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STROKE PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG

FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, AIR COOLED, ENGINE COUPLED TO


ELECTRICAL DYNAMOMETER

AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine, to obtain heat balance sheet and draw
performance curves

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Engine coupled to Electrical Dynamometer, Measurement and control panel, Load bank,
Temperature Sensors.

PROCEDURE:

1. Ensure water level in the manometer to approximately half the full scale in both the
manometer limbs
2. Ensure oil level in the engine sump up to the dip stick mark, Fill required amount of fuel
(petrol) in the fuel tank
3. Check fuel line for any leakages, tighten if necessary (open all the valves in the fuel line up to
the engine inlet, do not turn the knob to “Start’)
4. Connect the engine test rig to the 3 phase electrical source, all the three mains indicators glow
5. Ensure the direction of rotation of the engine is as desired by momentarily pushing the push
button starter (refer arrow mark on the guard for correct direction of rotation)
6. Switch ‘on’ the console switch, all the digital indicators glow and indicate respective readings
7. Start the engine by pushing the push button starter and release after the engine gets started
8. Wait until the engine stabilizes at its rated speed (Governed engine) of 2800 to 3000 rpm
indicated on the digital rpm indicator
9. Switch ‘on’ the heat dissipating fan on the load Bank. Now the engine is ready for loading
10. Record the following readings on no load condition. Voltmeter reading, Ammeter reading
Rpm indicator reading, (not essential in this case) Manometer reading, time taken for 10 cc of
fuel consumption (To record fuel consumption against time close the fuel line valve on the right
hand side of the burette and simultaneously start the stop watch and record the time until 10 cc of
fuel is consumed) and temperatures T1 & T2
11. Switch ‘on’ first two switches and allow the engine to stabilize, Record all the readings
12. Continue loading the engine by switching ‘on’ the load switches in pairs in steps (two
switches per step) up to full load and record all the readings at each step,, as indicated in step
13. To stop the engine remove load by switching “off” the load switches, bring the engine to no
load condition
14. Push the engine “off” push button and hold it unit the engine completely stops
15. Close all the three fuel valves in the fuel line.
16. Tabulate all the readings obtained at each step and calculate Brake power (BP) weight of fuel
Consumed (wf), specific fuel consumption (Sfc), Brake thermal efficiency (η Bth) and air fuel
ratio (A/F)
17. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BPSFC V/S BP , ηith V/S BP, ηbth V/S BP

PECIFICATIONS:

ENGINE Make: VILLIERS

Compression ratio: 4.67:1


Cylinder bore: 70 mm
Stroke length: 66.7 mm
Displacement: 256 CC

ALTERNATOR
Rating: 2 KVA
Speed: 2800-3000 rpm
Voltage: 220 V AC
Efficiency: 70%
Manometer: U tube, water filled, 30 cm
Air Tank: Made from MS, 300 x 300 x 300 cm
Orifice: Circular, 20 mm dia
Thermocouple: Fe- K (J type)

OBSERVATIONS:
Cylinder bore, D: 70 mm
Stroke length, L: 66.7 mm
Water density, ρw : 1000 kg/m3
Calorific value of petrol, CV : 47,500 Kj/kg
Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec 2
Petrol density, ρp : 750 Kg/m3
Specific heat of air, Cpg : 1.005KJ/KgoC

TABULAR COLUMN:

Sl. Speed in Time for Manometer Temperature in oC Voltmet Ammete


No RPM 10cc of reading (hm) in er r
fuel mm Reading Reading
supply (t) (V) (I)
in sec h1 h2 hm Inlet air Exhaut Volts Ampere
Ta Air
(Tg)

1
2
3
4
FORMULAE USED:

fuel consumed in cc x 10−6 x ρp


1. Mass of the fuel consumed mf = kg/s
t
Where ρp is density of petrol = 750 kg/m3

2. Mass of air supplied ma = Va xρa kg/min

Where Va is a actual volume of air intake = 60 Cd Ao √2gha in m3/min

Cd = 0.62

πd2
Ao = area of the orifice ( ) m2
4

ha= manometer reading in m.

g = 9.81 m/s2
hm xρw
ha = m of air
ρair

Where ha = head of air in m.

hm = manometer reading in m

ρw = 1000 kg/m3
Pa
ρa = density of air in kg/m3
RTa

Where Pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 bar

R = Real gas constant = 0.287 KJ/Kg K

Ta =Room Temperature
VxI
3. Brake horse Power (BHP) = KW
1000 x ηg

ηg = 0.75 efficiency of generator


ma
4. Air-fuel ratio =
mf

5. Heat Input Q = mf 𝑥 𝐶𝑣 Kw
mf x 3600
6. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) = kg/Kw-Hr
BP
actual vol of air supplied (Vact)
7. Volumetric efficiency 𝜂𝑣𝑜𝑙 = x 100
theoritical air supplied (Vth)

Vth = Swept volume = L x A x N in m3/kg


πD2
Where A = m2 L and D are the stroke and bore of the engine
4

BP
8. Brake thermal efficiency ηbth = x 100
Heat Input (Q)

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in


%

1. Heat a) Heat equivalent to BP


Supplied by b) Heat carried by exhaust
the fuel gases = mg xCpg (Tg − Ta )
mg = ma + mf
c) Heat unaccountable 1-
(a+b)

Specific heat of air Cpg = 1.005 kJ/kg0C


ma =mass of air supplied in kg/s
mf = mass of fuel supplied in kg/s
RESULT SHEET:

Sl.No Mass of Mass of air Air- BHP SFC in Heat Brake Volumetric
fuel supplied(ma) Fuel in Kg/KW input thermal efficiency
supplied in Kg/s Ratio KW Hr in efficiency
(mf) in KW
Kg/s

1
2
3
4

CONCLUSION:
Two stroke petrol engine performance was conducted and heat balance sheet worked out and
relevant graphs were drawn
Experiment 11:
4-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE

FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, WATER COOLED, MECHANICAL LOADING,


DIESEL ENGINE

AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine four stroke, single cylinder, water
cooled, mechanical loading, diesel engine and to draw the Heat balance sheet and to obtain PV
diagram at No load and Max load, and plot the performance plots

APPARATUS REQUIRED: 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine test rig, Stop watch,
interfacing of the engine with computer to obtain the PV diagram with pressure sensor mounted
in the cylinder.

THEORY:
Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical work. Engine performance is
an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its assigned job, i.e. the conversion
of the chemical energy in to the useful work. The degree of success is compared on the basis of
1) specific fuel consumption 2) brake mean effective pressure 3) specific power output 4)
Specific weight etc. The engine performance can be obtained by running the engine at constant
speed for variable load by adjusting the throttle. In this experiment engine is mechanically
loaded and experiment is carried out. The test rig consists of 4S diesel engine connected to rope
brake dynamometer with exhaust calorimeter. It has a provision to measure transient pressure,
through a cylinder mounted pressure sensor, having a water cooling system, to avoid over of
heating pressure sensor. The pressure signal is fed to a computer through an interface unit in the
control panel for generating pressure volume (PV) curve to evaluate work done employing a
planimeter, subsequently.

PROCEDURE:

1. Check the diesel in the diesel tank and keep the lever in neutral position.
2. Ensure the water supply to the pressure sensor, engine cooling head and exhaust calorimeter.
3. Start the engine by operating the decompression lever and cranking the crank shaft.
4. Apply the load on the brake drum by rotating the wheel of the spring balance
5. Allow the fuel to flow through the burette.
6. Note down the
a. Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption.
b. The load on the engine
c. Monometer reading
d. Speed of the engine
e. Temperature of inlet air and exhaust gas
f. Water meter of the exhaust calorimeter.
7. Repeat the experiment for different loads
8. Tabulate the readings and calculate the brake power, indicated power, heat input, air-fuel ratio,
specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, mechanical
efficiency.
9. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , ηith V/S BP, ηbth V/S BP

10. To obtain the PV diagram,


a. Turn on the computer, open the interfacing software.
b. Take PV diagram and Pθ diagrams individually.
c. Take the print out after taking the soft data on a pen drive, if needed.

SPECIFICATION OF THE ENGINE:

Make: Kirloskar
Rated power output: 5HP, 1500rpm
Bore: 80mm
Stroke: 110mm
Compression ratio: 16.5:1
Cylinder capacity: 553 cc

OBSERVATION:
Radius of the brake drum: 190mm
Diameter of the orifice: 15 mm
Calorific value of diesel: 43000KJ/Kg
Density of Diesel: 850Kg/m3
Diameter of the rope: ___________
Orifice meter constant: 0.62
Water meter reading: __________

TABULAR COLUMN:

Sl.no Engi Spring Balance Time Manometer Temperature readings


ne reading in Kg (F) taken reading (hm)
Spee for
d in 10cc
rpm of fuel
(N) suppl
(F1
F y (t) h1 h2 hm T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
F1 ~F
2 in
2)
secon
ds

1
2
3
4
5
Air inlet temperature (T1)
Engine cooling head water inlet temperature (T2)
Engine cooling head water outlet temperature (T3)
Calorimeter water outlet temperature (T4)
Exhaust gas inlet Temperature (T5)
Exhaust gas outlet temperature (T6)

FORMULAE USED:

fuel consumed in cc x 10−6 x ρp


1. Mass of the fuel consumed mf = kg/s
t
Where ρp is density of petrol = 750 kg/m3

2. Mass of air supplied ma = Va xρa kg/min

Where Va is a actual volume of air intake = 60 Cd Ao √2gha in m3/min

Cd = 0.62

πd2
Ao = area of the orifice ( ) m2
4

ha= manometer reading in m.

g = 9.81 m/s2
hm xρw
ha = m of air
ρair

Where ha = head of air in m.

hm = manometer reading in m

ρw = 1000 kg/m3
Pa
ρa = density of air in kg/m3
RTa

Where Pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 bar

R = Real gas constant = 0.287 KJ/Kg K

Ta =Room Temperature
2π(FxR)N
3. Brake horse Power (BP) = KW
1000 x 60

where F is a net load acting the on brake drum = (F1-F2) X 9.81 N

F1 & F2 are spring balance reading in kgs

R is a radius of the brake drum in meters

N is the speed of the dynamometer in RPM


ma
4. Air-fuel ratio =
mf

5. Heat Input Q = mf x Cv Kw
mf x 3600
6. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) = kg/Kw-Hr
BP

actual vol of air supplied (Vact)


7. Volumetric efficiency 𝜂𝑣𝑜𝑙 = x 100
theoritical air supplied (Vth)

Vth = Swept volume = L x A x N in m3/kg

πD2
Where A = m2 L and D are the stroke and bore of the engine
4

BP
8. Brake thermal efficiency ηbth = x 100
Heat Input (Q)

9. Indicated Power (IP) =BP+ FP

Where FP is the frictional power obtained from the graph mf V/S BP


BP
10. Mechanical Efficiency = x 100
IP

IP
11. Indicated thermal efficiency ηith = x 100
Heat Input (Q)

Mass of Thermal
Air- BP BSFC Heat
fuel Mass of air ISFC in efficiency
Fuel in in inpu Mechanic Volumetri
supplie supplied(ma Kg/K
Rati K Kg/K t in al c
d (mf) ) in Kg/s
o W W Hr
W Hr
KW ηith ηbth Efficiency efficiency
in Kg/s
HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

1. Heat input Q = mf x CV in KW
2. Heat equivalent of BP = BP n KW
3. Heat carried by the cooling water = mw x Cpw (T3-T2) in KW
Where, mw = mass flow rate in kg/sec
cpw = specific heat of water= 4.18 kJ/kg – K
4. Heat carried by the Exhaust Gases = mg x Cpg (T6-T1) in KW
Where, mg = mass flow rate of gas in kg/sec mg = ma + mf
cpg = specific heat of gas= 1.005 kJ/kg – K
5. Heat lost by frictional power = FP in KW

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in %

1.Heat Supplied by 2.Heat equivalent to BP


the fuel 3. Heat carried by the cooling
water = mw x Cpw (T3-T2)
4.Heat carried by exhaust
gases = mg xCpg (Tg − Ta )
5. Heat lost by frictional
Power
6.Heat unaccountable
1-(2+3+4+5)

Total input Total output

CONCLUSION:
1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was carried out.
2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss.
3) PV diagram and Pressure vs crank angle diagrams were obtained.
4) Performance plots were drawn.
Experiment 13:

MULTI CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG

(MORSE TEST)

FOUR STROKE, FOUR CYLINDER ENGINE COUPLED TO EDDY CURRENT

DYNAMOMETER

AIM: To Conduct Performance Test, Morse Test & to draw heat balance on given multi cylinder
engine to find the overall efficiency of the engine.

INTRODUCTION:

The engine is four stroke, Four cylinder, water cooled, petrol driven automobile Engine coupled
to an eddy current dynamometer mounted on a strong base, and is complete with air, fuel,
temperature, load, and speed measurement system.

DESCRIPTION:

The test rig comprises of the following:

1. Four stroke, Engine coupled to Eddy current Dynamometer, with the arrangement to cutoff the
cylinder

2. Measurement and control panel

3. Temperature Sensors.

PROCEDURE:

1. Install the Engine test rig near a 230V 5A 50Hz electrical power source and an un interrupted
constant head water source.

2. Check all electrical connections, water level in manometer, and oil level in engine sump.

3. Ensure water flow into the engine jacket & exhaust gas calorimeter

4. Open both the valves of 3 way Manifold, make fuel flow to engine directly

5. Start the engine with self start key, Throttle the engine to the rated speed (2000 rpm).

6. Now take readings of manometer, temperature, Fuel consumption against time.

7. Load the engine in steps of 2Kgf up to 10Kgf (full load) keeping the speed constant by
operating the throttle knob (accelerator) suitably to maintain the speed at 2000 rpm.
8. Record the following readings at each step.

a) Manometer difference

b) Time taken in Sec for 10cc fuel consumption by closing valve on your right hand side
of the burette (line coming from fuel tank to burette) so that the fuel is drawn from
burette.

c) Load at each step as indicated on the Dial spring balance

d) Speed of the engine in rpm

e) Temperatures at different location (T1 to T6)

9. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP, SFC V/S BP, ηith V/S BP, ηbth V/S BP

SPECIFICATION:
ENGINE:
Type: Four stroke, vertical, in line, water cooled, Petrol Engine
Cylinders: Four
Starting: Self
Ignition: Spark

DYNAMOMETER
Make: Powermag
Type: Eddy current Brake
Display: Spring balance (Dial type) 25 kg capacity
Manometer: U tube, water filled, 30 cm
Air Tank: Made from MS, 400 x 400 x 400 cm
Orifice: Circular, 20 mm dia
Temperature Sensor: CrAl
Speed Sensor: Magnetic pickup, located on the coupling shaft.

OBSERVATION:

Water density, ρw : 1000 kg/m3


Calorific value of petrol, CV : 47,500 Kj/kg
Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec 2
Petrol density, ρp: 750 Kg/m3
Torque arm length (R): 250mm
Efficiency of dynamometer (ηd) : 85%
Atmospheric pressure, pa : 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2
Real gas constant, R: 287 J/KgoK
Cylinder head cooling water flow rate = _____________liters/min
Exhaust gas calorimeter cooling water flow rate = __________ liters/min
TABULAR COLUMN:

Sl.no Engine Load Time taken Manometer reading Temperature readings


Speed in for 10cc of (hm)
in rpm fuel supply (t)
Kgf in seconds
(N) h1 h2 hm T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

1 2
2 4
3 6
4 8
5 10

T1 - Water inlet, T2 - Water jacket outlet, T3 – Calorimeter water outlet


T4 - Exhaust gas inlet to calorimeter, T5 – Exhaust gas outlet from calorimeter
T6 – Air inlet temperature

FORMULAE USED:

fuel consumed in cc x 10−6 x ρp


1. Mass of the fuel consumed mf = kg/s
t
Where ρp is density of petrol = 750 kg/m3

2. Mass of air supplied ma = Va xρa kg/min

Where Va is a actual volume of air intake = 60 Cd Ao √2gha in m3/min

Cd = 0.62

πd2
Ao = area of the orifice ( ) m2
4

ha= manometer reading in m.

g = 9.81 m/s2
hm xρw
ha = m of air
ρair

Where ha = head of air in m.

hm = manometer reading in m

ρw = 1000 kg/m3
Pa
ρa = density of air in kg/m3
RTa
Where Pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 bar

R = Real gas constant = 0.287 KJ/Kg K

Ta =Room Temperature

2π (F x R)N
3. Brake horse Power (BP) = KW
1000 x 60x 𝜂𝑑

where F is a net load acting the on brake drum = (F1-F2) X 9.81 N

F1 & F2 are spring balance reading in kgs

R is a radius of the brake drum in meters

N is the speed of the dynamometer in RPM

𝜂𝑑 = Efficiency of the dynamometer = 85%


ma
4. Air-fuel ratio =
mf

5. Heat Input Q = mf x Cv Kw
mf x 3600
6. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) = kg/Kw-Hr
BP

actual vol of air supplied (Vact)


7. Volumetric efficiency 𝜂𝑣𝑜𝑙 = x 100
theoritical air supplied (Vth)

Vth = Swept volume = L x A x N in m3/kg

πD2
Where A = m2 L and D are the stroke and bore of the engine
4

BP
8. Brake thermal efficiency ηbth = x 100
Heat Input (Q)

9. Indicated Power (IP) =BP+ FP

Where FP is the frictional power obtained from the graph mf V/S BP


BP
10. Mechanical Efficiency = x 100
IP

IP
11. Indicated thermal efficiency ηith = x 100
Heat Input (Q)
HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

1. Heat input Q = mf x CV in KW
2. Heat equivalent of BP = BP n KW
3. Heat carried by the cooling water = mw x Cpw (T2-T1) in KW
Where, mw = mass flow rate in kg/sec
cpw = specific heat of water= 4.18 kJ/kg – K
4. Heat carried by the Exhaust Gases = mg x Cpg (T5-T6) in KW
Where, mg = mass flow rate of gas in kg/sec mg = ma + mf
cpg = specific heat of gas= 1.005 kJ/kg – K
5. Heat lost by frictional power = FP in KW

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in %

1.Heat Supplied by 2.Heat equivalent to BP


the fuel 3. Heat carried by the cooling
water = mw x Cpw (T2-T1)
4.Heat carried by exhaust
gases = mg xCpg (T5 − T6 )
5. Heat lost by frictional
Power
6.Heat unaccountable
1-(2+3+4+5)

Total input Total output

CONCLUSION:
1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was carried out.
2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss.
3) PV diagram and Pressure vs crank angle diagrams were obtained.
4) Performance plots were drawn.
MORSE TEST
PROCEDURE:
1. Start the engine with the water flow into the engine jacket.
2. Load the engine to its full load (5 Kgf ) at rated rpm. (2000 rpm)
3. Cut off first cylinder, the engine speed drops, bring the engine speed to its rated speed by
decreasing the load on the engine (Do not operate the throttle knob).
4. Record the load as indicated on the load indicator. (Dial spring balance)
5. Cut off Second cylinder, while replacing the first cylinder back into working Condition
simultaneously (as the engine is a Four cylinder engine, ensure always three cylinders are in working
condition)
6. Record the load on the engine, adjust the speed if deviated from the previous cut off. by adjusting
the load only
7. Cut off the third cylinder while replacing the second one in to working Condition, follow step 6.
8. Similarly cut ‘off’ the fourth cylinder while replacing the third cylinder into working condition,
follow step 6.

TABULAR COLUMN FOR MORSE TEST

SL No. Cylinder Engine speed Load W Brake power Indicated


condition N (rpm) (kgf) in KW power in KW

1 All Cyl.
running

2 1st Cyl. cutoff

3 1nd Cyl. cutoff

4 1rd Cyl. cutoff

5 4th Cyl. cutoff

CALCULATIONS:

2πN(W xR)
1. Brake Power BPT = KW (with all cylinders running)
60000 x ηd

Where N=Engine speed in rpm.


W=Net load on the engine in N (W in kgf x9.81)
R=Radius of the torque arm = 250mm
ηd = Efficiency of the dynamometer
2πN(𝑊𝑖 xR)
2. Brake Power BPi= KW (with ith cylinder cutoff)
60000 x ηd

Where i=1,2,3,4.
Wi= load on dynamometer to bring the speed of the engine
to rated speed with ith cylinder cutoff
ηd = Efficiency of the dynamometer
3. Indicated power of i cylinder IPi = BPT –BPi where i = 1,2,3,4
th

4. Total Indicated power IPT = (IP1+IP2+IP3+IP4)


5. Frictional power , FP = IPT - BPT
BPT
6. Overall efficiency ηo =
IPT

RESULT SHEET:

Mass of air
Mass of Air –Fuel BSFC in Heat input Thermal
supply BP
fuel supply ratio kg/kW-hr in kW efficiency
ma in in kW
mf in ηbth
kg/sec
kg/sec