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AS/NZS 4600

Supplement 1:1998

Commentary

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

Committee BD/82, Cold-formed Steel Structures. It was approved on behalf of the

Council of Standards Australia on 11 September 1998 and on behalf of the

Council of Standards New Zealand on 11 September 1998. It was published on

5 November 1998.

Association of Consulting Engineers Australia

Australian Building Codes Board

Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Australian Institute of Steel Construction

Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia

CSIRO, Building, Construction and Engineering

Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand

Metal Building Products Manufacturers Association

Metal Trades Industry Association of Australia

New Zealand Heavy Engineering Research Association

New Zealand Metal Roofing and Cladding Manufacturers Association

New Zealand Structural Engineering Society

The University of Queensland

University of Sydney

Welding Technology Institute of Australia

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

New Zealand Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the

issue of amendments or new editions as necessary. It is important therefore that

Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edition, and any

amendments thereto.

Full details of all Joint Standards and related publications will be found in the Standards

Australia and Standards New Zealand Catalogue of Publications; this information is

supplemented each month by the magazines ‘The Australian Standard’ and ‘Standards

New Zealand’, which subscribing members receive, and which give details of new

publications, new editions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards.

Suggestions for improvements to Joint Standards, addressed to the head office of either

Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand, are welcomed. Notification of any

inaccuracy or ambiguity found in a Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard should be

made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action

taken.

AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

AS/NZS 4600

Supplement 1:1998

Commentary

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

Standards Australia

1 The Crescent,

Homebush NSW 2140 Australia

Level 10, Radio New Zealand House,

155 The Terrace,

Wellington 6001 New Zealand

ISBN 0 7337 2237 7

AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 2

PREFACE

This Commentary was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia / Standards New Zealand

Committee BD/82, Cold-formed Steel Structures.

The objective of this Commentary is to provide users with background information and

guidance to AS/NZS 4600:1996.

The Standard and Commentary are intended for use by design professionals with

demonstrated engineering competence in their fields.

In Australia, the Australian Standard for the design of cold-formed steel structural

members was first issued in permissible stress format as AS 1538—1974 (Standards

Australia, 1974), based mainly on the 1968 edition of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1968),

but with modifications to the beam and column design curves to keep them aligned with

the Australian Steel Structures Code at that time, ASCA1 (Standards Australia, 1968). It

was revised and published in 1988 as AS 1538—1988 (Standards Australia, 1988) and

was based mainly on the 1980 edition of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1983), but

included some material from the 1986 edition of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1986). In

1996, a limit states version of the cold-formed steel structures Standard was produced by

Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand. It was based mainly on the 1996 edition

of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1996) but with amendments where necessary to reflect

Australian/New Zealand practice.

In this Commentary, AS/NZS 4600:1996 is referred as ‘the Standard’.

To be consistent with the AISI Commentary, referenced documents provided in

Appendix A are listed in alphabetical order.

The clause numbers and titles used in this Commentary are the same as those in

AS/NZS 4600, except that they are prefixed by the letter ‘C’. To avoid possible confusion

between the Commentary and the Standard, a Commentary clause is referred to as

‘Clause C....’ in accordance with Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand policy.

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

Users of Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand publications and software.

Except where the Copyright Act allows and except where provided for below no publications or software produced by

Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any means

without prior permission in writing from Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand. Permission may be conditional on an

appropriate royalty payment. Australian requests for permission and information on commercial software royalties should be directed to

the head office of Standards Australia. New Zealand requests should be directed to Standards New Zealand.

Up to 10 percent of the technical content pages of a Standard may be copied for use exclusively in-house by purchasers of the

Standard without payment of a royalty or advice to Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand.

Inclusion of copyright material in computer software programs is also permitted without royalty payment provided such programs

are used exclusively in-house by the creators of the programs.

Care should be taken to ensure that material used is from the current edition of the Standard and that it is updated whenever the Standard

is amended or revised. The number and date of the Standard should therefore be clearly identified.

The use of material in print form or in computer software programs to be used commercially, with or without payment, or in commercial

contracts is subject to the payment of a royalty. This policy may be varied by Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand at any time.

3 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

C1.1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

C1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS . . . . .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

C1.3 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

C1.4 NOTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

C1.5 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

C1.6 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

C1.7 NON-CONFORMING SHAPES AND CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

SECTION C2 ELEMENTS

C2.1 SECTION PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

C2.2 EFFECTIVE WIDTHS OF STIFFENED ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

C2.3 EFFECTIVE WIDTHS OF UNSTIFFENED ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

C2.4 EFFECTIVE WIDTHS OF UNIFORMLY COMPRESSED ELEMENTS

WITH AN EDGE STIFFENER OR ONE INTERMEDIATE STIFFENER . . . 43

C2.5 EFFECTIVE WIDTHS OF EDGE-STIFFENED ELEMENTS WITH ONE

OR MORE INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS OR STIFFENED ELEMENTS

WITH MORE THAN ONE INTERMEDIATE STIFFENER . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

C2.6 ARCHED COMPRESSION ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

C2.7 STIFFENERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

SECTION C3 MEMBERS

C3.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

C3.2 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

C3.3 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BENDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

C3.4 CONCENTRICALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . 65

C3.5 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

C3.6 CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

C4.1 BUILT-UP SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

C4.2 MIXED SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

C4.3 LATERAL RESTRAINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

SECTION C5 CONNECTIONS

C5.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

C5.2 WELDED CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

C5.3 BOLTED CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

C5.4 SCREWED CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

C5.5 BLIND RIVETED CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

C5.6 RUPTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 4

Page

SECTION C6 TESTING

C6.1 TESTING FOR DETERMINING MATERIAL PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . 106

C6.2 TESTING FOR ASSESSMENT OR VERIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

5 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

INTRODUCTION

Cold-formed steel members have been used economically for building construction and

other applications (Winter 1959a, 1959b; Yu 1991; Hancock 1998). These types of

sections are cold-formed from steel sheet, strip, plate or flat bar in roll-forming machines

or by press brake or bending operations. The thicknesses of steel sheets or strip generally

used for cold-formed steel structural members range from 0.4 mm to about 6.4 mm. Steel

plates and bars as thick as 25 mm can be cold-formed successfully into structural shapes

and their design is covered by the Standard.

In general, cold-formed steel structural members can offer the following advantages for

building construction (Winter, 1970; Yu, 1991):

(a) Light members can be manufactured for relatively light loads or short spans, or

both.

(b) Unusual sectional configurations can be produced economically by cold-forming

operations and consequently favourable strength-to-weight ratios can be obtained.

(c) Load-carrying panels and decks can provide useful surfaces for floor, roof and wall

construction, and in some cases they can also provide enclosed cells for electrical

and other conduits.

(d) Panels and decks not only withstand loads normal to their surfaces, but they can

also act as shear diaphragms to resist forces in their own planes if they are

adequately interconnected to each other and to supporting members.

The use of cold-formed steel members in building construction began in about the 1850s.

However, in the United States such steel members were not widely used in buildings until

the publication of the first edition of the American Iron and Steel Institute Specification

in 1946 (AISI, 1946). This first design Standard was primarily based on the research work

sponsored by AISI at Cornell University since 1939. It was revised subsequently by the

AISI Committee in 1956, 1960, 1962, 1968, 1980 and 1986 to reflect the technical

developments and the results of continuing research. In 1991, AISI published the first

edition of the Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Cold-formed Steel

Structural Members (AISI, 1991). Both allowable stress design (ASD) and load and

resistance factor design (LRFD) specifications were combined into a single document in

1996.

In Australia, the Australian Standard for the design of cold-formed steel structural

members was first issued in permissible stress format as AS 1538—1974 (Standards

Australia, 1974) based mainly on the 1968 edition of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1968)

but with modifications to the beam and column design curves to keep them aligned with

the Australian Steel Structures Code at that time, ASCA1 (Standards Australia, 1968). It

was revised and published in 1988 as AS 1538—1988 (Standards Australia, 1988) and

was based mainly on the 1980 edition of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1983) but included

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

some material from the 1986 edition of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1986). In 1996, a

joint Australian/New Zealand limit states version of the cold-formed steel structures

Standard was produced by Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand. It was based

mainly on the 1996 edition of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1996) but with amendments,

where necessary, to reflect Australian/New Zealand practice.

During the period from 1958 through to 1983, AISI published Commentaries on several

editions of the AISI design specification, which were prepared by Professor George

Winter of Cornell University in 1958, 1961, 1962, and 1970. In the 1983, 1986 and 1996

editions, the format used for the AISI Commentary has been changed in that the same

section numbers are used in the AISI Commentary as in the AISI Specification. As for

AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 6

previous editions of the AISI Commentary, this document contains a brief presentation of

the characteristics and the performance of cold-formed steel members. In addition, it

provides a record of the reasoning behind and the justification for various provisions of

the Standard. A cross-reference is provided between various design provisions and the

published research data. This Commentary to AS/NZS 4600:1996 is based mainly on the

1996 edition of the Commentary to the AISI Specification, and has been amended, where

necessary, to reflect the differences between the AISI Specification and AS/NZS 4600.

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

7 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

Cold-formed steel structures—Commentary

(Supplement 1 to AS/NZS 4600:1996)

S E C T I O N C 1 S C O P E A N D G E N E R A L

fabrication practices of cold-formed steel structural members differ in several respects

from those of hot-rolled steel shapes. For cold-formed steel sections, the forming process

is performed at, or near, room temperature by the use of bending brakes, press brakes or

roll-forming machines. Some of the significant differences between cold-formed sections

and hot-rolled shapes are—

(a) absence of the residual stresses caused by uneven cooling due to hot-rolling;

(b) lack of corner fillets;

(c) presence of increased yield strength with decreased proportional limit and ductility

resulting from cold forming;

(d) presence of cold-reducing stresses when cold-rolled steel stock has not been fully

annealed;

(e) prevalence of elements having large width-to-thickness ratios and, hence, subject to

local buckling in compression;

(f) rounded corners; and

(g) stress-strain curves can be either sharp-yielding type or gradual-yielding type.

AS/NZS 4600 (Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, 1996) is limited to the design

of steel structural members cold-formed from carbon or low-alloy sheet, strip, plate or

bar. The design is to be in accordance with the limit states design method.

The Standard is applicable only to cold-formed sections not more than 25 mm in

thickness. Research conducted at the University of Missouri-Rolla (Yu, Liu, and

McKinney, 1973b and 1974) has verified the applicability of the Standard’s provisions for

such cases.

In view of the fact that most of the design provisions have been developed on the

experimental work subject to static loading, the Standard is intended for the design of

cold-formed steel structural members to be used for load-carrying purposes in buildings.

For structures other than buildings, appropriate allowances should be made for dynamic

effects. The Standard does not apply to the design of structures subject to fire or fatigue

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

since insufficient data was available on these phenomena for cold-formed members during

its preparation.

to revision from time to time and the current issue should always be used. The currency

of any Standard may be checked with Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand.

New Zealand, terms used in limit state design may differ from those used in Australia.

These are included in brackets. Those definitions that are not self-explanatory or that are

not defined in Clause 1.3 are briefly discussed in this Clause.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 8

C1.3.13 Distortional buckling — the mode of distortional buckling is included for the

first time in AS/NZS 4600. Figure C1.3(4)(a) shows distortional buckling for a

compression member, and Figure C1.3(b) for a flexural member. Appendix D gives

equations to compute elastic distortional buckling stresses.

C1.3.14 Effective design width — the effective design width is a concept that takes

account of local buckling and post-buckling strength for compression elements. The effect

of shear lag on short, wide flanges is also handled by using an effective design width.

These matters are treated in Section 2, and the corresponding effective widths are

discussed in the Commentary on that Section.

C1.3.17 Flexural-torsional buckling — the 1968 edition of the AISI Specification and

AS 1538 — 1974 pioneered methods for calculating column loads of cold-formed steel

sections prone to buckle by simultaneous twisting and bending. This complex behaviour

may result in lower column loads than would result from primary buckling by flexure

alone (Trahair, 1993).

C1.3.19 Limit state — limit states design (LSD) is a method of designing structural

components such that the applicable limit state is not exceeded when the structure is

subjected to all appropriate load combinations as specified in Clause 1.6.1.

C1.3.23 Multiple-stiffened elements — multiple-stiffened elements of two sections are

shown in Figure C1.3(1). Each of the two outer sub-elements shown in Figure C1.3(1)(a)

are stiffened by a web and an intermediate stiffener while the middle sub-element is

stiffened by two intermediate stiffeners. The two sub-elements shown in Figure C1.3(1)(b)

are stiffened by a web and the attached intermediate middle stiffener.

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9 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

elements of various sections are shown in Figure C1.3(2), in which sections shown in

Figures C1.3(2)(a) to C1.3(2)(e) are for flexural members, and sections shown in

Figures C1.3(2)(f) to C1.3(2)(i) are for compression members. Sections shown in

Figures C1.3(2)(a) and C1.3(2)(b) each have a web and a lip to stiffen the compression

element, i.e. the compression flange, the ineffective portion of which is shown shaded.

For the explanation of these ineffective portions, see Clause C1.3.1 and Section C2.

Figures C1.3(2)(c) to C1.3(2)(e) show compression elements stiffened by two webs.

Figures C1.3(2)(f) and C1.3(2)(h) show edge-stiffened flange elements that have a vertical

element (web) and an edge stiffener (lip) to stiffen the elements while the web itself is

stiffened by the flanges. Figure C1.3(2)(g) shows four compression elements stiffening

each other, and Figure C1.3(2)(i) has each stiffened element stiffened by a lip and the

other stiffened element.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 10

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11 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

occurs at corner bends is ignored unless the manufacturing process warrants consideration

of a more accurate method (see Clause 2.1.2.1), and the base steel thickness of the flat

steel stock, exclusive of coatings, is used in all calculations for load-carrying purposes.

C1.3.49 Unstiffened compression element — unstiffened elements of various sections

are shown in Figure C1.3(3), in which sections shown in Figures C1.3(3)(a) to C1.3(3)(d)

are for flexural members and sections shown in Figures C1.3(3)(e) to C1.3(3)(h) are for

compression members. Sections shown in Figures C1.3(3)(a) to C1.3(3)(c) have only a

web to stiffen the compression flange element. The legs of the section shown in

Figure C1.3(3)(d) provide mutual stiffening action to each other along their common

edges. Sections shown in Figures C1.3(3)(e) to C1.3(3)(g), acting as columns, have

vertical stiffened elements (webs) which provide support for one edge of the unstiffened

flange elements. The legs of the section shown in Figure C1.3(3)(h) provide mutual

stiffening action.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 12

C1.4 NOTATION The basis of the notation is in accordance with ISO 3898, as much

as possible.

C1.5 MATERIALS

C1.5.1 Structural steel

C1.5.1.1 Applicable steels The Australian and New Zealand Standards are the basic

source of steel designations for use with the Standard. Clause 1.5.1.1 provides a list of

Australian, New Zealand and Australian/New Zealand Standards for steels that are

acceptable by the Standard.

The important material properties for the design of cold-formed steel members are yield

stress, tensile strength and ductility. Ductility is the ability of a steel to undergo sizeable

plastic or permanent strains before fracturing and is important both for structural safety

and for cold forming. It is usually measured by the elongation in a 50 mm gauge length.

The ratio of the tensile strength to the yield stress is also an important material property.

This is an indication of strain-hardening and the ability of the material to redistribute

stress.

For the listed Australian and New Zealand Standards, the yield stresses of steels range

from 200 to 550 MPa and the tensile strengths vary from 300 to 550 MPa. The

elongations are no less than 8%. Exceptions are AS 1397 — G550 steel with a specified

minimum yield stress of 550 MPa, a specified minimum tensile strength of 550 MPa, and

with a minimum elongation of 2% in a 50 mm gauge length. This low ductility steel has

limits on its applicability for structural framing members and so its application without

restriction is limited to steels not less than 0.9 mm thick. Nevertheless, they are being

Accessed by BHP BILLITON on 27 Jun 2002

used successfully for specific applications, such as decks, panels and in steel-framed

housing, as structural members. The conditions for the use of AS 1397—G550 steel less

than 0.9 mm thick are outlined in Clause 1.5.1.5.

C1.5.1.2 Other steels Although the use of Australian and Australian/New Zealand

Standards listed in Clause 1.5.1.1 is encouraged, other steels that satisfy the ductility

requirements of Clause 1.5.1.5 may also be used in cold-formed steel structures.

C1.5.1.3 Strength increase resulting from cold forming The mechanical properties of

the flat steel sheet, strip, plate or bar, such as yield stress, tensile strength, and elongation

may be substantially different from the properties exhibited by the cold-formed steel

sections. Figure C1.5.1.3(1) shows the increase of yield strength and tensile strength from

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13 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

those of the virgin material at the section locations in a cold-formed steel channel section

and a joist chord (Karren and Winter 1967). This difference can be attributed to cold

working of the material during the cold-forming process.

The influence of cold-work on mechanical properties was investigated by Chajes, Britvec,

Winter, Karren, and Uribe at Cornell University in the 1960s (Chajes, Britvec, and

Winter, 1963; Karren, 1967; Karren and Winter, 1967; Winter and Uribe, 1968). It was

found that the changes of mechanical properties due to cold-stretching are caused mainly

by strain-hardening and strain-ageing, as shown in Figure C1.5.1.3(2) (Chajes, Britvec,

and Winter 1963). In this Figure, Curve A represents the stress-strain curve of the virgin

material. Curve B is due to unloading in the strain-hardening range, Curve C represents

immediate reloading, and Curve D is the stress-strain curve of reloading after

strain-ageing. It is interesting to note that the yield points of both Curves C and D are

higher than the yield point of the virgin material and that the ductilities decrease after

strain-hardening and strain-ageing.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 14

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PROPERTIES IN COLD-FORMED STEEL SECTIONS

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15 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

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PROPERTIES IN COLD-FORMED STEEL SECTIONS

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 16

AGEING ON STRESS-ELONGATION CHARACTERISTICS

Cornell research also revealed that the effects of cold-work on the mechanical properties

of corners usually depend on the following:

(a) The type of steel.

(b) The type of stress (compression or tension).

(c) The direction of stress with respect to the direction of cold-work (transverse or

longitudinal).

(d) The fu/fy ratio.

(e) The inside-radius-to-thickness ratio r i/t.

(f) The amount of cold-work.

Among Items (a) to (f), the fu/fy and ri/t ratios are the most important factors to affect the

change in mechanical properties of formed sections. Virgin material with a large f u/fy ratio

possesses a large potential for strain-hardening. Consequently, as the ratio increases, the

effect of cold-work on the increase in the yield point of steel increases. Small inside-

radius-to-thickness ratios (ri/t) correspond to a large degree of cold-work in a corner and,

therefore, for a given material, the smaller the ri/t ratio, the larger the increase in yield

point.

Investigating the influence of cold-work, Karren derived the following equations for the

ratio of corner yield strength to virgin yield strength (Karren, 1967):

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(i) . . . C1.5.1.3(1)

(ii) . . . C1.5.1.3(2)

(iii) . . . C1.5.1.3(3)

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17 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

where

fyc = tensile yield stress of bends

fyv = tensile yield stress of unformed section

Bc = constant

m = constant

fuv = tensile strength of unformed section

ri = inside bend radius

t = sheet thickness

With regard to the full section properties, the tensile yield stress of the full section may

be approximated by using a weighted average as follows:

. . . C1.5.1.3(4)

where

fya = average design yield stress of the steel in the full section of compression

members

C = ratio of bend area to total cross-sectional area. For flexural members having

unequal flanges, the one giving a smaller C value is considered to be the

controlling flange

fyc = average tensile yield stress of bends

= . . . C1.5.1.3(5)

Good agreement between the calculated and the tested stress-strain characteristics for a

channel section and a joist chord section were demonstrated by Karren and Winter

(Karren and Winter, 1967).

In the last two decades, additional studies were made by numerous investigators. These

investigations dealt with the cold-formed sections having large r i/t ratios and with thick

materials. They also considered residual stress distribution, simplification of design

methods, and other related subjects. For details, see Yu (1991).

In 1962, the AISI Specification permitted the utilization of cold-work of forming on the

basis of full section tests. Since 1968, the AISI Specification has allowed the use of the

increased average yield point of the section (fya) to be determined by—

(A) full section tensile tests;

(B) stub column tests; or

(C) calculated in accordance with Equation C1.5.1.3(4).

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However, such a strength increase is limited only to relatively compact sections designed

in accordance with Clause 3.3 (bending strength excluding the use of inelastic reserve

capacity), Clauses 3.4, 3.5, 3.6 and 4.4.

In some cases, when evaluating the effective area of the web, the effective width factor

(ρ), in accordance with Clause 2.2, may be less than unity but the sum of be1 and b e2 of

Figure 2.2.3 may be such that the web is fully effective, and the cold-work of forming

may be used.

C1.5.1.4 Effect of welding Welding may affect the mechanical properties of a member,

particularly in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The designer should make allowances for

this on the basis of testing.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 18

C1.5.1.5 Ductility The nature and importance of ductility and the ways in which this

property is measured are briefly discussed in Clause C1.5.1.1.

Low-carbon sheet and strip steels with specified minimum yield points from 250 MPa to

500 MPa need to meet Australian and New Zealand Standards specified minimum

elongations in a 50 mm gauge length of at least 8%. However, for AS 1397—G550, for

which the specified minimum yield stress is 550 MPa, the elongation requirement is 2%

on a 50 mm gauge length for steels greater than or equal to 0.60 mm thick, and no

elongation is specified for thinner steels. G550 steel less than 0.9 mm thick, differs from

the array of steels listed Clause 1.5.1.1.

In 1968, because new steels of higher strengths were being developed, sometimes with

lower elongations, the question of how much elongation is really needed in a structure

was the focus of a study initiated at Cornell University. Steels that had yield strengths

ranging from 310 to 690 MPa, elongations in 50 mm ranging from 50 to 1.3%, and

tensile-to-yield strength ratios ranging from 1.51 to 1.00 were studied (Dhalla, Errera and

Winter, 1971; Dhalla and Winter, 1974a; Dhalla and Winter, 1974b). The investigators

developed elongation requirements for ductile steels. These measurements are more

accurate but cumbersome to make. Therefore, the investigators recommended the

following determination for adequately ductile steels:

(a) The tensile-to-yield strength ratio should not be less than 1.08.

(b) The total elongation in a 50 mm gauge length should not be less than 10%, or not

less than 7% in a 200 mm gauge length.

Also, the Standard limits the use of Sections 2 to 5 to adequately ductile steels. In lieu of

the tensile-to-yield strength limit of 1.08, the Standard permits the use of elongation

requirements using the measurement technique as given by Dhalla and Winter (1974a)

(Yu, 1991). Because of limited experimental verification of the structural performance of

members using materials having a tensile-to-yield strength ratio less than 1.08 (Macadam

et al., 1988), the Standard limits the use of this material to purlins and girts meeting the

elastic design requirements of Clauses 3.3.2.3, 3.3.3.2, 3.3.3.3 and 3.3.3.4. Thus, the use

of such steels in other applications (compression members, tension members, other

flexural members including those whose strength is based on inelastic reserve capacity,

and the like) is prohibited. However, in purlins and girts, concurrent design axial forces of

relatively small magnitude are acceptable providing the requirements of Clause 1.5.1.5 of

the Standard are met and N*/φRu does not exceed 0.15.

AS 1397—G550 steel less than 0.9 mm thick does not have adequate ductility as specified

in Clause 1.5.1.5(a). Its use has been limited as specified in Clause 1.5.1.5(b) to particular

configurations. The limit of the design yield stress to 75% of the specified minimum yield

stress, and the design tensile strength to 75% of the specified minimum tensile strength,

or 450 MPa, whichever is lower, introduces a higher safety factor, but still allows low

ductility steels, such as AS 1397—G550 less than 0.9 mm thick, to be used by the results

of load tests that are permitted as an alternative to making this reduction. It is also

permitted to use higher design stresses than specified in Clause 1.5.1.5(b)(i), provided it is

established that material ductility does not affect the strength, stability and serviceability

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of the member or structural configuration to which the member belongs. This provision is

in AS/NZS 4600 but not in the AISI 1996 specification.

C1.5.1.6 Acceptance of steels Sheet and strip steels, both coated and uncoated, may be

ordered to nominal or minimum thickness. If the steel is ordered to minimum thickness,

all thickness tolerances are over (+) and nothing under (−). If the steel is ordered to

nominal thickness, the thickness tolerances are divided equally between over and under.

Therefore, in order to provide the similar material thickness between the two methods of

ordering sheet and strip steel, it was decided to require that the delivered thickness of a

cold-formed product be at least 95% of the design thickness. Thus, it is apparent that a

portion of the factor of safety may be considered to cover minor negative thickness

tolerances.

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19 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

Generally, thickness measurements should be made in the centre of flanges. For decking

and sheeting, measurements should be made as close as practicable to the centre of the

first full flat of the section.

The responsibility of meeting this requirement for a cold-formed product is that of the

manufacturer of the product, not the steel producer.

C1.5.1.7 Unidentified steel Clause 1.5.1.7 is carried over from AS 1538 and is not

included in the AISI specification.

C1.5.2 Design stresses The strength of cold-formed steel structural members depends

on the yield stress, except in those cases where elastic local buckling or overall buckling

is critical. Because the stress-strain curve of steel sheet or strip can be either sharp-

yielding type (see Figure C1.5.2(1)(a)) or gradual-yielding type (see Figure C1.5.2(1)(b)),

the method for determining the yield stress for sharp-yielding steel and the yield stress for

gradual-yielding steel are based on AS 1391 (Standards Australia, 1991). As shown in

Figure C1.5.2(2)(a), the yield stress for sharp-yielding steel is defined by the stress level

of the plateau. For gradual-yielding steel, the stress-strain curve is rounded out at the

‘knee’ and the proof stress is determined by either the non-proportional elongation method

(see Figure C1.5.2(2)(b)) or the total elongation method (see Figure C1.5.2(2)(c). The

term yield stress used in the Standard applies to either yield stress or yield strength.

The strength of members that are governed by buckling depends not only on the yield

stress but also on the modulus of elasticity (E) and the tangent modulus (Et). The modulus

of elasticity is defined by the slope of the initial straight portion of the stress-strain curve

(see Figure C1.5.2(1)). The measured values of E on the basis of the standard methods

usually range from 200 to 207 GPa. A value of 200 GPa is used in the Standard for

design purposes. The tangent modulus is defined by the slope of the stress-strain curve at

any stress level, as shown in Figure C1.5.2(1)(b).

For sharp-yielding steels, Et is equal to E up to the yield stress, but with gradually

yielding steels, Et equals to E only up to the proportional limit (Fpr). Once the stress

exceeds the proportional limit, the tangent modulus (Et) becomes progressively smaller

than the initial modulus of elasticity.

Various buckling provisions of the Standard have been written for gradually yielding

steels whose proportional limit is not lower than about 70% of the specified minimum

yield point.

Determination of proportional limits for information purposes can be done simply by

using the offset method shown in Figure C1.5.2(2)(b) with the distance (om) equal to

0.0001 length/length (0.01% offset) and calling the stress (R), where mn intersects the

stress-strain curve at the proportional limit.

Clause 1.5.2 stipulates the need for the yield stresses and tensile strengths not to exceed

those given in Table 1.5.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 20

OR STRIP

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METHODS OF YIELD POINT AND YIELD STRENGTH DETERMINATION

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C1.5.3 Fasteners and electrodes In Clause 1.5.3 of the Standard, the relevant

Australian and Australia/New Zealand Standards for steel bolts, nuts, washers, welding

consumables and screws are given. ANSI/AWS D1.3 may also be used to specify welding

consumables.

C1.6.1 Loads and load combinations In Australia, the load combinations are to be

calculated in accordance with AS 1170.1 (1989). Dead loads and live loads are also given

in AS 1170.1, wind loads are given in AS 1170.2, snow loads are given in AS 1170.3 and

earthquake loads are given in AS 1170.4. In New Zealand, load combinations, dead and

live loads, wind loads, snow loads and earthquake loads are to be calculated in accordance

with NZS 4203.

Recognized engineering procedures should be employed to reflect the effect of impact

loads on a structure. For building design, reference may be made to AISC publications

(AISC, 1989; AISC 1993).

When gravity and horizontal loads produce forces of opposite sign in members,

consideration should be given to the minimum gravity loads acting in combination with

wind or earthquake loads.

C1.6.2 Structural analyses and design

C1.6.2.1 General A limit state is the condition at which the structural usefulness of a

load-carrying element or member is impaired to such an extent that it becomes unsafe for

the occupants of the structure, or the element no longer performs its intended function.

Typical limit states for cold-formed steel members are excessive deflection, yielding,

buckling and attainment of maximum strength after local buckling, (i.e. post-buckling

strength). These limit states have been established through experience in practice or in the

laboratory, and they have been thoroughly investigated through analytical and

experimental research. The background for the establishment of the limit states is

extensively documented (Winter, 1970; Peköz, 1986b; and Yu, 1991), and a continuing

research effort provides further improvement in understanding them.

The following types of limit states are specified in Clause 1.6.2:

(a) The limit state of the strength required to resist the extreme loads during the

intended life of the structure.

(b) The limit state of the structure as a whole to prevent overturning, uplift or sliding.

(c) The limit state of the ability of the structure to perform its intended function during

its life.

These three limit states are usually referred to as the strength (ultimate) limit state, the

stability limit state and the serviceability limit state. AS/NZS 4600 focuses on the limit

state of strength in Clause 1.6.2.2, the limit state of stability (which in accordance with

NZS 4203 is part of the ultimate limit state) in Clause 1.6.2.3 and the limit state of

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C1.6.2.2 Strength [ultimate] limit state For the limit state of strength [ultimate], the

general format of the limit states method is expressed as follows:

S* ≤ Rd . . . C1.6.2.2(1)

where

S* = design action effects (design actions)

Rd = design capacity

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The design action effects [design actions] (S*) may be determined by an elastic structural

analysis (normally linear elastic) or a plastic structural analysis if the plastic hinges have

adequate strength and ductility. Testing in accordance with Section 6 may be used in lieu

of analysis to establish member strength.

The design capacity (Rd) can be determined as the product of the nominal capacity

(strength reduction) (Ru) with the capacity [strength reduction] factor, i.e. R d = φRu, or by

testing in accordance with Section 6.

The principal purpose of the capacity [strength reduction] factor (φ) is to compensate for

uncertainties inherent in the design, fabrication, or erection of building components, as

well as uncertainties in the estimation of applied loads.

The nominal capacity (Ru) is the strength of the element or member for a given limit state,

calculated for nominal section properties and for minimum specified material properties in

accordance with the appropriate analytical model which defines the strength. The capacity

[strength reduction] factor (φ) accounts for the uncertainties and variabilities inherent in

Ru, and is usually less than unity.

The design action effects [design actions] (S*) are the forces on the cross-section

(i.e. bending moment, axial force, or shear force) determined from the specified nominal

loads by structural analysis.

The advantages of limit states design are as follows:

(a) The uncertainties and the variabilities of different types of loads and capacities are

different (e.g. dead load is less variable than wind load), and so these differences

can be accounted for by use of multiple load factors.

(b) By using the probability theory, designs can ideally achieve a more consistent

reliability. Thus, limit states design provides the basis for a more rational and

refined design method than is possible with the previous permissible stress design

method. The probabilistic basis for the limit state design of cold-formed steel

structures is as follows:

(i) Probabilistic concepts Safety factors or load factors are provided against

the uncertainties and variabilities that are inherent in the design process.

Structural design consists of comparing nominal design action effects [design

action] (S) to nominal capacities (R), but both S and R are random

parameters (see Figure C1.6.2.2(1)). A limit state is violated if R is less than

S. While the possibility of this event ever occurring is never zero, a

successful design should, nevertheless, have only an acceptably small

probability of exceeding the limit state. If the exact probability distributions

of S and R were known, then the probability of (R – S) being less than zero

could be exactly determined for any design. In general, the distributions of S

and R are not known, and only the means, Sm and Rm, and the standard

deviations, σS and σ R are available. Nevertheless it is possible to determine

relative reliabilities of several designs by the scheme shown in

Figure C1.6.2.2(2). The distribution curve shown is for ln (R/S) and a limit

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state is exceeded when ln (R/S) is less than or equal to zero. The area under

ln (R/S) being less than or equal to zero is the probability of violating the

limit state. The size of this area is dependent on the distance between the

origin and the mean of ln (R/S). For given statistical data Rm, S m, σR and σ S,

the area under ln (R/S) is less than or equal to zero can be varied by

changing the value of β (see Figure C1.6.2.2(2)), since βσ ln(R/S) is equal to ln

(R/S)m, and β is calculated as follows:

. . . C1.6.2.2(2)

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23 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

where

VR = coefficient of variation of R

VS = coefficient of variation of S

The index β is called the ‘reliability index’ and it is a relative measure of the

safety of the design. When two designs are compared, the one with the larger

β is more reliable.

The concept of the reliability index can be used for determining the relative

reliability inherent in current design and can be used in testing out the

reliability of new design formats, as given by the following example of

simply supported, braced beams subjected to dead and live loading.

The limit state design requirement of the Standard for such a beam is as

follows:

where

φ = capacity [strength reduction] factor for bending

= 0.9

Ze = elastic section modulus based on the effective section

fy = specified yield stress

ls = span length

s = beam spacing

G = dead load

Q = live load

The mean resistance (Rm) is calculated as follows (Ravindra and

Galambos, 1978):

. . . C1.6.2.2(4)

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where

Rn = nominal resistance

Rn = Ze fy . . . C1.6.2.2(5)

Ze = elastic section modulus based on the effective section

fy = yield stress of beam

Rn is the nominal moment predicted on the basis of the post-buckling

strength of the compression flange and the web. The mean values Pm, Mm and

Fm and the corresponding coefficients of variation VP, VM and VF are the

statistical parameters which define the variability of the resistance.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 24

predicted moment for the actual material, and cross-sectional

properties of the test specimens

Mm = mean ratio of the actual yield point to the minimum specified

value

Fm = mean ratio of the actual section modulus to the specified

(nominal) value

The coefficient of variation of R is calculated as follows:

VR = . . . C1.6.2.2(6)

The values of these data were obtained from examining the available tests on

beams having different compression flanges with partially and fully effective

flanges and webs, and from analysing data on yield stress values from tests

and cross-sectional dimensions from many measurements. This information

was developed from research (Hsiao, Yu and Galambos, 1988 and 1990;

Hsiao, 1989) and is given as follows:

(A) Pm = 1.11

(B) VP = 0.09

(C) Mm = 1.10

(D) VM = 0.10

(E) Fm = 1.0

(F) VF = 0.05

(G) Rm = 1.22Rn

(H) VR = 0.14

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25 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

Sm = . . . C1.6.2.2(7)

VS = . . . C1.6.2.2(8)

where

Gm = mean dead load intensity

Qm = mean live load intensity

VG = coefficient of variation of G

VQ = coefficient of variation of Q

Load statistics were analysed in a study of the National Bureau of Standards

(NBS) (Ellingwood et al., 1980), where it was shown that—

Gm = 1.05G

VG = 0.1

Qm = Q

VQ = 0.25

The mean live load intensity equals the code live load intensity if the

tributary area is small enough so that no live load reduction is included.

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gives the following:

Sm = . . . C1.6.2.2(9)

VS = . . . C1.6.2.2(10)

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 26

beams typically have small G/Q, and for the purposes of checking the

reliability of these strength limit state criteria, it will be assumed that—

and so

be obtained for G/Q equal to 1/5 and φ equal to 0.9 as follows:

. . . C1.6.2.2(11)

In order to determine the reliability index (β) from Equation C1.6.2.2(2) the

Rm/Sm ratio is required by considering Rm equal to 1.22Rn as follows:

. . . C1.6.2.2(12)

. . . C1.6.2.2(13)

partially and fully effective flanges, and webs designed by the Standard are

compared to β for other types of cold-formed steel members, and to β for

designs of various types from hot-rolled steel shapes or even for other

materials, then it is possible to say that this particular cold-formed steel

beam has about an average reliability (Galambos et al., 1982).

(ii) Basis for limit state design of cold-formed steel structures A great deal of

work has been performed for determining the values of the reliability index

(β) inherent in traditional design as exemplified by the current structural

design specifications such as the AISC Specification for hot-rolled steel, the

AISI Specification for cold-formed steel, the ACI Code for reinforced

concrete members, AS 4100 and NZS 3404 for steel structures in Australia

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and New Zealand, and the like. The studies for hot-rolled steel are

summarized by Ravindra and Galambos (1978), where also many papers,

which contain additional data, are referenced. The determination of β for

cold-formed steel elements or members is presented in several research

reports of the University of Missouri-Rolla (Hsiao, Yu, and Galambos, 1988;

Rang, Galambos and Yu, 1979a, 1979b, 1979c and 1979d; Suporn-

silaphachai, Galambos and Yu, 1979), where both the basic research data as

well as the βs inherent in the AISI Specification are presented in great detail.

The βs calculated in the above-referenced publications were developed with

slightly different load statistics than those of this Commentary, but the

essential conclusions remain the same.

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In Australia, the underlying philosophy behind the limit state codes and their

calibration is set out in Leicester, Pham and Kleeman (1985) and Pham

(1985). No detailed calibration of AS/NZS 4600 has been performed.

However, calibration of the R-factor design procedures for purlins under

wind uplift has been performed by Rousch and Hancock (1996a, 1996b).

The entire set of data for hot-rolled steel and cold-formed steel designs, as

well as data for reinforced concrete, aluminium, laminated timber and

masonry walls was re-analysed by Ellingwood, Galambos, MacGregor and

Cornell (Ellingwood et al., 1980; Galambos et al., 1982; Ellingwood et al.,

1982) using updated load statistics and a more advanced level of probability

analysis, which was able to incorporate probability distributions and to

describe the true distributions more realistically. The details of this extensive

reanalysis are presented by the investigators. Only the final conclusions from

the analysis are summarized below.

The values of the reliability index (β) vary considerably for the different

kinds of loading, the different types of construction, and the different types

of members within a given material design specification. In order to achieve

more consistent reliability, it was suggested by Ellingwood et al. (1982) that

the following values of β would provide this improved consistency while at

the same time would give, on the average, essentially the same design by the

limit state design method as is obtained by current design for all materials of

construction. These target reliabilities (βo) for use in limit state design are

given as follows:

(A) For basic case (gravity load) βo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.0.

(B) For connections βo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.

(C) For wind load βo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.

The target reliability indices are the ones inherent in the load factors

recommended in the ASCE 7-95 Load Standard (ASCE, 1995).

For simply supported, braced, cold-formed steel beams with stiffened

flanges, which were designed in accordance with the 1996 AISI allowable

stress design method or to any previous version of that specification, it was

shown that for the representative dead-to-live load ratio of 1/5, the reliability

index β is equal to 2.79. Considering the fact that for other such load ratios,

or for other types of members, the reliability index inherent in current cold-

formed steel construction could be more or less than this value of 2.79, a

somewhat lower target reliability index of βo equal to 2.5 is recommended as

a lower limit for the AISI LRFD Specification. The capacity factors (φ) were

selected such that βo equal to 2.5 is essentially the lower bound of the actual

β values for members. In order to assure that failure of a structure is not

initiated in the connections, a higher target reliability index of βo equal to

3.5 is recommended for joints and fasteners. These two targets of 2.5 and 3.5

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for members and connections, respectively, are somewhat lower than those

recommended by the ASCE 7-95, but they are essentially the same targets as

are the basis for the AISC LRFD Specification (AISC, 1993). For wind loads

the same ASCE target value of βo equal to 2.5 is used in the AISI LRFD

Specification.

In the development of the AISI LRFD Specification, the following statistical

data on material and cross-sectional properties were developed by Rang,

Galambos and Yu (1979a and 1979b) for use in the derivation of capacity

[strength reduction] factors (φ):

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 28

= 1.00; VF = 0.05

where

m = mean value

V = coefficient of variation

M = ratio of the mean-to-the nominal material property

F = ratio of mean to nominal cross-sectional property

fy = specified minimum yield point

fya = average yield point including the effect of cold-forming

fu = specified minimum tensile strength.

These statistical data are based on the analysis of many samples (Rang et al.,

1978) and they are representative properties of materials and cross-sections

used in the industrial application of cold-formed steel structures.

C1.6.2.3 Stability limit state This limit state is included in the Standard although it is

not included in the AISI Specification. In the New Zealand Loadings Standard, NZS 4203

(1992), it is treated as part of the ultimate limit state.

C1.6.2.4 Serviceability limit states Serviceability limit states are conditions under

which a structure can no longer perform its intended functions. Safety and strength

considerations are generally not affected by serviceability limit states. However,

serviceability criteria are essential to ensure functional performance and economy of

design.

Common conditions which may require serviceability limits are as follows:

(a) Excessive deflections or rotations which may affect the appearance or functional use

of the structure. Deflections which may cause damage to non-structural elements

should be considered.

(b) Excessive vibrations which may cause occupant discomfort or equipment

malfunctions.

(c) Deterioration over time which may include corrosion or appearance considerations.

When checking serviceability, the designer should consider the appropriate service loads,

the response of the structure, and the reaction of building occupants.

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Service loads that may require consideration include static loads, snow or rain loads,

temperature fluctuations, and dynamic loads from human activities, wind-induced effects,

or the operation of equipment. The service loads are actual loads that act on the structure

at an arbitrary point in time. Appropriate service loads for checking serviceability limit

states may only be a fraction of the nominal loads.

The response of the structure to service loads can normally be analysed assuming linear

elastic behaviour. However, members that accumulate residual deformations under service

loads may require consideration of this long-term behaviour.

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Serviceability limits depend on the function of the structure and on the perceptions of the

observer. In contrast to the strength limit states, it is not possible to specify general

serviceability limits that are applicable to all structures. The Standard does not contain

explicit requirements; however, guidance is generally provided by the applicable building

code. In the absence of specific criteria, guidelines may be found in Fisher and West

(1990), Ellingwood (1989), Murray (1991), Allen and Murray (1993). Serviceability limits

for domestic metal framing in Australia are given in AS 3623 (Standards Australia,

1993a) including both static and dynamic limits. For New Zealand, contact the National

Association of Steel Framed Housing (NASH), New Zealand.

and construction should comply with Section 6, particularly Clause 6.2.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 30

S E C T I O N C 2 E L E M E N T S

C2.1.1 General In cold-formed steel construction, individual elements of steel

structural members are thin and the width-to-thickness ratios are large, when compared

with hot-rolled steel shapes. These thin elements may buckle locally at a stress level

lower than the yield point of steel when they are subjected to compression in flexural

bending, axial compression, shear, or bearing. Figure C2.1 illustrates some local buckling

patterns of certain beams and columns (Yu, 1991).

Because local buckling of individual elements of cold-formed steel sections is a major

design criterion, the design of such members should provide sufficient safety against

failure by local instability with due consideration given to the post-buckling strength of

structural components. Section 2 of the Standard contains the design requirements for

width-to-thickness ratios and the design equations for determining the effective widths of

stiffened compression elements, unstiffened compression elements, and elements with

edge stiffeners or intermediate stiffeners. Additional provisions are made for the use of

stiffeners.

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C2.1.2 Design procedures The appropriate use of full and effective section properties

is explained in this Section. Full section properties are used for the determination of

buckling moments and stresses, as specified in Clause 3.1. Clause 2.1.2.1 specifies clearly

how the full section properties are to be calculated. For the more difficult property

calculations such as distortional buckling, shear centre position, warping constant and

monosymmetry parameters, the bends may be eliminated. The Standard has been

calibrated on this assumption.

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Effective section properties are used for the determination of section and member

capacities to allow for local instabilities of elements in compression, and for shear lag.

Clause 2.1.2.3 specifies where the reduced widths are to be located for both stiffened and

unstiffened elements, and elements under stress gradient and with edge stiffeners. These

requirements are the same as the ones shown in the appropriate figures later in the

Section.

C2.1.3 Dimensional limits

C2.1.3.1 Maximum flat-width-to-thickness ratios Clause 2.1.3.1 of the Standard

contains limitations on permissible flat-width-to-thickness ratios of compression flanges.

To some extent, these limitations are arbitrary. They do, however, reflect a long-time

experience and are intended to define practical ranges of application (Winter, 1970).

The limitation to a maximum b/t of 60 for compression flanges having one longitudinal

edge connected to a web and the other edge stiffened by a simple lip is based on the fact

that if the b/t ratio of such a flange exceeds 60, a simple lip with a relatively large depth

would be required to stiffen the flange (Winter, 1970). The local instability of the lip

would necessitate a reduction of the bending capacity to prevent premature buckling of

the stiffening lip.

The limitation to b/t equal to 90 for compression flanges with any other kind of stiffeners

indicates that thinner flanges with large b/t ratios are quite flexible and liable to be

damaged in transport, handling and erection. The same is true for the limitation to b/t

equal to 500 for stiffened compression elements with both longitudinal edges connected to

other stiffened elements and for the limitation to b/t equal to 60 for unstiffened

compression elements. The Note specifically states that wider flanges are not unsafe, but

that when the b/t ratio of unstiffened flanges exceeds 30 and the b/t ratio of stiffened

flanges exceeds 250, they are likely to develop noticeable deformation at the full design

strength, without affecting the ability of the member to develop the required strength. In

both cases the maximum b/t is set at twice that ratio at which first noticeable

deformations are likely to appear, based on observations of such members under tests.

These upper limits will generally keep such deformations to reasonable limits. In cases

where the limits are exceeded, tests in accordance with Section 6 are required.

C2.1.3.2 Flange curling In beams that have unusually wide and thin but stable flanges,

i.e. primarily tension flanges with large b/t ratios, there is a tendency for these flanges to

curl under bending. That is, the portions of these flanges most remote from the web

(edges of I-beams, centre portions of flanges of box or hat beams) tend to deflect toward

the neutral axis. An approximate, analytical treatment of this problem is given by Winter

(1948b). Equation 2.1.3.2 of the Standard permits one to compute the maximum

permissible flange width (b1) for a given amount of flange curling (cf).

It should be noted that Clause 2.1.3.2 does not stipulate the amount of curling, which can

be regarded as tolerable, but an amount of curling in the order of 5% of the depth of the

section is not excessive under usual conditions. In general, flange curling is not a critical

factor to govern the flange width. However, when the appearance of the section is

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research on flange curling of profiled steel decks was completed by Bernard, Bridge and

Hancock (1996). A number of alternative curling models were developed for profiled steel

decks.

C2.1.3.3 Shear lag effects (short spans supporting concentrated loads) For beams of

usual shapes, the normal stresses are induced in the flanges through shear stresses

transferred from the web to the flange. These shear stresses produce shear strains in the

flange which, for ordinary dimensions, have negligible effects. However, if flanges are

unusually wide (relative to their length) these shear strains have the effect that the normal

bending stresses in the flanges decrease with increasing distance from the web. This

phenomenon is known as shear lag. It results in a non-uniform stress distribution across

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(see Clause C2.2), though for entirely different reasons. The simplest way of accounting

for this stress variation in design is to replace the non-uniformly stressed flange of actual

width (b1) by one of reduced, effective width subject to uniform stress (Winter, 1970).

Theoretical analyses by various investigators have arrived at results which differ

numerically (Roark, 1965). The provisions of Clause 2.1.3.3 are based on the analysis and

supporting experimental evidence obtained by detailed stress measurements on eleven

beams (Winter, 1940). In fact, the values of effective widths in Table 2.1.2 are taken

directly from Curve A of Figure 4 of Winter (1940).

It should be noted that, in accordance with Clause 2.1.3.3, the use of a reduced width for

stable, wide flanges is required only for concentrated load, as shown in Figure C2.1.3.3.

For uniform load, it can be seen from Curve B of Figure C2.1.3.3 that the width reduction

due to shear lag for any practicable large width-span ratio is so small as to be effectively

negligible.

The phenomenon of shear lag is of considerable consequence in naval architecture and

aircraft design. However, in cold-formed steel construction it is infrequent that beams are

so wide as to require significant reductions in accordance with Clause 2.1.3.3.

OF FLANGE OF SHORT SPAN BEAMS

C2.1.3.4 Maximum web depth-to-thickness ratio Prior to 1980, the maximum web

depth-to-thickness ratio (d1/tw) was limited to —

(a) 150 for cold-formed steel members with unreinforced webs; and

(b) 200 for members that are provided with adequate means of transmitting

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Based on the studies conducted at the University of Missouri-Rolla in the 1970s (LaBoube

and Yu, 1978a, 1978b, and 1982; Hetrakul and Yu, 1978 and 1980; Nguyen and Yu,

1978a and 1978b), the maximum d1/tw ratios were increased to —

(i) 200 for unreinforced webs;

(ii) 260 for webs using bearing stiffeners; and

(iii) 300 for webs using bearing and intermediate stiffeners in the 1980 edition of the

AISI Specification.

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These d1/tw limitations are the same as those used in the AISC Specification (AISC, 1989)

for plate girders and are retained in the 1996 edition of the AISI Specification and

AS/NZS 4600. Because the definition for d1 was changed in the 1986 edition of the AISI

Specification from the ‘clear distance between flanges’ to the ‘depth of flat portion’

measured along the plane of web, the prescribed maximum d1/tw ratio may appear to be

more liberal. An unpublished study by LaBoube concluded that the present definition for

d1 had negligible influence on the web strength.

structural behaviour and the load-carrying capacity of a stiffened compression element,

such as the compression flange of a hat section, depend on the b/t ratio and the supporting

condition along both longitudinal edges. If the b/t ratio is small, the stress in the

compression flange can reach the yield stress of steel and the strength of the compression

element is governed by yielding. For the compression flange with large b/t ratios, local

buckling (see Figure C2.2(1)) will occur at the following elastic critical buckling stress

(fol):

. . . C2.2

where

k = plate buckling coefficient (see Table C2.2)

= 4 for stiffened compression elements supported by a web on each longitudinal

edge

E = modulus of elasticity of steel

ν = Poisson’s ratio

= 0.3 for steel in the elastic range

b = flat width of the compression element

t = thickness of the compression element

When the elastic critical buckling stress calculated using Equation C2.2(1) exceeds the

proportional limit of the steel, the compression element will buckle in the inelastic range

(Yu, 1991).

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TABLE C2.2

VALUES OF PLATE BUCKLING COEFFICIENTS

Value of k for

Case Boundary condition Type of stress

long plate

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OF HAT-SHAPED BEAM

elements will not collapse when the buckling stress is reached. An additional load can be

carried by the element after buckling by means of a redistribution of stress. This

phenomenon is known as post-buckling strength of the compression elements and is most

pronounced for stiffened compression elements with large b/t ratios. The mechanism of

the post-buckling action of compression elements is discussed by Winter in earlier

editions of the AISI Commentary (Winter, 1970).

Imagine, for the sake of simplicity, a square plate uniformly compressed in one direction,

with the unloaded edges simply supported. Since it is difficult to visualize the

performance of such two-dimensional elements, the plate will be replaced by a model,

which is shown in Figure C2.2(2). The model consists of a grid of longitudinal and

transverse bars in which the material of the actual plate is thought to be concentrated.

Since the plate is uniformly compressed, each of the longitudinal struts represents a

column loaded by N/5 where N is the total axial force on the plate. As the force is

gradually increased, the compression stress in each of these struts will reach the critical

column buckling value and all five struts will tend to buckle simultaneously. If these

struts were simple columns, unsupported except at the ends, they would simultaneously

collapse through unrestrained, increasing horizontal deflection. It is evident, however, that

this cannot occur in the grid model of the plate. Indeed, as soon as the longitudinal struts

start deflecting at their buckling stress, the transverse bars that are connected to them

should stretch like ties in order to accommodate the imposed deflection. Like any

structural material, they resist stretch and, thereby, have a restraining effect on the

deflections of the longitudinal struts.

The tension forces in the horizontal bars of the grid model correspond to the so-called

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membrane stresses in a real plate. These stresses, just as in the grid model, come into play

as soon as the compression stresses begin to cause buckling waves. They consist mostly

of transverse tension, but also of some shear stresses, and they counteract increasing wave

deflections, i.e. they tend to stabilize the plate against further buckling under the applied

increasing longitudinal compression. Hence, the resulting behaviour of the model is as

follows:

(a) There is no collapse by unrestrained deflections as in unsupported columns.

(b) The various struts will deflect unequal amounts, those nearest the supported edges

being held almost straight by the ties, those nearest the centre being able to deflect

most.

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In consequence of Item (a), the model will not collapse and fail when its buckling stress

(see Equation C2.2(1)) is reached, in contrast to columns it will merely develop slight

deflections but will continue to carry increasing load. In consequence of Item (b), the

struts (strips of the plate) closest to the centre, which deflect most, ‘get away from the

load’, and hardly participate in carrying any further load increases. These centre strips

may, in fact, even transfer part of their pre-buckling load to their neighbours. The struts

(or strips) closest to the edges, held straight by the ties, continue to resist increasing load

with hardly any increasing deflection. For the plate, this means that the hitherto uniformly

distributed compression stress re-distributes itself in a manner shown in Figure C2.2(3),

the stresses being largest at the edges and smallest in the centre. With additional increase

in load this non-uniformity increases further, as also shown in Figure C2.2(3). The plate

fails, i.e. refuses to carry any further load increases, only when the most highly stressed

strips, near the supported edges, begin to yield, i.e. when the compression stress (f max.)

reaches the yield stress (fy).

This post-buckling strength of plates was discovered experimentally in 1928, and an

approximate theory of it was first given by Th. v. Karman in 1932 (Bleich, 1952). It has

been used in aircraft design ever since. A graphic illustration of the phenomenon of

post-buckling strength can be found in the series of photographs shown in Figure 7 of

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Winter (1959b).

The model shown in Figure C2.2(2) demonstrates the behaviour of a compression element

supported along both longitudinal edges, as does the flange shown in Figure C2.2(1). In

fact, such elements buckle into approximately square waves.

In order to utilize the post-buckling strength of the stiffened compression element for

design purposes, the AISI Specification has used the effective design width approach to

determine the sectional properties, and since 1946 and AS/NZS 4600 has adopted this

effective width approach. In Clause 2.2 of the Standard, design equations for calculating

the effective widths are provided for the following three cases:

(i) Uniformly compressed stiffened elements.

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(iii) Webs and stiffened elements with a stress gradient.

The background information on various design requirements is discussed in the

subsequent sections herein.

C2.2.1 Uniformly compressed stiffened elements

C2.2.1.2 Effective width for capacity calculations In the ‘effective design width’

approach, instead of considering the non-uniform distribution of stress over the entire

width of the plate (b) it is assumed that the total load is carried by a fictitious effective

width (be) subject to a uniformly distributed stress equal to the edge stress (f max.) as shown

in Figure C2.2(3). The width (be) is selected so that the area under the curve of the actual

non-uniform stress distribution is equal to the sum of the two parts of the equivalent

rectangular shaded area with a total width (b e) and an intensity of stress equal to the edge

stress (fmax.).

STIFFENED COMPRESSION ELEMENTS

Based on the concept of ‘effective width’ introduced by von Karman et al. (von Karman,

Sechler and Donnell, 1932) and the extensive investigation on light-gauge, cold-formed

steel sections at Cornell University, the following equation was developed by Winter in

1946 for determining the effective width (be) for stiffened compression elements simply

supported along both longitudinal edges:

. . . C2.2.1.2(1)

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. . . C2.2.1.2(2)

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During the period from 1946 to 1968, the AISI design provision for the determination of

the effective design width was based on Equation C2.2.1.2(1). A long-time accumulated

experience has indicated that the following more realistic equation may be used for the

determination of the effective width (be) (Winter, 1970):

. . . C2.2.1.2(3)

The correlation between the test data on stiffened compression elements and

Equation C2.2.1.2(3) is illustrated by Yu (1991).

It should be noted that Equation C2.2.1.2(3) may also be rewritten in terms of the fol/fmax.

ratio as follows:

. . . C2.2.1.2(4)

be = ρb . . . C2.2.1.2(5)

where

ρ = effective width factor

. . . C2.2.1.2(6)

. . . C2.2.1.2(7)

Figure C2.2(4) shows the relationship between φ and λ. It can be seen that if λ is less

than or equal to 0.673, φ is equal to 1.0.

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Peköz (1986b and 1986c), the 1986 edition of the AISI Specification adopted the

non-dimensional format in Clause 2.2 for determining the effective design width (be) for

uniformly, compressed stiffened elements. The same design equations are used in the

1996 edition of the AISI Specification and in the Standard.

In the Standard, fmax. in Equation C2.2.1.2(7) is taken as f *, the design stress in the

compression element calculated on the basis of the effective design width.

C2.2.1.3 Effective width for deflection calculations The effective design width

equations for load capacity determination discussed in Clause C2.2.1.2 can also be used to

obtain a conservative effective width (bed) for deflection calculation. It is included in

Clause 2.2.1.3 of the Standard as Procedure I.

For stiffened compression elements supported by a web on each longitudinal edge, a study

conducted by Weng and Peköz (1986) indicated that Equations 2.2.1.2(3) to 2.2.1.2(6) of

the Standard can yield a more accurate estimate of the effective width (bde) for deflection

analysis. These equations are given in Procedure II of the Standard for additional design

information. The design engineer has the option of using one of the two procedures for

determining the effective width to be used for deflection calculations.

C2.2.2 Uniformly compressed stiffened elements with circular holes In cold-formed

steel structural members, holes are sometimes provided in webs or flanges, or both, of

beams and columns for duct work, piping and other construction purposes. The presence

of such holes may result in a reduction of the strength of individual component elements

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and the overall strength and stiffness of the members depending on the size, shape

arrangement of holes, the geometric configuration of the cross-section, and the mechanical

properties of the material.

The exact analysis and the design of steel sections having perforations are complex,

particularly when the shapes and the arrangement of holes are unusual. The limited design

provisions included in Clause 2.2.2 of the Standard for uniformly compressed stiffened

elements with circular holes are based on a study conducted by Ortiz-Colberg and Peköz

at Cornell University (Ortiz-Colberg and Peköz, 1981). For additional information on the

structural behaviour of perforated elements, see Yu and Davis (1973a) and Yu (1991).

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C2.2.3 Stiffened elements with stress gradient When a beam is subjected to bending

moment, the compression portion of the web may buckle due to the compressive stress

caused by bending. The theoretical critical buckling stress for a flat rectangular plate

under pure bending can be calculated using Equation C2.2(1), except that the depth-to-

thickness ratio (d1/tw) is substituted for the width-to-thickness ratio (b/t) and the plate

buckling coefficient (k) is equal to 23.9 for simple supports as given in Table C2.2.

In AS 1538 — 1988, the design of cold-formed steel beam webs was based on the full web

depth with the permissible bending stress (Fbw) specified in the Standard. In order to unify

the design methods for web elements and compression flanges, the ‘effective design

depth’ approach was adopted in the 1986 edition of the AISI Specification on the basis of

the studies made by Peköz (1986b), Cohen and Peköz (1987). This is a different approach

as compared with the past practice of using a full area of the web element in conjunction

with a reduced stress to account for local buckling and post-buckling strength (LaBoube

and Yu, 1982; Yu, 1985). The effective design depth approach is used in the Standard.

compression elements, the stress in the unstiffened compression elements can reach the

yield stress of steel if the b/t ratio is small. Because the unstiffened element has one

longitudinal edge supported by the web and the other edge is free, the limiting width-to-

thickness ratio of unstiffened elements is much less than that for stiffened elements.

When the b/t ratio of the unstiffened element is large, local buckling (see Figure C2.3(1))

will occur at the elastic critical stress calculated using Equation C2.2(1) with a value of k

equal to 0.43. This buckling coefficient is given in Table C2.2 for Case (c). For the

intermediate range of b/t ratios, the unstiffened element will buckle in the inelastic range.

Figure C2.3(2) shows the relationship between the maximum stress for unstiffened

compression elements and the b/t ratio, in which Line A is the yield point of steel, Line B

represents the inelastic buckling stress, Curves C and D illustrate the elastic buckling

stress. The equations for Curves A, B, C and D have been developed from previous

experimental and analytical investigations and used for determining the allowable design

stresses in the AISI Specification up to 1986 and AS 1538 — 1974 (Winter, 1970; Yu,

1991; Hancock, 1998). Also shown in Figure C2.3(2) is Curve E, which represents the

maximum stress on the basis of the post-buckling strength of the unstiffened element. The

correlation between the test data on unstiffened elements and the predicted maximum

stresses is shown in Figure C2.3(3) (Yu, 1991).

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COMPRESSION ELEMENTS

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AND PREDICTED MAXIMUM STRESS

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Prior to 1986 (AISI) and 1988 (AS 1538), it had been a general practice to design

cold-formed steel members with unstiffened flanges by using the permissible stress design

approach. The effective width equation was not used in earlier editions of the AISI

Specification and AS 1538 — 1974 due to lack of extensive experimental verification and

the concern for excessive out-of-plane distortions under service loads.

In the 1970s, the applicability of the effective width concept to unstiffened elements

under uniform compression was studied in detail by Kalyanaraman, Peköz, and Winter at

Cornell University (Kalyanaraman, Peköz, and Winter, 1977; Kalyanaraman and Peköz,

1978). The evaluation of the test data using k equal to 0.43 was presented and

summarized by Peköz in the AISI report (Peköz, 1986b), which indicates that

Equation C2.2.1.2(6), developed for stiffened compression elements, gives a conservative

lower bound to the test results of unstiffened compression elements. In addition to the

strength determination, the same study also investigated the out-of-plane deformations in

unstiffened elements. The results of theoretical calculations and the test results on the

sections having unstiffened elements with b/t equal to 60 were presented by Peköz in the

same report. It was found that the maximum amplitude of the out-of-plane deformation at

failure can be twice the thickness as the b/t ratio approaches 60. However, the

deformations are significantly less under the service loads. Based on the above reasons

and justifications, the effective design width approach was adopted for the first time in

Section B3 of the 1986 AISI Specification and AS 1538 — 1988 for the design of

cold-formed steel members having unstiffened compression elements.

C2.3.1 Uniformly compressed unstiffened elements The effective widths (be) of

uniformly compressed unstiffened elements can be determined in accordance with

Clause 2.2.1.2 of the Standard with the exception that the plate buckling coefficient (k) is

taken as 0.43. This is a theoretical value for long plates. See Case (c) given in

Table C2.2. For deflection determination, the effective widths of uniformly compressed

unstiffened elements can only be determined in accordance with Procedure I of

Clause 2.2.1.3 of the Standard, because Procedure II was developed for stiffened

compression elements only.

C2.3.2 Unstiffened elements and edge stiffeners with stress gradient In

concentrically loaded compression members and in flexural members where the

unstiffened compression element is parallel to the neutral axis, the stress distribution is

uniform prior to local buckling. However, when edge stiffeners of the beam section are

turned in or out, the compressive stress in the edge stiffener is not uniform but varies in

proportion to the distance from the neutral axis.

There is a very limited amount of information on the behaviour of unstiffened

compression elements with a stress gradient. Cornell research on the behaviour of edge

stiffeners for flexural members has demonstrated that by using Winter’s effective width

equation (Equation C2.2.1.3(4)) with a k equal to 0.43, good correlation is achieved

between the tested and calculated capacity (Peköz, 1986b). The same trend is also true for

deflection determination. Therefore, in Clause 2.3.2 of the Standard, unstiffened elements

and edge stiffeners with stress gradient are treated as uniformly compressed elements for

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the calculation of effective widths with stress (f*) to be the maximum compression stress

in the element.

The Standard allows two additional alternative procedures to those specified in the AISI

Specification. Firstly, the plate buckling coefficient (k) for each flat element may be

determined from a rational elastic buckling analysis of the whole section as a plate

assemblage subjected to the longitudinal stress distribution in the section prior to

buckling. This could be achieved using a finite strip buckling analysis such as that

described by Papangelis and Hancock (1995).

The second alternative approach allowed in the Standard is given in Appendix F. This

Appendix is based on Eurocode 3, Part 1.3, (1996) where buckling coefficients and

effective widths of unstiffened elements under stress gradient are given in Table 4.2. The

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use of this Table is assumed not to be iterative so that the stresses f *1 and f*2 used to

calculate the buckling coefficient (k) and effective width (be) are based on the stresses on

the full (gross) section. This approach is a higher tier in the Standard and further research

is required to fully validate its applicability for a range of sections.

AN EDGE STIFFENER OR ONE INTERMEDIATE STIFFENER For cold-formed

steel beams such as hat, box or inverted U-type sections shown in Figures C1.3.2(c), (d)

and (e) the compression flange is supported along both longitudinal edges by webs. In this

case, if the webs are properly designed, they provide adequate stiffening for the

compression elements by preventing their longitudinal edges from out-of-plane

displacements. On the other hand, in many cases, only one longitudinal edge is stiffened

by the web, while the other edge is supported by an edge stiffener. In most cases, the

edge stiffener takes the form of a simple lip, such as in the channel and I-section as

shown in Figures C1.3.2(a) and (b).

The structural efficiency of a stiffened element always exceeds that of an unstiffened

element with the same b/t ratio by a sizeable margin, except for low b/t ratios, for which

the compression element is fully effective. When stiffened elements with large b/t ratios

are used, the material is not employed economically in as much as an increasing

proportion of the width of the compression element becomes ineffective. On the other

hand, in many applications of cold-formed steel construction, such as panels and decks,

maximum coverage is desired and, therefore, large b/t ratios are called for. For large b/t

ratios, structural economy can be improved by providing intermediate stiffeners between

webs. Such intermediate stiffeners provide optimum stiffening if they do not participate in

the wave-like distortion of the compression element, in which case they break up the

wave pattern so that the two strips to each side of intermediate stiffener distort

independently of each other, each in a pattern similar to that shown for a simple, stiffened

element in Figure C2.2(1). Compression elements furnished with such intermediate

stiffeners are designated as ‘multiple-stiffened segments’.

As far as the design provisions are concerned, the 1980 and earlier editions of the AISI

Specification and AS 1538 — 1988 included the requirements for the minimum second

moment of area of stiffeners to provide sufficient rigidity. When the size of the actual

stiffener does not satisfy the required second moment of area, the load-carrying capacity

of the beam has to be determined either on the basis of a flat element disregarding the

stiffener or through tests.

In 1986, the AISI Specification included the revised provisions in Clause 2.4 for

determining the effective widths of elements with an edge stiffener or one intermediate

stiffener on the basis of Peköz’s research findings in regard to stiffeners (Peköz, 1986b).

These design provisions were based on both critical local buckling and ultimate strength

criteria recognizing the interaction of plate elements. Also, for the first time, the design

provisions could be used for analysing partially stiffened and adequately stiffened

compression elements using different sizes of stiffeners. These provisions are included in

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C2.4.2 Elements with an intermediate stiffener The buckling behaviour of

rectangular plates with central stiffeners is discussed by Bulson (1969). For the design of

cold-formed steel beams using intermediate stiffeners, the 1980 AISI Specification and

AS 1538 — 1988 contained provisions for the minimum required second moment of area,

which was based on the assumption that an intermediate stiffener needed to be twice as

rigid as an edge stiffener. Subsequent research conducted by Desmond, Peköz, and Winter

(1981b) has developed expressions for evaluating the required stiffener rigidity based

upon the geometry of the contiguous flat elements.

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In view of the fact that for some cases the design requirements for intermediate stiffeners

included in the 1980 Specification could be unduly conservative (Peköz, 1986b), the AISI

design provisions were revised in 1986 according to Peköz’s research findings (Peköz,

1986b and 1986c). In this method, the buckling coefficient for determining the effective

width of sub-elements and the reduced area of the stiffener are to be calculated by using

the ratio Is/Ia. In the foregoing expression, Is is the actual stiffener second moment of area

and Ia is the adequate second moment of area of the stiffener determined from the

applicable equations.

C2.4.3 Elements with an edge stiffener An edge stiffener is used to provide a

continuous support along a longitudinal edge of the compression flange to improve the

buckling stress. Even though in most cases, the edge stiffener takes the form of a simple

lip, other types of edge stiffeners can also be used for cold-formed steel members. In

order to provide necessary support for the compression element, the edge stiffener must

possess sufficient rigidity. Otherwise it may buckle perpendicular to the plane of the

element to be stiffened.

Both theoretical and experimental studies on the local stability of compression flanges

stiffened by edge stiffeners have been carried out in the past. The design requirements

included in Clause 2.4.3 of the Standard are based on the investigations on adequately

stiffened and partially stiffened elements conducted by Desmond, Peköz and Winter

(1981a), with the additional research work by Peköz and Cohen (Peköz, 1986b). These

design provisions were developed on the basis of the critical buckling criterion and the

ultimate strength criterion.

Clause 2.4.3 recognizes that the necessary stiffener rigidity depends upon the slenderness

(b/t) of the plate element being stiffened. Thus, Cases I, II and III each contains different

definitions for an adequate stiffener second moment of area.

The interaction of the plate elements, as well as the degree of edge support, full or partial

is compensated for in the expressions for k, ds, and As (Peköz, 1986b).

In the 1996 edition of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1996) and AS/NZS 4600, the design

equations for buckling coefficient were changed for further clarity. In Case II, the

equation for k a equal to 5.25 − 5 (d 1/b) ≤ 4.0 is applicable only for simple lip stiffeners

because the term d1/b is meaningless for other types of edge stiffeners. It should be noted

that the provisions in this section were based on research dealing only with simple lip

stiffeners and extension to other types of stiffeners was purely intuitive. The requirement

of 140°≥ θ ≥ 40° for the applicability of these provisions was also decided on an intuitive

basis.

Test data to verify the accuracy of the simple lip stiffener design was collected from a

number of sources, both university and industry. These tests showed good correlation with

the equations in Clause 2.4.3. However, proprietary testing conducted in 1989 revealed

that lip lengths with a d/t ratio of greater than 14 gave unconservative results.

A review of the original research data showed a lack of data for simple stiffening lips

with d/t ratios greater than 14. Therefore, pending further research, an upper limit of 14 is

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recommended.

MORE INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS OR STIFFENED ELEMENTS WITH

MORE THAN ONE INTERMEDIATE STIFFENER As discussed in Clause C2.4, the

current design provisions for the effective widths of elements with an edge stiffener or

one intermediate stiffener were based on the results of previous Cornell research. Because

there has been insufficient research to further our understanding of the behaviour of

multiple-stiffened elements, the 1996 edition of the AISI Specification and AS/NZS 4600

have retained Equation 2.5(1) from previous editions of the Specification (AISI, 1986;

1991) and AS 1538 (1988) for evaluating the minimum required rigidity (I s, min.) of an

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intermediate stiffener for multiple-stiffened elements. If the actual second moment of area

of the full intermediate stiffener (Is) does not satisfy the minimum requirement of

Equation 2.5(1), the intermediate stiffener is disregarded for the determination of the

effective width of stiffened elements. The problem involved in the determination of the

load-carrying capacities of members having such inadequately stiffened compression

elements is complex because the buckling wave tends to spread across the intermediate

stiffener rather than being limited to individual waves occurring on both sides of the

stiffener. Once such a spreading wave occurs, the stiffened compression element is hardly

better than an element without intermediate stiffeners. For this reason, the sectional

properties of members having inadequately stiffened compression flanges are determined

on the basis of flat elements disregarding the intermediate stiffeners. The same is true for

edge-stiffened elements with intermediate stiffeners.

In addition, Clause 2.5(a) stipulates that if the spacing of intermediate stiffeners between

two webs is such that for the sub-element between stiffeners b e < b, only two intermediate

stiffeners adjacent to web elements shall be counted as effective. Additional stiffeners

would have two or more sub-elements between themselves and the nearest

shear-transmitting element (i.e. web) and, hence, could be ineffective. Clause 2.5(b)

applies the same reasoning to intermediate stiffeners between a web and an edge stiffener.

If intermediate stiffeners are spaced so closely that the sub-elements are fully effective,

i.e. be equal to b, no plate buckling of the sub-elements will occur. Therefore, the entire

assembly of sub-elements and intermediate stiffeners between webs behaves like a single

compression element whose rigidity is given by the second moment of area (I sf) of the full

area of the multiple-stiffened element, including stiffeners. Although the effective width

calculations are based upon an equivalent element having width (b2) and thickness (t s), the

actual thickness should be used when calculating section modulus.

With regard to the effective design width, results of tests of cold-formed steel sections

having intermediate stiffeners showed that the effective design width of a sub-element of

the multiple-stiffened compression elements is less than that of a single-stiffened element

with the same b/t ratio. This is true, particularly if the b/t ratio of the sub-element exceeds

about 60.

This phenomenon is due to the fact that, in beam sections, the normal stresses in the

flanges result from shear stresses between web and flange. The web generates the normal

stresses by means of the shear stress, which transfers to the flange. The more remote

portions of the flange obtain their normal stress through shear from those close to the

web. For this reason there is a difference between webs and intermediate stiffeners. The

latter is not a shear-resisting element and does not generate normal stresses through shear.

Any normal stress in the intermediate stiffener should be transferred to it from the web or

webs through the flange portions. As long as the sub-element between web and stiffener is

flat or is only very slightly buckled, this stress transfer proceeds in an unaffected manner.

In this case, the stress in the stiffener equals that at the web, and the sub-element is as

effective as a regular single-stiffened element with the same b/t ratio. However, for

sub-elements having larger b/t ratios, the slight buckling waves of the sub-element

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interfere with complete shear transfer and create a ‘shear lag’ problem which results in a

stress distribution as shown in Figure C2.5.

For multiple-stiffened compression elements or wide stiffened elements with edge

stiffeners, the effective widths of sub-elements and the effective areas of stiffeners are

calculated using Equations 2.5(3) to 2.5(6) of Clause 2.5.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 46

WITH INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS

shown in Figure 1.3(d) and defined in Clause 1.3.3 of the Standard. This provision was

carried forward from AS 1538 — 1988.

C2.7 STIFFENERS

C2.7.1 Transverse stiffeners Design requirements for attached transverse stiffeners

and for shear stiffeners were added in the 1980 AISI Specification and were unchanged in

the 1986 Specification and were also given in AS 1538 (1988). The same design equations

are retained in the 1996 AISI Specification and the Standard. The nominal strength

equation given in Item (a) of Clause 2.7.1 of the Standard serves to prevent end crushing

of the transverse stiffeners, while the nominal strength equation given in Item (b) of

Clause 2.7.1 is to prevent column-type buckling of the web-stiffeners. The equations for

calculating the effective areas (As1 and As2) and the effective widths (b1 and b2) were

adopted from Nguyen and Yu (1978a) with minor modifications.

The available experimental data on cold-formed steel transverse stiffeners were evaluated

by Hsiao, Yu and Galambos (1988). A total of 61 tests was examined. The capacity factor

of 0.85 used was selected on the basis of the statistical data.

C2.7.2 Shear stiffeners The requirements for shear stiffeners included in Clause 2.7.2

of the Standard were primarily adopted from the AISC Specification (1978). The

equations for calculating the minimum required second moment of area

(Equation 2.7.2(1)) and the minimum required gross area (Equation 2.7.2(2)) of attached

intermediate stiffeners are based on the studies summarized by Nguyen and Yu (1978a).

In Equation 2.7.2(1), the minimum value of (d1/50)4 was selected from the AISC

Specification (AISC, 1978).

The available experimental data on the shear strength of beam webs with shear stiffeners

were calibrated by Hsiao, Yu and Galambos (1988). The statistical data used for

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determining the capacity factor were summarized in the AISI Design Manual

(AISI, 1991). Based on these data, the safety index was found to be 4.10 for φ equal

to 0.90.

C2.7.3 Non-conforming stiffeners Tests on rolled-in transverse stiffeners covered in

Clause 2.7.3 of the Standard were not conducted in the experimental program reported by

Nguyen and Yu (1978a). Lacking reliable information, the design capacities of members

are to be determined by tests in accordance with Section 6 of the Standard.

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S E C T I O N C 3 M E M B E R S

(a) Tension members.

(b) Flexural members.

(c) Concentrically loaded compression members.

(d) Combined axial load and bending.

(e) Cylindrical tubular members.

To simplify the use of the Standard, all design provisions for a given specific member

type have been assembled in a particular Section within the Standard. In general, a

common nominal strength equation is provided in the Standard for a given limit state with

a required capacity [strength reduction] factor (φ) for limit states design.

C3.1 GENERAL The geometric properties of a member (i.e. area, second moment of

area, section modulus, radius of gyration and the like) are evaluated using conventional

methods of structural design. These properties are based upon either full cross-section

dimensions, effective widths or net section, as applicable.

For the design of tension members, the net section is employed when calculating the

nominal tensile strength of the axially loaded tension members.

For flexural members and axially loaded compression members, both full and effective

dimensions are used to calculate sectional properties. The full dimensions are used when

calculating the buckling load or moment, while the effective dimensions are used to

calculate the section and member capacities. For deflection calculation, the effective

dimension should be determined for the compressive stress in the element corresponding

to the service load. Peköz (1986a and 1986b) discusses this concept in more detail.

regarding the capacity of cold-formed steel tension members. The provisions in Clause 3.2

of the Standard are the same as those in Clauses 7.2 and 7.3 of AS 4100/NZS 3404. The

Commentary to AS 4100 (AS 4100 Supp 1 — 1990) or to NZS 3404

(NZS 3404:Part 2:1997) should, therefore, be referred to for the explanation of

Clause 3.2.

flexural members, consideration should be given to the following:

(a) Bending strength and deflection.

(b) Shear strength of webs and combined bending and shear.

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(c) Web crippling strength and combined bending and web crippling.

(d) Bracing requirements.

For some cases, special consideration should also be given to shear lag and flange curling

due to the use of thin material. The design provisions for Items (a), (b) and (c) are

provided in Clause 3.3 of the Standard, while the requirements for lateral bracing are

specified in Clause 4.3. The treatments for flange curling and shear lag were discussed in

Clauses C2.1.3.2 and C2.1.3.3, respectively.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 48

according to whether or not the member is laterally braced or the compression flange is

torsionally braced. If such members are laterally supported, then they are proportioned in

accordance with the nominal section moment capacity (see Clause 3.3.2 of the Standard).

If they are laterally unbraced, then the limit state is lateral buckling (see Clause 3.3.3.2 of

the Standard) or lateral-distortional buckling (see Clause 3.3.3.3(b) of the Standard). If the

compression flange is torsionally unbraced but the member is laterally braced, then the

limit state may be flange distortional buckling (see Clause 3.3.3.3(a) of the Standard). For

channel or Z-sections with the tension flange attached to deck or sheeting and with the

compression flange laterally unbraced, the bending capacity is less than that of a fully

braced member but greater than that of an unbraced member (see Clause 3.3.3.4 of the

Standard). The governing nominal bending capacity is the smallest of the values

determined from the applicable conditions.

C3.3.2 Nominal section moment capacity Clause 3.3.2 of the Standard includes two

design procedures for calculating the nominal section moment capacity. The first

procedure in Clause 3.3.2.2 of the Standard is based on initiation of yielding and the

second procedure in Clause 3.3.2.3 of the Standard is based on inelastic reserve capacity.

C3.3.2.2 Based on initiation of yielding In Clause 3.3.2.2 of the Standard, the nominal

section moment capacity (Ms) is the effective yield moment determined on the basis of the

effective areas of flanges and the beam webs. The effective width of the compression

flange and the effective depth of the webs can be calculated from the design equations

given in Section 2 of the Standard.

Similar to the design of hot-rolled steel shapes, the yield moment of a cold-formed steel

beam is defined as the moment at which an outer fibre (tension, compression, or both)

first attains the yield point of the steel. This is the maximum bending capacity to be used

in elastic design. Figure C3.3.2.2 shows several types of stress distributions for yield

moment based on different locations of the neutral axis. For balanced sections (see

Figure C3.3.2.2(a)), the outer fibres in the compression and tension flanges reach the yield

point at the same time. However, if the neutral axis is eccentrically located, as shown in

Figures C3.3.2.2(b) and (c), the initial yielding takes place in the tension flange for

Case (b) and in the compression flange for Case (c).

Accordingly, the nominal section strength for initiation of yielding is calculated using

Equation C3.3.2.2 as follows:

Ms = Ze fy . . . C3.3.2.2

where

Ze = elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated with the extreme

compression or tension fibre at f y

fy = design yield stress

For cold-formed steel design, Ze is usually calculated by using one of the following:

(a) If the neutral axis is closer to the tension than to the compression flange, the

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maximum stress occurs in the compression flange and, therefore, the plate

slenderness ratio (λ) and the effective width of the compression flange are

determined using the b/t ratio and f* equal to f y. This procedure is also applicable to

those beams for which the neutral axis is located at the mid-depth of the section.

(b) If the neutral axis is closer to the compression than to the tension flange, the

maximum stress of fy occurs in the tension flange. The stress in the compression

flange depends on the location of the neutral axis, which is determined by the

effective area of the section. The latter cannot be determined unless the compressive

stress is known. A closed-form solution of this type of design is possible but would

be a very tedious and complex procedure. It is therefore customary to determine the

sectional properties of the section by iteration.

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49 AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998

For determining the design section moment capacity (φbMs), slightly different capacity

factors are used for the sections with stiffened or partially stiffened compression flanges

and the sections with unstiffened compression flanges. These φ b values were derived from

the test results and a dead-to-live load ratio of 1/5. They provide β values ranging from

2.53 to 4.05 (AISI, 1991; Hsiao, Yu and Galambos, 1988).

C3.3.2.3 Based on inelastic reserve capacity Prior to 1980, the inelastic reserve

capacity of beams was not included in the AISI Specification because most cold-formed

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steel shapes have large width-to-thickness ratios which are considerably in excess of the

limits required by plastic design. Inelastic reserve capacity was introduced in

AS 1538 — 1988.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, research work on the inelastic strength of cold-formed steel

beams was carried out by Reck, Peköz, Winter, and Yener at Cornell University (Reck,

Peköz and Winter, 1975; Yener and Peköz, 1985a, 1985b). These studies showed that the

inelastic reserve strength of cold-formed steel beams due to partial plastification of the

cross-section and the moment redistribution of statically indeterminate beams can be

significant for certain practical shapes. With proper care, this reserve strength can be

utilized to achieve more economical design of such members.

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In order to utilize the available inelastic reserve strength of certain cold-formed steel

beams, design provisions based on the partial plastification of the cross-section were

added in the 1980 edition of the AISI Specification and the 1988 edition of AS 1538. The

same provisions are retained in the 1996 edition of the Standard. In accordance with

Clause 3.3.2.3 of the Standard, the nominal section moment capacity (M s) of those beams

satisfying certain specific limitations can be determined on the basis of the inelastic

reserve capacity with a limit of 1.25(My)e, where (M y)e is the effective yield moment. The

ratio of M s/(My)e represents the inelastic reserve strength of a beam cross-section.

The nominal section moment capacity (Ms) is the maximum bending capacity of the beam

by considering the inelastic reserve strength through partial plastification of the

cross-section. The inelastic stress distribution in the cross-section depends on the

maximum strain in the compression flange (εeu). Based on the Cornell research work on

hat sections having stiffened compression flanges (Reck, Peköz and Winter, 1975), the

design provision limits the maximum compression strain to be Cyey, where Cy is a

compression strain factor determined using the equations provided in Clause 3.3.2.3 of the

Standard, as shown in Figure C3.3.2.3.

WITHOUT INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS

On the basis of the maximum compression strain (C yey) permitted in the Standard, the

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neutral axis can be located using Equation C3.3.2.3(1) and the nominal moment (Ms) can

be determined using Equation C3.3.2.3(2) as follows:

. . . C3.3.2.3(1)

. . . C3.3.2.3(2)

where

σ = the stress in the cross-section.

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C3.3.3.2 Members subject to lateral buckling The bending capacity of flexural

members is not only governed by the strength of the cross-section, but is also limited by

the lateral buckling strength of the member if lateral and torsional braces are not

adequately provided. The design provisions for determining the nominal member moment

capacity of laterally unbraced segments are specified in Clause 3.3.3.2 of the Standard.

Clause 3.3.3.2(a) is based on the AISI Specification (1996) and Clause 3.3.3.2(b) of the

Standard is based on AS 1538 — 1988 converted to limit states format.

If an equal-flanged I-beam is laterally unbraced, it may fail in lateral (flexural-torsional)

buckling. In the elastic range, the elastic buckling moment (M o) can be determined using

Equation C3.3.3.2(1) as follows:

. . . C3.3.3.2(1)

where

E = modulus of elasticity

G = shear modulus

Iy = second moment of area about the y-axis

Iw = warping constant of torsion

J = St. Venant torsion constant

l = unbraced length

Equation C3.3.3.2(1) is given as a function of f oy and foz by Equation 3.3.3.2(7) in the

Standard except that the C b factor discussed later is included in the numerator. The terms

(foy) and (foz) are the elastic buckling stresses calculated using Equations 3.3.3.2(11)

and 3.3.3.2(12) in the Standard.

In Equation C3.3.3.2(1), the first term under the square root represents the strength due to

the St. Venant torsional rigidity, and the second term represents the strength due to the

warping rigidity. For thin-walled cold-formed steel sections, the second term usually

exceeds the first term considerably and so Equation C3.3.3.2(1) can be simplified as

follows:

. . . C3.3.3.2(2)

Equation C3.3.3.2(2) is given as Equation 3.3.3.2(21) in the Standard except that the Cm

factor discussed later is included in the denominator.

. . . C3.3.3.2(3)

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where

Iyc = second moment of area of the compression portion of the section.

Equation C3.3.3.2(3) was derived on the basis of a uniform bending moment and is

conservative for other cases. For this reason M o may be modified by multiplying the right-

hand side by a bending coefficient (Cb) as follows:

. . .C3.3.3.2(4)

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calculated as follows:

. . . C3.3.3.2(5)

where

Mmax. = absolute value of maximum moment in the unbraced segment

M3 = absolute value of moment at quarter point of unbraced segment

M4 = absolute value of moment at centerline of unbraced segment

M5 = absolute value of moment at three-quarter point of unbraced segment

Equation C3.3.3.2(5) was derived by Kirby and Nethercot (1979) and can be used for

various shapes of moment diagrams within the unbraced length under consideration

(equivalent to segment in AS 4100 and in NZS 3404). It gives accurate solutions for

fixed-end beams and moment diagrams that are not straight lines. Equation C3.3.3.2(5) is

the same as that being used in the AISC LRFD Specification (AISC, 1993).

Based on the elastic critical buckling stress of an I-section calculated using

Equation C3.3.3.2(4), the simplified elastic buckling moment for lateral buckling of point

symmetric Z-sections can be determined using Equation C3.3.3.2(6)

(i.e. Equation 3.3.3.2(16) in the Standard), which is simply derived by factoring

Equation C3.3.3.2(4) by ½ to allow for the inclined principal axes of the Z-section, as

follows:

. . . C3.3.3.2(6)

Equation C3.3.3.2(2) applies only to elastic buckling of cold-formed steel beams when the

calculated theoretical buckling stress is less than or equal to the proportional limit. When

the calculated stress exceeds the proportional limit, the beam behaviour will be governed

by inelastic buckling. The inelastic buckling stress can be calculated using

Equation C3.3.3.2(7) (Yu, 1991) as follows:

. . . C3.3.3.2(7)

Consequently, Equation C3.3.3.2(8) (i.e. Equation 3.3.3.2(3) in the Standard) can be used

to determine the inelastic critical moment for lateral buckling as follows:

. . . C3.3.3.2(8)

where

My = the moment causing initial yield at the entrance compression fibre of the full

section and equals Z f fy

The elastic and inelastic buckling moments for lateral buckling strength are shown in

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Figure C3.3.3.2(1) (Yu, 1991). As specified in Clause 3.3.3.2(a) of the Standard, buckling

is considered to be elastic up to a moment equal to 0.56 My. The inelastic region is

defined by a Johnson parabola from 0.56 M y to (10/9) My at an unsupported length of

zero. The (10/9) factor is based on the partial plastification of the section in bending

(Galambos, 1963). A flat plateau is created by limiting the maximum moment to M y which

enables the calculation of the maximum unsupported length for which there is no moment

reduction due to lateral instability. This maximum unsupported length can be calculated

by setting My equal to the Johnson parabola. This inelastic lateral buckling curve for

singly-, doubly- and point-symmetric sections has been confirmed by research in beam-

columns (Peköz and Sumer, 1992) and wall studs (Kian and Peköz, 1994).

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FOR LATERAL BUCKLING STRENGTH

In the Standard, the design equations from AS 1538 — 1988 were converted to limit states

format and included in Clause 3.3.3.2(b) of the Standard. In particular, the strength

Equations 3.3.3.2(17), 3.3.3.2(18) and 3.3.3.2(19) in the Standard were derived directly

from Clause 3.3.2 of AS 1538 with stresses (Fb, FY and Fo) replaced by equivalent

moments (Mc, My and M o), and with the factor of safety of 1.67 removed.

The above discussion deals only with the lateral buckling strength of locally stable beams.

For locally unstable beams, the interaction of the local buckling of compression elements

and the overall lateral buckling of beams may result in a reduction of the lateral buckling

strength of the member. The effect of local buckling on critical moment is considered in

Clause 3.3.3.2 of the Standard, in which the nominal member moment capacity is

determined as follows:

. . . C3.3.3.2(9)

where

Mc = elastic or inelastic critical moment, whichever is applicable

Zc = elastic section modulus of the effective section calculated at a stress Mc/Zf in

the extreme compression fibre

Zf = elastic section modulus of the full unreduced section for the extreme

compression fibre

In Equation C3.3.3.2(9), the ratio of Z c/Zf represents the effect of local buckling on lateral

buckling strength of beams.

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Using the above nominal member moment capacity with a capacity factor of φb equal to

0.90, values of β vary from 2.4 to 3.8.

Lateral buckling problems discussed above deal with the type of lateral buckling of

I-beams, channels and Z-shaped sections for which the entire cross-section rotates and

deflects in the lateral direction. This is not the case for U-shaped beams and the combined

sheet-stiffener sections shown in Figure C3.3.3.2(2). For this case, when the section is

loaded in such a manner that the flanges of stiffeners are in compression, the tension

flange of the beam remains straight and does not displace laterally; only the compression

flange tends to buckle separately in the lateral direction, accompanied by out-of-plane

bending of the web, as shown in Figure C3.3.3.2(3), unless adequate bracing is provided.

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The precise analysis of the lateral buckling of U-shaped beams is rather complex. The

compression flange and the compression portion of the web act not only like a column on

an elastic foundation, but the problem is also complicated by the weakening influence of

the torsional action of the flange. For this reason, the design procedure outlined in

Chapter C of Supplementary Information of the AISI Design Manual for determining the

allowable design strength for laterally unbraced compression flanges is based on the

considerable simplification of an analysis presented by Douty (1962).

In 1964, Haussler presented rigorous methods for determining the strength of elastically

stabilized beams (Haussler, 1964). In his methods, Haussler also treated the unbraced

compression flange as a column on an elastic foundation and maintained more rigour in

his development.

A comparison of Haussler’s method with Douty’s simplified method indicates that the

latter may provide a smaller critical stress.

An additional study of laterally unbraced compression flanges was recently made at

Cornell University (Serrette and Peköz, 1992, 1994 and 1995) and an analytical procedure

was developed for determining the distortional buckling strength of the standing seam

roof panel.

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Ellifritt, Sputo and Haynes (1992) has indicated that when the unbraced length is defined

as the spacing between intermediate braces, the equations used in Clause 3.3.3.2 of the

Standard may be conservative for cases where one mid-span brace is used, but may be

unconservative where more than one intermediate brace is used.

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The above-mentioned research (Ellifritt, Sputo, and Haynes, 1992) and the recent study of

Kavanagh and Ellifritt (1993 and 1994) have shown that a discretely braced beam, not

attached to deck and sheeting, may fail either by lateral-torsional buckling between

braces, or by distortional buckling at or near the braced point. The distortional buckling

strength of C-sections and Z-sections has recently been studied extensively at the

University of Sydney by Lau and Hancock (1987); Hancock, Kwon and Bernard (1994);

and Hancock (1997).

Two types of distortional buckling are specified in Clause 3.3.3.3 of the Standard. These

are flange distortional buckling, which involves rotation of a flange and lip about the

flange/web junction of a C-section or Z-section, as shown in Figure C3.3.3.3(a), and

lateral-distortional buckling, which involves transverse bending of a vertical web as

shown in Figure C3.3.3.3(b).

The flange-distortional mode is specified in Clause 3.3.3.3(a) of the Standard. The elastic

distortional buckling stress (fod) can be based on a rational elastic buckling analysis, such

as that given in Paragraph D3 of Appendix D of the Standard, which is based on Hancock

(1997). The equation for critical moment (M c) is developed in Hancock, Kwon and

Bernard (1994), and is further supported by testing (Hancock, Rogers and Schuster

(1996)). Flange distortional buckling is most likely to occur in the unsheeted compression

flanges of purlins under wind uplift when the purlins are braced to prevent twisting and

lateral buckling.

The lateral-distortional mode is specified in Clause 3.3.3.3(b) of the Standard. It is most

likely to occur in beams, such as the hollow flange beam shown in Figure C3.3.3.3(b),

where the high torsional rigidity of the tubular compression flange prevents it from

twisting during lateral displacement. Equations for the elastic distortional buckling stress

are given in Pi and Trahair (1997). The equation for critical moment (M c) is based on the

Johnston parabola (Galambos, 1988) and, at this stage, has not been supported by testing.

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C3.3.3.4 Beams having one flange through-fastened to sheeting For beams having the

tension flange attached to deck or sheeting and the compression flange unbraced, e.g. a

roof purlin or wall girt subjected to outward wind pressure, the bending capacity is less

than a fully braced member, but greater than an unbraced member. This partial restraint is

a function of the rotational stiffness provided by the panel-to-purlin connection. The

Standard contains factors that represent the reduction in capacity from a fully braced

condition. The factors in the AISI Specification (1996) are based on experimental results

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obtained for both simple and continuous span purlins (Peköz and Soroushian, 1981 and

1982; LaBoube, 1986; Haussler and Pahers, 1973; LaBoube, et al., 1988; Haussler, 1988).

In the Standard the R factors were calibrated by Johnston and Hancock (1994), based on

testing in the vacuum test rig at the University of Sydney (Hancock, Celeban and Healy

(1993)).

As indicated by LaBoube (1986), the rotational stiffness of the panel-to-purlin connection

is primarily a function of the member thickness, sheet thickness, fastener type and

fastener location. For compressed glass fibre blanket insulation of initial thicknesses of

zero to six inches (152 mm), the rotational stiffness is not measurably affected (LaBoube,

1986). To ensure adequate rotational stiffness of the roof and wall systems designed in

accordance with the Standard, Clause 3.3.3.4 of the Standard explicitly states the

acceptable panel and fastener types. In Australia, cleats were used in the vacuum rig tests,

and these are specified clearly in Clause 3.3.3.4 of the Standard. Also in Australia, no

insulation was used between the purlin and sheeting.

Continuous beam tests were made in Australia on three equal spans under both wind uplift

and downwards loading and the R values were calculated from the failure loads assuming

a bending moment distribution based on double the second moment of area in the lapped

regions.

The provisions of Clause 3.3.3.4 of the Standard apply to beams for which the tension

flange is attached to sheeting by screw fasteners and the compression flange is unbraced

or has bridging which effectively prevents lateral and torsional deformation at support

points.

In the case of simply supported purlins without bridging, considerable twisting of the

purlins occurred which caused the screw heads to pull through the sheeting when

load-spreading (cyclone) washers were not used. The AISI R-factor values are

considerably lower than those in the Standard and can be used in the case when

load-spreading (cyclone) washers are not used.

The R-factor method cannot be used with clip fasteners of any form including sliding

clips unless testing validates the restraint provided by the clips is adequate to prevent

torsional deformation and allow the R factors in Clause 3.3.3.4 to be used.

For the limit states method, the use of the reduced nominal member moment capacity with

a capacity factor of φb equal to 0.90, Equation 3.3.3.4 of the Standard provides β values

varying from 2.5 to 2.7, which are satisfactory for the target value of 2.5. This analysis

was based on the load combination of (Wu − 0.8G) (Rousch and Hancock (1996a, 1996b)).

C3.3.4 Shear The shear strength of beam webs is governed by either yielding or

buckling, depending on the d1/t ratio and the mechanical properties of steel. For beam

webs having small d1/t ratios, the nominal shear capacity is governed by shear yielding

and can be calculated as follows:

. . . C3.3.4(1)

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where

Aw = area of the beam web computed by d 1tw

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For beam webs having large d1/tw ratios, the nominal shear capacity is governed by elastic

shear buckling and can be calculated as follows:

. . . C3.3.4(2)

where

τ cr = critical shear buckling stress in the elastic range

kv = shear buckling coefficient

E = modulus of elasticity

ν = Poisson’s ratio

d1 = web depth

tw = web thickness

By using ν equal to 0.3, the shear strength (Vv) can be calculated as follows:

. . . C3.3.4(3)

For beam webs having moderate d1/t ratios, the nominal shear strength is based on

inelastic shear buckling and can be calculated as follows:

. . . C3.3.4(4)

The provisions in the Standard are applicable for the design of webs of beams and decks

either with or without transverse web stiffeners.

The nominal strength equations of Clause 3.3.4 of the Standard are similar to the nominal

shear strength equations given in the AISI LRFD Specification (AISI, 1991). The

acceptance of these nominal strength equations for cold-formed steel sections was

considered in the study summarized by LaBoube and Yu (1978a).

Previous editions of the ASD Specification (AISI, 1986) and AS 1538 — 1988 employed

three different factors of safety when evaluating the permissible shear strength of an

unreinforced web because it was intended to use the same permissible values for the AISI

and AISC specifications (i.e. 1.44 for yielding, 1.67 for inelastic buckling and 1.71 for

elastic buckling). For the limit states design method in the Standard, the φv factors used in

Clause 3.3.4 of the Standard were derived from the condition that the nominal capacities

for the limit states design method and the permissible stress method in AS 1538 — 1988

are the same, because the appropriate test data on shear were not available (Hsiao, Yu and

Galambos, 1988a; AISI, 1991).

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C3.3.5 Combined bending and shear For cantilever beams and continuous beams,

high bending stresses often combine with high shear stresses at the supports. Such beam

webs should be safeguarded against buckling due to the combination of bending and shear

stresses.

For disjointed flat rectangular plates, the critical combination of bending and shear

stresses can be approximated by the following equation (Bleich, 1952):

. . . C3.3.5(1)

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where

fb = actual compressive bending stress

fcr = theoretical buckling stress in pure bending

τ = actual shear stress

τ cr = theoretical buckling stress in pure shear

Equation C3.3.5(1) was found to be conservative for beam webs with adequate transverse

stiffeners, for which a diagonal tension field action can be developed. Based on the

studies made by LaBoube and Yu (1978a), the following equation was developed for

beam webs with transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements of Clause 2.7 of the

Standard:

. . . C3.3.5(2)

Equation C3.3.5(2) was added to the AISI Specification in 1980 and to AS 1538 in 1988.

The correlations between Equation C3.3.5(2) and the test results of beam webs having a

diagonal tension field action are shown in Figure C3.3.5.

For the limit states design method, the Equation in Clause 3.3.5 of the Standard for

combined bending and shear are based on Equation C3.3.5(1) and Equation C3.3.5(2) by

using the nominal section moment capacity and nominal shear capacity.

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NOTE: Solid symbols represent test specimens without additional sheets on top and bottom flanges.

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C3.3.6 Bearing For cold-formed steel beams, transverse and shear stiffeners are not

frequently used. The webs of beams may cripple due to the high local intensity of the load

or reaction. Figure C3.3.6(1) shows the types of failure caused by web crippling

of unreinforced single webs (see Figure C3.3.6(1)(a)) and of I-beams (see

Figure C3.3.6(1)(b)).

In the past, the buckling problem of separate flat rectangular plates and web crippling

behaviour of cold-formed steel beam webs under locally distributed edge forces have been

studied by numerous investigators (Yu, 1991) and it was found that the theoretical

analysis of web crippling for cold-formed steel flexural members is rather complicated

because it involves the following:

(a) Non-uniform stress distribution under the applied load and adjacent portions of the

web.

(b) Elastic and inelastic stability of the web element.

(c) Local yielding in the immediate region of load application.

(d) Bending produced by eccentric load (or reaction) when it is applied on the bearing

flange at a distance beyond the curved transition of the web.

(e) Initial out-of-plane imperfection of plate elements.

(f) Various edge restraints provided by beam flanges and interaction between flange

and web elements.

(g) Inclined webs for decks and panels.

For these reasons, the present AISI design provisions for web crippling and the

AS/NZS 4600 design provisions for bearing are based on the extensive experimental

investigations conducted at Cornell University by Winter and Pian (Winter and Pian,

1946), and by Zetlin (Zetlin, 1955) in the 1940s and 1950s, and at the University of

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investigations, the web crippling tests were carried out under the following four loading

conditions for beams having single unreinforced webs and I-beams:

(i) End one-flange (EOF) loading.

(ii) Interior one-flange (IOF) loading.

(iii) End two-flange (ETF) loading.

(iv) Interior two-flange (ITF) loading.

All loading conditions are shown in Figure C3.3.6(2). In Figures (a) and (b), the distances

between bearing plates were kept to no less than 1.5 times the web depth in order to avoid

the two-flange loading action.

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Clause 3.3.6 of the Standard provides design equations to determine the web crippling

strength of flexural members having flat single webs (channels, Z-sections, hat sections,

tubular members, roof deck, floor deck and the like) and I-beams (made of two channels

connected back to back, by welding two angles to a channel, or by connecting three

channels). Different design equations are used for various loading conditions, as shown in

Figure C3.3.6(3), and Tables 3.3.6(1) and 3.3.6(2) in the Standard. These design equations

are based on experimental evidence (Winter, 1970; Hetrakul and Yu, 1978) and the

assumed distributions of loads or reactions into the web as shown in Figure C3.3.6(4).

The assumed distributions of loads or reactions into the web, as shown in

Figure C3.3.6(4), are independent of the flexural response of the beam. Due to flexure,

the point of bearing will vary relative to the plane of bearing resulting in non-uniform

bearing load distribution into the web. The value of R b will vary because of a transition

from the interior one-flange loading (see Figure C3.3.6(4)(b)) to the end one-flange

loading condition (see Figure C3.3.6(4)(a)). These discrete conditions represent the

experimental basis on which the design provisions were founded (Winter, 1970; Hetrakul

and Yu, 1978).

From Tables 3.2.6(1) and 3.3.6(2) in the Standard, it can be seen that the nominal

capacity for concentrated load or reaction of cold-formed steel beams depends on the

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ratios of d1/tw, lb/tw, ri/tw, the web thickness (t(tw)), the yield stress ( fy), and the web

inclination angle (θ).

With regard to the limit states design approach, the use of φ w equal to 0.75 for single

unreinforced webs and φw equal to 0.80 for I-sections provide values of safety index

ranging from 2.4 to 3.8.

Recent research indicated that a Z-section having its end support flange bolted to the

section’s supporting member through two 12.7 mm diameter bolts will experience an

increase in end-one-flange web crippling capacity (Bhakta, LaBoube and Yu, 1992; Cain,

LaBoube and Yu, 1995). The increase in load-carrying capacity was shown to range from

27 to 55% for the sections under the limitations prescribed in the Standard. A lower

bound value of 30% increase is permitted in Clause 3.3.6 of the Standard.

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GIVEN IN TABLES 3.3.6(1) AND 3.3.6(2) OF THE STANDARD

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C3.3.7 Combined bending and bearing Clause 3.3.7 of the Standard contains

interactions for the combination of bending and bearing. Clauses 3.3.7(a) and 3.3.7(b) of

the Standard are based on the studies conducted at the University of Missouri-Rolla for

the effect of bending on the reduction of web crippling loads with the applicable capacity

factors used for bending and bearing (Hetrakul and Yu, 1978 and 1980; Yu, 1981 and

1991). Figures C3.3.7(1) and C3.3.7(2) show the correlations between the interactions and

test results. For embossed webs, bearing should be determined by tests in accordance with

Section 6 of the Standard.

The exception included in Clause 3.3.7 of the Standard for single unreinforced webs

applies to the interior supports of continuous spans using decks and beams, as shown in

Figure C3.3.7(3). Results of continuous beam tests of steel decks (Yu, 1981) and several

independent studies by manufacturers indicate that, for these types of members, the

post-buckling behaviour of webs at interior supports differs from the type of failure mode

occurring under concentrated loads on single span beams. This post-buckling strength

enables the member to redistribute the moments in continuous spans. For this reason, the

interaction in Clause 3.3.7(a) of the Standard is not applicable to the interaction between

bending and the reaction at interior supports of continuous spans. This exception applies

only to the members shown in Figure C3.3.7(3) and similar situations explicitly described

in Clause 3.3.7 of the Standard.

The exception should be interpreted to mean that the effects of combined bending and

bearing need not be checked for determining load-carrying capacity. Furthermore, the

positive bending resistance of the beam should be at least 90% of the negative bending

resistance in order to ensure the safety specified by Clause 3.3.7 of the Standard. Using

this procedure, serviceability loads may —

(a) produce slight deformations in the beam over the support;

(b) increase the actual compressive bending stresses over the support to as high as

0.8 fy; and

(c) result in additional bending deflection of up to 22% due to elastic moment

redistribution.

If load-carrying capacity is not the primary design concern because of the above

behaviour, the designer is urged to ignore the exception in Clause 3.3.7(a) of the

Standard.

With regard to Clause 3.3.7(b) of the Standard, previous tests indicate that when the d 1/tw

ratio of an I-beam web does not exceed and when , the bending

moment has little or no effect on the web crippling load (Yu, 1991). For this reason, the

permissible reaction or concentrated load can be determined by the equations given in

Clause 3.3.6 of the Standard without reduction for the presence of bending.

In the development of the limit states equations, a total of 551 tests were calibrated for

combined bending and bearing. Based on φw equal to 0.75 for single unreinforced webs

and φw equal to 0.80 for I-sections, the values of safety index vary from 2.5 to 3.3.

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WEB CRIPPLING AND BENDING FOR SINGLE UNREINFORCED WEBS

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I-BEAMS HAVING UNREINFORCED WEBS

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OF THE STANDARD

the configuration of the cross-section, thickness of material, unbraced length, and end

restraint, axially loaded compression members should be designed for the following

ultimate limit state conditions:

(a) Yielding It is well known that a very short, compact column under an axial load

may fail by yielding. The yield load is determined by the following equation:

. . . C3.4(1)

where

Ag = gross area of the column

fy = yield stress of steel

(b) Overall column buckling (flexural buckling, torsional buckling or flexural-torsional

buckling)

(i) Flexural buckling of columns

(A) Elastic buckling stress A slender, axially loaded column may fail by

overall flexural buckling if the cross-section of the column is a

doubly-symmetric shape, closed shape (square or rectangular tube),

cylindrical shape, or point-symmetric shape. For singly-symmetric

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studs connected with sheeting material can also fail by flexural

buckling.

The elastic critical buckling load for a long column can be determined

by the following Euler formula:

. . . C3.4(2)

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where

Noc = column buckling load in the elastic range

E = modulus of elasticity

I = second moment of area

k = effective length factor

l = unbraced length

Accordingly, the elastic column buckling stress can be calculated as

follows:

. . . C3.4(3)

where

r = radius gyration of the full cross-section

le/r = the effective slenderness ratio

(B) Inelastic buckling stress When the elastic column buckling stress

calculated using Equation C3.4(3) exceeds the proportional limit (fpr),

the column will buckle in the inelastic range. Prior to 1996, the

following equation was used in the AISI Specification for calculating

the inelastic column buckling stress:

. . . C3.4(4)

assumption that fpr is equal to fy/2, it is applicable only for (foc)E greater

than or equal to fy/2.

By using λc as the column slenderness parameter instead of the

slenderness ratio (le/r), Equation C3.4(4) can be rewritten as follows:

. . . C3.4(5)

where

. . . C3.4(6)

equal to .

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In AS 1538 — 1988, the Perry curve (Ayrton and Perry (1986)) was

used to define the column strength since geometric imperfections were

included in the column design philosophy used in Australia. The Perry

curve gives a lower column strength than Equation 3.4(5) in the

Standard due to the inclusion of imperfections.

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(C) Design compressive axial force for locally stable columns If the

individual components of compression members have small b/t ratios,

local buckling will not occur before the compressive stress reaches the

column buckling stress and the yield stress of steel. Therefore, the

nominal axial strength can be determined as follows:

. . . C3.4(7)

where

Nc = nominal member capacity of the member in

compression

Ag = gross area of the column

= column buckling stress (elastic or inelastic as

appropriate)

(D) Design compressive axial force for locally unstable columns For

cold-formed steel compression members with large b/t ratios, local

buckling of individual component plates may occur before the applied

load reaches the nominal axial strength determined by

Equation C3.4(7). The interaction effect of the local and overall

column buckling may result in a reduction of the overall column

strength. From 1946 through 1986, the effect of local buckling on

column strength was considered in the AISI Specification and

AS 1538 — 1988 by using a form factor (Q) in the determination of the

permissible stress for the design of axially loaded compression

members (Winter, 1970; Yu, 1991). Even though the Q-factor method

was used successfully for the design of cold-formed steel compression

members, research work conducted at Cornell University and other

institutions has shown that this method is capable of improvement. On

the basis of the test results and analytical studies of DeWolf, Peköz,

Winter, and Mulligan (DeWolf, Peköz and Winter, 1974; Mulligan and

Peköz, 1984) and Peköz’s development of a unified approach for the

design of cold-formed steel members (Peköz, 1986b), the Q-factor

method was eliminated in the 1986 edition of the AISI Specification.

In order to reflect the effect of local buckling on the reduction of

column strength, the nominal axial strength is determined by the

critical column buckling stress and the effective area (Ae) instead of the

full sectional area. For a more in depth discussion of the background

for these provisions, see Peköz (1986b). Therefore, the nominal

member capacity of cold-formed steel compression members can be

determined by the following equation:

. . . C3.4(8)

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appropriate).

An exception for Equation C3.4(7) is for C-shapes and Z-shapes, and

single-angle sections with unstiffened flanges. For these cases, the

nominal axial strength is also limited by the following capacity, which

is determined by the local buckling stress of the unstiffened element

and the area of the full cross-section as follows:

. . . C3.4(9)

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the AISI Specification when the unified design approach was adopted.

A recent study conducted by Rasmussen at the University of Sydney

(Rasmussen, 1994) indicated that the design provisions of

Section C4(b) of the 1986 AISI Specification lead to unnecessarily and

excessively conservative results. This conclusion was based on the

analytical studies carefully validated against test results as reported by

Rasmussen and Hancock (1992). Consequently, Section C4(b) of the

AISI Specification (Equation C-C4(9)) was deleted in 1996 and is not

included in the Standard.

In the AISI Specification, the design equations for calculating the

critical stress have been changed from those given by

Equations C3.4(3) and C3.4(4) to those used in the AISC LRFD

Specification (AISC, 1993). As given in Clause 3.4.1 of the Standard,

these design regulations are as follows:

. . . C3.4(10)

. . . C3.4(11)

where

fn = critical stress which depends on the value of

λc f y / ( fo c )E

( fo c )E = elastic flexural buckling stress calculated using

Equation C3.4(3).

Consequently, the equation for determining the nominal axial strength

can be written as follows:

. . . C3.4(12)

which is Equation 3.4.2(2) of the Standard with foc equal to ( fo c )E .

The reasons for changing the design equations from Equation C3.4(4)

to Equation C3.4(10) for inelastic buckling stress and from

Equation C3.4(3) to Equation C3.4(11) for elastic buckling stress are as

follows:

(1) The revised column design equations (Equations C3.4(10)

and C3.4(11) were shown to be more accurate by Peköz and

Sumer (1992). In this study, 299 test results on columns and

beam-columns were evaluated. The test specimens included

members with component elements in the post-local buckling

range as well as those that were locally stable. The test specimens

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torsional buckling.

(2) Because the revised column design equations represent the

maximum strength with due consideration given to initial

crookedness and can provide a better fit to test results, the

required factor of safety can be reduced. In addition, the revised

equations enable the use of a single capacity factor for all λc

values even though the nominal member capacity of columns

decreases as the slenderness increases because of initial out-of-

straightness.

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1986), the AISI-LRFD Specification (AISI, 1991), the combined

ASD/LRFD Specification (AISI, 1996) and the Standard are

shown in Figure C3.4(1).

EQUATIONS

(E) Effective length factor (k) The effective length factor (k) accounts for

the influence of restraint against rotation and translation at the ends of

a column on its load-carrying capacity. For the simplest case, a column

with both ends hinged and braced against lateral translation, buckling

occurs in a single half-wave and the effective length (le) is equal to kl

being the length of this half-wave, is equal to the actual physical

length of the column (see Figure C3.4(2)); correspondingly, for this

case, k is equal to 1. This situation is approached if a given

compression member is part of a structure that is braced in such a

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relative to the other can occur. This is so for columns or studs in a

structure with diagonal bracing, diaphragm bracing, shear-wall

construction or any other provision that prevents horizontal

displacement of the upper relative to the lower column ends. In these

situations, it is safe and only slightly, if at all, conservative to take k

equal to 1.

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 70

foundations) at one or both ends of the member are rigidly connected

to the column in a manner that provides substantial restraint against

rotation, k values smaller than 1 are sometimes justified. Table C3.4

gives the theoretical k values for six idealized conditions in which joint

rotation and translation are either fully realized or non-existent.

Table C3.4 also includes the k values recommended by the Structural

Stability Research Council for design use (Galambos, 1988).

In trusses, the intersection of members provides rotational restraint to

the compression members at service loads. As the collapse load is

approached, the member stresses approach the yield stress, which

greatly reduces the restraint they can provide. For this reason, the k

value is usually taken as unity regardless of whether they are welded,

bolted, or connected by screws. However, when sheeting is attached

directly to the top flange of a continuous compression chord, recent

research (Harper, LaBoube and Yu, 1995) has shown that the k values

may be taken as 0.75 (AISI, 1995).

On the other hand, when no lateral bracing against sidesway is present,

such as in the portal frame shown in Figure C3.4(3), the structure

depends on its own bending stiffness for lateral stability. In this case,

if buckling of the columns were to occur, it invariably takes place by

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the sidesway motion shown. This occurs at a lower load than the

columns would be able to carry if they were braced against sidesway

and the figure shows that the half-wave length into which the columns

buckle is longer than the actual column length. Hence, in this case, k is

larger than 1 and its value can be read from the graph shown in

Figure C3.4(4) (Winter, et al. 1948a and 1970). Since column bases are

rarely either actually hinged or completely fixed, k values between the

two curves should be estimated depending on actual base fixity.

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TABLE C3.4

EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTORS (k) FOR CONCENTRICALLY LOADED

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

is shown by dashed line

Recommended k value

when ideal conditions are 0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.10 2.0

approximated

Rotation fixed, translation fixed

Rotation free, translation fixed

End condition code

Rotation fixed, translation free

Rotation free, translation free

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AS/NZS 4600 Supp1:1998 72

PORTAL FRAMES

Figure C3.4(4) can also serve as a guide for estimating k for other

simple situations. For multi-bay or multi-storey frames, or both, simple

alignment charts for determining k are given in the AISC

Commentaries (AISC, 1989; 1993). For additional information on

frame stability and second order effects, see SSRC Guide to Stability

Design Criteria for Metal Structures (Galambos, 1988) or the

Commentaries to AS 4100 — 1998 or NZS 3404:1997. The Australian

Standard AS 4100 — 1998 and NZS 3404:1997 give graphs for

determining effective length factors for sway and non-sway frames.

If roof or floor slabs, anchored to shear walls or vertical plane bracing

systems, are counted upon to provide lateral support for individual

columns in a building system, their stiffness should be considered

when functioning as horizontal diaphragms (Winter, 1958).

(ii) Torsional buckling of columns As pointed out at the beginning of this

Clause, purely torsional buckling, i.e. failure by sudden twist without

concurrent bending, is also possible for certain thin-walled open shapes.

These are all point-symmetric shapes in which the shear centre and centroid

coincide, such as doubly-symmetric I-shapes, anti-symmetric Z-shapes and

such unusual sections as cruciforms, swastikas, and the like. Under

concentric load, torsional buckling of such shapes very rarely governs

design. This is so because such members of realistic slenderness will buckle

flexurally or by a combination of flexural and local buckling at loads smaller

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than those which would produce torsional buckling. However, for relatively

short members of this type, carefully dimensioned to minimize local

buckling, such torsional buckling cannot be completely ruled out. If such

buckling is elastic, it occurs at the critical stress (f oz) calculated as follows

(Winter, 1970):

. . . C3.4(13)

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where

G = shear modulus

J = St. Venant torsion constant of the cross-section

A = full cross-sectional area

ro1 = polar radius of gyration of the cross-section about the shear centre

Iw = torsional warping constant of the cross-section

lez = effective length for twisting

For inelastic buckling, the critical torsional buckling stress can also be

calculated using Equations C3.4(10) and C3.4(11) and using foz instead of foc.

(iii) Flexural-torsional buckling of columns Concentrically loaded columns can

buckle in the flexural buckling mode by bending about one of the principal

axes; or in the torsional buckling mode by twisting about the shear centre; or

in the flexural-torsional buckling mode by simultaneous bending and

twisting. For singly-symmetric shapes such as channels, hat sections, angles,

T-sections, and I-sections with unequal flanges, for which the shear centre

and centroid do not coincide, flexural-torsional buckling is one of the

possible buckling modes as shown in Figure C3.4(5). Non-symmetric

sections will always buckle in the flexural-torsional mode.

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COMPRESSION

buckling only when it is physically possible for such buckling to occur. This

means that if a member is so connected to other parts of the structure, such

as wall sheeting, that it can only bend but cannot twist, it needs to be

designed for flexural buckling only. This may hold for the entire member or

for individual parts. For instance, a channel member in a wall or the chord of

a roof truss is easily connected to girts or purlins in a manner that prevents

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needs to be checked only for the unbraced lengths between such connections.

Likewise, a doubly-symmetric compression member can be made up by

connecting two spaced channels at intervals by batten plates. In this case,

each channel constitutes an ‘intermittently fastened component of a built-up

shape’. Here, the entire member, being doubly-symmetric, is not subject to

flexural-torsional buckling so that this mode needs to be checked only for the

individual component channels between batten connections (Winter, 1970).

The governing elastic flexural-torsional buckling load can be calculated using

the following equation (Chajes and Winter, 1965; Chajes, Fang and Winter,

1966; Yu, 1991):

. . . C3.4(14)

If both sides of this equation are divided by the cross-sectional area (A), one

obtains the equation for the elastic, flexural-torsional buckling stress (foc) as

follows:

. . . C3.4(15)

buckling, the x-axis is the axis of symmetry; fox = π2E/(lex/rx)2 is the flexural

(Euler) buckling stress about the x-axis, foz is the torsional buckling stress

(see Equation C3.4(13)) and β = 1 − (xo/r o1)2.

It is worth noting that the flexural-torsional buckling stress is always lower

than the Euler stress (fox) for flexural buckling about the symmetry axis.

Hence, for these singly-symmetric sections, flexural buckling can only occur,

if at all, about the y-axis which is the principal axis perpendicular to the axis

of symmetry.

For inelastic buckling, the critical flexural-torsional buckling stress can also

be calculated by using Equations C3.14(10) and C3.14(11).

An inspection of Equation C3.14(15) will show that in order to calculate β

and foz, it is necessary to determine xo equal to the distance between the shear

centre and centroid, J equal to the St. Venant torsion constant and I w equal to

the warping constant, in addition to several other, more familiar cross-

sectional properties.

Because of these complexities, the calculation of the flexural-torsional

buckling stress cannot be made as simply as that for flexural buckling.

Equations for these properties are given in Paragraph E1 of Appendix E of

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the Standard.

Any singly-symmetric shape can buckle either flexurally about the y-axis or

flexurally-torsionally, depending on its detailed dimensions. For instance, a

channel stud with narrow flanges and wide web will generally buckle

flexurally about the y-axis (axis parallel to web); in contrast, a channel stud

with wide flanges and a narrow web will generally fail in flexural-torsional

buckling.

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buckling, but made up of elements whose b/t ratios are small enough so that

no local buckling will occur. For shapes that are sufficiently thin, i.e. with

b/t ratios sufficiently large, local buckling can combine with flexural-

torsional buckling similar to the combination of local with flexural buckling.

For this case, the effect of local buckling on the flexural-torsional buckling

strength can also be handled by using the effective area (Ae) determined at

the stress (fn) for flexural-torsional buckling.

(c) Local buckling of individual elements (See Item (b)(i)(D).)

(d) Distortional buckling (See Clause C3.4.6.)

C3.4.2 Sections not subject to torsional or flexural-torsional buckling If

concentrically loaded compression members can buckle in the flexural buckling mode by

bending about one of the principal axes, the nominal flexural buckling strength of the

column should be determined in accordance with Clause 3.4.1 of the Standard. The elastic

flexural buckling stress is calculated using Equation 3.4.2 of the Standard, which is the

same as Equation C3.4(3). This provision is applicable to doubly-symmetric sections,

closed cross-sections and any other sections not subject to torsional or flexural-torsional

buckling.

C3.4.3 Doubly- or singly-symmetric sections subject to torsional or

flexural-torsional buckling As discussed in Clause C3.4, torsional buckling is one of

the possible buckling modes for doubly- and point-symmetric sections. For singly-

symmetric sections, flexural-torsional buckling is one of the possible buckling modes. The

other possible buckling mode is flexural buckling by bending about the y-axis

(i.e. assuming x-axis is the axis of symmetry).

For torsional buckling, the elastic buckling stress can be calculated using

Equation C3.4(13). For flexural-torsional buckling, Equation C3.4(15) can be used to

calculate the elastic buckling stress. The following simplified equation for elastic flexural-

torsional buckling stress is an alternative permitted by the Standard:

. . . C3.4(16)

Equation C3.4(16) is based on the following relationship given by Peköz and Winter

(1969a):

. . . C3.4(17)

or

. . . C3.4(18)

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torsionally, and so the lower buckling load is chosen.

C3.4.5 Non-symmetric sections For non-symmetric open shapes, the analysis for

flexural-torsional buckling becomes extremely tedious unless its need is sufficiently

frequent to warrant computerization. For one thing, instead of the quadratic equations, a

cubic equation has to be solved. For another, the calculation of the required section

properties, particularly Iw, becomes quite complex. Clause 3.4.5 of the Standard specifies

that calculation in accordance with this Clause shall be used or tests in accordance with

Section 6 shall be made when dealing with non-symmetric open shapes.

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singly-symmetric sections such as the storage rack columns shown in Figure C3.4.6 are

particularly sensitive to distortional buckling in the modes shown. Distortional buckling in

this mode was investigated in detail by Hancock (1985) mainly for sections used in steel

storage racks, by Lau and Hancock (1987, 1988a, 1988b, 1990) and by Kwon and

Hancock (1992a, 1992b) for high-strength steel channel sections with intermediate

stiffeners. The elastic distortional buckling stress (fod) can be based on a rational elastic

buckling analysis such as that given in Papangelis and Hancock (1995), or in

Paragraphs D1 and D2 of Appendix D of the Standard, which are based on Lau and

Hancock (1987). The equation for the critical stress (fn) is developed in Hancock, Kwon

and Bernard (1994). It is normally not necessary to check simple lipped channels in

accordance with Clause 3.4.6, because they are adequately designed by Clause 2.4.3 of the

Standard for the distortional mode.

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

C3.4.7 Columns with one flange through-fastened to sheeting For axially loaded

C-sections or Z-sections having one flange attached to deck or sheeting, and the other

flange unbraced, e.g. a roof purlin or wall girt subjected to wind or seismic-generated

compression forces, the axial load capacity is less than a fully braced member, but greater

than an unbraced member. The partial restraint relative to weak axis buckling is a

function of the rotational stiffness provided by the panel-to-purlin connection.

Equation 3.4.7 in the Standard is used to calculate the weak axis capacity. This Equation

is not valid for sections attached to standing seam or clip-fastened roofs. The Equation

was developed by Glaser, Kaehler and Fisher (1994) and is also based on the work

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contained in the reports of Hatch, Easterling and Murray (1990) and Simaan (1973).

A limitation on the maximum yield point of the C-section or Z-section is not given in the

Standard since Equation 3.4.7 of the Standard is based on elastic buckling criteria. A

limitation on minimum length is not contained in the Standard because Equation 3.4.7 is

conservative for spans less than 4.5 m.

As indicated in Clause 3.4.7 of the Standard, the strong axis axial load capacity is

determined assuming that the weak axis of the strut is braced, and so Clauses 3.5.1

and 3.5.2 of the Standard should be used.

The controlling axial capacity (weak or strong axis) is suitable for use in the combined

axial load and bending equations in Clause 3.5 of the Standard (Hatch, Easterling, and

Murray, 1990).

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C3.5 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING In the 1996 edition of the AISI

Specification, the design provisions for combined axial load and bending were expanded

to include expressions for the design of members subject to combined tensile axial load

and bending. These additional expressions are also included in the Standard.

C3.5.1 Combined axial compressive load and bending Cold-formed steel members

under a combination of compressive axial load and bending are usually referred to as

beam-columns. The bending may result from eccentric loading, transverse loads or applied

moments. Such members are often found in framed structures, trusses and exterior wall

studs. For the design of such members, interactions have been developed for locally stable

and unstable beam-columns on the basis of thorough comparisons with rigorous theory

and verified by the available test results (Peköz, 1986a; Peköz and Sumer, 1992).

The structural behaviour of beam-columns depends on the shape and dimensions of the

cross-section, the location of the applied eccentric load, the column length, the end

restraint and the condition of bracing.

When a beam-column is subject to an axial load (N*) and end moments (M*) as shown in

Figure C3.5.1, the combined axial and bending stress in compression is calculated using

the following equation, as long as the member remains straight:

. . . C3.5.1(1)

=

where

f* = combined stress in compression

f*a = axial compressive stress

f*b = bending stress in compression

N* = applied axial load

A = cross-sectional area

M* = applied bending moment

Z = elastic section modulus

It should be noted that in the design of such a beam-column by using the limiting stress

the combined stress should be limited to a certain stress (F), that is —

or

. . . C3.5.1(2)

If the left-hand term in Equation C3.5.1(2) is multiplied by the area (A) in the numerator

and demoninator, and the right-hand term is multiplied by the section modulus in the

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. . . C3.5.1(3)

where

N* = applied axial load

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= AF

M* = applied moment

= Zf*b

Ms = bending section capacity

= ZF

If the axial section capacity is reduced by the capacity factor (φ c) for compression and the

bending section capacity is reduced by the capacity factor (φb) for bending, then

Equation C3.5.1(3) becomes —

. . . C3.5.1(4)

Equation C3.5.1(4) is well-known, and has been adopted in some specifications and

Standards for the design of beam-columns. It can be used with reasonable accuracy for

short members and members subjected to a relative small axial load. It should be realized

that in practical applications, when end moments are applied to the member, it will be

bent as shown in Figure C3.5.1(b) due to the applied moment (M*), the secondary

moment resulting from the applied axial load (N*) and the deflection (δ) of the member.

The maximum bending moment at mid-length (point C) can be calculated as follows:

. . . C3.5.1(5)

where

M*max. = maximum bending moment at midlength

M* = applied end moments

αn = amplification factor

The amplification factor (αn) may be calculated as follows:

. . . C3.5.1(6)

where

Ne = elastic column buckling load (Euler load)

= π2 EI / leb

2

If the maximum bending moment (M*max.) is used to replace M*, the following equation

can be obtained from Equation C3.5.1(4) and Equation C3.5.1(6) as follows:

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. . . C3.5.1(7)

For members that can buckle under axial compression, as described in Clause C3.4, N s is

replaced by N c and for members that can buckle laterally or distortionally, as described in

Clause C3.3, Ms is replaced by Mb, so that —

. . . C3.5.1(8)

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It has been found that Equation C3.5.1(8), developed for a member subjected to an axial

compressive load and equal end moments, can be used with reasonable accuracy for

braced members with unrestrained ends subjected to an axial load and a uniformly

distributed transverse load. However, it could be conservative for compression members

in unbraced frames (with sidesway), and for members bent in reverse curvature. For this

reason, the Equation C3.5.1(8) should be further modified by a coefficient (Cm) as given

in Equation C3.5.1(9) to account for the effect of end moments —

. . . C3.5.1(9)

In Equation C3.5.1(9), C m can be determined for one of the three cases specified in

Clause 3.5.1 of the Standard. It can be calculated using Equation C3.5.1(10) for restrained

compression members braced against joint translation and not subject to transverse

loading (Case ii) as follows:

. . . C3.5.1(10)

where M1/M2 is the ratio of the smaller to the larger end moments. For Case (iii), Cm may

be approximated by using the value given in the AISC Commentaries for the applicable

condition of transverse loading and end restraint (AISC, 1989 and 1993).

When the maximum moment occurs at braced points, Equation C3.5.1(11)

(i.e. Clause 3.5.1(b) of the Standard) should be used to check the member at the braced

ends as follows:

. . . C3.5.1(11)

Furthermore, for the condition of small axial load, the influence of Cm/αn is usually small

and may be neglected. Therefore, when N*/φcNc ≤ 0.15, Equation C3.5.1(4) may be used

for the design of beam-columns.

If a second-order elastic analysis is performed in accordance with Appendix E of

AS 4100 — 1998 or NZS 3404:1997, then it is appropriate to use the second-order elastic

moments in place of the first order elastic moments (M*) in Equation C3.5.1(9), and the

value of Cm/αn may be taken as 1.0 since the effect of non-uniform moment and the

moment amplification are now included in the determination of the second order

moments.

C3.5.2 Combined axial tensile load and bending The design criteria included in

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Clause 3.5.2 of the Standard are new requirements. These provisions apply to concurrent

bending and tensile axial load. If bending can occur without the presence of tensile axial

load, the member should also conform to the provisions of Clause 3.3 of the Standard.

Care should be taken not to overestimate the tensile load, as this would be unconservative.

Clause 3.5.2(a) of the Standard provides a design criterion to prevent failure of the

compression flange. Clause 3.5.2(b) of the Standard provides a design criterion to prevent

yielding of the tension flange of a member under combined tensile axial load and bending.

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members are economic sections for compression and torsional members because of their

large ratio of radius of gyration to area, of having the same radius of gyration in all

directions and their large torsional rigidity. Like other cold-formed steel compression

members, cylindrical tubes should be designed to provide adequate safety not only against

overall column buckling but also against local buckling. It is well known that the classical

theory of local buckling of longitudinally compressed cylinders overestimates the actual

buckling strength and that inevitable imperfections and residual stresses reduce the actual

strength of compressed tubes radically below their theoretical value. For this reason, the

design provisions for local buckling have been based largely on test results.

Considering the post-buckling behaviour (local buckling stress) of the axially compressed

cylinder and the important effect of the initial imperfection, the design provisions

included in the Standard were originally based on Plantema’s graphic representation and

the additional results of cylindrical shell tests made by Wilson and Newmark at the

University of Illinois (Winter, 1970).

From the tests of compressed tubes, Plantema found that the ratio f ult/fy depends on the

parameter (E/fy) (t/D) in which t is the wall thickness, D is the mean diameter of the tubes

and fult is the ultimate stress or collapse stress. As shown in Figure C3.6(1), Line 1

corresponds to the collapse stress below the proportional limit, Line 2 corresponds to the

collapse stress between the proportional limit and the yield point, and Line 3 represents

the collapse stress occurring at the yield point. In the range of Line 3, local buckling will

not occur before yielding. In ranges 1 and 2, local buckling occurs before the yield point

is reached. The cylindrical tubes should be designed to safeguard against local buckling.

Based on a conservative approach, the Standard specifies that when the do/t ratio is

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smaller than or equal to 0.112E/fy, the tubular member should be designed for yielding.

This provision is based on point A 1, for which (E/fy) (t/do) is equal to 8.93.

When 0.112E/fy < do/t < 0.441E/fy, the design of tubular members is based on the inelastic

local buckling criteria. For the purpose of developing a design equation for inelastic

buckling, point B1 was selected to represent the proportional limit. For point B 1, the

maximum stress of cylindrical tubes can be calculated as follows:

. . . C3.6(1)

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Using Line A1B1, the maximum stress of cylindrical tubes can be calculated as follows:

. . . C3.6(2)

When do/t ≥ 0.441 E/fy, the following equation represents Line 1 for the elastic local

buckling stress:

. . . C3.6(3)

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The correlation between the available test data and Equations C3.6(1) and C3.6.(3) is

shown in Figure C3.6(2).

It should be noted that the design provisions of Clause 3.6 of the Standard are applicable

only for members having a ratio of outside diameter-to-wall thickness (d o/t) not greater

than 0.441 E/fy because the design of extremely thin tubes will be governed by elastic

local buckling resulting in an uneconomical design. In addition, cylindrical tubular

members with unusually large do/t ratios are very sensitive to geometric imperfections.

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FIGURE C3.6(2) CORRELATION BETWEEN TEST DATA AND CRITERIA FOR LOCAL

BUCKLING OF CYLINDRICAL TUBES UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION

C3.6.2 Bending For non-slender cylinders in bending, the initiation of yielding does

not represent a failure condition as is generally assumed for axial loading. Failure is at the

plastic moment capacity which is at least 1.29 times the moment at first yielding. In

addition, the conditions for inelastic local buckling are not as severe as in axial

compression due to the stress gradient.

Equations 3.6.2(1), 3.6.2(2) and 3.6.2(3) in the Standard are based upon the work reported

by Sherman (1985) and an assumed minimum shape factor of 1.25. This slight reduction

in the inelastic range has been made to limit the maximum bending stress to 0.75f y, a

value typically used for solid sections in bending for the permissible stress method. The

reduction also brings the criteria closer to a lower bound for inelastic local buckling. A

small range of elastic local buckling has been included so that the upper d o/t limit of

0.441E/fy is the same as for axial compression.

All three equations in Clause 3.6.2 of the Standard for determining the nominal flexural

strength of cylindrical tubular members are shown in Figure C3.6.2. These equations have

been used in the AISI Specification since 1986 and are retained in the 1996 Specification

and the Standard. The capacity factor (φb) is the same as that used in Clause 3.3.2 of the

Standard for sectional bending strength.

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CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

compression members, the nominal axial strength is determined by the same equation as

given in Clause 3.4 of the Standard, except that —

(a) the nominal buckling stress (foc) is determined only for flexural buckling; and

(b) the effective area (Ae) is calculated as follows:

. . . C3.6.3(1)

where

. . . C3.6.3(2)

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. . . C3.6.3(3)

where A is the area of the unreduced cross-section. The capacity factor (φc) is the same as

that used in Clause 3.4 of the Standard for compression members.

Equation C3.6.3(3) is used for calculating the reduced area due to local buckling. It is

derived from Equation C3.6(2) for inelastic local buckling stress (Yu, 1991).

C3.6.4 Combined bending and compression The interactions given in Clause 3.5 of

the Standard can also be used for the design of cylindrical tubular members when these

members are subject to combined bending and compression.

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S E C T I O N C 4 S T R U C T U R A L A S S E M B L I E S

C4.1.1 I-sections composed of two channels I-sections made by connecting two

channels back to back are often used as either compression or flexural members. Cases (b)

and (h) of Figure C1.3.2 and Cases (c) and (g) of Figure C1.3.3 show several built-up

I-sections, as follows:

(a) Compression members For the I-sections to be used as compression members, the

longitudinal spacing of connectors should not exceed the value of s max., calculated

using Equation 4.1.1(1) of the Standard. This prevents flexural buckling of the

individual channels about the axis parallel to the web at a load smaller than that at

which the entire I-section would buckle. This provision is based on the requirement

that the slenderness ratio of an individual channel between connectors (s max./rcy)

should not be greater than one-half of the pertinent slenderness ratio (l/r I) of the

entire I-section (Winter, 1970; Yu, 1991) and follows for one of the connectors

becoming loose or ineffective.

Even though Clause 4.1.1 of the Standard refers only to I-sections,

Equation 4.1.1(1) of the Standard can also be used for determining the maximum

spacing of welds for box-shaped compression members made by connecting two

channels tip to tip. In this case, rI is the smaller of the two radii of gyration of the

box-shaped section.

(b) Flexural members For the I-sections to be used as flexural members, the

longitudinal spacing of connectors is limited by Equation 4.1.1(2) of the Standard.

The first requirement is an arbitrarily selected limit to prevent any possible

excessive distortion of the top flange between connectors. The second is based on

the strength and arrangement of connectors and the intensity of the load acting on

the beam (Yu, 1991).

The maximum spacing of connectors required by Equation 4.1.1(2) of the Standard is

based on the fact that the shear centre of the channel is neither coincident with nor

located in the plane of the web; and that when a load (Q) is applied in the plane of the

web, it produces a twisting moment (Qm) about its shear centre, as shown in

Figure C4.1.1(1). The tensile force of the top connector (N*) can then be calculated from

the equality of the twisting moment (Qm) and the resisting moment (N*s g), as follows:

. . . C4.1.1(1)

. . . C4.1.1(2)

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Considering that q is the intensity of the load and that s is the spacing of connectors as

shown in Figure C4.1.1(2), the applied load (Q) is equal to qs/2. The maximum spacing

(smax.) used in the Standard can easily be obtained by substituting the value of Q into

Equation C4.1.1(2). The determination of the load intensity (q) is based upon the type of

loading applied to the beam.

In addition to the required strength of connections, the spacing of connectors should not

be so great as to cause excessive distortion between connectors by separation along the

top flange. In view of the fact that channels are connected back to back and are

continuously in contact along the bottom flange, a maximum spacing of l/3 may be used.

Considering the possibility that one connection may be defective, a maximum spacing of

smax. equal to l/6 is also required in Equation 4.1.1(2) of the Standard.

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FOR CHANNEL

compression elements are joined to other parts of built-up members by intermittent

connections, these connectors should be closely spaced to develop the required strength of

the connected element. Figure C4.1.2 shows a box-shaped beam made by connecting a flat

sheet to an inverted hat section. If the connectors are appropriately placed, this flat sheet

will act as a stiffened compression element with a width (b) equal to the distance between

rows of connectors, and the sectional properties can be calculated accordingly. This is the

intent of the provisions in Clause 4.1.2 of the Standard.

Clause 4.1.2(a) of the Standard requires that the necessary shear strength be provided by

the same standard structural design procedure that is used in calculating flange

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Clause 4.1.2(b) of the Standard ensures that the part of the flat sheet between two

adjacent connectors will not buckle as a column (see Figure C4.1.2) at a stress less than

1.67fc, where fc is the stress at service load in the connected compression element (Winter,

1970; Yu, 1991). The AISI requirement is based on the following Euler equation for

column buckling:

. . . C4.1.2(1)

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by substituting σcr equal to 1.67 f c, le equal to 0.6s and r equal to . This provision is

conservative because the length is taken as the centre distance instead of the clear distance

between connectors, and the effective length (le) is taken as 0.6s instead of 0.5s, which is

a theoretical value for a column with fixed end supports.

Clause 4.1.2(c) of the Standard ensures satisfactory spacing to make a row of connectors

act as a continuous line of stiffening for the flat sheet under most conditions (Winter,

1970; Yu, 1991).

C4.2 MIXED SYSTEMS When cold-formed steel members are used in conjunction

with other construction materials, the design requirements of the other material standards

should be satisfied.

1986 Specification to include a general statement regarding bracing for symmetrical

beams and columns and specific requirements for the design of roof systems subjected to

gravity load. These requirements are retained with some revisions of Clause 4.3.3.4 of the

Standard for the required number of braces.

C4.3.2 Symmetrical beams and columns There are no simple, generally accepted

techniques for determining the required strength and stiffness for discrete braces in steel

construction. Winter (1960) offered a partial solution and others have extended this

knowledge (Haussler, 1964; Haussler and Pahers, 1973; Lutz and Fisher, 1985; Salmon

and Johnson, 1990; Yura, 1993; SSRC, 1993). The design engineer is encouraged to seek

out the stated references to obtain guidance for the design of a brace or brace system.

In the Standard, the provisions of AS 4100 — 1998 or NZS 3404:1997 are used for

Clause 4.3.2 of the Standard. Reference should be made to Clause C5.4.3 of the

Commentary to AS 4100, or to Clause C5.4.3 of the Commentary to NZS 3404:1997. The

latter is augmented by the guidance given in HERA Report R4 — 92.

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C4.3.3 Channel and Z-section beams Channel and Z-sections used as beams to

support transverse loads applied in the plane of the web may twist and deflect laterally

unless adequate lateral supports are provided. Clauses 4.3.3.2 and 4.3.3.3 of the Standard

deal with the bracing requirements when one flange of the beam is connected to deck or

sheeting material. Clause 4.3.3.4 of the Standard covers the requirements for spacing and

design of braces, when neither flange of the beam is connected to sheeting or is connected

to sheeting with concealed fasteners.

C4.3.3.2 One flange connected to sheeting and subjected to wind uplift Clause 4.3.3.2

of the Standard permits the bracing not to be connected to a stiff member but be capable

of preventing torsional deformation of the beam at the point of attachment, if the cleat

and screw-fastening requirements of Clause 3.3.3.4, Items (ix) to (xiv), of the Standard

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are satisfied. This provision is based on testing at the University of Sydney (Hancock,

Celeban and Healy (1993)) of typical Australian purlin-sheeting systems with screw-

fastened sheeting, cleats and side lap fasteners.

C4.3.3.3 Bracing for roof systems under gravity load The provisions of Clause 4.3.3.3

of the Standard are based on USA research where cleats are not used at support points.

The design rules for Z-purlin-supported roof systems are based on a first order, elastic

stiffness model (Murray and Elhouar, 1985). For the design of lateral bracing,

Equations 4.3.3.3(1) to 4.3.3.3(6) of the Standard can be used to determine the restraint

forces for single-span and multiple-span systems with braces at various locations. These

design equations are written in terms of the cross-sectional dimensions of the purlin,

number of purlin lines, number of spans, span length for multiple-span systems, and the

total load applied to the system. The accuracy of these design equations was verified by

Murray and Elhouar using their experimental results of six prototype and 33 quarter-scale

tests.

C4.3.3.4 Neither flange connected to sheeting or connected to sheeting with concealed

fasteners Where neither flange is connected to sheeting or where the flange is connected

to sheeting with concealed fasteners, the following should be considered:

(a) Bracing of channel beams If channels are used singly as beams, rather than being

paired to form I-sections, they should evidently be braced at intervals so as to

prevent them from rotating in the manner shown in Figure C4.3.3.4(1).

Figure C4.3.3.4(2), for simplicity, shows two channels braced at intervals against

each other. The situation is evidently much the same as in the composite I-section

shown in Figure C4.1.1(2), except that the role of the connectors is now played by

the braces. The difference is that the two channels are not in contact and that the

spacing of braces is generally considerably larger than the connector spacing. In

consequence, each channel may actually rotate very slightly between braces and this

will cause some additional stresses which superpose on the usual, simple bending

stresses. Bracing should be so arranged that —

(i) these additional stresses are small enough so that they will not reduce the

load-carrying capacity of the channel (as compared to what it would be in

the continuously braced condition); and

(ii) rotations should be kept small enough to be acceptable (of the order of 1 to 2

degrees).

In order to develop information on which to base appropriate bracing provisions,

different channel shapes were tested at Cornell University (Winter, 1970). Each of

these was tested with full, continuous bracing, without any bracing, and with

intermediate bracing at two different spacings. In addition to this experimental

work, an approximate method of analysis was developed and checked against the

test results. A condensed account of this is given by Winter, Lansing and McCalley

(1949). The reference indicates that the requirements are satisfied for most

distributions of beam load if between supports not less than three equidistant braces

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are placed (i.e. at quarter-points of the span or closer). The exception is the case

where a large part of the total load of the beam is concentrated over a short portion

of the span. In this case, an additional brace is to be placed at such a load.

Correspondingly, previous editions of the AISI Specification (AISI, 1986; AISI,

1991) provided that the distance between braces shall not be greater than one-

quarter of the span. It also defined the conditions under which an additional brace

shall be placed at a load concentration.

For such braces to be effective, it is not only necessary that their spacing be

appropriately limited. In addition, their strength should suffice to provide the force

required to prevent the channel from rotating. It is, therefore, necessary also to

determine the forces that will act in braces, such as those forces shown in

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Figure C4.3.3.4(3). These forces are found if one considers that the action of a load

applied in the plane of the web (which causes a torque (Qm)) is equivalent to that

same load when applied at the shear centre (where it causes no torque) plus two

forces N* equal to Qm/d which, together, produce the same torque Qm. As shown in

Figure C4.3.3.4(4) and shown in some detail by Winter, Lansing and McCalley

(1949b), each half of the channel can then be regarded as a continuous beam loaded

by the horizontal forces and supported at the brace points. The horizontal brace

force is then, simply, the appropriate reaction of this continuous beam. The

provisions of Clause 4.3.3.4 of the Standard represent a simple and conservative

approximation for determining these reactions. These reactions are equal to the force

N*ib, which the brace is required to resist at each flange.

(b) Bracing of Z-section beams Most Z-sections are anti-symmetrical about the

vertical and horizontal centroidal axes, i.e. they are point-symmetrical. In view of

this, the centroid and the shear centre coincide and are located at the midpoint of

the web. A load applied in the plane of the web has, then, no lever arm about the

shear centre (m equal to 0) and does not tend to produce the kind of rotation a

similar load would produce on a channel. However, in Z-sections, the principal axes

are oblique to the web (see Figure C4.3.3.4(5)). A load applied in the plane of the

web, resolved in the direction of the two axes, produces deflections in each of them.

By projecting these deflections onto the horizontal and vertical planes, it is found

that a Z-beam loaded vertically in the plane of the web deflects not only vertically

but also horizontally. If such deflection is permitted to occur, then the loads,

moving sideways with the beam, are no longer in the same plane with the reactions

at the ends. In consequence, the loads produce a twisting moment about the line

connecting the reactions. In this manner, it is seen that a Z-beam, unbraced between

ends and loaded in the plane of the web, deflects laterally and also twists. Not only

are these deformations likely to interfere with a proper functioning of the beam, but

the additional stresses caused by them produce failure at a load considerably lower

than when the same beam is used fully braced.

In order to develop information on which to base appropriate bracing provisions,

tests were carried out on three different Z-shapes at Cornell University, unbraced as

well as with variously spaced intermediate braces. In addition, an approximate

method of analysis was developed and checked against the test results. An account

of this was given by Zetlin and Winter (1955). Briefly, it shows that intermittently

braced Z-beams can be analysed in much the same way as intermittently braced

channels. It is merely necessary, at the point of each actual vertical load (Q), to

apply a fictitious horizontal load N* equal to Q(Ix′y′/Ix′). One can then calculate the

vertical and horizontal deflections, and the corresponding stresses, in conventional

ways by utilizing the centroidal axes x′ and y′ (rather than x and y, as shown in

Figure C4.3.3.4(5)) except that certain modified section properties have to be used.

In this manner, it has been shown that as to the location of braces, the same

provisions that apply to channels also apply to Z-beams. Likewise, the forces in the

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braces are again obtained as the reactions of continuous beams horizontally loaded

by fictitious loads N*ib.

(c) Spacing of braces During the period from 1956 through 1996, the AISI

Specification required that braces be attached both to the top and bottom flanges of

the beam, at the ends and at intervals not greater than one-quarter of the span

length, in such a manner as to prevent tipping at the ends and lateral deflection of

either flange in either direction at intermediate braces. The lateral buckling

equations provided in Clause 3.3.3.2 of the Standard can be used to predict the

moment capacity of the member. Recently, beam tests conducted by Ellifritt, Sputo

and Haynes (1992) have shown that for typical sections, a mid-span brace may

reduce service load horizontal deflections and rotations by as much as 80% when

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may change the failure mode from lateral-torsional buckling to distortional buckling

of the flange and lip at a brace point. The natural tendency of the member under

vertical load is to twist and translate in such a manner as to relieve the compression

on the lip. When such movement is restrained by intermediate braces, the

compression on the stiffening lip is not relieved, and may increase. In this case,

distortional buckling may occur at loads lower than that predicted by the lateral

buckling equations given in Clause 3.3.3.2 of the Standard. Hence, equations for

distortional buckling were included in Clause 3.3.3.3 of the Standard.

The Standard permits omission of discrete braces when all loads and reactions on a beam

are transmitted through members that frame into the section in such a manner as to

effectively restrain the member against torsional rotation and lateral displacement.

The inclusion of purlins with sheeting connected with concealed fasteners in

Clause 4.3.3.4 of the Standard is based on testing at the University of Sydney (Hancock,

Celeban and Healy (1994)) where concealed fastened sheeting was found not to provide

adequate lateral restraint due to shear slippage between the sheets.

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AGAINST EACH OTHER

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LOADED BY HORIZONTAL FORCES

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C4.4 WALL STUDS AND WALL STUD ASSEMBLIES It is well known that

column strength can be increased considerably by using adequate bracing, even though the

bracing is relatively flexible. This is particularly true for those sections generally used as

load-bearing wall studs which have large Ix/Iy ratios.

Cold-formed channels or box-type studs are generally used in walls with their webs

placed perpendicular to the wall surface. The walls may be made of different materials,

such as fibre board, pulp board, plywood or gypsum board. If the wall material is strong

enough and there is adequate attachment provided between wall material and studs for

lateral support of the studs, then the wall material can contribute to the structural

economy by increasing the useable strength of the studs substantially.

In order to determine the necessary requirements for adequate lateral support of the wall

studs, theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted in the 1940s by Green,

Winter, and Cuykendall (1947). The study included 102 tests on studs and 24 tests on a

variety of wall material. Based on the findings of this earlier investigation, specific AISI

provisions were developed for the design of wall studs.

In the 1970s, the structural behaviour of columns braced by steel diaphragms was a

special subject investigated at Cornell University and other institutions. The renewed

investigation of wall-braced studs has indicated that the bracing provided for studs by

steel panels is of the shear diaphragm type rather than the linear type that was considered

in the 1947 study. Simaan (1973) and Simaan and Pekoz (1976), which are summarized

by Yu (1991), contain procedures for calculating the strength of Channel and Z-section

wall studs that are braced by sheeting materials. The bracing action is due to both the

shear rigidity and the rotational restraint supplied by the sheeting material. The treatment

by Simaan (1973) and Simaan and Peköz (1976) is quite general and includes the case of

studs braced on one as well as on both flanges.

In Australia, it is not common to account for sheeting in the design of wall studs. Hence,

intermediate braces such as noggins (dwangs) are used. Design is then performed in

accordance with Section 3 of the Standard with appropriate effective lengths about the x, y

and z axes.

In New Zealand, bracing gypsum board is commonly used in conjunction with the means

of attachment so that stud flange restraint is provided. For assemblies, this bracing

gypsum board can be used with tension strap bracing to provide adequate bracing without

dwangs.

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S E C T I O N C 5 C O N N E C T I O N S

C5.1 GENERAL Welds, bolts, screws, rivets and other special devices such as

clinching, nailing and structural adhesives are generally used for cold-formed steel

connections (Brockenbrough, 1995). The 1996 edition of the AISI Specification contains

provisions in Chapter E for welded connections, bolted connections and screw

connections. The Standard includes the same provisions in Section 5 and also

blind-riveted connections. Design rules for clinching are not given at this stage, since

clinches are proprietary devices for which information on strength of connections should

be obtained from tests carried out by or for the user. The provisions in Section 6 of the

Standard are to be used in these tests.

The plans or specifications, or both, are to contain information and design requirement

data for the detailing of each connection, if each connection is not detailed on the

engineering design drawings.

For steel thickness less than 0.75 mm, the design value of the connection will generally

be that determined by the material thickness. However, for heavier steels, the shear or

tension value of the fastener (dependent on size) will usually govern. The fastener

strength in both shear and tension, should be 1.25 times that of the connection.

The design capacity for a connection can be determined as follows:

(a) Use the equations given in Clause 5.2 for welds, Clause 5.3.5 for bolts,

Clauses 5.4.2 and 5.4.3 for screws, and Clause 5.5.2 for rivets, where the calculated

nominal capacity is factored by the capacity [strength reduction] factor (φ) given in

Table 1.6 of the Standard.

(b) Determine the design capacity [strength] of a single-point connection by test as

follows:

. . . C5.2

where

φRu = design capacity [strength] by test of a single-point

connection

Rt = target test loads for the member of units to be tested

kt = variability factor given in Table 6.2.2 of the Standard

fu = minimum tensile strength of the connected material

given in Table 1.5 of the Standard

fu(average, tested) = average value of the tensile strength from the sample

tested

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Consideration should be given to the durability of the connections and these should be

designed to functionally perform during the expected life of the structure. Compatibility is

important when dissimilar metals are combined or when fasteners are exposed to other

than dry internal environments.

The ratio fu/fu(average, tested) adjusts the test loads to allow for the fact that the material from

which the specimens are made may be of higher strength than the minimum specified.

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C5.2 WELDED CONNECTIONS Welds used for cold-formed steel construction may

be classified as arc welds and resistance welds. Arc welding is used for connecting cold-

formed steel members to each other as well as connecting such members to heavy, hot-

rolled steel framing (such as floor panels to beams of the steel frame). It is used in butt

welds, fillet welds, arc spot welds (puddle welds), arc seam welds and flare welds.

The design provisions contained in the Standard for arc welds are based primarily on

experimental evidence obtained from an extensive test program conducted at Cornell

University. The results of this program are reported by Peköz and McGuire (1979) and

summarized by Yu (1991). All possible failure modes are covered in the present

provisions, whereas the earlier provisions mainly dealt with shear failure.

For most of the connection tests reported by Peköz and McGuire (1979), the onset of

yielding was either poorly defined or followed closely by ultimate failure. Therefore, in

the provisions of Section 5 of the Standard, rupture rather than yielding is used as a more

reliable criterion of failure.

In addition, the Cornell research has provided the experimental basis for the AWS

Structural Welding Code for Sheet Steel (AWS, 1989). In most cases, the provisions of

the AWS code are in agreement with Section 5 of the Standard.

The welded connection tests, which served as the basis of the provisions given in

Clause 5.2 of the Standard, were conducted on sections with single and double sheets. The

largest total sheet thickness of the cover plates was approximately 3.81 mm. However,

within the Standard, the validity of the equations is limited to welded connections in

which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is 3 mm (2.5 mm for fillet welds) or

less. For welds in thicker material, the provisions of AS 4100 or NZS 3404 should be

used. These limitations were based on testing by Zhao and Hancock (1995a, 1995b).

The terms used in Section 5 of the Standard agree with the standard nomenclature given

in the AWS Welding Code for Sheet Steel (AWS, 1992).

C5.2.2 Butt welds The design equations for determining nominal capacity for butt

welds are taken from the AISC LRFD Specification (AISC, 1993) where the effective

throat thickness (te) is replaced by its equivalent, the design throat thickness (tt), as

specified in AS/NZS 1554.1:1995.

C5.2.3 Fillet welds For fillet welds on the lap joint specimens tested in the Cornell

research (Peköz and McGuire, 1979), the dimension of the leg on the sheet edge generally

was equal to the sheet thickness; the other leg often was two or three times longer. In

connections of this type, the fillet weld throat commonly is larger than the throat of a

conventional fillet weld of the same size. Usually, ultimate failure of fillet welded joints

has been found to occur by the tearing of the plate adjacent to the weld (see

Figure C5.2.3).

In most cases, the higher strength of the weld material prevents weld shear failure;

therefore, the provisions of the standard section are based on sheet tearing. For sections

thicker than 2.5 mm, the provisions of AS 4100 and NZS 3404, as appropriate, should be

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used. This limit is based on the research of Zhao and Hancock (1995a, 1995b).

C5.2.4 Arc spot welds (puddle welds) Arc spot welds (puddle welds) used for

connecting thin sheets are similar to plug welds used for relatively thicker plates. The

difference between plug welds and arc spot welds is that the former are made with

prepunched holes, but for the latter no prepunched holes are required. Instead, a hole is

burned in the top sheet by the arc and then filled with weld metal to fuse it to the bottom

sheet or a framing member.

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C5.2.4.2 Shear and C5.2.4.3 Tearout The Cornell tests (Peköz and McGuire, 1979)

identified the following modes of failure for arc spot welds:

(a) Shear failure of welds in the fused area.

(b) Tearing of the sheet along the contour of the weld with the tearing spreading the

sheet at the leading edge of the weld.

(c) Sheet tearing combined with buckling near the trailing edge of the weld.

(d) Shearing of the sheet behind the weld.

Items (a), (b) and (c) are included in Clause 5.2.4.2 of the Standard and Item (d) is

included in Clause 5.2.4.3. It should be noted that many failures, particularly those of the

plate tearing type, may be preceded or accompanied by considerable inelastic out-of-plane

deformation of the type indicated in Figure C5.2.4.2. This form of behaviour is similar to

that observed in wide, pin-connected plates. Such behaviour should be avoided by closer

spacing of welds. When arc spot welds are used to connect two sheets to a framing

member as shown in Figure 5.2.4(1)(b), consideration should also be given to the possible

shear failure between thin sheets.

The thickness limitation of 3 mm is due to the range of the test program that served as the

basis of these provisions and the need to match with AS 4100 and NZS 3404. On sheets

below 0.711 mm thick, weld washers are required to avoid excessive burning of the sheets

and, therefore, inferior quality welds.

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C5.2.4.4 Tension For tensile capacity of arc spot welds, the design provisions in the

Standard are based on the tests reported by Fung (1978) and the study made by Albrecht

(1988). The provisions are limited to sheet failure with restrictive limitations on material

properties and sheet thickness. These design criteria were revised in the 1996 AISI

Specification because the recent tests conducted at the University of Missouri-Rolla

(LaBoube and Yu, 1991 and 1993) have shown that two potential limit states may occur.

The most common failure mode is that of sheet tearing around the perimeter of the weld.

This failure condition was found to be influenced by the sheet thickness, the average weld

diameter and the material tensile strength. In some cases, it was found that tensile failure

of the weld can occur. The strength of the weld was determined to be a function of the

cross-section of the fused area and tensile strength of the weld material. Tests (LaBoube

and Yu, 1991 and 1993) have also shown that when reinforced by a weld washer, thin

sheet weld connections can achieve the design strength calculated using

Equations E2.2.2-2 and E2.2.2-3 of the 1996 AISI Specification and using the thickness of

the thinner sheet. The provisions in the 1996 AISI Specification have not been included in

the Standard at this stage.

The equations given in the Standard were derived from the tests for which the applied

tension load imposed a concentric load on the weld, as would be the case, for example,

for the interior welds on a roof system subjected to wind uplift. Welds on the perimeter of

a roof or floor system would experience an eccentric tensile loading due to wind uplift.

Tests have shown that as much as a 50% reduction in nominal connection strength could

occur because of the eccentric load application (LaBoube and Yu, 1991 and 1993).

Eccentric conditions may also occur at connection laps shown in Figure C5.2.4.4.

At a lap connection between two deck sections as shown in Figure C5.2.4.4, the length of

the unstiffened flange and the extent of the encroachment of the weld into the unstiffened

flange have a measurable influence on the strength of the welded connection (LaBoube

and Yu, 1991). The 1996 AISI Specification recognizes the reduced capacity of this

connection detail by imposing a 30% reduction on the calculated nominal strength. This

requirement is not stated explicitly in the Standard but should be considered in accordance

with Clause 5.2.4.4 of the Standard.

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C5.2.5 Arc seam welds The general behaviour of arc seam welds is similar to that of

arc spot welds. No simple shear failures of arc seam welds were observed in the Cornell

tests (Peköz and McGuire, 1979). Therefore, Equation 5.2.5.2(1) in the Standard, which

accounts for shear failure of welds, is adopted from the AWS welding provisions for sheet

steel (AWS, 1992).

Equation 5.2.5.2(2) in the Standard is intended to prevent failure by a combination of

tensile tearing plus shearing of the cover plates.

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C5.2.6 Flare welds The primary mode of failure in cold-formed steel sections welded

by flare welds, loaded transversely or longitudinally, also was found to be sheet tearing

along the contour of the weld (see Figure C5.2.6). The provisions of Clause 5.2.6 of the

Standard are intended to prevent shear tear failure. For sections thicker than 3 mm, the

provisions of AS 4100 and NZS 3404, as appropriate, should be used to check weld

failure.

C5.2.7 Resistance welds The values of the nominal shear capacities given in

Table 5.2.7 of the Standard for outside sheets of 3.20 mm or less in thickness are based

on ‘Recommended Practice for Resistance Welding Coated Low-Carbon Steels’,

AWS C1.3-70, (Table 2.1 — Spot Welding Galvanized Low-Carbon Steel). The values of

the nominal shear capacities in Table 5.2.7 of the Standard for outside sheets thicker than

3.20 mm are based on ‘Recommended Practices for Resistance Welding’, AWS C1.1-66,

(Table 1.3 – Pulsation Welding Low-Carbon Steel) and apply to pulsation welding as well

as spot welding. They are applicable for all structural grades of low-carbon steel,

uncoated or galvanized with 275 grams/m 2 of sheet, or less, and are based on values

selected from Table 2.1 of AWS C1.3-70 and from Table 1.3 of AWS C1.1-66. Values for

intermediate thicknesses may be obtained by straight-line interpolation. The above values

may also be applied to medium carbon and low-alloy steels. Spot welds in such steels

give somewhat higher shear strengths than those upon which the above values are based;

however, they may require special welding conditions. In all cases, welding is to be

performed in accordance with AWS C1.3-70 and AWS C1.1-66 (AWS, 1966 and 1970).

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construction, mainly because of the thinness of the connected parts. Prior to 1980, the

provisions included in the AISI Specification and AS 1538 — 1974 for the design of

bolted connections were developed on the basis of the Cornell tests (Winter, 1956a,

1956b). These provisions were updated in 1980 (1988 in Australia) to reflect the results of

additional research performed in the United States (Yu, 1982) and to provide a better

coordination with the specifications of the Research Council on Structural Connections

(RCSC, 1980) and the AISC (1978). In AS 1538 — 1988, design provisions for the

maximum size of bolt holes were added.

The Standard gives special provisions for oversized and slotted holes. These provisions

differ for Australia and New Zealand, and are based on accepted practice in each country.

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The oversize and slotted holes described in Clauses 5.3.1(a) and (b) of the Standard for

Australia were used in the vacuum rig testing of purlins at the University of Sydney

(Hancock, Celeban and Healy (1993)).

The following provisions are taken into consideration:

(a) Scope Previous studies and practical experiences have indicated that the structural

behaviour of bolted connections used for joining relatively thick cold-formed steel

members is similar to that for connecting hot-rolled shapes and built-up members.

The criteria specified in Clause 5.3 of the Standard are applicable only to cold-

formed steel members or elements less than 3 mm in thickness. For materials greater

than or equal to 3 mm, reference is made to AS 4100 or NZS 3404, as appropriate.

Because of a lack of appropriate test data and the use of numerous surface

conditions, the Standard does not provide design criteria for slip-critical (also called

friction-type) connections. When such connections are used with cold-formed

members where the thickness of the thinnest connected part is less than 3 mm, it is

recommended that tests be conducted to confirm their design capacity. The test data

should verify that the specified design capacity for the connection provides a safety

against initial slip at least equal to that implied by the AS 4100 and NZS 3404

provisions. In addition, the reliability when calculating the ultimate capacity should

be greater than or equal to that implied by the Standard for bearing-type

connections.

These provisions apply only when there are no gaps between plies. The designer

should recognize that the connection of a rectangular tubular member by means of

bolt(s) through such members may have less strength than if no gap existed.

Structural performance of connections containing unavoidable gaps between plies

requires tests in accordance with Section 6.

(b) Materials Clause 1.5.3.1 of the Standard describes the different types of fasteners

that are normally used for cold-formed steel construction. During recent years, other

types of fasteners, with or without special washers, have been widely used as

connectors in steel structures using cold-formed steel members. The design of these

fasteners should be determined by tests in accordance with Section 6 of the

Standard.

(c) Bolt installation Bolted connections in cold-formed steel structures use either

mild- or high-strength steel bolts, and are designed as a bearing-type connection.

Bolt pretensioning is not required for attaining the design capacity because the

ultimate strength of a bolted connection is independent of the level of bolt preload.

It may be required to provide twist restraint to supporting members; however,

installation should ensure that the bolted assembly will not come apart during

service. For examples where this applies, see Clause 5.4.2 of NZS 3404. Experience

has shown that bolts installed do not loosen or back off, if tightened to a snug tight

condition under normal building conditions and are not subject to vibration or

fatigue.

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development of the fastener tension forces required by the Research Council on

Structural Connections (1985 and 1988) for the particular size and type of bolts.

Turn-of-nut rotations specified in Section 15 of AS 4100 or NZS 3404 may not be

applicable because such rotations are based on larger grip lengths than are

encountered in usual cold-formed construction. Reduced turn-of-nut values would

have to be established for the actual combination of grip and bolt. A similar test

program (RCSC, 1985 and 1988) could establish a cut-off value for calibrated

wrenches.

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(d) Hole sizes In Table 5.3.1 of the Standard, the maximum size of holes for bolts

having diameters not less than 12 mm is based on Table 1 of the Research Council

on Structural Connections (1985 and 1988), except that for the oversized hole

diameter, a slightly larger hole diameter is permitted.

For bolts having diameters less than 12 mm, the diameter of a standard hole is the

diameter of bolt plus 1 mm.

Short-slotted holes are usually treated in the same manner as oversized holes.

Washers or backup plates should be used over oversized or short-slotted holes in an

outer ply unless suitable performance is demonstrated by tests.

The inclusion of the design information in Table 5.3.1 of the Standard for oversized

and slotted holes is because such holes are sometimes used in Australian practice to

meet dimensional tolerances during erection. However, when using oversized holes

care should be exercised by the designer to ensure that excessive deformation due to

slip will not occur at working loads. Excessive deformations, which can occur in the

direction of the slots, may be prevented by requiring bolt pretensioning, as specified

in Clause 5.4.2 of NZS 3404 for restraint provision.

C5.3.2 Tearout The provisions for minimum spacing and edge distance were revised

in the 1980 Specification and AS 1538 — 1988 to include additional design requirements

for bolted connections with standard, oversized and slotted holes. The minimum edge

distance of each individual connected part (emin.) is determined by using the tensile

strength of steel (fu) and the thickness of connected part. In accordance with the different

ranges of the fu/fy ratio, two different capacity factors are used for determining the

required minimum edge distance. These design provisions are based on the following

basic equation established from the test results:

. . . C5.3.2

where

e = the required minimum edge distance to prevent shear failure of the connected

part

Vf = force transmitted by one bolt

t = thickness of the thinnest connected part. For design purposes, a capacity

factor of 0.70 was used for fu/fy greater than or equal to 1.08, and 0.60 for

steel with fu/fy less than 1.08, in accordance with the degree of correlation

between Equation C5.3.2 and the test data. As a result, whenever fu/fy is less

than or equal to 1.08, the requirement is the same as the AISC specification.

In addition, several requirements were added to the AISI Specification in

1980 and AS 1538 — 1988 concerning the following:

(a) The minimum distance between centres of holes, as required for

installation of bolts.

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(c) The minimum distance between the edge of the hole and the end of the

member.

The same design provisions were retained in the 1986 AISI Specification and are also

used in the Standard, except that the limiting f u/fy ratio has been reduced from 1.15 to 1.08

for consistency with Clause 1.5.1.5 of the Standard. The test data used for the

development of Equation 5.3.2 of the Standard are documented by Winter (1956a and

1956b) and Yu (1982, 1985, and 1991).

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C5.3.3 Net section tension In the Standard, the nominal tensile capacity (Nf) on the

net section of connected parts is based on the loads determined in accordance with

Clauses 3.2 and 5.3.3 of the Standard, whichever is smaller. In the use of the equations

provided in Clause 5.3.3 of the Standard, the following design features should be noted:

(a) The provisions are applicable only to the thinnest connected part less than 3 mm in

thickness. For materials thicker than 3 mm, the design tensile force is determined in

accordance with AS 4100 or NZS 3404, as applicable.

(b) The nominal tensile strength (Nf) on the net section of a connected member is

determined by the tensile strength of the connected part (f u) and the ratios rf and

df/s f.

(c) Different equations are used for bolted connections with and without washers

(Chong and Matlock, 1974).

(d) The tensile capacity on the net section of a connected member is based on the type

of joint, either a single shear lap joint or a double shear butt joint.

C5.3.4 Bearing The available test data has shown that the bearing strength of bolted

connections depends on the following:

(a) The tensile strength and thickness of the connected parts.

(b) Joints with single shear or double shear conditions.

(c) The fu/fy ratio.

(d) The use of washers (Winter, 1956a and 1956b; Yu, 1982 and 1991; Chong and

Matlock, 1974).

The nominal bearing capacities between the connected parts for different conditions are

given in Tables 5.3.4.1 and 5.3.4.2 of the Standard. The capacity factors are provided in

the tables for different types of joints and f u/fy ratios. It should be noted that in the 1996

edition of the AISI Specification and the Standard, the limiting value of f u/fy used in

Tables 5.3.4.1 and 5.3.4.2 of the Standard was changed from 1.15 to 1.08 in order to be

consistent with Clause 1.5.1.5 of the Standard.

C5.3.5 Bolts The provisions for bolts in shear, tension and combined shear and tension

are the same as those for AS 4100 or NZS 3404. Reference should be made to

Clause C9.3.2 of the Commentaries to these Standards.

C5.4.1 General The Standard covers cases where the loads applied to the connection

are either predominantly shear or normal tension (head pull). It is not intended to cover

cases where the connection will experience moments, combined loading or significant

secondary forces such as prying. For these cases, testing in accordance with Section 6 of

the Standard should be used. Testing can also be used where more accurate shear and

normal tension capacities are required.

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(a) the thickness of cold-formed high strength G550 steel sections is less than 0.90 mm;

and

(b) the fu/fy ratios are 1.0 for 0.40 mm BMT to 1.08 for 0.90 mm BMT.

It is recommended that at least two screws should be used to connect individual

components. This provides redundancy against poor installation and limits lap shear

connection and distortion of flat unformed members, such as straps. The screws should be

installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Fine-threaded screws

perform better in thick material, where several threads will engage. Conversely,

coarse-threaded screws usually perform better in thin materials, especially where the

material thickness fits neatly between two threads.

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For connections of steels with low ductility, e.g. Grade 550 less than 0.9 mm thick, the

tensile strength (fu) used in Equations 5.4.2.3(1) to 5.4.3(2) of the Standard should be

taken as the lesser of 75% of the specified minimum tensile strength or 450 MPa as

specified in Clause 1.5.1.5 of the Standard. This reduction in fu does not apply if the

design capacity is determined by test in accordance with Clause 6.2 of the Standard.

It is intended that this reduction will provide a safety factor to prevent tensile failure. To

ensure ductility, it is considered preferable to provide some yielding at the connection,

although section buckling should occur before connection failure. Lighter sections usually

produce a more flexible structure which, although strong, can be subject to cyclic flexing

due to e.g. wind forces, which a heavier structure would absorb and resist without flexing.

The Standard applies only to screws with nominal diameters between 3 mm and 7 mm.

This reflects the range of screws used in the tests on which the predictive equations have

been based. Table C5.4.1 gives the nominal diameter of screws between 3 mm and 7 mm.

TABLE C5.4.1

NOMINAL DIAMETER FOR COMMON

SIZE SCREWS

Nominal diameter (df)

Size designation mm

(see Figure C5.4(1))

No. 5 3.2

No. 6 3.5

No. 7 3.8

No. 8 4.2

No. 10 4.8

No. 12 5.4

No. 14 6.3

the screws in a connection, it is important to limit the maximum spacing between the

screws. This is particularly important for the outermost screws. The AISI Specification

gives no guidance on this, but the European Recommendations (ECCS 1983) specifies the

following, when the applied force is parallel to the rows of screws:

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(a) Where the distance between the outermost screws is less than 15df, the force may be

distributed uniformly over the screws.

(b) Where the distance between the outermost screws is 65d f, the force in the

connection should be limited to 75% of the sum of the design strengths of the

screwed fastenings.

(c) For distances between 15d f and 65df, linear interpolation should be used.

Screwed connections loaded in shear can fail in one mode or in a combination of several

modes. These modes are screw shear, edge tearing, tilting and subsequent pull-out of the

screw, and bearing of the joined materials.

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Tilting of the screw followed by threads tearing out of the lower sheet reduces the

connection shear capacity from that of the typical connection bearing strength

(see Figure C5.4.2.3(1)).

The provisions in Clause 5.4.2.3 of the Standard focus on the tilting and bearing failure

modes. Two cases are given depending on the ratio of thicknesses of the connected

members. Normally, the head of the screw will be in contact with the thinner material as

shown in Figure C5.4.2.3(2). However, when both members are of the same thickness, or

when the thicker member is in contact with the screw head, tilting is also to be

considered, as shown in Figure C5.4.2.3(3).

It is necessary to determine the lower bearing capacity of the two members, based on the

product of their respective thicknesses and tensile strengths.

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C5.4.2.4 Screws in shear To prevent the connection failing in a brittle manner, the

design shear capacity of the screw itself should be 1.25 times the design capacity due to

tilting and bearing. In general, the shear capacity of the screw itself will be approximately

0.6 times the axial tensile strength of the screw.

The shear values given by the manufacturer are not relevant where t2 is less than or equal

to 1.6 mm, where t2 is the thickness of the material not in contact with the head of the

screw.

C5.4.3 Screwed connections in tension

C5.4.3.1 Pull-out and pull-over (pull-through) Clause 5.4.3.1 of the Standard applies

to static loading conditions. For pull-over (pull-through) behaviour, the tensile strength

may be affected by repeated loading, such as cyclonic wind conditions in Australia and

high wind areas in New Zealand, such as wind regions I, V and VII specified in

NZS 4203. The AISI Specification gives no guidance on this, while the Eurocode

recommends using a cyclic loading factor of 0.5 for the calculated static design capacity.

Alternatively, testing to cyclic loading in accordance with AS 4040.3 may be considered.

The thickness of the washer, including where it is integrated into the head of the screw,

needs to be at least 1.3 mm or formed to an equivalent strength to withstand the bending

forces with little or no deformation. Washers having diameters larger than 12.5 mm can

be used. However, in this case the value of dw used in Equation 5.4.3(2) of the Standard is

limited to 12.5 mm maximum. Alternatively, tests in accordance with Section 6 of the

Standard may be considered if the full design capacity of larger washers is desired.

Design capacities for connections where the members are not in contact at the point of

fastening, such as crest fixing of cladding, have not been included as the design capacity

of the connection is dependent on the type of profile used (Mahendran 1994).

For non-cyclonic areas of Australia and protected inland areas of New Zealand, and for

the design of crest-fixed profile sheeting using No. 14 screws and 0.35−0.48 mm G550

steel without washers, the nominal pull-over (pull-through) capacity (N ov) can be

approximated as follows:

. . . C5.4.3.1

where

k2 = 1 for static loads (non-cyclonic areas)

k3 = 0.54 for corrugated sheeting

= 0.89 for wide pan trapezoidal sheeting

= 0.79 for narrow pan trapezoidal sheeting

t1 = thickness of the sheet in contact with the screw head

fu1 = tensile strength of the sheet in contact with the screw head

For non-drilling screws, the diameter of the hole of the member in contact with the screw

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head should not exceed that recommended in AS B194. The minimum withdrawal axial

force for screws specified in AS 3566 is not relevant where t 2 is less than 1.6 mm, where

t2 is the thickness of the material not in contact with the head of the screw.

C5.4.3.2 Screws in tension To prevent the connections failing in a brittle manner, the

tensile design capacity [strength] of the screw should be 1.25 times the design capacity

due to pull-out and pull-over (pull-through). The maximum tensile capacities [strengths]

of self-drilling screws, as specified in AS 3566, are given in Table C5.4.3.2. The values

given in Table C5.4.3.2 are for the screws only and not the connection. The thickness and

grade of steel will generally determine the design value of the connection.

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TABLE C5.4.3.2

MINIMUM AXIAL TENSILE CAPACITY [STRENGTH]

OF SELF-DRILLING SCREWS

Size designation kN

Type ASD Type BSD Type CSD

No. 6 4.35 4.35 5.33

No. 8 6.35 6.35 8.46

No. 10 7.50 8.60 10.01

No. 12 11.34 11.63 14.44

No. 14 14.95 16.15 18.90

The values given in Table C5.4.3.2 are not the design tensile capacity [strength] of the

screw connecting plies of thin gauge steel. The screw types are described in AS 3566.

Eurocode 3, Part 1.3 (Toma et al. 1993) in which only shear is covered.

At least two rivets should be used to connect individual components. This provides

redundancy against poor installation and limits lap shear connection and distortion of flat

unformed members, such as straps. The rivets should be installed in accordance with the

manufacturer’s recommendations. Where sheets of different thicknesses are joined, it is

recommended that the preformed head be placed against the thinnest sheet.

To limit distortion and ensure equal distribution of forces, the maximum spacing between

rivets should be limited to 20 times the nominal diameter of the rivets.

For connections of steels with low ductility, e.g. Grade 550 less than 0.9 mm thick, the

tensile strength (fu1) used in Equations 5.5.2.3(1) to 5.5.2.3(5) of the Standard should be

taken as the lesser of 75% of the specified minimum tensile strength or 450 MPa,

whichever is the lesser, as specified in Clause 1.5.1.5 of the Standard. This reduction in f u

does not apply if the design capacity is determined by test in accordance with Clause 6.2

of the Standard.

C5.5.2.4 Rivets in shear To prevent the connection failing in a brittle manner, the

design shear capacity of the rivet itself should be 1.25 times the shear capacity due to

tilting and bearing. The minimum shear and axial tensile capacities [strengths] of blind

rivets, as specified in the Industrial Fasteners Institute Standard F114 (IFI 1988), are

given in Table C5.5.2.4.

The values given in Table C5.5.2.4 are not the design shear or tensile capacity [strength]

of the rivet connecting plies of thin gauge material.

Similar design considerations that are required for screws are required for blind rivets.

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Blind rivets are manufactured in various shapes, sizes and materials but are all subject to

pull-over failure in tension because the head of the rivet is much smaller than a screw

head. The practical size for rivets used for structural purposes is, therefore, limited to

4.0 mm, 4.8 mm and 6.3 mm. To provide the shear and tension capacities quoted by the

manufacturer, it is essential to use the correct size drill (4.1 mm, 4.9 mm and 6.4 mm)

and the correct length of rivet for the materials being fastened. It is usual to use more

rivets than screws because the rivet head is not normally washered and consequently

lesser values are obtained with rivets. Their spacing should be greater than 3df and less

than 20df, to minimize distortion.

Galvanized steel rivets are plated only and are not considered durable except in a

protected environment.

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TABLE C5.5.2.4

MINIMUM SHEAR AND AXIAL TENSILE CAPACITY [STRENGTH]

OF BREAK MANDREL BLIND RIVETS

Nominal

head [strength] [strength]

diameter

diameter (kN) (kN)

(mm) (mm) A1 St M S/S A1 St M S/S

4.0 8.0 1.3 1.7 2.5 3.0 1.62 2.17 3.24 3.8

4.8 9.5 1.6 2.5 3.7 4.4 2.3 3.15 4.63 5.5

6.3 12.7 3.2 4.63 6.48 7.8 4.26 5.74 0.56 9.72

where

A1 = aluminium alloy, 5154, 5056, 5754 with carbon steel mandrel

St = low carbon steel with carbon steel mandrel

M = nickel-copper alloy (Monel) with carbon steel mandrel

S/S = 300 series stainless steel with carbon or stainless steel mandrel

C5.6 RUPTURE

C5.6.1 Shear rupture Connection tests conducted by Birkemoe and Gilmor (1978)

have shown that on coped beams a tearing failure mode as shown in Figure C5.6.1(1) can

occur along the perimeter of the holes. The provisions in Clause 5.6.1 of the Standard for

shear rupture are adopted from the AISC Specification (AISC, 1978). These provisions are

considered to yield a conservative estimate of the rupture capacity at the coped end of a

beam by neglecting the contribution of the tensile area. For additional design information

on tension rupture strength and block shear rupture strength of connections (see

Figures C5.6.1(1) and C5.6.1(2)), refer to the AISC Specifications (AISC, 1989 and

1993).

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C5.6.3 Block shear rupture Block shear is a limit state in which the resistance is

determined by the sum of the shear capacity on a failure path(s) and the tensile strength

on a perpendicular segment. A comprehensive test program does not exist regarding block

shear for cold-formed steel members. However, a limited unpublished study conducted at

the University of Missouri-Rolla indicates that the AISC LRFD equations may be applied

to cold-formed steel members.

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S E C T I O N C 6 T E S T I N G

C6.1.1 Testing of unformed steel The Clause applies to steel classified as ‘other steel’

in Clause 1.5.1.2 of the Standard, when used in formed sections for which the strength

increase from cold-forming is calculated from the unformed properties in accordance with

Clause 1.5.1.3 of the Standard.

C6.1.2 Compression testing Clause 6.1.2 is an exact copy from AS 1538 — 1988. This

test is required for the application of Clauses 1.5.1.3 and 6.1.3 of the Standard.

C6.1.3 Testing of full sections Clause 6.1.3 is an exact copy from AS 1538 — 1988.

C6.1.4 Testing of flat coupons of formed members Two procedures are provided

depending on the purpose of the test. If the purpose of the test is to assess the strength

increase resulting from cold-forming for the application of Clause 1.5.1.3 of the Standard,

then Clause 6.1.4.1 of the Standard is applicable. Alternatively, if the purpose of the test

is to determine the design properties directly from flat coupons of formed members, then

Clause 6.1.4.2 of the Standard is applicable.

C6.1.5 Testing for determining section properties The Clause applies to the

determination of section properties for sections whose properties may be difficult to

calculate, such as those with single-point fasteners, e.g. clinches and the like.

C6.1.6 Testing of single-point fastener connections New standard tests for single-

point fastener connections are given in Appendix G of the Standard. The purpose of the

tests is to allow comparison of performance of different types of single-point fasteners

and they were used to derive the predictive equations for the performance of screwed

connection (see Clauses 5.4.2 and 5.4.3 of the Standard). The results of these tests are not

necessarily applicable to connections that have more complex geometry or use multiple

fasteners. In these situations, prototype testing in accordance with Clause 6.2 of the

Standard is recommended.

C6.2.1 General The Clause provides an alternative method for assessment or

verification in place of calculation. This method is uniform across all Australian/New

Zealand structural Standards and is different to the equivalent AISI Specification. Both

methods, however, produce similar outcomes.

The test method of the Clause is generally known as prototype testing, i.e. the testing of a

small number of samples of a product for the assessment or verification of a much larger

population of a nominally identical product.

The method is material independent and is, therefore, suitable for use with composite

products. It is most advantageous for products that are produced in a large number of

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identical units with low variation in structural characteristics but difficult to assess by

calculation (see Clause 6.2.2.3 of the Standard).

At present, only assessment of static behaviour (for strength, or serviceability, or both) is

included in the Standard. Procedures for assessing cyclic performance under cyclonic

loading (for cyclonic areas of Australia) and seismic loading (for New Zealand) can be

obtained from the following publications:

(a) For cyclonic or high wind assessment TR440 (Department of Construction 1978),

TR5 (James Cook University, 1980).

(b) For seismic assessment NZS 4203, Volume 2, Appendix C4A or BRANZ P21.

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C6.2.2.1 Test specimens The requirement that ‘test specimens shall be nominally

identical to the class of units for which structural verification is required’ is applicable

only to the component under test. It is permissible to temporarily strengthen those parts of

the structure that are not under test. However, if such strengthening is carried out, care

should be taken to ensure that the component under test receives the correct loading

without artificial restraint or other form of strengthening that will not exist in the real

structure. For example, if trusses are tested to verify the performance of the truss apex

connection, then only the apex connection (including the members that connect to it) has

to be ‘identical’ to production units. Outside the joint area, the members may be

strengthened in order to produce the failure at the connection. On the other hand, if

trusses are tested to verify the behaviour of the trusses, then the whole test truss should be

identical to the production units.

C6.2.2.2 Test loads The determination of the factor (k t), given in Table 6.2.2 of the

Standard, is designed so that the probability that any production unit will not have the

required performance is 50%, with a 75% confidence. Interpolation is permitted in the use

of Table 6.2.2. However, it is not realistic to expect that the coefficient of structural

characteristics can be determined to 2.5% accuracy (see Clause C6.2.2.3).

C6.2.2.3 Coefficient of variation of structural characteristics If the samples under test

are sufficiently representative of the total population, then the coefficient of variation of

structural characteristics can be obtained directly from the test data. However, in most

practical cases, the samples are not likely to be representative of the total population of

the product. Therefore, the assumed coefficient of variation of the structural

characteristics is usually larger than that obtained from the test data. For cold-formed steel

components and assemblies, the AISI Specification gives the following guidance on the

coefficient of variation for material (km) and fabrication (kf):

(a) km = 0.06 − 0.10.

(b) kf = 0.05 − 0.15.

The following values for coefficients of variation of structural characteristics should be

used unless demonstrated otherwise:

(i) Strength of members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10%.

(ii) Strength of connections and assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15%.

(iii) Stiffness of members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5%.

(iv) Stiffness of connections and assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10%.

C6.2.2.4 Test requirements The method by which the loading should be applied to the

unit that is to be tested, and the positions at which deflections should be measured, can

only be decided with special reference to the particular structure or element and to the

particular loading conditions that are to be investigated.

The test loading should be applied and resisted in a manner which reasonably

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likely to involve loading in a vertical plane, additional out-of-plane loading of a structure

or element to simulate other load effects may be required. Horizontal support to the unit

as a whole or to individual members of the unit should also represent as closely as

possible actual service conditions.

Any eccentricities not inherent in the design of the structure or element, or not resulting

from typical loading in service, should be avoided at points of loading and reaction, and

care should also be taken to ensure that no inadvertent restraints are present. Where it is

clear that the method of test involves a significant or appreciable divergence from service

conditions, either in loading or restraint, due allowance should be made in determining the

design strength or stiffness from the test results.

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All likely combinations of permanent loads and imposed loads of shorter duration,

including those due to wind and, where applicable, those due to impact, should be taken

into account when determining the worst loading conditions.

A load-deflection curve should be plotted during each test on each unit. Such a curve will

serve not only as a check against observational errors, but also to indicate any

irregularities in the behaviour under load of the structure or element. It is desirable that a

minimum of six points, not including the zero load point, be obtained to define the shape

of the load-deflection curve if the latter is predominantly linear, and a minimum of

10 points if the curve is significantly non-linear.

It is usual practice to give the test specimen a few cycles of preliminary loading and to

apply a small amount of pre-load, such as 20%, at the beginning of a test to obtain more

reliable deformation readings.

C6.2.2.5 Criteria for acceptance The following criteria of acceptance should be

considered:

(a) Acceptance for static strength The acceptance criterion is based on the minimum

result of the tests. Abnormally low results can be discarded provided that the cause

of the abnormality is identified (e.g. testing machine not functioning properly,

incorrect test set up and the like) and judged irrelevant to the purpose of the test.

(b) Acceptance for serviceability The 95% recovery limit on deformation is to ensure

that no extensive yielding of the product will occur under service loading.

Consideration should be given to the extent of yielding provided by the ductility of the

connection and to ensure that this distortion does not exceed serviceability requirements

suitable for the structure. Deflections, even within elastic limits, may determine the

suitable capacity of a connection.

C6.2.2.6 Test report By its very nature, prototype test procedure cannot be

standardized. It is, therefore, important that proper adequate test reports be made

available.

C6.2.2.7 Design capacity of specific products and assemblies There is no need to apply

the capacity factor to the result of the Clause because it is included in the factor k t.

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APPENDIX A

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

Steel, Proceedings Ninth International Specialty Conference on Cold-formed Steel

Structures, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO, November 1988.

2 Allen, D.E. and Murray, T.M. (1993), Designing Criterion for Vibrations Due to

Walking, Engineering Journal, AISC, Fourth Quarter, 1993.

3 American Institute of Steel Construction (1978), Specification for the Design,

Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings, Chicago, IL,

November 1978.

4 American Institute of Steel Construction (1986), Load and Resistance Factor Design

Specification For Structural Steel Buildings, Chicago, IL, 1986.

5 American Institute of Steel Construction (1989), Specification for Structural Steel

Buildings — Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design, Chicago, IL, 1989.

6 American Institute of Steel Construction (1993), Load and Resistance Factor Design

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, Chicago, IL, December 1993.

7 American Iron and Steel Institute (1946), Specification for the Design of Light

Gauge Steel Structural Members, New York, NY, 1946.

8 American Iron and Steel Institute (1968), Specification for the Design of Light

Gauge Structural Members, New York, 1968.

9 American Iron and Steel Institute (1983), Cold-formed Steel Design Manual, (Part I,

Specification, 1980 Edition, Part II, Commentary, Part II, Supplementary

Information, Part IV, Illustrative Examples, Part V, Charts and Tables),

Washington D.C., 1983.

10 American Iron and Steel Institute (1986), Cold-formed Steel Design Manual, (Part I,

Specification, 1986 Edition with the 1989 Addendum, Part II, Commentary, 1986

Edition with the 1989 Addendum, Part III, Supplementary Information, Part IV,

Illustrative Examples, Part V, Charts and Tables, Part VI, Computer Aids, Part VII,

Test Procedures), Washington D.C., 1986.

11 American Iron and Steel Institute (1991), LRFD Cold-formed Steel Design Manual,

(Part I, Specification, Part II, Commentary, Part III, Supplementary Information,

Part IV, Illustrative Examples, Part V, Charts and Tables, Part VI, Computer Aids,

Part VII, Test Procedures), Washington D.C., 1991.

12 American Iron and Steel Institute (1995), Design Guide for Cold-formed Steel

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13 American Iron and Steel Institute (1996), Specification for the Design of Cold-

formed Steel Structural Members, Publication CF 96-1, Washington D.C., 1996.

14 American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE (1995), Minimum Design Loads for

Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE Standard 7-95, 1995.

15 American Welding Society (1966), Recommended Practice for Resistance Welding,

AWS C1.1-66, Miami, FL, 1966.

16 American Welding Society (1970), Recommended Practice for Resistance Welding

Coated Low Carbon Steels, AWS C1.3-70, (Reaffirmed 1987), Miami, FL, 1970.

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ANSI/AWS D1.3-89, Miami, FL, 1989.

18 Ayrton, W.E. and Perry, J. (1986), On Struts, The Engineer, Vol. 62, 1986.

19 Bernard, E.S., Bridge, R.Q. and Hancock, G.J. (1996), Flange Curling in Profiled

Steel Decks, Thin-walled Structures, Vol. 25, No.1, 1996.

20 Bhakta, B.H., LaBoube, R.A. and Yu, W.W. (1992), The Effect of Flange Restraint

on Web Crippling Strength, Final Report, Civil Engineering Study 92-1, University

of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO, March 1992.

21 Birkemoe, P.C. and Gilmor, M.I. (1978), Behaviour of Bearing — Critical Double-

angle Beam Connections, Engineering Journal, AISC, Fourth Quarter, 1978.

22 Bleich, F. (1952), Buckling Strength of Metal Structures, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,

New York, NY, 1952.

23 British Standards Institution (1992), British Standard: Structural Use of Steelwork

in Building, Part 5: Code of Practice for Design of Cold-formed Sections,

BS 5950: Part 5, CF92-2, 1992.

24 Brockenbrough (1995), Fastening of Cold-formed Steel Framing, AISI,

Washington D.C., September 1995.

25 Bulson, P.S. (1969), The Stability of Flat Plates, American Elsevier Publishing

Company, New York, NY, 1969.

26 Cain, D.E., LaBoube, R.A. and Yu, W.W. (1995), The Effect of Flange Restraint on

Web Crippling Strength of Cold-formed Steel Z- and I-sections, Final Report, Civil

Engineering Study 95-2, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO, May 1995.

27 Chajes, A., Britvec, S.J. and Winter, G. (1963), Effects of Cold-straining on

Structural Steels, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 89, No. ST2,

February 1963.

28 Chajes, A. and Winter, G. (1965), Torsional-Flexural Buckling of Thin-walled

Members, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 91, No. ST4,

August 1965.

29 Chajes, A., Fang, P.J. and Winter, G. (1966), Torsional-Flexural Buckling, Elastic

and Inelastic, of Cold-formed Thin-walled Columns, Engineering Research Bulletin,

No. 66-1, Cornell University, 1966.

30 Chong, K.P. and Matlock, R.B. (1974), Light Gauge Steel Bolted Connections

without Washers, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 101, No. ST7,

July 1974.

31 Cohen, J.M. and Peköz, T.B. (1987), Local Buckling Behaviour of Plate Elements,

Research Report, Cornell University, 1987.

32 Department of Construction (1978), Guidelines for the Testing and Evaluation of

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33 Desmond, T.P., Peköz, T.B. and Winter, G. (1981a), Edge Stiffeners for

Thin-walled Members, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 107,

No. ST2, February 1981.

34 Desmond, T.P., Peköz, T.B. and Winter, G. (1981b), Intermediate Stiffeners for

Thin-walled Members, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 107,

No. ST4, April 1981.

35 DeWolf, J.T., Peköz, T.B. and Winter, G. (1974), Local and Overall Buckling of

Cold-formed Steel Members, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 100,

October 1974.

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36 Dhalla, A.K., Errera, S.J. and Winter, G. (1971), Connections in Thin Low-ductility

Steels, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No. ST10, October 1971.

37 Dhalla, A.K. and Winter, G. (1974a), Steel Ductility Measurements, Journal of the

Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 100, No. ST2, February 1974.

38 Dhalla, A.K. and Winter, G. (1974b), Suggested Steel Ductility Requirements,

Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 100, No. ST2, February 1974.

39 Douty, R.T. (1962), A Design Approach to the Strength of Laterally Unbraced

Compression Flanges, Bulletin No. 37, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 1962.

40 Ellifritt, D.S., Sputo, T. and Haynes, J. (1992), Flexural Capacity of Discretely

Braced C’s and Z’s, Proceedings Eleventh International Specialty Conference on

Cold-formed Steel Structures, St. Louis, MO, 1992.

41 Ellingwood, B., Galambos, T.V., MacGregor, J.G. and Cornell, C.A. (1980),

Development of a Probability Based Load Criterion for American National Standard

A58: Building Code Requirements for Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and

Other Structures, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards,

NBS Special Publication 577, June 1980.

42 Ellingwood, B., MacGregor, J.G., Galambos, T.V. and Cornell, C.A. (1982),

Probability Based Load Criteria: Load Factors and Load Combinations, Journal of

the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 108, No. ST5, May 1982.

43 Ellingwood, B. (1989), Serviceability Guidelines for Steel Structures, Engineering

Journal, AISC, First Quarter, 1989.

44 European Committee for Standardisation (1996), Eurocode 3: Design of Steel

Structures, Part 1.3: General Rules — Supplementary Rules for Cold Formed Thin

Gauge Members and Sheeting, Brussels, European Prestandard, ENV 1993-1-3,

1996.

45 European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (1983), European

Recommendations for the Design and Testing of Connections in Steel Sheeting and

Sections, Publication No. 21, European Convention for Constructional Steelwork,

1983.

46 European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (1987), European

Recommendations for the Design of Light Gauge Steel Members, First Edition,

Brussels, Belgium, 1987.

47 Fisher, J.M. and West, M.A (1990), Serviceability Design Considerations for Low-

rise Buildings, Steel Design Guide Series, AISC, 1990.

48 Fung, C. (1978), Strength of Arc-Spot Welds in Sheet Steel Construction, Final

Report to Canadian Steel Industries Construction Council (CSICC), Westeel-Rosco

Limited, Canada, 1978.

49 Galambos, T.V. (1963), Inelastic Buckling of Beams, Journal of the Structural

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50 Galambos, T.V., Ellingwood, B., MacGregor, J.G. and Cornell, C.A. (1982),

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