside, where a very traditional mindset exists

8.10.5 Definition Lifestyle Brand

Coding guideline: Definitions that directly correlate to the concept of lifestyle brands.

Partner Question Anchor Example

“When an entire lifestyle is embedded in the brand, it
becomes a lifestyle brand“
C1 Q13
“It can mirror…, dimensions of who you are”
“It is something that you use because it is either your
C2 Q13
lifestyle or you want to change to another lifestyle”
MA1 Q13 A brand that establishes a world in the minds of people

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A lifestyle brand currently suits the target group, is a

temporary fashion and eventually disappears again
MA2 Q13
The product does not necessarily have to be better but sell
a certain attitude
Things that underline which lifestyle I live
MA4 Q13
It connects the brand with my sense of life
To define oneself as a lifestyle brand, one has to be very
MP1 Q14
close to the current zeitgeist
A lifestyle brand is something that conveys a certain
MP2 Q13
statement, a certain attitude and enhances self-esteem
“The concept of a lifestyle approach can apply to all, fast-
MP3 Q13
and slow-moving consumer goods”

8.10.6 Marketing Instruments of Lifestyle Brands

Coding guideline: Predications which concern the way of marketing of lifestyle brands.

Partner Question Anchor Example

“It depends on the product…”
C2 Q14
“You have to bring the proof that this will satisfy your
An essential element is holistic and integrated marketing,
so that everything fits together
MA1 Q14
The effect of this holism is a community and a fanbase
It depends on the brands
MA2 Q14
Smaller labels use scene bloggers and online marketing
Here the emotional component plays an important role

One has to be emotionally addressed and supported

MA4 Q14
Communication has to happen more on an emotional and
less on a cognitive level

I believe all marketing instruments can be applied

Generally, they do not have to market themselves
MP1 Q14
They simply work on a more psychological level than
other brands
MP2 Q14
One used traditional instruments as well as social media

I believe they differentiate themselves on a content basis

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“Lifestyle somehow incorporates the value of a specific

MP3 Q14
“I would say one should incorporate these emotional
values into a campaign”

8.10.7 The Influence of Company Size on Guerilla Marketing

Coding guideline: Opinions about the influence of company size on guerilla marketing
and suggestions of the most suitable ones respectively the ones that can profit the most.

Partner Question Anchor Example

“Smaller companies that need attention might be in more
C1 Q11
need for guerilla marketing”
I think creativity and the decision paths play a role
MA1 Q5
Smaller companies by tendency dare more than larger
Big companies have by tendency more money available
MA2 Q5
and can afford such campaigns
“I think it works for every size of a company. It is not a
MA3 Q5 question of size but a question of the company culture and
the brand image”
One says that small companies are more flexible and
MA4 Q5 sometimes there is also more creativity, on the other hand
there is less money available
It might be easier for smaller companies to execute
MP1 Q5
The larger the company, the more is at stake
At larger companies the image damage can be relatively
MP2 Q5
There is a trend toward the smaller
“I think large brands have higher expectations of their
MP3 Q5
brand value”

8.10.8 Marketing Instruments

Coding guideline: Statements about commonly used marketing instruments in
Switzerland in practice.

Partner Question Anchor Example

C2 Q6 “We are more traditional but it is changing”
MA1 If you look at expenditures on advertising, it is moving toward
Q11 electronic channels

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Modern instruments are on the way but it needs time to let go

of established ways that we know that they work
MA2 Advertising money is increasingly invested in online
Q11 promotion because the economy is bad and online advertising
is cheaper and more target-oriented
MA3 Q11 “Here it is more traditional instruments”
MA4 I think traditional methods are still most commonly used
But I think that more new things are coming
MP1 The media behavior has completely changed, the classical
television does not exist anymore
It has become really difficult to reach the people through media
and it is a challenge for many companies
MP2 It is funny, until recently billboard advertising in Switzerland
still was increasing

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8.11 Success Factors and Limitations

Based on theory, expert interviews, the case study analyses, the discussions and personal
assessment, twelve success factors as well as three main limitations for lifestyle brands
that want to engage in guerilla marketing within the context of the Swiss culture have
been identified. Because these factors have been consolidated from various sources and
personal assessment, no direct reference can be made. However, anchor examples of each
element are presented in the following tables for the purpose of verification.

8.11.1 Success Factors

Partner Question Anchor Example Success Factors
“For me, that also depends on the
Q6 target segment respectively the target Focus
“As long as it is something special it
can work, but if a guerrilla marketing
C1 Q15 action is waiting for you at every Unconventionality
corner like billboards, it loses its
“It is important make the brand visible Integration
Q16 that is behind the campaign” (Recognition)
“…the design process is important” Planning
“The creation of a legend in terms of
Q7 Involvement
advertisement is very positive”
“In order to have success in any
Q9 commercial action you should resolve Zeitgeist
a problem”

Q10 “So, I think it depends on the product” Product / Service

“…you have to have people in your

environment, your testing environment Human Capital
C2 or in the team that are developing that,
which can share these emotions”
“It is about emotion and guerrilla is Emotional
emotion because it is only a short time, Involvement
intensive and also should be viral”
“It again depends on the segment but
Q16 for the consumer it should be Focus
“It should be intense, harmless and it
Q17 Surprise
should also be profitable”

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Q1 Keep a constant media stream Actuality

Creativity and the decision paths play
Q5 Creativity
an important role
An essential element is integrated
Q14 marketing; everything has to fit Integration
One has to understand the brand and Human Capital
its values very well Authenticity
Successful advertisements touch on an Emotional
emotional basis Involvement
Advertisements should be creative and Creativity
not be isolated Integration
One has to move outside common
Q2 Creativity
marketing channels
It has to be an unconventional action Unconventionality
Q3 The most important factor stays the
Product / Service
Unconventional activities are
MA2 Q6 Unconventionality
necessary to attract attention
It has to be unconventional and
Q9 innovative, some people have to love Focus
it, others have to hate it
It needs somebody in the marketing Human Capital
department that thinks out-of-the-box Creativity
I have to be sure that the product is
Product /Service
good and that my target segment likes
Q17 the label
One has to be close to the target
“…the most critical point is the
question, if there is a connection to Authenticity
Q1 the company at all”
“it not only should create buzz but also Emotional
a positive reaction” Involvement
“…combine physical real life,
Q2 situations and things, with online Integration
“The campaign has to fit to the
Q3 Authenticity
MA3 culture of the company”
“There are also legal consequences”

“You also need the financial and legal Planning &

power if something goes wrong and Consequences
communicative possibilities to react if
you overdo it”
“With a great connection, you can
Q11 spread it much more at the start, you Integration
start at a different level”

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“Or an important point could be the

ability to connect it to your influencer
marketing and sponsoring, to have a Integration
Q15 lot more reach”
“The last factor, I would say, is that
you have the talents to create unique Creativity
experiences” Human Capital
“Guerrilla marketing has to be
surprising, has to be special so it
cannot be a standard instrument by
“…you always need a new and special
idea, a special experience and not an
experience that has been seen often”
What I liked was this element of
Q1 Creativity
It needs the right intensity of the new Unconventionality
and the surprise effect Surprise
An important component is this
Guerilla marketing is rather on the
emotional than on the cognitive level
Q15 It should be surprising but also subtle
A lifestyle brand needs less Emotional
explanation but one has to feel it Involvement
The campaign has to fit to the product
Q17 and the content that wants to be Authenticity
It is something unconventional and
It only works when it attracts
attention and it is reported about it
A lifestyle brand has to be much closer
Q14 Zeitgeist
to the zeitgeist
One has to sense what is relevant to Focus
MP1 the target segment Actuality
The first question is: what is the aim
and what should be reached
One has to estimate as good as
possible if the action will lead to
increased willingness to buy Planning &
It is a small path and one can easily
slip and fall

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On the one hand, it needs

concentrated targeting
On the other hand, it needs a certain Integration
Q1 recognition value (Recognition)
Part of it is to try out news ways over Creativity
and over again Unconventionality
I believe the biggest tension which can
Q2 be established with such an action is Actuality
when it is picked up by the media
Actuality, what happened that day, is
decisive if the campaign will be Actuality
Which status has the product, which is
Product / Service
presented by the guerilla activity?
Mostly, not many people will
experience the action itself; in the end,
it is important that it will be virally
diffused over media or Facebook Integration

It is also important that it can be

Q9 connected with other campaigns, it part
of an integrated tool-mix
MP2 The surprise-effect, when the people
see the action, has to be bombastic
One also wants to generate a certain
sustainability, people that see the Integration
action should be animated to purchase
First, one has to think what should be Creativity
on the billboard, one should not just Emotional
put a thousand things on it Involvement
The main thing is that the people are
positively entertained
They function much more on a Emotional
psychological level Involvement
It requires courage and the will to be
One has to be authentic Authenticity
Q15 One has to love the own brand Human Capital
One has to constantly reinvent itself in
the market
It is important to collaborate with
certain influencers
The daily media should pick up the
“It was so new at that time” Unconventionality
Q1 “It depends on how you measure
MP3 Aim
Q2 “…it was very unconventional” Unconventionality

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“…somehow the nature of guerrilla

marketing is to crash these
Q3 “I would say depending on what the
value of your brand is, you need to
attach this into the guerrilla campaign
that you are focusing on”
“I think that the key to success…, is to
draw attention” Surprise

“…this one has to stick out by far”

“Surprising, unexpected, shocking to a Unconventionality
certain extent can all be summarized in
“Is it true or is it not?” Creativity
“…this is rule-breaking” Unconventionality
“…but does it translate into
Q12 bookings?”
“…where is the link?”
“There are automatically values built
Q14 “I would say they are trending, not
trendy, somehow following a specific
“First, you need to be aware of your
Human Capital
Q15 values”
“Creativity is the key” Creativity

8.11.2 Limitations
Partner Question Anchor Example Limitation
“As long as it is something special it can Niche Instrument
work, but if a guerrilla marketing action is
C1 Q15
waiting for you at every corner like
billboards, it loses its effect”
“It again depends on the segment but for
C2 Q15
the consumer it should be acceptable”
Q16 When feelings of people are hurt
Q17 Feelings should not be hurt

MA3 Q4 “There are also legal consequences” Legal

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“It is a very crucial factor for guerrilla Niche Instrument

Q16 marketing that, in order to be successful, it
has to stay a niche instrument”
MA4 Q16 One should not go over the top Legal
One has to consider the cultural Feelings
MP1 Q16
Political and religious subjects are
delicate matters
MP2 Q16 At the end, nobody must be offended Feelings
MP3 Q16 “The limit is the brand value” Feelings

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